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approach of planning,
Environmental Management implementing,
System (EMS) evaluating and improving.
- A set of processes and
practices that enable an Environmental Impact Assessment
organization to reduce its (EIA)
environmental impacts and - It is an assessment of
increase its operating environmental consequences
efficiency. a plan, policy, program or
- The EMS provides a concrete project has, prior to
framework that helps a decision to move forward
company achieve its with a proposed action
environmental goals through - Existed since 1970, from the
consistent control of its United States has spread
operations rapidly through all parts of
the world because it is used
Why implement an EMS? as an administrative
o cost savings through requirement
reduced resource
consumption Why is it necessary now than in the
o increased operational past?
efficiency o Modern society has a
o improved faster, more
environmental widespread and larger
performance impact on the natural
o compliance with legal environment.
and regulatory o Replace of traditional
requirements community control
o deeper customer trust o Change of political
o enhanced employee priorities and
skills and satisfaction environmental
o positive community awareness
and public relations
Objectives of EIA:
Procedure for building an EMS o To consider
- The EMS framework includes environmental factors
many elements that are in decision-makings
common to managing many o To identify, avoid, or
organizational processes, minimize possible
such as quality, health and adverse environmental
safety, finance or human effects
resources. o To provide public
- Environmental management awareness
systems follow a systematic o To come up cost saving
alternatives
Bullet 3 That’s why a formal
(In my own terms) use for EIA has been
Basically, it is a prediction of introduced in national laws
how the environment is expected and regulations to ensure
to change if certain alternative that environmentally
actions are implemented. Recently, damaging projects are
EIA focused on proposed physical assessed prior to
developments such as highways, authorization and possible
power stations, water resource implementation.
projects and large-scale industrial
facilities. Objectives of EIA

- EIA has been in existence Bullet 1


since 1970 (when it was ensuring environmental
introduced into the United factors are considered in the
States of America following decision-making process
the National Environmental Bullet 2
Policy Act coming into effect) To identify, avoid, or
and has spread rapidly since minimize possible adverse
then to all parts of the world. environmental effects
EIA is still relatively 'young' Bullet 3
(48 years) and the number of informing the public
countries which use it, as a about the proposal
legal/administrative allows people to
requirement, is still examine the underlying need
increasing. At the same time, for a project
EIA practice (and the gives people the
techniques used) is evolving opportunity to identify
as experience has been problems
gained on its utility in a wide Bullet 4
range of development and If certain materials isn’t
geographic contexts. feasible, all its properties such as
price, would not be considered
Why is necessary? allowing compromise.

Bullet 1 Impact faster The entire process of EIA is


because depletion of natural
governed by eight guiding
resources, rapid climate
change, and lack of public principles.
awareness 1. Participation:
An appropriate and timely access
Bullet 2 Or non-standardized
control measure used by to the process for all interested
societies with unaware parties.
officials
2. Transparency: Participants in EIA Process:
All assessment decisions and their 1. Proponent:
basis should be open and Government or Private Agency
accessible. which initiates the project.

3. Certainty: 2. Decision maker:


The process and timing of the Designated individual or group.
assessment should be agreed by all
participants in advance. 3. Assessor:
Agency responsible for the
4. Accountability: preparation of EIS.
The decision makers of all parties
are responsible for their action and 4. Reviewer:
decisions under the assessment Individual/Agency/Board.
process.
5. Expert advisers, Media and
5. Credibility: Public, Environmental organizations
Assessment is undertaken with etc.
professionalism and objectivity.
Components of an EIA:
6. Cost effectiveness:
The assessment process and its Environmental Baseline Study –
outcomes will ensure will record the present quality of
environmental protection at the the environment within the area of
least cost to the society. influence before project
implementations. This data will
7. Flexibility: then be analyzed in the
The assessment process should be environmental assessment and be
able to deal efficiently with any used to predict and quantify
proposal and decision making impacts.
situation.
Ex. Of Data Analyzed:
8. Practicality:
The information and outputs 1. Air Quality
provided by the assessment 2. Climate
process are readily usable in 3. Geology
decision making and planning. 4. Hydrology
5. Terrestrial and Aquatic 4. Possible effects on surface and
ecology ground water quality, soil and air
6. Land use quality.

Environmental Assessment – is 5. Effects on vegetation, wild life


the identification and assessment and endangered species.
of impacts of the proposed project
and of its alternatives. It will also 6. Economic and demographic
consider mitigation measures to factors.
offset negative impacts and will
7. Identification of relevant human
assess the impact of implementing
concerns.
these measures on the
environment.
8. Noise pollution. Efficient use of
inputs.
Environmental Impact
Statement – is a summary of the Although legislation and practice
environmental baseline study and vary around the world, the
the environmental assessment and fundamental components of an EIA
includes an environmental would necessarily involve the
following stages:
management plan.
1. Screening 
Environmental Impact  to determine which
Statement (EIS) should contain projects or developments
require a full or partial
the following
impact assessment study
information’s/data:
1. Description of proposed action 2. Scoping 
(construction, operation and shut  to identify which potential
down phase) and selection of impacts are relevant to
assess (based on
alternatives to the proposed action.
legislative requirements,
international conventions,
2. Nature and magnitude of the
expert knowledge and
likely environmental effects. public involvement), to
identify alternative
3. Possibility of earthquakes and solutions that avoid,
cyclones. mitigate or compensate
adverse impacts on
biodiversity (including the
option of not proceeding  on whether to approve the
with the development, project or not, and under
finding alternative designs what conditions
or sites which avoid the
impacts, incorporating 7. Monitoring, compliance,
safeguards in the design enforcement and
of the project, or providing environmental auditing
compensation for adverse  Monitor whether the
impacts), and finally to predicted impacts and
derive terms of reference proposed mitigation
for the impact assessment measures occur as
defined in the EMP. Verify
3. Assessment and evaluation the compliance of
of impacts and development proponent with the EMP,
of alternatives to ensure that unpredicted
 to predict and identify the impacts or failed
likely environmental mitigation measures are
impacts of a proposed identified and addressed
project or development, in a timely fashion
including the detailed
elaboration of
alternatives;

4. Reporting the Environmental


Impact Statement (EIS) or EIA
report
 includes an environmental
management plan (EMP),
and a non-technical
summary for the general
audience Environmental Impact Assessment
in the Philippines
5. Review of the Environmental
Impact Statement (EIS) Relevance of EIA in the Philippines
 Are based on the terms of  The EIA process is based
reference (scoping) and upon commonly accepted
public (including definitions, concepts,
authority) participation. principles and elements of
approach. It is important that
6. Decision-making  all those involved in the EIA
process understand these
foundations and how they
promote integrated streamlined
environment and implementations of the
development decision- Philippine EIS system.
making in support of
sustainable development. 5. Memorandum Circluar 2011-
005
o Incorporating Disaster
Background of EIA Laws in the Risk Reduction (DDR)
Philippines and Climate Change
Adaptation (CCA)
1. Presidential Decree no. 1151
concerns in the
o Philippine
Philippine EIS system.
Environmental Policy:
which requires
sponsors of projects
affecting the quality of
the environment to
prepare environmental
impact statements.

2. Presidential Decree no. 1586


o Establishment of the
Philippines
Environmental Impact
Statement System
(PEISS) with the
National Environmental
Protection Council
(NEPC) as the lead
agency

3. DENR Administrative Order


03-30
o Implementation of
rules and regulations of
PD No. 1586

4. Memorandum Circular 2010-


14
o Standardization of
requirements and
enhancement of public
participation in the