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DVB-T/T2 Network
Overview

Ivan Milak
Service Applications Manager Proprietary and confidential. | 1

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Table of Contents

 Comparison Analog / Digital Network Structure

 DVB-T Overview

 DVB-T2 Overview

 SFN Network / T2 Gateway

 Summary

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Analog Network Structure

Region A
TV Transmitter TV Transmitter
TV Transmitter Video /
Region B Video / Audio Audio
Studio of
Region C Program Distribution TV Transmitter
Provider Video /
Network
Audio
TV Transmitter 2

Studio of TV Transmitter TV Transmitter


Program Distribution Video /
Video / Audio Audio
Provider Network Studio of
1 Program Distribution
Video /
TV Transmitter
Video / Audio Provider Network
3 Audio
TV Transmitter
One channel and one program over the channel bandwidth. Each program requires it
own transmitter. To cover three regions with 3 programs, 9 transmitters are required.
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Digital Network Structure
Each Transmitter is
Satellite broadcasting all 3
programs

TV
Audio/Video Transmitter
Encoder
Program 1
Audio/Video Transport Telecom Network TV
Encoder Stream (Microwave, Transmitter
Program 2 Multiplexer Fibre optics)
Audio/Video
Encoder TV
Program 3 Transmitter

In a Digital network several programs can share a common transmitter network. Multiple programs
can be combined in the same channel bandwidth.
In this case only 3 transmitters, each carrying 3 programs are required. Proprietary and confidential. | 4

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Analog and Digital Reception

Gradual transition Sharp transition


between excellent Excellent Reception Quality between excellent
signal quality and signal quality and
no reception no reception

Distance Distance

Analog TV Low Reception Quality


Digital TV
Reception quality directly depends on
the field strength. With increased Excellent quality over the whole
distance the reception quality coverage area, independent of
continuously decreases as the signal the distance between transmitter and
gets closer to the noise floor. receiver.

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Analog and Digital Reception

Reflected signal
(echoes) Signal from
adjacent Tx

Garden Weekly News 10


Directly received
Signal
Reflected signal
(echoes)

Analog TV Digital TV
Multi-path reception causes distortions Multi-path reception has much less
(e.g. ghost pictures), or total signal loss. influence on the Digital signal quality.
Some reflected signals can increase the
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Analog & Digital (Error Correction)

Analog TV
Video Vision + UP- Analog modulation methods have no
Modulator Converter redundancy designed into the signal,
Program 1
Forward Error Correction is not
Sound possible.
Audio Modulator

Forward Error
Program 1 Correction (FEC)
Digital TV
Bit Rate after Redundancy has been added to
Program 2 Mux Channel
Coding
digital signal, and its level is
Forward Error selectable, therefore, Forward Error
Program 3
Correction (FEC) Correction (FEC) has been
Source Coding Multiplexing Channel Coding designed into the system.
and
Data processing
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Summary / Analog to Digital
Analog TV Digital TV
• Depending on the selected data rate:
• One standard definition SD TV program - One or more High Definition digital HD TV
• As the distance between the transmitter programs and…
and receiver increases, reception quality - One or more Standard Definition digital
gradually worsens SD TV programs and…
• Teletext – limited capability text - One or more Lower Definition Programs or
• Single frequency networks are not Voice only and Data, Mobile applications
possible due to interference caused by • As the distance between transmitter and
multi-path distortion receiver increases, reception quality remains
• Mobile reception is also not possible perfect until the C/N threshold of the receiver
is reached
• Data / Multimedia applications
• Single frequency networks and mobile TV
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DVB-T Overview

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Frequency and Time Domain

DVB-T
68 OFDM Symbol = Frame
4 Frame = Super frame
2 Super Frame = Mega frame (544 OFDM Symbol)
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DVB-T Modulation

