Sie sind auf Seite 1von 66

EE 412: DC Machinery

INSTRUCTOR: KEVIN LESTER B. LOBO


Printed Learning Resources
1. Electrical Machines By Charles S. Siskind
2. Electrical Machines Reviewer by Ricardo V. Correa
3. A Text Book of Electrical Technology (Volume 2) By B.L. Theraja,
S.G. Tarnekar, A.K. Theraja
Introduction to
Electrical Machines
Energy Conversion
•Takes place between well known

pairs of forms of Energy.


Forms of Energy
Forms of Energy
Forms of Energy
Forms of Energy
Forms of Energy
Forms of Energy
Forms of Energy
Energy Conversion Matrix
Machine
➢ A tool containing one or more parts that uses energy to perform an intended action.
➢ A device consisting of fixed and moving parts that converts energy from one form to another.

DC Machine
➢ Is a rotary electro-mechanical energy conversion device.
➢ Although the battery is an important source of DC electric power, but it can only supply limited
power to any machines. There are some applications where large quantities of DC power are
required, such as electroplating, electrolysis, etc. Hence, at such places DC generators are used
to deliver power.

Read more: http://circuitglobe.com/what-is-a-dc-machine.html#ixzz4Wl04CNqS


DC Machine

Mechanical Electrical
Generator
MACHINE
Energy Energy
DC Machine

Electrical Mechanical
MACHINE
Motor
Energy Energy
Electric Generator
➢ A machine that converts Mechanical energy to Electrical Energy for use in an external circuit.
➢ Driven (rotated) by a mechanical machine called the Prime Mover.

Prime mover – an initial source of motive power (rotation) designed to receive and modify force
and motion as supplied by some natural source of and apply them to drive
machinery. (Source: Merriam-Webster Dictionary)
– Can be Steam Turbines, Water turbines, Internal Combustion Engines (ICE), Wind
Turbines, Electric Motor or even Hand operated crank shaft.
Electric Motor
➢ A machine that converts Electrical energy to Mechanical Energy to drive certain loads.
➢ Works on the principal, when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it
experiences a torque and has a tendency to move.
DC Generator
Construction and
Operation of DC
Generator
Parts of DC Machine
Two Major Parts:
1. Stator – the stationary part of the machine
2. Rotor – The moving/rotating part of the machine

Under the Stator:


a. Yoke – houses the entire machine and is where the magnets/poles are
mounted.

a. Poles – magnets or electromagnets that creates magnetic lines of force to


be cut by the armature conductors.
– always work in pairs

a. Pole Shoe – holds the poles together and spread the flux evenly.
Parts of DC Machine
Under the Rotor:
a. Core – the laminated steel core contains the current carrying
conductors on its conductor slots.

b. Shaft – coupled/connected to the prime mover that rotates the core.

c. Conductors – cuts the magnetic lines of force.


– also known as armature windings
Other Parts of DC Machine:
a. Commutator – collect the current from the armature windings.
• For DC : Split Rings
• For AC : Slip Ring

b. Carbon Brushes – harvest the current from the rotating commutator.


– always work in pairs
Generated Voltage of a
DC generator
Principle of Generator Action
The principle of generator action requires:
1. The presence of magnetic lines of force
2. Motion of conductors cutting the flux (Speed must be high enough)
3. Proper relation between the direction of rotation and the field connection to the armature.

Faraday’s Law
The magnitude of the generated voltage is directly proportional to the rate at which a
conductor cuts magnetic lines of force.
Principle of Generator Action
When a conductor moves at a constant speed across a uniformly dense magnetic field,

1 volt is generated for every 100,000,000 (108) lines cut per second

If the flux density is not constant, the average generated voltage will be


𝐸𝑎𝑣𝑒 = (Volts/conductor)
𝑡 × 108

where:
𝐸𝑎𝑣𝑒 Average generated voltage in a conductor Volt
∅ Total flux cut Maxwell
𝑡 Rate of cutting of flux second/rev
Principle of Generator Action

