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CHLORINE LEAK CONTAINMENT,

DETECTION/ PREVENTION AND


EMERGENCIES RESPONSE

PRESENTED BY

MD. SHAHJALAL
SAMUDA CHEMICAL COMPLEX LTD,
BANGLADESH.
PROPERTIES OF CHLORINE

.
▪ Liquid chlorine is 1.5 times heavier than water.
Gaseous chlorine is 2.5 times heavier than air. And tends settle down near ground
level.
Neither liquid nor gaseous chlorine is explosive or flammable but both react
chemically with many organic and inorganic substance such as either turpentine,
ammonia, Hydrocarbon etc.
Chlorine does not burn but supports combustion. The volume of liquid chlorine
increase with increase the temperature. Precaution must be taken to build up of
excessive pressure in containers by ensuring vapor space for expansion of liquid
chlorine.
One volume of liquid chlorine vaporizes into about 458 volume of gas at 0º C and
1 atmospheric pressure.
Chlorine gas is highly corrosive to the most metal in the presence of moisture due
to formation of Hydrochloric acid and Hypo-chlorus acid.
Cl2 + H2O = HCl +HOCl
CHLORINE GAS BURNING WITH HYDROGEN GAS
HANDLING AND TRANSPORTATION OF CONTAINERS

Ton containers should be handled with suitable lifting or chain slings in combination
with a hoist or crane having at least 3 Ton capacity. Chlorine cylinders should not be
lifted with rope slings, chain or magnetic device or by fork lift.
Container should not be permitted to drop and no object should be allowed to strike
them with force.
The vehicle carrying filled or partially filled chlorine cylinders should be covered by
tarpaulins as direct exposure to sun can raise temperature much beyond the safe limits.
The vehicle in which container are kept should not carry flammable items including oil,
Paints, grease etc.
Do not roll container on the rough surface to avoid damage to the paint or surface of
the container.
Both valve of cylinders should be tightened by jam nuts and valve protection hood
should be secured in right position.
In case the driver of the vehicle detected any leakage on the way. He must take the
vehicle to an open and isolated area to minimize the hazardous of chlorine gas leakage.
An emergency kit should be available in every vehicle used for transportation
containers. As a minimum requirement, an emergency must contain one set of valves
and surface leak arrestor assembly and personal protection equipment such as Gas
mask, Oxygen Cylinders, Safety hand Gloves and safety Goggles .
CHLORINE CYLINDER HANDLING PROCEDURE

Proper handling of
Improper Handling of
chlorine cylinder
chlorine cylinders
STORAGE OF CONTAINERS

Containers should be stored under cover and preferably kept in shade.


Container whether filled or empty should be stored in a dry, well-ventilated area protected
from external heat source such as steam pipes or exhaust from compressors etc. Filled and
empty chlorine cylinders should be required separated storage space. Do not store containers
near gangway, elevators or ventilating system.
No chemicals or fire hazardous material should be stored near used or filled containers.
No turpentine oil, kerosene, diesel, cooking gas, any hydro carbons or other inflammable
substance should be stored nearby.
Containers should not be stored more than one row. Storage should be arranged to facilitate
moving and frequent inspection to be done with minimum disturbance.
The chlorine storage tank area should be free from flooding and water stagnation to minimize
the corrosion. If standing water cannot be avoided suitable platforms or supports should be
provided to avoid contact with water and sludge.
.WOODEN CHOCKS
OPERATING CONTAINERS:
Containers should not be modified or altered or repaired by the user under any condition.
Do not change the color of Paint of the container.
Container should not be filled except liquid chlorine.
Oil, Grease on inside finished containers and all particles of grit, fillings or other matters
which may have collected inside the container during manufacture or heat treatment or
testing should be removed completely before first filling.
Before filling check the container’s interior is absolutely dry. Also, inspect the internal surface
of the container by 12 volt LED light.

Operator handling filled or empty chlorine cylinders must wear face mask, hand gloves and
gum boots.
Check and clean coupling threads thoroughly and replace gaskets before fitting plugs or
valves with the containers. Also avoid over tightening of valves or plugs as this may cause
damage to the threads.
The external surface of the container should be inspected to check any dents, heavy pitting
or leaks and exposure to fire.