4QAM 16QAM 64QAM 64Q AM


0 00 0 10
000010

16Q AM
4Q AM 00010
01 0
0 000

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DVB-T Block Diagram

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Interleaving

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Interleaving

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DVB-T Network Structure

MPEG-TS

RX DVB-T
Network Modulator
MPEG-TS Adapter Amplifier

TX
MPEG-2 Distribution
Network
multiplexer Adapter Network MPEG-TS

RX DVB-T
Network Modulator
Adapter Amplifier

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Single Frequency Networks
• All transmitters in the SFN send the same
signal at the same time on the same
frequency
– careful network planning required
– synchronisation
– low frequency demand
Modulator f1
Amplifier
Audio/Video
Encoder
Transport Distribution Modulator f1
Audio/Video Stream Network Amplifier
Encoder Multiplexer

Audio/Video Modulator
Encoder Amplifier
f1
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Transmitter Spacing in an SFN network

Wide The maximum allowed distance between


two transmitters in a SFN is defined by the Narrow
Transmitter Spacing
Guard Interval Transmitter Spacing
low “on-air” redundancy
high “on-air” redundancy
lower number of sites DVB-T (8k, GI 1/4): 224µs d  67 km
higher number of sites
with higher powers DVB-T (8k, GI 1/32): 28µs d  9 km
with lower powers
DVB-T (2k, GI 1/4): 56µs  d  17 km
DVB-T (2k, GI 1/32): 7µs  d  2 km
Max. Distance = Guardintervall * c (speed of light)
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DVB-T Network Structure Using Dynamic Delay
Compensation
MPEG-TS

RX DVB-T
SYNC
MPEG-TS Network Modulator
system
Adapter Amplifier

1 pps 10 MHz
TX
MPEG-2 SFN- Distribution
Multiplexer Adapter
Network GPS
Adapter Network

1 pps 10 MHz
RX DVB-T
GPS SYNC
Network Modulator
system
Adapter Amplifier
1 pps 10 MHz
MPEG-TS
GPS

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Synchronisation Time Stamp

1pps pulse
STS STS

M M+1 M+2 The STS is carried in the MIP of


each Mega-frame.
MIP
The STS carried in the Mega-
frame M describes the beginning
Synchronisation Timestamp (STS) of the Mega-frame M+1
The synchronisation timestamp value is the
difference in time between the rising edge of The STS carried in the Mega-
the 1pps Symbol and the beginning of a frame M+1 describes the
mega-frame M+1 beginning of the Mega-frame M+2
etc.

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Maximum Delay

GPS GPS
1 pps 10 MHz 1 pps 10 MHz

TX RX DVB-T
MPEG-2 SFN- Distribution SYNC
Network Network Modulator
Multiplexer Adapter Network system
Adapter Adapter Amplifier

Maximum delay

Maximum delay:
The maximum delay describes the difference in time between a specific Mega-frame leaving the SFN
adapter and the corresponding COFDM Mega-frame available at the antenna output of each
Transmitter in the SFN.

The maximum delay is a value adjustable in the SFN-Adapter. The set value has to be always higher
than the longest actual network delay. The value is transported in each MIP

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Transmitter Synchronisation Dynamic Delay
Compensation
GPS GPS
1 pps 10 MHz 1 pps 10 MHz

Telecom Network DVB-T


SFN SYNC
(Microwave, Modulator
Adapter System
Fibre optics) Amplifier Signal transmitted
500ms at the same time
Max. Delay
700ms GPS
1 pps 10 MHz
DVB-T
SYNC
Modulator
System
Amplifier
Signal transmitted
at the same time
Calculated TX delay time 400ms

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DVB-T2 Overview

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DVB-T2 Commercial Requirements

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Main Advantages of DVB-T2
 New generation Forward Error Correction and 256 QAM
• Capacity gain of > 30%
 OFDM carrier increase up to 32k and additional guard
Interval selections
• In SFN can provide up to 18% overhead gain
 Rotated Constellations
• Robust transmission in difficult conditions
 Bandwidth extension
• 2% payload gain
 Extended Interleaving
• Including bit, cell, time and frequency interleaving
 Multiple PLP’s (Physical Layer Pipes)
• See next slide
 DVB-T2 Lite
• Optimized for Mobile applications
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DVB-T/T2 Block Diagram and Differencies

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DVB-T2 Modulation
256 QAM

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Forward Error Correction (FEC)
BaseBand Frame
Data LDPC check bits
Header BCH FEC bits
FEC frame = 64800 bits

This FEC frame, of length 64800 bits, is a fundamental unit within T2

DVB-T2 code rates available are: 1/2, 3/5, 2/3, 3/4, 4/5, & 5/6.
Example : ½ equals 1 bit in 2 bits out being the most robust less data efficient.
5/6 is less robust but more data efficient.

