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DESIGN OF PIER

HYDRAULIC PARTICULARS OF CANAL


Discharge ( req) : 54.000 cu.m
Discharge ( des) : 54.000 cu.m
Bed width : 15.000 m
Full Supply Depth : 2.200 m
Side slope : 0.000 :1
Surface fall : 1 in 5000
Coeff. Of rugosity : 0.0200
velocity : 1.800 m/sec
Canal Bed level : + 519.000 m
Full supply level : + 521.575 m
Top of bank level : + 522.175 m
Ground level : + 523.000 m
Road level : + 523.000 m
Pier top level : + 522.175
foundation level + 517.250
Pier bottom level 518.000
Skew angle : 0 deg

PROPOSAL SKETCH

Longitudinal section of pier Cross section of pier


4.70
+ 523.000 m
0.075 + 522.925
0.450 + 522.475
0.000 522.475
6.25 0.300 1.00 522.175
1.00 m
521.575 FSL
5.25 4.175 2.575 FSD 3.575

0.50 0.50 519.000 CBL


1.000 1.00 518.000
0.750 0.75
7.25 4.50 517.250

Width of slab including kerbs o/o = 4.70 m


Carriage width = 4.25 m
Width of pier = 1.000 m at top
and 1.000 m at bottom
Length of pier = 5.250 m
Width of pier cap = 1.000 m
Length of pier cap = 6.250 m
Depth of pier cap = 0.300 m
Length of Foundation = 7.250
Width of foundation = 4.500 m
Depth of foundation = 0.750 m
Length of slab in traffic direction from c/c of piers = 7.600 m
Length of clear span in between piers at top = 6.600 m
effective span ( c/c of supports) = 7.090 m
SECTION PROPERTIES OF PIER:
Y

X X 1.000 1.00 4.50

Y
0.5 0.5
0.5 5.25 0.5

7.25

section properties of pier at Top:

1.000

0.5 5.25 0.5


Length of Pier at Top = 6.250 m
Area of straight portion = 5.250 m²
Area of cut and ease waters = 0.786 m²
Total area of pier at base = 6.036 m²
Equivalent length pier = 6.036 m

section properties of pier at base:

1.000

0.5 5.25 0.5


Length of Pier at Top = 6.250 m
Area of straight portion = 5.250 m²
Area of cut and ease waters = 0.786 m²
Total area of pier at base = 6.036 m²
Equivalent length pier = 6.036 m

section properties of pier at FSL:

1.000

0.500 5.25 0.500


Length of Pier at Top = 6.250 m
Area of straight portion = 5.250 m²
Area of cut and ease waters = 0.786 m²
Total area of pier at base = 6.036 m²
Equivalent length pier = 6.036 m

section properties of pier at CBL:

1.000

0.500 5.25 0.500


Length of Pier at Top = 6.250 m
Area of straight portion = 5.250 m²
Area of cut and ease waters = 0.786 m²
Total area of pier at base = 6.036 m²
Equivalent length pier = 6.036 m
Modulus of section at the base of pier ( i.e.) at + 518.000 m
Area of pier at base = 6.036 x 1.000 = 6.036 m²
Zxx of pier at base = 1/6 x 6.036 x 1.000 2 = 1.006 m3
Zyy of pier at base = 1/6 x 6.036 2 x 1.000 = 6.072 m3
Modulus of section at the Top of pier ( i.e.) at + 522.175 m
Area of pier at base = 6.036 x 1.000 = 6.036 m²
Zxx of pier at base = 1/6 x 6.036 x 1.000 2 = 1.006 m3
Zyy of pier at base = 1/6 x 6.036 2 x 1.000 = 6.072 m3
Modulus of section at foundation ( i.e.) at + 517.250 m
Area of foundation = 7.250 x 4.500 = 32.625 m²
Zxx of foundation = 1/6 x 7.250 x 4.500 2 = 24.469 m3
Zyy of foundation = 1/6 x 7.250 2 x 4.500 = 39.422 m3

LOADS COMING ON TO PIER :