𝐸𝑎𝑣𝑒 = ∗𝑍 (Volts)
𝑡 × 108

where:
𝐸𝑎𝑣𝑒 Average generated voltage in a conductor Volt
∅ Total flux cut Maxwell
𝑡 Rate of cutting of flux second/rev
Z Total number of conductors conductors
Example
A 4-pole DC generator has an armature winding containing a total of
648 conductors connected in 2 parallel paths. If the flux per pole is
0.321*106 Maxwell and the speed of rotation is 1800rpm; calculate
the average generated voltage.
General Voltage Equation for DC
Generator
Most of the time, in the nameplate of most machines where the specification
and ratings are found; the given values are:
• No. of Poles
∅𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃 ∗ ∅𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑒
• Flux per pole

1
• Speed of rotation, N (rev/min or rpm) t=𝑁∗
60

• No. of Parallel paths, a (or type of armature winding) 𝑍𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙


Z=
• Total no. of conductors 𝑎
General Voltage Equation for DC
Generator
𝑃×∅×𝑁×𝑍
𝐸𝑔 = × 10−8 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑠
𝑎×60
Where: 𝐸𝑔 Total generated voltage Volts
∅ Flux per pole maxwells
𝑃 Number of poles, an even number Unitless
𝑁 Speed of armature rpm
𝑍 Total number of armature conductors effectively used to add to Unitless
resulting voltage
𝑎 Number of armature paths connected in parallel (determined unitless
by the type of armature winding)

Note: If the flux per pole is given in Webber (Wb); the *10-8 is omitted
Armature Winding
THE NUMBER OF PARALLEL PATHS
Types of Armature Windings
I. Lap winding
• It forms a loop as it expands around the
armature core

II. Wave winding


• It forms a wave as it expands around the
armature core
Lap Winding
In this winding the finishing end of one
coil is connected to one commutator
segment and the starting end of the
next coil situated under the same pole
and connected with same commutator
segment.
Lap Winding
Equations:
Number of Brushes = Number of Poles
𝑵𝒃𝒓𝒖𝒔𝒉 = 𝑷
Number of parallel paths = multiplicity x Poles
𝒂 = 𝒎𝑷

where:
m = multiplicity factor

A simplex winding is when the number of parallel path m=1, for simplex winding
between the brushes is equal to the number of poles. m=2, for duplex winding
m=3, for triplex winding
A duplex winding is when the number of parallel path m=4, for quadruplex winding
between the brushes is twice the number of poles.
Wave Winding
Equations:
Number of Brushes = 2
𝑵𝒃𝒓𝒖𝒔𝒉 = 𝟐
Number of parallel paths = multiplicity x 2
𝒂 = 𝟐𝒎

where:
m = multiplicity factor
Two ends of each coil are connected to commutator
segments separated by the distance between poles m=1, for simplex winding
m=2, for duplex winding
m=3, for triplex winding
m=4, for quadruplex winding
# of Conductors vs # of Parallel Paths
NOTE:
The generated voltage is determined only by the “string of conductors joined in series and not by the
number of parallel paths through the current may pass.

The situation existing in a generator with regards to voltage and current is analogous to dry-cell
connections.

Example: If voltage and current ratings of 1.5 volts and 5 amperes are assured per cell, determine the
relative ratings of 120 cells connected when the number of parallel paths is: a) 2, b) 4, c) 6, d) 8

The power rating is independent of the manner in which the cells or conductors are connected.
Problems
1. A four-pole generator, having wave-wound armature winding has 51 slots, each slot containing 20
conductors. What will be the voltage generated in the machine when driven at 1500 rpm
assuming the flux per pole to be 7.0 mWb ?
Answer: 357V
2. An 8-pole d.c. generator has 500 armature conductors, and a useful flux of 0.05 Wb per pole.
What will be the e.m.f. generated if it is lap-connected and runs at 1200 rpm ? What must be the
speed at which it is to be driven to produce the same e.m.f. if it is wave-wound?
Answer: 𝑬𝒈 = 𝟓𝟎𝟎𝑽, 𝑵𝒘𝒂𝒗𝒆 = 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝒓𝒑𝒎
3. The armature of a four-pole shunt generator is lap wound and generates 216 volts when running
at 600 rpm. The armature has 144 slots, with six conductors per slot. If this armature is rewound,
wave connected, find the emf generated at the same speed and flux per pole.
Answer: 𝑬𝒈 = 𝟒𝟑𝟐𝑽
Online References
http://harmonscience6.wikispaces.com/file/view/Forms_of_Energy.jpg/276538606/Forms_of_E
nergy.jpg
http://hornedoreesescience.weebly.com/uploads/8/5/1/3/8513063/5367849_orig.gif
http://static.trunity.net/files/186001_186100/186073/energyconversionmatrix.png
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gW45N2WpD64
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-xebh8wU8gY
http://www.ustudy.in/sites/default/files/lap%20and%20wave.GIF
http://www.electrical4u.com/lap-winding-simplex-and-duplex-lap-winding/
Types of DC Generators
ACCORDING TO EXCITATION
Types of DC Generator
I. Separately Excited DC generator
➢ A dc generator whose field magnet winding is supplied from an independent
external DC source (e.g., a battery etc.)