Bit-rate increase compared with DVB-T is typically 30% for same overhead
and same level of robustness
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DVB-T2

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DVB-T2
P1 Symbol: Fixed pilot symbol is located in the beginning of the frame and is
mainly used for fast initial band scan to detect the T2 signal, ist timimg,
frequency offset and FFT size. The modulation type is DBPSK (Differential
Binary Phase Shift Keying) and FFT mode is 1K.

P2 Symbol: Pilot symbol located right after P1 consists of a pre- and post-
signalling component. Both components are differently modulated and error
protected.
The pre-signaling component L1 is BPSK modulated with LDPC code rate ½.
The post-signaling componet L2 is QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM modulated with
code rate ½ and ¼ with BPSK modulation.
A DVB-T2 frame is composed of a P1 symbol, 1 to 16 P2 symbols and N data
symbols which can contain PLP data, Future Extensions Frames and Auxiliary
Data, as well as dummy cells. Several frames build one Superframe.
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DVB-T2 Modulation (COFDM)
Digital encoding and interleaving technique
DVB-T2 is a Coded Orthogonal
Orthogonality condition Frequency Division Multiplex Signal
(correspondence time / frequency) (COFDM) correspond to a succession of
temporal symbols (also called OFDM
Multiple carriers system modulated at symbols) with a long unitary duration,
low speed separated by time intervals called guard
interval.

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DVB-T2 Modulation (COFDM)

Df = 1 / Ts
Ts ... Symbol duration
Q
01 00

10 11
freq.
Constellation Diagram of a QPSK Signal Frequency Spectrum of orthogonal spaced
as generated in the transmitter QPSK modulated Carriers

A QPSK modulated carrier can have


four different phase positions, the Orthogonal carrier spacing guarantees
amplitude is constant. minimum distortions caused by
Therefore, a QPSK modulated carrier adjacent sub carriers.
is able to transport 2 bits.
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DVB-T2 Modulation Types (QPSK)

Inaccuracy
caused
Q by noise Q

added in the
transmission
channel
I I

Maximum allowed
inaccuracy
for Error free reception
Constellation Diagram
of a QPSK signal Constellation Diagram of a
as generated QPSK Signal
in the transmitter as received by a receiver
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DVB-T2 Modulation Types (16 QAM)

Inaccuracy
caused
Q by noise Q

added in the
transmission
channel
I I

Maximum allowed
inaccuracy
Constellation Diagram for Error free reception
of a 16-QAM signal Constellation Diagram of a
as generated 16-QAM Signal
in the transmitter as received by a receiver
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DVB-T2 Modulation Types (64 QAM)

Inaccuracy
caused
Q by noise Q

added in the
transmission
channel
I I

Maximum allowed
inaccuracy
Constellation Diagram for Error free reception
of a 64-QAM signal Constellation Diagram of a
as generated 64-QAM Signal
in the transmitter as received by a receiver
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DVB-T2 Modulation Types (256 QAM)
Q
Inaccuracy
caused
by noise
added in the
transmission
channel I

Constellation Diagram Constellation Diagram of a


Maximum allowed
of a 256-QAM signal 256-QAM Signal
inaccuracy
as generated as received by a receiver
for Error free reception
in the transmitter
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DVB-T2 Rotated QAM

Non Rotated QAM DVB-T 2 Rotated

Q Q

I I

Degrees QPSK 16 QAM 64 QAM 256 QAM


29° 16.8° 8.6° 3.57°

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DVB-T and DVB-T2 Comparison

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DVB-T and DVB-T2 Comparison

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QAM/FEC combinations for DVB-T2

DVB-T: most robust mode, 6 Mbit/s @ 3.5 dB


DVB-T: maximum data rate, 31.7 Mbit/s @ 20.2 dB

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OFDM parameters for DVB-T2

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DVB-T2

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DVB-T and DVB-T2 Comparison

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Kazakhstan Field Measurements
Coverage Plot Comparison

