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Silverio Modesto G.

Serion ES 36 – B
January 26, 2018
Neutral Flame
The neutral flame is used for most gas-welding applications, and has
roughly equal amounts of acetylene and oxygen. To be more
precise, the ratio of oxygen to acetylene for a neutral flame lies
between 1.0 and 1.1. The neutral flame has a temperature between
5,600 and 5,900 degrees Fahrenheit and can be recognized by a
light blue inner flame cone with a darker blue outer flame. The
neutral flame takes its name from the fact that it produces very little
or no chemical reaction in the molten metal. In fact, the neutral
flame actually acts as a gas shield to protect the weld pool from
chemical reactions with the atmosphere, much like the inert gas in
TIG (tungsten inert gas) and MIG (metal inert gas) arc welding. It is
used for welding mild and stainless steel, cast iron, aluminum, and
copper.

Reducing or Carburizing Flame


The reducing, or carburizing, flame is produced by reducing the
amount of oxygen in the mixture, producing an acetylene-rich gas.
The carburizing flame has a temperature between 5,400 and 5,500
degrees Fahrenheit. It contains three distinct levels of color: a very
light blue cone at the nozzle, surrounded by an envelope or feather
of darker blue; both of those are surrounded by an outer envelope of
even darker blue. It is a reducing flame because it does not oxidize
the metal, and it is an oxidizing flame because it does not
completely burn up the carbon and because the unconsumed
carbon is forced into the metal. It is used for welding high-carbon
steel and other metals that do not readily absorb carbon.

Oxidizing Flame
Cast iron can be welded with an oxidizing flame.
The oxidizing flame is produced by increasing the oxygen in the
mixture, producing an oxygen-rich gas. It has a temperature
between 6,000 and 6,300 degrees Fahrenheit. The flame is shorter
and bluer than both the neutral and carburizing flames, and the
inner cone is more pointed. The excess oxygen from this flame will
combine with the metal and form oxides, which are brittle and
weaken the weld and the metal. Because of its oxidizing properties
it is seldom used to weld steel, but is sometimes used for copper-
based and zinc-based metals, as well as cast iron and manganese.