II. Self Excited DC generator


➢ A DC generator whose field magnet winding is supplied from the output of the
generator itself.

Types of Self Excited Generator


a) Series Wound
b) Shunt Wound
c) Compound Wound
i. Short Shunt Compound
ii.Long Shunt Compound
Separately Excited DC generator
I. Separately Excited DC generator
Separately Excited DC generator
II. Self Excited DC generator
Presence of Residual Magnetism
The field is in the form of an inductor, hence, it can store energy as an electro-magnetic field.

This field will not all disappear once the generator is turned off, some will remain, as residual
magnetism or flux.

Due to the residual flux in the field, it will enable to armature to develop the residual voltage,
which causes a small current to flow through the field windings.

As the generated voltage rises, the field current also rises, which in turn causes more flux to be
developed, and still a larger voltage. This process will continue until the voltage reach its proper
value.

Should the field loses its residual flux, the field is connected to a separate DC source in order
for it to produce small amount of flux, this method is called flashing the field.
Saturation Curve of DC Generators
• The Field current is directly proportional to the
flux and the Flux created and the Flux is directly
proportional to the Generated Voltage

• But there will come a time that even with the


increase in field current, there will be minimal
or none at all increase to the generated voltage

• This this due to the saturation of the core of the


field windings that even when the excitation
current is increased, the core cannot anymore
produce more flux.
Brush Contact Drop
It is the voltage drop over the brush contact resistance when current passes from commutator
segments to brushes and finally to the external load. Its value depends on the amount of current
and the value of contact resistance. This drop is usually small and includes brushes of both
polarities.

However, in practice, the brush contact drop is assumed to have following constant values for all
loads.
0.5V: for metal-graphite brushes. (pair)
2.0V: for carbon brushes. (pair)
Problems
1. An 8-pole d.c. shunt generator with 778 wave-connected armature conductors and running
at 500 r.p.m. supplies a load of 12.5 Ω resistance at terminal voltage of 250 V. The armature
resistance is 0.24 Ω and the field resistance is 250 Ω. Find the armature current, the induced
e.m.f. and the flux per pole.
Answer: 21 A, 255.04 V, 9.83mWb

2. A long-shunt compound generator delivers a load current of 50 A at 500 V and has armature,
series field and shunt field resistances of 0.05 Ω, 0.03 Ω and 250 Ω respectively. Calculate the
generated voltage and the armature current. Allow 1 V per brush for contact drop.
Answer: 506.16 V, 52A
Problems
3. A 4-pole, long-shunt lap-wound generator supplies 25 kW at a terminal voltage of 500 V. The
armature resistance is 0.03 ohm, series field resistance is 0.04 ohm and shunt field resistance
is 200 ohm. The brush drop may be taken as 1.0 V. Determine the EMF generated. Calculate
also the No. of conductors if the speed is 1200rpm and flux per pole is 0.02 weber.
Answer: 505.67V, 1264 conductors

