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fiziks

Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
THERMODYNAMICS AND STATISTICAL PHYSICS SOLUTIONS
GATE 2010
Q1. A system of N non-interacting classical point particles is constrained to move on the two-
dimensional surface of a sphere. The internal energy of the system is
3 1 5
(a) Nk BT (b) Nk BT (c) Nk BT (d) Nk BT
2 2 2
Ans: (c)
Solution: There are 2 N degree of freedom.
Nk BT Nk BT
The internal energy of the system is   Nk BT
2 2
Q2. Which of the following atoms cannot exhibit Bose-Einstein condensation, even in
principle?
(a) 1H1 (b) 4H2 (c) 23Na11 (d) 30K19
Ans: (d)
Solution: For Bose-Einstein condensation:
Number of electron + number of proton + number of neutron = Even
For 30 K19
Number of proton = 19, Number of electron = 19, Number of neutron = 11.
19 + 19 + 11 = 49 this is odd. So it will not exhibit Bose-Einstein condensation.
Q3. For a two-dimensional free electron gas, the electronic density n, and the Fermi energy EF,
are related by

 2mEF 
3/ 2
mE F
(a) n (b) n 
3 
2 3
 2

 2mEF 
3/ 2
mE F
(c) n  (d) n
2 2 
Ans: (c)
EF
2m
Solution: n   g ( E ) f ( E )dE ,
0
g ( E )dE 
h2
dE

1, if E  EF 2mE F mE
At T=0 , f  E    n  2 F2
0, if E  EF h 2
2 

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
Q4. Which among the following sets of Maxwell relations is correct? (U-internal energy,
H-enthalpy, A-Helmholtz free energy and G-Gibbs free energy)
 U   U   H   H 
(a) T    and P    (b) V    and T   
 V  S  S V  P  S  S  P

 G   G   A   A 
(c) P    and V    (d) P    and S   
 V T  P  S  S T  P V
Ans: (b)
 H   H 
Solution: dH  TdS  VdP     T,  V
 S  P  P  S

 2V  k BT 
3

Q5. Partition function for a gas of photons is given as, ln Z  . The specific heat
453C 3
of the photon gas varies with temperature as
(a) (b)
CV CV

T T
(c) (d)

CV CV

T T
Ans: (a)
 ln z  U 
Solution: U  K B T 2 , CV     CV  T .
3

T  T  v
Q6. From Q. no. 5, the pressure of the photon gas is
 2 k B T 3  2 k B T 4  2 k B T 4  2 k B T 3 / 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
15 3 C 3 8 3 C 3 45 3 C 3 45 3 C 3
Ans: (c)

  ln z    k0T 
4
F
2

Solution: Since, P    P  KT   
V  V T 453C 3
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
GATE 2011

Q7. A Carnot cycle operates on a working substance between two reservoir at temperatures T1
and T2 with T1 > T2. During each cycle, an amount of heat Q1 is extracted from the
reservoir at T1 and an amount Q2 is delivered in the reservoir at T2. Which of the
following statements is INCORRECT?
(a) Work done in one cycle is Q1 – Q2
Q1 Q2
(b) 
T1 T2

(c) Entropy of the hotter reservoir decreases


(d) Entropy of the universe (consisting of the working substance and the two reservoirs)
increases
Ans: (c)
Solution: Entropy of hotter reservoirs decreases.
Q8. In a first order phase transition, at the transition temperature, specific heat of the system
(a) diverges and its entropy remains the same
(b) diverges and its entropy has finite discontinuity
(c) remains unchanged and its entropy has finite discontinuity
(d) has finite discontinuity and its entropy diverges
Ans: (b)
Q9. A system of N non-interacting and distinguishable particle of spin 1 is in thermodynamic
equilibrium. The entropy of the system is
(a) 2kB ln N (b) 3kB ln N (c) NkB ln 2 (d) NkB ln 3
Ans: (d)
Solution: S  k B  ln  ,  =3 is number of microstate. S  1; Sz  1, 0, 1
i

The entropy of the system is NkB ln 3.

