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# Unit 1: WHOLE NUMBERS

## 1.1.- DECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM. PLACE VALUE

In our decimal number system, the value of each digit depends on its place in
the number. Each place is 10 times the value of the next place to its right.

## Millions Thousands Ones

Each period contains 3 digits.
Period Period Period

Hundreds

Hundreds

Hundreds

Ones

Ones

Ones
Tens

Tens

Tens

## The 4 in 741 is in the tens

7 4 place. Its value is 4 tens, or 40.

7 4 1
The 4 in 7415 is in the hundreds
7 4 1 5
place. Its value is 4 hundreds, or 400.
8 4 2 9 7 4 1 5 8

## 1.2.- NATURAL NUMBERS. WHOLE NUMBERS

Natural numbers are counting numbers from one to infinity.

## 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ..., 10, 11, ...

To compare and order whole numbers:

##  Align the digits by place value.

 Compare the digits in each place, starting with the greatest place.

## 39,630 There are no hundred

39,630
19,578 19,578 3  3 and 1  3
thousands in the other
19,578 is least.
130,434 numbers. 130,434 is 130,434
69
36,415 greatest. 36,415

## F. Cano Cuenca 1 Mathematics 1º ESO

In order from greatest to least, the numbers are:

Exercise 1:

## a) 963,862 b) 802,400,253 c) 603,411,218 d) 9,527,000

Exercise 2:

Write the place of the underlined digit. Then write its value.

Exercise 3:

Exercise 4

##  it has more than 164 hundreds

 it has fewer than 17 thousands
 it contains the digits 6, 1, 9, 2, 5
 it has an even number of tens.

## 1.3.- ROUND WHOLE NUMBERS

The population of Marshton is 27,654.
Since populations change frequently, we
use a rounded number instead of the exact
number.

##  Find the place you are rounding to.

 Look at the digit to its right.
If the digit is less than 5, round down.
If the digit is 5 or greater, round up.

## F. Cano Cuenca 2 Mathematics 1º ESO

Round 83,524 to the nearest ten.

## 83,524 The digit to the right is 4.

4<5
83,520
Round down to 83,520

## 83,524 The digit to the right is 2.

2<5
83,500
Round down to 83,500

## 83,524 The digit to the right is 5.

5=5
84,000
Round up to 84,000

Exercise 5

## 1.4.- INVERSE OPERATIONS

Inverse operations are mathematical operations that undo each other.

## Let a, b, and c be any numbers.

If a  b  c , then c  b  a . If c  b  a , then a  b  c .

## Find the missing number. Find the missing number.

Think Think
x  5  12 7  5  12 and x  9  15 24  9  15 and
x  12  5 12  5  7 are x  15  9 15  9  24 are
x7 related sentences. x  24 related sentences.

## F. Cano Cuenca 3 Mathematics 1º ESO

 Multiplication and division are inverse operations.

## Let a, b, and c be any numbers.

If a  b  c , then c  b  a . If c  b  a , then a  b  c .
Division “undoes” multiplication. Multiplication “undoes” division.

## Find the missing number. Find the missing number.

Think Think
y  4  12 3  4  12 and y  6  18 108  6  18 and
y  12  4 12  4  3 are y  18  6 18  6  108 are
y3 related sentences. y  108 related sentences.

Exercise 6

## Find the missing number using inverse operations.

a) 8  a  12 b) b  36  9 c) 19  d  418

## 1.5.- PROPERTIES OF ADDITION AND MULTIPLICATION

The following properties of addition and multiplication are true for any numbers
a, b, and c.

## Commutative Property of Addition Commutative Property of Multiplication

Changing the order of the addends Changing the order of the factors
does not change the sum. does not change the product.