4. A separately excited generator has an armature resistance of 0.04 ohm and a total brush
drop of 2-V. When running at 1000rpm, it supplies a load current of 200 A at 125 V. What will
be the load current when the speed drops to 800rpm and the field current is unchanged?
Answer: 159.4A
Voltage Regulation of
DC Generators
Voltage Regulation of Shunt Generators
As the load of a DC shunt generator increases, its terminal voltage decreases
because of these three parameters:
1. Increasing the load causes the load current to increase and so as the armature current. With
the increase of the armature current; the voltage drop in the armature also increases resulting
to a decrease in the terminal voltage.
2. The increase of the voltage drop in the armature also causes a reduction in the field voltage.
As the field voltage decreases, the field current also decreases and so as the flux created
resulting to a decrease in the generated voltage and further reduction in the terminal voltage
of the generator.
3. The increase in load cause a production of counter-flux inside the armature that oppose the
main flux created by the field. This result to a reduction to the total flux that results to a
decrease in the generated voltage and further reduction in the terminal voltage of the
generator.
Degree of Compounding Adjustment
Voltage Regulation
It is the percentage rise in the terminal voltage of the generator when the generator load is
removed.

𝑉𝑁𝐿 −𝑉𝐹𝐿
%𝑉𝑅 = × 100%
𝑉𝐹𝐿

Where:
𝑉𝑁𝐿 = no-load terminal voltage
𝑉𝐹𝐿 = full-load terminal voltage
Problems
1. A short-shunt compound generator is supplying a load of 500kW at 400 V and has armature,
series field and shunt field resistances of 0.05 Ω, 0.03 Ω and 250 Ω respectively. Calculate the
percent voltage regulation of this generator. Allow 1 V per brush for contact drop.
Answer: 25.5219%
2. A 25-kw 230-volt shunt generator has a regulation of 8.7 per cent.
a. What will be the terminal voltage of the generator at no load?
b. If the change in voltage is assumed to be uniform between no-load and full-load kilowatts,
calculate the kilowatt output of the generator when the terminal voltages are 240 and
235 volts.
Answer: 250V, 12.5kW, 18.75kW
Controlling the Terminal
Voltage of DC generator
Varying the Voltage of DC generator
There are two ways to change the Generated Voltage of a DC
generator namely:
1. Vary the speed of the generator – done by changing the speed of the prime mover
2. Vary the flux created by the electromagnets – done by adjusting the field currents

𝑃∅𝑁𝑍
𝐸=
60𝑎
𝐸 = 𝑘∅N
𝐸1 𝐸2
=
∅1 𝑁1 ∅2 𝑁2
Varying the field current
Series Field Shunt Field

Use of diverter resistance Use of field rheostat


Problems
1. The series field of a compound generator has a resistance of 0.018Ω. If the full-load current
is 120A and it is necessary to divert 36A so that the terminal voltage will be brought down to
a desired value. Calculate the value of the diverter resistance.
Answer: 0.042Ω
2. A 4-pole, 50kW, 250V long shunt compound dc generator has a series field resistance of
0.012Ω and a diverter resistance set to 0.036Ω. Calculate the current flowing to the series
field if the shunt field resistance is 100Ω.
Answer: 151.875A
3. A dc generator generates 110V at 1350rpm. What will be the voltage is the speed is
increased to 1600rpm? Is decreased to 1100rpm? (Assume that the flux remains constant)
Answer: 130.37V, 89.63V
Problems
4. A dc generator generates 110V at 1350rpm. What will be the voltage is the speed is
increased to 1600rpm? Is decreased to 1100rpm? Assume that the flux increased and
decreased by 2.5% and 5% respectively.
Answer: 133.6296V, 85.1481V
Seatwork
1. A 4-pole, d.c. generator has a wave-wound armature with 792 conductors. The flux per pole is
0.0121 Wb. Determine the speed at which it should be run to generate 240 V on no-load.
2. A 20 kW compound generator works on full-load with a terminal voltage of 230 V. The
armature, series and shunt field resistances are 0.1, 0.05 and 115 Ω respectively. Calculate the
generated e.m.f. when the generator is connected short-shunt.
3. Calculate the flux per pole required on full-load for a 50 kW, 400 V, 8-pole, 600 r.p.m. d.c. shunt
generator with 256 conductors arranged in a lap-connected winding. The armature winding
resistances is 0.1Ω, the shunt field resistance is 200 Ω and there is a brush contact voltage drop
of 1 V at each brush on full load.
4. An 8-pole lap-wound d.c. generator has 120 slots having 4 conductors per slot. The flux/pole is
0.05Wb. Calculate the speed of the generator for giving 240V on open circuit.
Efficiency of DC
Generators
Power Losses in DC Generators
I. Copper Losses
a. Armature Resistance copper loss (Pa) – Power losses in the armature
𝑃𝑎 = 𝐼𝑎 2 ∗ 𝑅𝑎