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
Q10. A system has two energy levels with energies ε and 2ε. The lower level is 4-fold
degenerate while the upper level is doubly degenerate. If there are N non-interacting
classical particles in the system, which is in thermodynamic equilibrium at a temperature
T, the fraction of particles in the upper level is
1 1
(a) (b)
1  e  / k BT 1  2e  / k BT
1 1
(c)  / k BT
(d)
2e  4e 2  / k B T 2e  / k BT
 4e 2  / k B T
Ans: (b)
2e2/ kT 1
Solution: Partition function Z  4e / kT  2e / kT  P  2   / kT 2/ kT

4e  2e 1  2e/ kT
GATE 2012

Q11. The isothermal compressibility,  of an ideal gas at temperatures T0 and V0 is given by

1 V 1 V P P
(a)  (b) (c)  V0 (d) V0
V0 P T0 V0 P T0 V T0 V T0

Ans: (c)
 P 
Solution: Isothermal compressibility   V  
 V T
Q12. For an ideal Fermi gas in three dimensions, the electron velocity VF at the Fermi surface
is related to electron concentration n as,
(a) VF  n 2 / 3 (b) VF  n (c) VF  n1 / 2 (d) V F  n1 / 3
Ans: (d)
1
Solution: E F  mV F2  E F  n 2 / 3  VF2  n 2 / 3  VF  n1 / 3 .
2
Q13. A classical gas of molecules, each of mass m, is in thermal equilibrium at the absolute
temperature T. The velocity components of the molecules along the Cartesian axes are
v x , v y and v z . The mean value of v x  v y  is
2

k BT 3 k BT 1 k BT 2k B T
(a) (b) (c) (d)
m 2 m 2 m m
Ans: (d)

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
Solution: Vx  Vy   vx2  v y2  2 vx  v y  vx2  v y2  2 vx    v y  B
2 2k T
m
2 k BT
 vx    v y  0 and Vx2  Vy2  .
m
Q14. The total energy, E of an ideal non-relativistic Fermi gas in three dimensions is given by
N 5/3
E , where N is the number of particles and V is the volume of the gas. Identify the
V 2/3
CORRECT equation of state (P being the pressure),
1 2 5
(a) PV  E (b) PV  E (c) PV  E (d) PV  E
3 3 3
Ans: (b)
5 5
 E  2  N 3 2N 3 2
Solution: P         PV   E.
 V  N 3  V  3 V23 3
Q15. Consider a system whose three energy levels are given by 0, ε and 2ε. The energy level ε
is two-fold degenerate and the other two are non-degenerate. The partition function of the
1
system with   is given by
k BT

(a) 1  2e   (b) 2e    e 2  (c) (1  e   ) 2 (d) 1  e    e 2 


Ans: (c)
Solution: E1  0, E 2   , E 3  2 ; g1  1, g 2  2, g 3  1 where g1 , g 2 and g 3 are degeneracy.


The partition function Z  g1e   E1  g 2 e   E2  g 3 e   E3  1  2e    e   2  1  e   
2

GATE 2013

Q16. If Planck’s constant were zero, then the total energy contained in a box filled with
radiation of all frequencies at temperature T would be ( k is the Boltzmann constant and
T is nonzero)
3
(a) zero (b) Infinite (c) kT (d) kT
2
Ans: (d)
Solution: If Planck’s constant were zero, then the system behaved as a classical system and the
energy is kT .
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
Q17. Across a first order phase transition, the free energy is
(a) proportional to the temperature
(b) a discontinuous function of the temperature
(c) a continuous function of the temperature but its first derivative is discontinuous
(d) such that the first derivative with respect to temperature is continuous
Ans: (c)
Q18. Two gases separated by an impermeable but movable partition are allowed to freely
exchange energy. At equilibrium, the two sides will have the same
(a) pressure and temperature (b) volume and temperature
(c) pressure and volume (d) volume and energy
Ans: (a)
Q19. The entropy function of a system is given by S E   aE E0  E  where a and E0 are
positive constants. The temperature of the system is
(a) negative for some energies (b) increases monotonically with energy
(c) decreases monotonically with energy (d) Zero
Ans: (a)
Solution: From first and second law of thermodynamics
S
 dU  PdV       E  U
1 1
TdS  dU  PdV  dS 
T  E V T

