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1) Inside Jobs - Most security breeches originate inside the network that is under attack.
Inside jobs include stealing passwords (which hackers then use or sell), performing industrial
espionage, causing harm (as disgruntled employees), or committing simple misuse. Sound
policy enforcement and observant employees who guard their passwords and PCs can thwart
many of these security breeches.

2) Rogue Access Points - Rogue access points (APs) are unsecured wireless access points
that outsiders can easily breech. (Local hackers often advertise rogue APs to each other.)
Rogue APs are most often connected by well-meaning but ignorant employees.

3) Back Doors - Hackers can gain access to a network by exploiting back doors
administrative shortcuts, configuration errors, easily deciphered passwords, and unsecured
dial-ups. With the aid of computerized searchers (bots), hackers can probably find any
weakness in your network.

4) Viruses and Worms - Viruses and worms are self-replicating programs or code fragments
that attach themselves to other programs (viruses) or machines (worms). Both viruses and
worms attempt to shut down networks by flooding them with massive amounts of bogus
traffic, usually through e-mail.

5) Trojan Horses - Trojan horses, which are attached to other programs, are the leading
cause of all break-ins. When a user downloads and activates a Trojan horse, the hacked
software (SW) kicks off a virus, password gobbler, or remote-control SW that gives the
hacker control of the PC.

6) Denial of Service - DoS attacks give hackers a way to bring down a network without
gaining internal access. DoS attacks work by flooding the access routers with bogus traffic
(which can be e-mail or Transmission Control Protocol, TCP, packets).

Distributed DoSs (DDoS5) are coordinated DoS attacks from multiple sources. A DDoS is
more difficult to block because it uses multiple, changing, source IP addresses.

7) Anarchists, Crackers, and Kiddies - Who are these people, and why are they attacking I
your network?

Anarchists are people who just like to break stuff. They usually exploit any target of

Crackers are hobbyists or professionals who break passwords and develop Trojan horses or
other SW (called warez). They either use the SW themselves (for bragging rights) or sell it for

Script kiddies are hacker wannabes. They have no real hacker skills, so they buy or download
warez, which they launch.

Other attackers include disgruntled employees, terrorists, political operatives, or anyone else
who feels slighted, exploited, ripped off, or unloved.

8) Sniffing and Spoofing - Sniffing refers to the act of intercepting TCP packets. This
interception can happen through simple eavesdropping or something more sinister.

Spoofing is the act of sending an illegitimate packet with an expected acknowledgment (ACK),
which a hacker can guess, predict, or obtain by snooping.
The security of software house or Software Company and security of Single PC at home is
difference but the concern is same to make safe our systems.
The Systems at software houses should be care with some extra operations which are
Choose an operating system based on its security and vulnerability (Linux has no known
active viruses in the wild, OpenBSD is focused on security). Find out if it uses limited user
accounts, file permissions and is regularly updated. Make sure you update your operating
system with security updates and update your other software too.

Choose a web browser based on its security and vulnerabilities because most malware will
come through via your web browser. Disable scripts too (NoScript, Privoxy and Proxomitron
can do this). Look at what independent computer security analysts (such as US-CERT) and
crackers (similar to hackers) say. Google Chrome is secure and has a sandbox feature so that
if it were compromised it would not spread infection.

When setting up, use strong passwords in your user account, router account etc. Hackers may
use dictionary attacks and brute force attacks.

Install good antivirus software (particularly if you use P2P). Antivirus software is designed to
deal with modern malware including viruses, trojans, keyloggers, rootkits, and worms. Find
out if your antivirus offers real-time scanning, on-access or on-demand. Also find out if it is
Download and install software to deal with spyware such as Spybot Search and Destroy,
HijackThis or Ad-aware and scan regularly. I can't state this enough - you need to run a good
anti spyware and anti malware program like Spybot if you search the web at all. Many
websites out there exploit weaknesses and holes in the security of Microsoft Explorer and will
place malicious code on your computer without you knowing about it until its too late!

Download and install a firewall. Either ZoneAlarm or Comodo Firewall (Kerio, WinRoute or
Linux comes with iptables). If you use a router, this gives an added layer of security by acting
as a hardware firewall.
Close all ports. Hackers use port scanning (Ubuntu Linux has all ports closed by default).

Perform Penetration Testing. Start with ping, then run a simple nmap scan. Backtrack Linux
will also be useful.

Consider running intrusion detection software (HIDS) such as ossec, tripwire or rkhunter.

Don't forget to think in terms of physical security! Consider something like a Kensington lock
(in case of theft/unauthorised access). Also setting a BIOS password and preventing access to
your machine or its removable devices (USB, CD drive etc.). Don't use an external hard drive
or USB device for important data, these represent another vulnerability, as they are easier to
Encryption can be effective against theft. Encrypt at least your entire user account rather than
just a few files. It can affect performance but can prove worth it. Truecrypt works on
Windows, OS X, Linux, FreeOTFE works on Windows and Linux. In OS X (10.3 or later)
System Preferences Security, click FileVault (this can take minutes to hours). In Linux Ubuntu
(9.04 or later) installation Step 5 of 6 choose "Require my password to login and decrypt my
home folder". This uses ecryptfs.

There are two kinds of anti-virus software, stand alone and memory resident. Stand alone has
to be run and the user chooses a file, part of the pc to scan for threats. If a threat is found
the user can then delete the problem file or quarantine the file and then try to repair it to
return it to it’s original state. Memory resident software does the same as stand alone but is
constantly running to protect the users pc, if a threat is found a screen will come up and
prompt the user to take action. Most resident anti-virus packages will also scan email and
webpages for threats. The anti-virus packages can be constantly updated to ensure that they
are protecting against the newest and most recently discovered threats.

Viruses are malicious programs that are downloaded onto a user's computer from the
Internet. The weakest types of these files can be annoying, causing your computer to act
unstably and slow down dramatically. The strongest and worst types of these files can steal
personal information, like checking account and social security numbers, and leave your
system inoperable. Antivirus and antispyware software combats these malicious programs.
Antivirus and antispyware software is designed to remove and prevent computer viruses and
spyware from reaching your computer and causing problems with your system. These
programs scan the code of every file on your computer for traces of viruses and spyware, and
if found, the file is quarantined until the code can be removed or the file deleted.
The major difference between a computer virus and spyware is that spyware does not
replicate itself. A computer virus will gain entry onto your computer using only one file and
replicate its code many times onto other files in your computer. Spyware is generally
contained to one file and can easily be deleted to rid your system of the problem.
The corporation Symantec provides a popular and widely used piece of software for finding
and deleting viruses and spyware. Its programs are Norton Anti-Virus and Norton Internet
Security. Both programs are subscription-based; the user purchases the program and then
pays an annual fee for virus and spyware definition updates. As of 2009, Symantec's Norton
products hold 61 percent of the marketplace in terms of antivirus and antispyware software.
Another type of antivirus and antispyware software is called McAfee VirusScan. A direct
competitor of Symantec and its Norton products, McAfee is, as of 2009, the second most
widely used program of its kind. Unlike Norton's programs, where the spyware and the virus
protection are handled by two different programs, McAfee's VirusScan does both from within
the same program. It is also subscription-based, and updates to the definitions must be
purchased at regular intervals for full protection.
Kaspersky is a Russian-based company that also provides software used to find and prevent
viruses and spyware on a user's computer.