b. Field Winding copper loss (Pf) – Power losses in the shunt and series field winding
𝑃𝑠 = 𝐼𝑠 2 ∗ 𝑅𝑠
𝑃𝑠ℎ𝑡 = 𝐼𝑠ℎ𝑡 2 ∗ 𝑅𝑠ℎ𝑡

c. Brush and Contact loss (PD) – Usually included in the armature loss
𝑃𝐷 = 𝑉𝐷 ∗ 𝐼𝑎
Power Losses in DC Generators
II. Magnetic/Iron Losses
a. Hysteresis Loss (Ph)
• Loss that is due to the reversal of magnetization of the armature core as it passes under the North
and South pole alternately.
• The losses depends on the volume and grade of the iron, maximum value of flux density, and
frequency of magnetic reversal.

𝑃ℎ = 𝑛𝐵1.6 𝑓𝑉

Where: n = Steinmetz hysteresis coefficient V = volume of the iron core (m3)


B = maximum flux density F = frequency
Power Losses in DC Generators
b. Eddy Current Loss (Pe)
• As the armature rotates, it also cuts the magnetic field, therefore a small emf is induced in the body
of the core.
• Though the voltage is rather small, but it produces a large current because of the small resistance
offered by the iron core. This current is known as the eddy current.
• To counter act the effects of eddy current losses, instead of one solid continuous body, the core is
made up of thin laminations stacked and riveted at right angles to the path of eddy currents. These
laminations are insulated by thin coat of varnish.

𝑃𝑒 = 𝑘𝐵2 𝑓 2 𝑡 2 𝑉 2
Where: t = thickness of laminations
Power Losses in DC Generators
III. Mechanical Losses
a. Frictional losses at the bearings and brushes
b. Windage and air resistance losses

Note:
Stray Power loss – Constitute to both Magnetic and Mechanical losses.
Power Losses in DC Generators
Power Losses in DC Generators
Flow of Power
Mechanical Electrical
Generated Power
Power Input Power Input
(Pgen)
(Pin) (Po)

Stray Losses Copper Losses


(Pstray) (Pcu)
Power Losses in DC Generators
Knowing that Power is additive quantity:

Pin = Po + Plosses
Pin = Po + Pcu + Pstray
Pin = Pgen + Pstray

Pgen = Po + Pcu
Pgen = Eg*Ia
Generator Efficiency
1. Mechanical efficiency, ηm
Pg Power generated in the armature
ηm= x 100
Pi Mechanical power supplied

2. Electrical efficiency, ηe
P out Power delivered to the load
η e= x 100
Pg Power generated in the armature

3. Commercial or Overall efficiency, η


P out Power delivered to the load
η= x 100
Pi Mechanical power supplied
Problems
1. A 10 kW, 250 V, d.c., 6-pole series generator runs at 1000 rpm. when delivering full-load. The armature has 534 lap-connected
conductors. Full-load Cu loss is 0.64 kW. Determine the flux per pole. Assume a total of 1V voltage drop for the brushes.

2. A shunt generator delivers 195 A at terminal voltage of 250 V. The armature resistance and shunt field resistance are 0.02 Ω and
50 Ω respectively. The iron and friction losses equal 950 W. Find
(a) E.M.F. generated
(b) Cu losses
(c) output of the prime mover
(d) commercial, mechanical and electrical efficiencies.

3. A shunt generator has a full load current of 196 A at 220 V. The stray losses are 720W and the shunt field coil resistance is 55Ω.
If it has a full load efficiency of 88%, find the armature resistance.

4. A 4-pole dc generator is delivering 20 A to a load of 10Ω. The armature resistance is 0.5 Ω and the shunt field resistance is 50Ω.
Calculate the induced emf and the efficiency of the machine. Allow a drop of 1V per brush.