 S 
S E   aE E0  E   
1
  a  E0  E   aE  a  E0  2 E   T  .
 E V a  E0  2 E 

Q20. Consider a linear collection of N independent spin ½ particles, each at a fixed location.
The entropy of this system is ( k is the Boltzmann constant)

(d) Nk ln 2 
1
(a) zero (b) Nk (c) Nk
2
Ans: (d)
particle, so entropy is given by Nk ln 2  .
1
Solution: There are two microstates possible for spin
2

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
Q21. Consider a gas of atoms obeying Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. The average value of
   
e a p over all the moments p of each of the particles (where a is a constant vector and a
is the magnitude, m is the mass of each atom, T is temperature and k is Boltzmann’s
constant) is,
1 3
 a 2 mkT  a 2 mkT
(a) one (b) zero (c) e 2
(d) e 2

Ans: (c)
  
f  px , p y , pz e p.a dpx dp y dpz where f  px , p y , pz  is Maxwell probability
   
Solution:  e   
p.a

  
distribution at temperature T.
 p x2  p 2y  p z2
    
 Ae  Ae  Ae
py ay
e  
p.a
x
2 mkT
e px ax
dpx y
2 mkT
e dp y z
2 mkT
e pz az dpz
  

 ( a x2  a 2y  a z2 ) mkT  ( px  mkTax )2  ( p y  mkTa y )2  ( pz  mkTa z ) 2


    
e   e  Ae  Ae  Ae
p.a 2
x
2 mkT
dpx y
2 mkT
dp y z
2 mkT
dpz
  

 ( ax2  a 2y  a z2 ) mkT 1
   a 2 mkT
e p .a
e 2
.1.1.1 = e 2

Common Data for Questions 22 and 23: There are four energy levels E , 2E , 3 E and
4 E (where E  0 ). The canonical partition function of two particles is, if these particles
are
Q22. Two identical fermions
(a) e 2 E  e 4 E  e 6 E  e 8 E (b) e 3 E  e 4 E  e 5 E  e 6 E  e 7 E

(c) e  E  e  2 E  e 3 E  e  4 E  (d) e 2 E  e 4 E  e 6 E  e 8 E
2

Ans: (b)
Solution: The possible value of Energy for two Fermions
E1  3E, E2  4 E , E3  5E, E4  6 E , E5  7 E

The partition function is Z  e 3E  e 4 E  2e 5 E  e 6 E  e 7 E , then the answer may


be option (b).
Q23. Two distinguishable particles
(a) e 2 E  e 4 E  e 6 E  e 8 E (b) e 3 E  e 4 E  e 5 E  e 6 E  e 7 E

(c) e  E  e  2 E  e 3 E  e  4 E  (d) e 2 E  e 4 E  e 6 E  e 8 E
2

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
Ans: (c)
Solution: When two particles are distinguishable then minimum value of Energy is 2 E and
maximum value is 8 E .

So from checking all four options Z  e  E  e 2 E  e 3 E  e 4 E 


2

GATE 2014

Q24. For a gas under isothermal condition its pressure P varies with volume V as P  V 5 / 3 .
The bulk modules B is proportional to
(a) V 1 / 2 (b) V 2 / 3 (c) V 3 / 5 (d) V 5 / 3
Ans: (d)
dP
Solution: P  KV 5 / 3 , B  V B  V 5 / 3
dV
Q25. At a given temperature T , the average energy per particle of a non-interacting gas of
two-dimensional classical harmonic oscillators is _________ k B T

( k B is the Boltzmann constant)


Ans: 2
Q26. Which one of the following is a fermion?
(a)  particle (b) 4 Be 2 nucleus (c) Hydrogen atom (d) deuteron
Ans (d)
Solution: If total number of particles i.e., electron, proton and neutron is odd, then it is a
fermions: P  N  E  3
Q27. For a free electron gas in two dimensions the variations of the density of states. N E  as a
function of energy E , is best represented by