To be continued
OPERATING CONTAINER

Container should be emptied in the gas phase and set in a horizontal portion. Valves
in a vertical plane will deliver gas from the upper valve and liquid from the lower
valves.
Ensure that water or any other liquid is not sucked back due to pressure gradient. At
least 5 kg of volume of chlorine should be left in the container before sending it for a
refilling and inside pressure of the container should be 0.5 kg/cm2 of chlorine in the
container is recommended to avoid the back flow of any liquid from the system.
The rate of delivery of gases chlorine should not be increased by spraying hot water
for increasing discharge rate. Use force circulation of room temperature air around
the container.
Every cylinders must be emptied of its residual gas by venting. Venting gas must be
neutralized by absorption in lime water.
Use of pipe wrench or improper size spanner should be avoided as this would cause
damaged in the valve spindle leading to leakage.
When the container is empty, the valves of the container should be closed by rotating
the spindle clockwise and tested the leaks.
The container valves should not be used for maintaining chlorine flow as frequent
operation may damage the valves spindle.
To find the leak a small cloth to the end of a stick soak the cloth with strong ammonia
solution to hold it to the suspected area. A white cloud of ammonia chloride will result
if there is any chlorine leakage. All chlorine user must ensure that they have ammonia
Torch ready and handy.
MARKING AND LABELING

Each container of chlorine shall be marked legibly. The marking shall include the following

➢ The name “chlorine “trade name and grade.


➢ Tare weight and gross weight.
➢ Name, address and telephone number of suppler/ Manufacturer.
➢ The date of filling and mentioned the chlorine storage tank.
➢ Any other marking as required by applicable laws.
➢ Symbols and indications of danger.
➢ Hydraulic test date and test due on to be mentioned on the chlorine cylinder body.
L AB TEST OF CHLORINE AND REQUIREMENT

Certificate of analysis with indications of country of origin shall accompany all delivers for the chemical and being given to
the end users.
The content of the certification of analysis shall include the following
 Chlorine content, % v/v.
 Water content % W/W
 Residual on evaporation, mg/kg
 Nitrogen tri-chloride (NCl3), mg/kg.

 Requirements for liquid chlorine :


Sl No Parameters Unit Requirement
01 Chlorine content % V/V 99.50
02 Water content % W/W 0.01
03 Non-volatile mg/kg 300.00
Residue
04 Nitrogen tri- mg/kg 30.00
chloride
HANDLING EMERGENCIES
There are three potential source of leaks in a container as detailed given below-
▪ Exit connection.
▪ Stem.
▪ Gland .
Leaks around the valve stem can be stopped by tightening the packing nut or gland. If this does not
stop the leak, then the container valve should be closed.
if the chlorine is leaking as a liquid from container. Turn container in such a way to keep the leak at
top so that only chlorine gas will escape instead of liquid chlorine.
Leaking chlorine may be absorbed in alkaline solution. Caustic soda absorbs chlorine most readily.
Use emergency kit to stop the leaks in container and valves. All users and filling plants must posses
at least one set of the emergency kit. After use this kit it should be cleaned by alkaline solution and
dried.
Provide breathing apparatus to the person handling chlorine. The breathing apparatus when not in
use should be stored in air tight and accessible position. It must be inspected regularly and
maintained in good condition.
Wear PVC gloves, gumboots and head masks for attending emergencies.
water should be never used on the chlorine leakage because chlorine gas is not absorbed by water.
A chlorine detector should be installed near the chlorine usages area as it serves to warn the
operators of a chlorine leakage
To know the wind direction, install wind cone at prominent place so that every body can see it. All
persons in the surrounding area must move in the opposite direction of air.
Only trained person equipped with mask and emergency kits should investigate the leakage. No
person should work alone on a chlorine leakage.
INFLATED CYLINDER AT THE CONCAVE
POSITION

This may be happened due to the


following reasons given below-
❑ Due to liquid chlorine filled
excess in the cylinder due to
measuring scale showing error.
❑ Due to operator mistake.
❑ Due to material construction of
the cylinder not good.
❑ Due to excessive heat created
over pressure in the cylinder.
EDUCTION TUBE INSIDE THE CYLINDER
NEUTRALIZATION UNIT OR HYPO UNIT.