Density of RCC = 2.5 t/ m3 kerb = 0.225 + 0.275


Density of CC = 2.4 t/m3 p. wall= 0.86 x 0.275
density of Soil = 2.1 t/m3 Projection 0.3 x 0.05

a. Dead load:

1. Dead load from super structure:

Span = 7.600 m

(a) slab 4.7 x 0.45 x 2.5 = 5.288

(b) wearing coat 4.25 x 0.075 x 2.4 = 0.765

('c) kerb 2 x 0.55 x 0.3 x 2.5 = 0.875

(d) Parapet wall 2 x 0.86 x 0.275 x 2.5 = 1.183


8.111
Total Load = 8.111 X 7.600 = 61.64 t
2. Dead load from Pier cap
6.25 x 1.000 x 0.300 x 2.500 = 4.688 t

Weight of Soil
1.00 x 3.50 x 1.000 x 2.1 = 7.35 t

4. Weight of pier
I Above pier base

(6.036 + 6.036 )/ 2 x 4.175 x 2 2.4 = 60.481 t


= 6.036 x 4.175 x 2.4 = 60.481 t
ii Below FSL

( 6.036 + 6.036 )/ 2 x 3.575 x 2.4 = 51.789 t


= 6.036 x 3.575 x 2.4 = 51.789 t

5. Weight of pier with 15% buoyancy


60.48 - 51.789 x 1.000 x 15 = 57.244 t
2.4 100

6. Weight of foundation
7.250 x 4.500 x 0.750 x 2.4
= 58.725 t

7. Weight of foundation with 100% buoyancy


58.73 x ( 2.4 - 1 ) / 2.4 = 34.256 t
b. Live load Reactions

a. for class A train of vehicles

Case : 1
2.7 2.7 11.4 11.4 6.8 0 0 0t
m
3.300 1.100 3.200 1.200 4.300 1.590 0.000 0.000 0.000 m

7.090 m 0.510 7.090 m


Ra Rb

Ra = ( 2.7 x 3.300 )+( 2.7 x 4.400 ) / 7.090


= 2.932 t

Rb = ( 11.4 x 7.090 )+( 11.4 x 5.890 )


( 6.8 x 1.590 )+( 0 x 0.000 ) +
( 0 x 0.000 )+( 0 x 0.000 ) / 7.090
= 22.395 t
Ra+ Rb = 25.328 t
Ra - Rb = 19.463 t

Case : 2
2.7 2.7 11.4 11.4 6.8 6.8 0 0 t

2.100 1.100 3.200 1.200 4.300 2.790 0.000 0.000 0.000 m

7.090 0.510 7.090


Ra Rb

Ra = ( 2.7 x 2.100 )+( 2.7 x 3.200 )+


( 11.4 x 6.400 ) / 7.090 = 12.309 t

Rb = ( 11.4 x 7.090 )+( 6.8 x 2.790 )


( 6.8 x 0.000 )+( 0 x 0.000
( 0 x 0.000 ) / 7.090 = 14.076 t
Ra+ Rb = 26.385 t
Ra - Rb = 1.767 t

Case : 3
2.7 11.4 11.4 6.8 6.8 6.8 0t

0.000 3.200 1.200 4.300 3.000 3.000 1.090 0.000

7.090 0.510 7.090

Ra Rb
Ra = ( 0 x 0.000 )+( 2.7 x 0.000 )
( 11.4 x 3.200 )+( 11.4 x 4.400 ) / 7.090
= 12.220 t
Rb = ( 6.8 x 7.090 )+( 6.8 x 4.090 )
( 6.8 x 1.090 )+( 0 x 0.000 ) / 7.090
= 11.768 t
Ra+ Rb = 23.988 t
Ra - Rb = 0.452 t
Case : 4
2.7 2.7 11.4 11.4 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 t 6.8

0.000 0.000 -0.900 1.200 4.300 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 -1.910