(a) N E  (b) N E 

E E

N E 
(c) (d) N E 

E E

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
Ans. : (c)
Solution: N E   E 0
Q28. For a system of two bosons each of which can occupy any of the two energy levels 0 and
1
 . The mean energy of the system at temperature T with   is given by
k T

 e     2 e 2   1   e   2 e     e 2    e     2 e 2  
(a) (b) (c) (d)
1  2e     e  2   2e     e  2   2  e    e 2   2  e    e  2  
Ans. : None of the options are matched.
Solution: If both particle will in ground state the energy will 0 , which is non-degenerate. If one
particle is in ground state and other is in first excited state then energy is  and non
degenerate. If both particles will in first excited state, then energy will 2 , which is
non-degenerate.
Then partition function is Z  1  exp      exp  2  

exp    2 exp  2 
Average value of energy 
1  exp    exp  2 
No one answer is correct, but answer may be (a).
Q29. Consider a system of 3 fermions which can occupy any of the 4 available energy states
with equal probability. The entropy of the system is
(a) k B ln 2 (b) 2k B ln 2 (c) 2k B ln 4 (d) 3k B ln 4
Ans: (b)
Solution: Number of ways that 3 fermions will adjust in 4 available energy is 4 C3  4 so

entropy is k B ln 4 = 2k B ln 2
GATE 2015
Q30. In Boss-Einstein condensation, the particles
(a) have strong interparticle attraction
(b) condense in real space
(c) have overlapping wavefunctions
(d) have large and positive chemical potential
Ans.: (c)
Solution: In Bose- Einstein condensates, the particles have overlapping wave function.

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics 
 
Q31. For a black body radiation in a cavity, photons are created and annihilated freely as a
result of emission and absorption by the walls of the cavity. This is because
(a) the chemical potential of the photons is zero
(b) photons obey Pauli exclusion principle
(c) photons are spin-1 particles
(d) the entropy of the photons is very large
Ans.: (a)
Solution: The chemical potential of photon is zero
1
Q32. Consider a system of N non-interacting spin  particles, each having a magnetic
2

moment  , is in a magnetic field B  Bzˆ . If E is the total energy of the system, then
number of accessible microstates  is given by
 E 
 N  !
N! B 
(a)   (b)   
1 E  1 E   E 
 N   !  N  !  N  !
2 B  2  B   B 

1 E  1 E  N!
(c)    N  !  N  ! (d)  
2 B  2  B   E 
 N  !
 B 
Ans.: (a)
1
Solution: Number of microstate is N
Cn1 , where n1 is number of particle in  state and
2
1
n2   N  n1  is number of state in  state.
2
1 E  1 E 
where n1   N   , n2   N 
2 B  2  B 
N
So, number of microstate 
1 E  1 E 
 N   N
2 B  2   B 

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Q33. The average energy U of a one dimensional quantum oscillator of frequency  and in
contact with a heat bath at temperature T is given by
1 1  1 1 
(a) U   coth    (b) U   sinh    
2 2  2 2 
1 1  1 1 
(c) U   tanh    (d) U   cosh   
2 2  2 2 
Ans.: (a)
  1
 Ei    n   
 1 1
Solution:  Z   e  e  2
where E   n     Z 
i 0  2    
2sinh  
 2 
 
   1      
U  ln Z   ln   coth  
        2  2 
2sinh  
  2  
Q34. The entropy of a gas containing N particles enclosed in a volume V is given by
 aVE 3 / 2 
S  Nk B ln  , where E is the total energy, a is a constant and k B is the
 N
5/ 2

Boltzmann constant. The chemical potential  of the system at a temperature T is given
by
  aVE 3 / 2  5   aVE 3 / 2  3
(a)    k B T ln    (b)    k B T ln   
  N   N
5/ 2 5/ 2
 2  2

  aVE 3/ 2  5    aVE 3 / 2  3
(c)   k BT ln  3/ 2 
  (d)   k B T ln   
  N   N
3/ 2
 2  2
Ans.: (a)