Our Hypo section consists of the following parts given below


✓ Circulation tank (D-720 A/B)
✓ Circulation Tank (D-740 ).
✓ Circulation Tower (T-710 ).
✓ Circulation Tower (T-730 ).
✓ Vacuum Blower C-731 A/B). Circulation
tank
✓ Two Heat Exchanger (E-713/733).
✓ Caustic preparation Tank (D-770).

17% caustic preparation tank

Circulation tower
ATTACHED DURING DELIVERY WITH CHLORINE CYLINDERS

Attached with the


During delivery cylinder
maintained
SAFETY ITEMS USED IN OUR PLANT

Safety Hand Safety Goggles Pneumatic tube


Safety Helmet
Gloves Air supplied Mask

Cotton Hand Gloves


Oxygen cylinder with Mask Wind cone Safety Belt
SAFETY ITEMS USED IN THE PLANT

Safety gum boot

Thickness
Mask meter

Chlorine cylinders emergency Kit B


Chlorine Cylinder
Ammonium solution with cloth tie a small
Hood stick
OVER HEAD CRANE AND CHECKING LEAKAGE TEST WITH AMMONIA
TORCH ALONG WITH OXYGEN CYLINDER

3 ton capacity over Head crane Checking leak test with ammonia torch along
with oxygen cylinder
CHLORINE CYLINDERS HYDRAULIC TEST PROCEDURE

Hydraulic Test going on


THICKNESS INSPECTION OF CHLORINE CYLINDERS BY THICKNESS METER

Checking
thickness
DIFFERENT PARTS OF LIQUID CHLORINE STORAGE TANKS AND
SPECIFICATION OF CHLORINE STORAGE TANKS :
Specification of liquid chlorine storage tanks :
Thickness of chlorine storage tanks = 20 mm
Corrosion allowance = 4.50 mm.
Operating pressure = 12 kg/cm2
Design Pressure = 18 kg/cm2.
Test pressure = 23.40 kg/cm2
Liquid chlorine filling ratio = 1 : 1.19.
Volume of the chlorine storage tank= 40 M3.
Safety valve pressure released to Hypo = 17.50 kg/Cm2
Re-testing after two years.
Average life 20-25 years.

valve of chlorine storage tank


Valve of liquid chlorine
Liquid chlorine storage tanks storage tank
SAFETY CONTROL ON BULLETS

❖ Low and High level alarm ,10% low and 75% high.
❖ High and low pressure alarm ,2.5 kg/cm2 low and 12.0 kg/cm2 is high.
❖ Double safety valves open at 17.50 kg/cm2.
❖ Double valve of each line of international standards.
❖ One tank is always empty.
❖ Each tank is connected emergency release line to neutralization line or to Hypo.
❖ Chlorine detector installed in the storage area.
❖ Adequate distance between two storage tanks.
❖ Tanks location at sufficient distance from the hazards chemicals.
LIQUID CHLORINE TRANSFER OPERATION FROM FILLED
STORAGE TANKS TO CHLORINE TONNER / CYLINDERS
LEAK DETECTION & PREVENTION.
Leak detection : There is any indication of the presence of chlorine in the air, skilled person
equipped with personal protective equipment should investigate promptly. All other person
should be kept away from the affected area.
Identifying and stopping the leakage :
▪ Valve steam Packing (3.0.1)
▪ Through valve seat (3.0.1)
▪ Valve inlet threads. (3.0.1)
LEAK DETECTION AND PREVENTION

▪ Valve steam assembly blown out (Fig 3.4.1)


▪ Valve broken off ( Fig 3.5.1)
▪ Valve blown out (Fig 3.6.1).
LEAK DETECTION AND PREVENTION

 Fusible Plug threads (Fig 3.7.1)


 Fusible Plug blown out ( Fig 3.8.1).
 Metal of Fusible Plug ( Fig 3.9.1).
LEAK DETECTION AND PREVENTION

 Side wall of Container (Fig 3.10.1)


CHLORINE CYLINDER EMERGENCY KIT B USING PROCEDURE
CHLORINE CYLINDER VALVE SPECIFICATION AND MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION

Valve Body –Aluminum-silicon


Bronze/ Brass.
Spindle –Monel /SS.
Packing Collar –Brass.
Packing Gland-Brass.
Gland Nut-Brass.
Cap Nut –Brass.
Packing – Teflon.

