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PERIODS OF PHILIPPINE

LITERATURE
July 16, 2018
 The first Philippine literary period was the
pre-colonial era. During this time, folk
songs, epics, narratives and sung
narratives were popular. Many of the folk
songs featured simple rhythms, while
narrative songs were used to tell historical
stories. Philippine epics from the pre-
colonial era told mythological stories, and
often reflected on community ethics.

PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD
 LEGENDS
 FOLK TALES
 EPICS
 FOLK SONGS
 EPIGRAMS, RIDDLES, CHANTS
 PROVERBS AND SAYINGS

CHARACTERICTICS
 Prose with common theme from origin of
a thing, place, location or name.
 Events are imaginary, devoid truth and
unbelievable
 Old Filipino customs
 Aim to entertain
 Sample: THE LEGEND OF THE TAGALOGS

LEGENDS
 Passed by words of mouth (oral)
 Difficult to trace the origins
 Made up stories about life, adventure,
love, horror and humor
 To help us appreciate our environment,
evaluate our personalities and improve
our perspectives on life
 Sample: THE MOON AND THE SUN by
Jose G. Villa

FOLK TALES
 Long Narrative poems which a series of
heroic achievements or events, usually od
a hero
 Can not determine which epics re the
oldest because of the languages, English
or Spanish
 Samples: THE HUDHOD AND THE ALIM
(Ifugaos may happened during Stone Age
when iron is still unknown)

EPIC AGE
 The Darangan of the Moros may have
started during the period of the kingdom
of the Bumbaran that sank in the Pacific
Ocean during the Deluge.
 Maragtas was written during the period of
Christ
 Ibaron of Bicol which dealt with the early
people of Bicol is believed to have
happened before the Deluge.
 Biag-Ni-Lam-Ang

EPIC AGE
 One of the oldest forms of genre in the
Philippine literature that emerged in the
pre-Spanish period.
 Mirrored the early forms of culture
 Many of these have 12 syllables
 Examples:
 Kundiman (song of Love)
 Kumintang o Tagumpay (War song)

FOLK SONGS
 Ang Dalit o Imno (Song of the God of the
Visayans)
 Ang Oyayi o Hele (Lullaby)
 Diana (Wedding Song)
 Soliraning (Song of the Laborer)
 Talindaw (Boatman’s song)

Folk songs
 From Tagalog
 Consist of stanzas of wit and wisdom
Samples:
 Epigrams (Salawikain)
What is the use of grass, if the horse is
already dead?
 Riddle (Bugtong or Palaisipan)-with
measured lines and rhyming words. Four
or 12 syllables

Epigrams, Riddles, Chants,


Maxims, Proverbs or Sayings
Bamboo stem during the day
At night, a sea.

Chant (Bulong) used witchcraft or


enchantment
You stole my rice
May your eyes bulge
And your body swell
Be killed by the anitos (gods)

Epigrams, Riddles, Chants,


Maxims, Proverbs or Sayings
Maxims- rhyming couplets with verse of
6,6 or 8 syllables, each line having the
same number of syllables.
e.g. Pag hindi ukol
Hindi bubukol.
(What is not intended for
Will not bear fruit.)

Epigrams, Riddles, Chants,


Maxims, Proverbs or Sayings
Sayings (Kasabihan) often used in teasing
or to comment on a person’s actuations.
E.g.
Putak, putak (a sound made by a cackling
hen)
Cowardly child
You’re only brave because you are in your
nest.

Epigrams, Riddles, Chants,


Maxims, Proverbs or Sayings
Sawikain (Sayings with no hidden
meanings)
E.g.
Nasa Diyos ang awa
Nasa tao ang gawa.

(In God we trust


In man the effort to work.)

Epigrams, Riddles, Chants,


Maxims, Proverbs or Sayings
 Theater became popular
 Spanish explorers attempted to teach their
language to indigenous people, which meant
religious songs and poetry found their place
in society. The introduction of prose took a
similar approach by attempting to influence
social behaviors. By the 19th century,
Philippine writers were using prose to their
own benefit by writing about the negative
effects of colonization.

SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD


 English was introduced to mainstream
schools throughout the country. This
meant some American literary influences
had an impact on Philippine literature,
including the introduction of free verse
poetry. Short story telling also became
popular, and as romantic movie traditions
intersected with Philippine culture, so did
romantic novels.
 culture and education

AMERICAN COLONIAL PERIOD


 military rule in the 1960s
 Poetry, prose and short stories remain
popular, but writing has become more
competitive and professional throughout
the country. Writers are encouraged to
attend workshops, and literary awards
ceremonies are held each year.

CONTEMPORARY PERIOD
 The First Quarter Storm in 1970 was the
beginning of the period of activism in
Philippine literature. As thousands of
students rallied on the streets to protest
the anti-democratic policies of the Marcos
administration, Filipino writers utilized
their writings to undermine the issues of
exploitations and injustice in the country.

Period of Activism
 The mass protests against the administration
at that time led to the declaration of martial
law in 1972. Literature and mass
communication were silenced, but gradually,
a group of Filipino writers took their writing
underground and recommitted themselves to
writing short stories, poetry and novels that
explored the social concerns of the times.
Many writers joined the underground
activities and produced literary works that
are called protest literature. Other writers
challenged the regime's limit and continued
their protest literature above ground. The
period of activism ended when the Marcos
regime ended in 1983.
 The Philippines were occupied by Japan
during WWII, which produced many long
lasting effects, both good and bad, on
Filipino literature. Writing in Tagalog, the
native Philippine language, was greatly
encouraged, while writing in English was
severely limited and often forbidden
altogether. Furthermore, there was no
freedom of speech or press, and
censorship was widely practiced.
What Is the Japanese Influence on
Filipino Literature?