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Alabama (/ˌæləˈbæmə/) is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.

It is bordered by
Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi
to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U.S. states. With a
total of 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state.[7]

Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is also known as the
"Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State". The state tree is the longleaf pine, and the state flower is the
camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery. The largest city by population is Birmingham,[8] which has
long been the most industrialized city; the largest city by land area is Huntsville. The oldest city is Mobile,
founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana.[9] Greater Birmingham is
Alabama's largest urban economy, its most populous urban area, and its economic center.[10]

From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many states in the southern U.S., suffered
economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former
slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate
against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s. Despite the
growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from
1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-
represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one primarily
based on agriculture to one with diversified interests. The state's economy in the 21st century is based
on management, automotive, finance, manufacturing, aerospace, mineral extraction, healthcare,
education, retail, and technology.[11]

In 49 BC, perhaps on January 10, Julius Caesar led a single legion, Legio XIII Gemina, south over the
Rubicon from Cisalpine Gaul to Italy to make his way to Rome. In doing so, he deliberately broke the law
on imperium and made armed conflict inevitable. Suetonius depicts Caesar as undecided as he
approached the river, and attributes the crossing to a supernatural apparition. It was reported that
Caesar dined with Sallust, Hirtius, Oppius, Lucius Balbus and Sulpicius Rufus on the night after his

According to Suetonius, Caesar uttered the famous phrase ālea iacta est ("the die has been cast").[2] The
phrase "crossing the Rubicon" has survived to refer to any individual or group committing itself
irrevocably to a risky or revolutionary course of action, similar to the modern phrase "passing the point
of no return". Caesar's decision for swift action forced Pompey, the lawful consuls (C. Claudius Marcellus
and L. Cornelius Lentulus Crus), and a large part of the Roman Senate to flee Rome in fear. Caesar's
subsequent victory in Caesar's civil war ensured that punishment for the infraction would never be
rendered. This took place during the time of the Roman Republic.