## abba Think ab  b a

5995 “order” 38  83
14  14 Think 24  24

## Associative Property of Addition Associative Property of Multiplication

Changing the grouping of the addends Changing the grouping of the factors
does not change the sum. does not change the product.

 a  b   c  a  b  c  Think
 a  b   c  a  b  c 
“grouping”
1  4   7  1   4  7  6  5   2  6  5  2
12  12 60  60

## F. Cano Cuenca 4 Mathematics 1º ESO

Identity Property of Addition Identity Property of Multiplication

The sum of zero and a number is The product of one and a number is
that number. that number.
Think
a0a a 1  a
“same”
89  0  89 8 1  8

is zero.
Think
a0  0
“0 product”
33  0  0

Exercise 7

## Name the property of addition or multiplication used.

a) 67  36  21  21  67  36 b) 17  5   4  17  5  4 
c)  48  9  6  48  9  6 d) 90  0  90
e) 82  0  0 f) 11  12  12  11
g) 2  30  8  2  30   8 h) 15  1  15

## 1.6.- ORDER OF OPERATIONS WITH WHOLE NUMBERS

Look at these expressions:

624  6  2  4
Although they have the same numbers and the same operations, their values are
different:
6  2  4  6  8  14 6  2  4  8  4  32
Remember the order of operations with whole numbers:

1. Brackets. ( ) before [ ]
2. Division or Multiplication (left to right)
3. Addition or Subtraction (left to right)

Examples: a) 8  9  6 : 3  8  15 : 3  8  5  3
b) 8  9  2  12 : 4  5  8  7  3  5  56  15  41

## F. Cano Cuenca 5 Mathematics 1º ESO

Exercise 8

Compute:

a) 6  4  2  12  7   b) 3  8  8 : 4  4  5 
c) 21 : 3  4   6  d) 26  5  2  3  6 
e) 14  12 : 2  4  3  f) 30 : 6  12  5  3 
g) 2  6  4   3  5  2  h) 30  6  13  4  2 
i) 29  5  12  9   8  j) 3  13  3  5  2 

Exercise 9

Copy each calculation and put brackets in to give the answer shown.

a) 5  9  4  2  39 b) 5  9  4  2  23
c) 5  9  4  2  54 d) 7  12  4  3  1  46
e) 7  12  4  3  1  32 f) 24 : 8  5  8  0
g) 15  5  3  7  37 h) 15  5  3  7  135

Example:

## Peter and William compete in an archery

contest. Look at their scores.

## Who has won the contest and by how

many points?

Solution:

Peter’s score: 2  30  15  6  60  15  6  81

William’s score: 50  15  2  6  50  15  12  77

## Peter has won the contest by 4 points.

Exercise 10

On a 16 day cycle tour Sally plans to cycle 50 miles per day. How far will she
cycle altogether?

Exercise 11

An airport has a plane landing every 10 minutes. How many planes land in one
day?

## F. Cano Cuenca 6 Mathematics 1º ESO

Exercise 12

Which is the shortest way from Liverpool to Manchester and by how many
kilometres?

Exercise 13

A butcher sells 58 kilos of beef at €13 per kilo and 63 kilos of pork at €7 per
kilo. How much money does he get in total?

Exercise 14

## Find three consecutive numbers whose product is 6840.

Exercise 15

I think of a number. My number is greater than 83000  200 but less than
14  30 . Write down the number I could be thinking of.

Exercise 16

## A van weighs 2000 kg when unloaded and 2360 when

loaded with 8 bags of coal. What is the weight of each
bag?

Exercise 17

In a residential complex there are 4,500 inhabitants, and there is a tree for
every 90 inhabitants. How many trees are there in the complex? How many trees
will have to be planted to have a tree for every 12 people?

Exercise 18

We buy 1,600 kg of sardines at a price of \$4 per kg. The carriage costs \$400
and we sell them at \$5 per kg. What is the profit that we get?

Exercise 19

Paul, Glenda, Cora and David go to the cinema. In how many different ways can
they sit on the four seats assigned to them?

Exercise 20

## Peter wants to buy a car. The store offers two

models: a two-door and a four-door. In both
models the available colours are: white, blue, red,
grey and green. Calculate the number of possible
selections that Peter has.

Exercise 21

The menu at the restaurant shows five different starters, three main dishes
and two desserts. Find the total number of different menus a customer can
choose if he takes a dish from each group.

Exercise 22

## From the students of Year 8, we know that:

- 44 have lunch at the cafeteria, 58 take the school bus and 47 do after-
school activities.
- 24 have lunch at the cafeteria and do after-school activities.
- 23 have lunch at the cafeteria and take the school bus.
- 25 take the school bus and do after-school activities.
- 11 use all three services, and 17 none of them.