Chlorine cylinder valve dismantle


 Design pressure = 20.70 kg/cm2 & Design Temperature =
65 ºC
 Hydraulic Test Pressure = 30.00 kg/CM2,
 Water Capacity = 840 kg (Depending on cylinder type)
 Filling Ratio = 1: 1.19.
 Chlorine capacity = 1000 kg.
 Tare weight = 660 kg.
 Gross weight = 1660 kg
 Types of thread = Taper BS 341/1’’
 Thickness of chlorine cylinders (Indian) = 12.50 mm
 Non destructive Test = 100 % Radiographed .
 Corrosion Allowable = 5 % weight of the cylinders.
 Re-testing of Chlorine cylinders after 02 years.
 Life time of chlorine cylinders at least 10 years to 15 years.
 Material construction Head/ Shell =SA 516 grade 60.
 Heat Treatment = 620 ºC For 60 Minutes.
 Type of construction = fusion welded.
TROUBLE SHOOTING & COMMON QUERIES :

What are the symptoms of chlorine inhalation ?


✓ Chlorine gas is a respiratory ,irritants, inhaling gas in low concentration causes coughing
tears, a running nose and breathing difficulties.
Why vapor space is needed ?
✓ The volume of liquid chlorine increase with increasing temperature . Precaution must be
taken to preclude build up of excessive pressure in containers by ensuring vapor space for
the expansion of liquid chlorine.
How much crane is required to lift ton container ?
✓ 03 ton capacity over head crane is required. Container should not be lifted with rope slings,
chains or magnetic device.
How to protect valves ?
✓ Both valves of the container should be sealed with cap nuts and valve protection hood
should be secured position.
How to avoid water contact during storage of containers ?
✓ The storage area should be free from flooding and water stagnation to minimize external
corrosion. If standing water can not be avoided. Suitable platforms or supports should be
provided to avoid contact with water and sludge.
How to increase discharge rate ?
✓ The discharge rate of gaseous chlorine should not be increased by spraying hot water. For
increasing discharge rate use forced circulation of room temperature air around the
container.
TROUBLE SHOOTING & COMMON QUERIES

How to empty container in gas phase ?


✓ Container normally should be emptied in the gas phase and set in a horizontal position. Valves in a vertical
plane will deliver gas from the upper valve and liquid from the lower valve.
How to open the chlorine cylinder valves ?
✓ Chlorine cylinder valves should be opened one completed turn(clockwise) by rotating spindle with a hand
wheel wrench or spanner. Three complete turns fully open the valves. Further rotating the valves , it will be
the useless purpose and may damage the valves. If the valves is difficult to open then gland nut may be
loosened a bit. If valve cannot be open because of a tight valve spindle then rotate the valve 180 ° and try to
open the second valve for withdrawal for gaseous phase.
How to detect suspected chlorine leakage ?
✓ To find leak, tie a cloth to the end of a stick and absorbed ammonia solution and hold it very close to the
suspected area. If ammonium chloride white fume is found then chlorine leakage will be confirmed. All
chlorine users must be ensure that ammonium solution should be ready and handy.
How much loss in tare weight is permitted ?
✓ If a container has lost its tare weight by more than 5% . It is recommended to withdraw from service and
destroy.
How to test valve ?
What are the main sources of leakage in container ?
✓ Exit connection.
✓ Stem
✓ Gland Packing.
How to prevent chlorine leakage in liquid phase ?
✓ If chlorine is leaking in a liquid phase then turn the container in to 180 ° so that leaking valve in up side
and good valve is lower position. Then chlorine leakage will be reduced .
THANK YOU