7.090 0.510 7.090 m


Ra Rb
Ra = ( 6.8 x 4.600 )+( 11.4 x 0.300 )
( 11.4 x -0.900 )+( 2.7 x 0.000 )
( 2.7 x 0.000 ) / 7.090 = 3.447 t

Rb = ( 6.8 x 7.090 )+( 6.8 x 4.090 )


( 6.8 x 1.090 )+( 6.800 x0.34)/ 9.740 = 9.936 t

Ra+ Rb = 13.383 t
Ra - Rb = 6.489 t
For single lane Ra+ Rb max = 26.385 26.385 t
Ra - Rb max = 19.463 19.463 t
Impact percentage = 0, since the height of pier below the bed block is > 3m
(vide cl. 211.7 @ of IRC:6-2000)
Max live load reaction 26.385 t

HORIZONTAL FORCES :
As per IRC 6:2000, 214.2,214.3
Tractive force or Braking force on pier due to class- A train of vehicles :
Case 1 is giving maximum load on the span, the maximum that is coming on the span 29.6 t
( as shown in sketch for class A loading in case 1)
Braking force = 20% of load = Fh = 29.6 x 20 / 100 = 5.920 t
acting at 1.20 m above road level I.e., 524.200 m
Change in vertical reaction due to braking force
= 5.920 ( 1.2 + 0.525 ) / 7.09 = 1.440 t
Moment about top of foundation = 5.920 x 4.475 = 26.49 t.m
Moment about top of soil = 5.920 x 5.225 = 30.93 t.m

Moment due to live load eccentricity :-


a) Eccentricity perpendicular to road way in canal flow direction:-
(longitudinal) :-
Distance of C.G of L .L from the edge of the bridge = 1.3 m
= (0.15+0.5/2+1.8/2)
Eccentricity of loads from the centre line of bridge x = ( 4.70 / 2 - 1.3
= 1.050 m
( Considered at the point of action of liveload ie, centre of bearing )
Max.liveload = 26.385 t
Moment = 26.385 x 1.050 = 27.70 t.m

b) Eccentricity in road way direction:-(transverse direction)

Max.liveload = 26.385 t
ecccentricity = 0.255 m
Moment = 26.385 x 0.255 = 6.728 t.m
Moment due to frictional resistance to bearings:-

Greater of Fh/2 and µRg Rg= Dead load Reaction = 61.64 t, µ = 0.5
Fh/2 = 2.96 t µRg = 30.822 t
Unbalenced force is 10% Variation = 3.082 t
moment at the base of pier = 3.082 x 4.475 = 13.793 tm
moment about top of soil = 3.082 x 5.225 = 16.104 tm

WIND FORCE ( IRC 6-2000, Para 212.30 of IRC Bridge code )

Case- I
Case- A: Wind force on deck slab, Pier and live load

(i) for super structure: deck 0.525


kerb 0.3
Railing 0.43
1.255 m

Av. height = 0.628 m

acting at = 522.475 + 0.628 = 523.103 m


Height above FSL 523.103 - 521.575 = 1.527 m
Height above CBL 523.103 - 519.000 = 4.102 m

Horizontal wind pressure for 0.00 m height = 40 Kg/ m²


Horizontal wind pressure for 2.00 m height = 52 Kg/ m²
Horizontal wind pressure for 4.00 m height = 63 Kg/ m²
Horizontal wind pressure for 6.00 m height = 73 Kg/ m²
Horizontal wind pressure for 10.00 m height = 91 Kg/ m²
Horizontal wind pressure for 15.00 m height = 107 Kg/ m²
Horizontal wind pressure for 20.00 m height = 119 Kg/ m²

Horizontal wind pressure for 1.527 m height


= 40 + ( 52 - 40 ) x ( 1.527 - 0.00
2.00 - 0.00
= 49.165 Kg/ m²
Horizontal wind pressure for 4.102 m height
= 73 + ( 91 - 73 ) x ( 4.102 - 6.00
10.00 - 6.00 6.00
= 64.461 Kg/ m²
Wind force at 1.527 m height =
7.600 x 1.255 x 49.165 /1000 = 0.469 t
acting at = 4.102 m + 1.000 m from top of the pier base