 G   aVE 3/ 2   aVE 3/ 2 
Solution:     S   Nk B ln  5/ 2 
 S  Nk B ln  5/ 2 
 T  P  N   N 

 aVE 3/ 2 
 G   Nk BT ln  5/ 2 
 ln A
 N 
  
 G    aVE 3/ 2  N 5 / 2  5 / 2  
  aVE 3/ 2  5 
      k BT ln  5/ 2 
 Nk BT . aVE    k BT ln
3/ 2

 N    N  aVE 3 / 2 N 7 / 2    5
 2
  N 2
 
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GATE-2016
Q35. The total power emitted by a spherical black body of radius R at a temperature T is P1 .
R
Let P2 be the total power emitted by another spherical black body of radius kept at
2
P1
temperature 2T . The ratio, is _______. (Give your answer upto two decimal places)
P2
Ans.: 0.25

P1 R12T14 R 2T 4 4 1
Solution: P  AT   2 4 
4
   0.25
P2 R2 T2  R  2
16 4
   2T 
4

2
Q36. The entropy S of a system of N spins, which may align either in the upward or in the
downward direction, is given by S   k B N  p ln p  1  p  In(1  p)  . Here k B is the

Boltzmann constant. The probability of alignment in the upward direction is p. The value
of p, at which the entropy is maximum, is _______. (Give your answer upto one decimal
place)
Ans.: 0.5
Solution: S   k B N  p ln p  1  p  In(1  p) 

dS 1 1
For maximum entropy,  0  ln p  p   ln 1  p   1  p    1  0
dp p 1 p

 p 
ln p  1  ln 1  p   1  0  ln    0  p  1  p  p  0.5
 1 p 
Q37. For a system at constant temperature and volume, which of the following statements is
correct at equilibrium?
(a) The Helmholtz free energy attains a local minimum.
(b) The Helmholtz free energy attains a local maximum.
(c) The Gibbs free energy attains a local minimum.
(d) The Gibbs free energy attains a local maximum.
Ans.: (a)
Solution: dF   SdT  PdV

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Q38. N atoms of an ideal gas are enclosed in a container of volume V . The volume of the
container is changed to 4V , while keeping the total energy constant. The change in the
entropy of the gas, in units of Nk B ln 2 , is _______, where k B is the Boltzmann constant.
Ans.: 2
1
Solution: S1   Nk B ln1, S2   Nk B ln  S  S2  S1  Nk B ln 4  2 Nk B ln 2
4
Q39. Consider a system having three energy levels with energies 0, 2 and 3 ,with
respective degeneracies of 2,2 and 3 . Four bosons of spin zero have to be
accommodated in these levels such that the total energy of the system is 10  . The
number of ways in which it can be done is ______.
Ans.: 18
Solution: The system have energy 10  , if out of four boson two boson are in energy level
2 and two boson are in energy level 3 and
ni  gi  1
W  , n1  2, g1  2 and n2  2, g 2  3
i ni gi  1

2  2 1 2  3 1
W   3  6  18
2 2 1 2 3 1
Q40. A two-level system has energies zero and E . The level with zero energy is non-
degenerate, while the level with energy E is triply degenerate. The mean energy of a
classical particle in this system at a temperature T is
E E E E
k BT k BT k BT k BT
Ee Ee 3Ee 3Ee
(a) E
(b) E
(c) E
(d) E

1  3e k BT
1 e k BT
1 e k BT
1  3e k BT

Ans.: (d)
Ei
 0 E E
 gi Ei e kT  
k BT
0e kT  3 E  e kT 3Ee
Solution: E  i
E
 0 E
 E
 i  
 gi e kT e kT  3 e kT
1  3e k BT
i

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GATE 2017
Q41. Consider a triatomic molecule of the shape shown in the figure in three
dimensions. The heat capacity of this molecule at high temperature
(temperature much higher than the vibrational and rotational energy scales
of the molecule but lower than its bond dissociation energies) is:
3 9
(a) kB (b) 3k B (c) kB (d) 6k B
2 2
Ans. : (d)
Solution: If given molecules are at lower temperature i.e. atoms are attached to rigid rod then
6 k BT
degree of freedom is 6 , so internal energy is , but at high temperature, vibration
2
mode will active, so there are three extra vibration mode will active, so total energy
U  3k BT  3k BT  6k BT