+48%
DVB-T DVB-T2
Software coverage estimation for Software coverage estimation for
DVB-T system, Modulation 64QAM, DVB-T2 system, Modulation
Data rate 27.14 Mbps 256QAM, Data rate 40.22 Mbps
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SFN Network / T2 Gateway
• All transmitters in the SFN send the
• same signal with SISO or MISO processing
• at the same time
• on the same frequency

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DVB-T2 Interfaces

Interface D
Interface A Interface B “TS”
Interface C
“TS” “T2-MI” “DVB-T2”
Input SS4: SS5:
programme SS3: T2 MPEG
SS1:
signals T2 Demodulator Decoder
Video/
SS2: Modulator
audio
Basic T2-
coders and
Gateway
statistical
multiplexer SS3: SS4: SS5: Decoded
T2 T2 MPEG output
Centralised coding,
multiplexing and Modulator Demodulator Decoder programme
Input distribution signals
programme
signals SS1: …
Video/
audio
Distribution SS4: SS5:
coders and
network T2 MPEG
statistical RF
Demodulator Decoder
multiplexer channel
Optional multiple
coding & multiplexing T2 receiver

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T2-MI Interface

 Transports uncoded baseband frames


 Includes L1 signalling information
 Contains timing information needed for SFN operation
 T2 modulator creates RF signal from data and modulation
parameters
 Individual addressing contains transmitter optimization
commands
 Includes functions from DVB-T MIP packets

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T2 Gateway

 Takes one or more transport inputs and forms T2-MI stream to


modulator
 Lock to GPS timing
 Sets modulation and SFN parameters
 Allocates data into multiple PLP’s

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Additional DVB-T2 Notes
 DVB-T2 works with both fixed and portable receivers
 Large capacity increase over DVB-T, with similar planning constraints and
conditions as DVB-T
 Improved Single Frequency Network (SFN) performance compared to DVB-T
 Includes a mechanism for service-specific robustness (i.e. provide different
levels of robustness to some services compared to others. Also possible to
target some services for roof-top reception and other services for portable
reception
 Provides bandwidth and frequency flexibility
 Provides the ability to reduce the peak-to-average ratio (PAPR), in order to
reduce transmission costs
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DVB-T2
 DVB-T2 is currently the most advanced digital
terrestrial television (DTT) system
 More robustness
 More flexible
 50% more efficient than any other DTT
system available today
 Supports SD, HD, UHD, mobile TV, or any
combination of these

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Multiple Physical Layer Pipes
Simplified Explanation of Concept:
 All PLPs are broadcast over the same
frequency (TV channel)
 Every PLP carries an MPEG-TS
 Every PLP has its own modulation, FEC
code rate and interleaving
 PLP-based robustness configurations
allow adjustment bandwidth and
coverage area per PLP

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Programs Per RF Channel – Analog / T / T2
DVB-T 24 Mbps DVB-T2 40 Mbps

100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Analogue DVB-T SD DVB-T HD DVB-T2 SD DVB-T2 HD
1 Program 5 SD 2 HD 20 SD 4 or 5 HD
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Summary of Main DVB-T2 Benefits
 Flexibility for network design
• Frame rates, bit rates, modulation rates, Guard Intervals, etc. to fit what any
particular operator desires to achieve.
 Pilots (fixed and scattered) to enable receiver lock in tough
conditions (channel estimation)
 PAPR reduction techniques
• TR and ACE
 Performance limits very near theoretical Shannon limit
 Multiple PLP’s
 T2-MI for multiplex management
 FEF’s for other data formats (LTE-A+), T2-Lite
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Digital TV Worldwide
There are many different digital modulations. The map below shows which
modulations have been adopted:

ATSC
DVB-T / T2
DVB-T / T2 Trials
DVB-T / T2 RRC06
DTMB (China)
ISDB-T
Source: http://www.dtvstatus.net/map/map.html

The newest and most advanced of all the digital modulations is “DVB-T2” Proprietary and confidential. | 53

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Comprehensive Service for Every Application

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Thank youyou
Thank forforyour
your attention!
attention!

ขอบคุณณ
ขอบคุ

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