 U 
CV     6k B
 T V

Q42. A reversible Carnot engine is operated between temperatures T1 and T2 T2  T1  with a

photon gas as the working substance. The efficiency of the engine is


3/ 4 4/3
3T T T  T 
(a) 1  1 (b) 1  1 (c) 1   1  (d) 1   1 
4T2 T2  T2   T2 
Ans. : (b)
Solution: Efficiency of Carnot engine does not depends on nature of working substance rather
depends on temperature of source and sink
T1
  1
T2

Q43. Water freezes at 00 C at atmospheric pressure 1.01105 Pa  . The densities of water and

ice at this temperature and pressure are 1000 kg / m3 and 934 kg / m3 respectively. The

latent heat of fusion is 3.34 105 J / kg . The pressure required for increasing the melting

temperature of ice by 100 C is…………… GPa . (up to two decimal places)


Ans. : 0.01102

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p2 T2
 dP  L L dT L T
Solution:      dP    P2  P1  ln 2
 dT V T  v2  v1  P1  v2  v1  T1 T  v2  v1  T1
L T
 P2  P1  ln 2  1 105 Pa  0.01 102 GPa
 v2  v1  T1
Q44. Consider N non- interacting, distinguishable particles in a two-level system at
temperature T . The energies of the levels are 0 and  , where   0 . In the high
temperature limit  k BT    , what is the population of particles in the level with energy

?
N N 3N
(a) (b) N (c) (d)
2 4 4
Ans. : (a)

exp 
Solution: P     kT , population of particle in the level with energy  is

1  exp
kT
 
exp exp 
kT kT 1 N
NP     N , for  k BT    , NP     N N 
  11 2
1  exp 1  exp
kT kT
u
Q45. The energy density and pressure of a photon gas are given by u  aT 4 and P  . Where
3
T is the temperature and a is the radiation constant. The entropy per unit volume is given
by  aT 3 . The value of  is…………… (up to two decimal places)
Ans. : 1.33
 S   U 
Solution: TdS  dU  PdV  T     P
 V T  V T

 S  1  U  P aT 4 aT 4 4 3
         aT  1.33
 V T T  V T T T 3T 3

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Q46. Consider two particles and two non-degenerate quantum levels 1 and 2. Level 1 always
contains a particle. Hence, what is the probability that level 2 also contains a particle for
each of the two cases:
(i) when the two particles are distinguishable and (ii) when the two particles are bosons?
1 1 1 1
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (i) and (ii)
2 3 2 2
2 1
(c) (i) and (ii) (d) (i) 1 and (ii) 0
3 2
Ans. : (c)
B A
2
Solution: (I): For distinguishable particle: A B AB , P  2 
3

A 1
(II): For indistinguishable particle (Bosons): , P  2 
A AA 2

GATE-2018

Q47. A microcanonical ensemble consists of 12 atoms with each taking either energy 0 state,
or energy  state. Both states are non-degenerate. If the total energy of this ensemble is
4  , its entropy will be _________ k B (up to one decimal place), where k B is the
Boltzmann constant.
Ans. : 6.204
Solution: The number of ways having total energy 4  , out of 12 atom is
12 12 1110  9
 12C4    495
48 4  3 2

Hence, entropy, S  k B ln w  k B ln  495   k B  6.204   6.204 k B

Q48. An air-conditioner maintains the room temperature at 270 C while the outside temperature
is 470 C . The heat conducted through the walls of the room from outside to inside due to
temperature difference is 7000 W . The minimum work done by the compressor of the
air-conditioner per unit time is__________ W .

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Ans. : 466.67
Solution: Q2  W  Q1 T1  47  273  323 k
Q2
Coefficient of performance of refrigerator  AC   Q1
W
T2
Also, coefficient of performance of refrigerator,  W
T1  T2
Q2  7000 J / S
300 7000
  Q2  Heat coming in room 
47  27 W
T2  27  273  300 k
7000  20 1400
W  J /s   466.67 W
300 3
Q49. Two solid spheres A and B have same emissivity. The radius of A is four times the
radius of B and temperature of A is twice the temperature of B . The ratio of the rate of
heat radiated from A to that from B is __________.
Ans. : 256
Rate of heat radiation from solid sphere  A  4 RA2TA4
Solution: 
Rate of heat radiation from solid sphere  B  4 RB2TB4

 RA  4 RB and TA  2TB

4 RA2TA4  4 RB    2TB 
2 4

   16  16  256
4 RB2TB4  RB   TB 
2 4

Q50. The partition function of an ensemble at a temperature T is


N
  
Z   2 cosh 
 k BT 


where k B is the Boltzmann constant. The heat capacity of this ensemble at T  is
kB

X Nk B , where the value of X is __________ (up to two decimal places).

Ans. : 0.42
N
   
Solution: The partition function, z   2 cosh  
  k BT  
  ln z 
The average energy, E  k BT 2
T

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       
Nk BT 2  2sinh    2 
  k B T    k BT    
   N  tanh  
    k BT 
2 cosh  
 k BT 
d E      
C   N  sec h 2   . 2 
dT  k BT   k B T 
 N 2
At T  , C  sec h 2 1  Nk sec h 2 1  0.42 Nk B
k k   / k 
2 2

GATE-2019
Q51. Consider a one-dimensional gas of N non-interacting particles of mass m with the
Hamiltonian for a single particle given by
p2 1
H  m 2  x 2  2 x 
2m 2
The high temperature specific heat in units of R  Nk B ( k B is the Boltzmann constant) is

(a) 1 (b) 1.5 (c) 2 (d) 2.5


Ans. : (c)
p2 1 1 NkT NkT
Solution: H   m 2 x 2  m 2 2 x    U0
2m 2 2 2 2

H  NkT

H
CV   NkT
T
Q52. A large number N of ideal bosons, each of mass m , are trapped in a three-dimensional
m 2 r 2
potential V  r   . The bosonic system is kept at temperature T which is much
2
lower than the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature TC . The chemical potential   

satisfies
3 3
(a)    (b) 2    
2 2
(c) 3    2 (d)   3

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Ans. : (a)
Q53. At temperature T Kelvin  K  , the value of the Fermi function at an energy 0.5 eV

above the Fermi energy is 0.01 . Then T , to the nearest integer, is __________
( k B  8.62 105 eV / K )

Ans.: 1262
1 1
Solution: F  E    e
E  EF  / k BT
1 
e  E  EF  / k B T
1 F E

  E  EF  / k B T 1 F E  EF  1 F  E  EF
e    ln   T 
F k BT  F   1 F 
k B ln  
 F 
0.5 0.5
 T 
 0.99  8.62  ln  99 
8.62 105 ln  
 0.01 
0.5 105
  1262.3 K
8.62  4.595
Q54. In a thermally insulated container, 0.01 kg of ice at 273 K is mixed with 0.1 kg of
water at 300 K . Neglecting the specific heat of the container, the change in the entropy
of the system in J / K on attaining thermal equilibrium (rounded off to two decimal
places) is____________
Ans. : 1.03
Solution: Teq  290.29 K (Heat gain  Heat lost)

mice L  miceC T  273  m C  300  T 

T  290.29 K
s   sice  swater

mice L T
 s ice   miceC ln i  14.85 J / K
Tice Tice
290.29
 S water  m C ln  13.82 J / K
300
S  1.03 J / K

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Q55. Consider two system A and B each having two distinguishable particles. In both the
systems, each particle can exist in states with energies 0,1, 2 and 3 units with equal
probability. The total energy of the combined system is 5 units. Assuming that the
system A has energy 3 units and the system B has energy 2 units, the entropy of the
system is k B ln  . The value of  is__________
Ans. : 12
Solution: EA  3 EB  2
A B 3
A B A B
  4  3  12 2
B A AB
1
S  ln   k B ln12 B A B A
0
  12 .
A  4 B  3

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