Wind force at 4.102 m height =


7.600 x 1.255 x 64.4612 /1000 = 0.615 t
acting at = 4.102 m + 1.000 m from top of the pier base

For Canal full condition:


Moment at pier base = 0.469 x 5.102 = 2.393 t.m

For Canal empty condition:


Moment at pier base = 0.615 x 5.102 = 3.137 t.m

For Canal full condition:


Moment on soil = 0.469 x 5.852 = 2.744 t.m

For Canal empty condition:


Moment on soil = 0.615 x 5.852 = 3.598 t.m
Case - B Wind force on live load

Taking maximum length of vehicle permitted in one span, joint to joint = 7.600 m
for class A loading
The max. force will be acting on 7.600 m length of truck with 300 kg/ m run

wind force = 7.6 x 300 / 1000 = 2.28 t


acting at a height of 1.50m above the road level.
Total lever arm from the top of pier = 0.525 + 1.5 = 2.025 m

Moment about the base of the pier = 2.28 x ( 2.025 + 4.475 )


= 14.820 t.m
Moment about top of soil = 2.28 x ( 2.025 + 5.225 ) =
= 16.530 t.m
(a)+(b) total moment due to wind force on super structure and live load.
Moment about base of pier = 3.137 + 14.820 = 17.96 t.m
Moment about top of soil = 3.598 + 16.530 = 20.13 t.m

case -(ii) :- But as per para 212.6 of IRC:6-2000 the wind force should not be
less than 450 Kg/m ie, acting at = 522.475 0.628 518.000 = 5.102 m above base of pier
wind force = 7.600 x 450/1000 = 3.420 t

Moment about the base of the pier = 3.420 x 5.102 = 17.451 t.m

Moment about top of soil =


3.420 x 5.852 = 20.02 t.m

case(iii) :- 240 Kg/m2. is considered.


as per clause 212.7 of IRC :6-2000 a wind force of 240 Kg/sq m. in considered.
wind force = 240 x 1.255 x 7.600 / 1000 = 2.29 t
acting at 5.102 from base of the pier

Moment about the base of the pier = 2.29 x 5.102 = 11.680 t.m

Moment about top of soil = 2.29 x 5.852 = 13.397 t.m

Max moment due to wind force at base of pier = 17.96 t.m


Max moment due to wind force on top of soil = 20.13 t.m

Force due to water currents


In the direction of canal flow (longitudinal direction) :- (para 213.2 of IRC:6-2000 )

Intensity of pressure due to water currents p=52 Kv²


where K= 0.66 (for semi circular ends)
Max.velocity(V)= 1.414 x mean velocity = 1.414 x 1.800 = 2.545 m/s
Max.velocity(V)² = = 6.478 m/s
Max.velocity(U)² at CBL = 0.750 x 2.545 ² / 4.325 m/s
= 1.123 m/s
Water force in the transverse direction:
Pressure at FSL + 521.575 m p=52 Kv²cos20
Intensity of pressure at F.S.L =
52 x 0.66 x 6.478 x cos20 = 208.908 kg/m²

Pressure at CBL is zero,

Lever arm = 2.575 x 2 + 1.000 = 2.717 m


3
Area .= ( 1.000 + 1.000 ) / 2 x 2.200 = 2.200 m²

Total force on peir = 0.5 x ( 208.908 ) x 2.200 = 229.80 kgs

Moment about the base of the pier = 229.80 x 2.717 = 0.624 t.m
1000
Moment on of soil = 229.799 x 3.467
1000 = 0.797 t.m
Force due to cross currents :-

In the direction across canal flow (transverse direction) (para 213.2 of IRC:6-2000 )
As para 213.4 of I.R.C Bridge code the pressure p = 52 kV² sin 20
where k = 1.5 and V= 2.545 m/s
V² = 6.478 m/s U² = 1.123 m/s
Pressure at FSL = 52 x 1.5 x 6.478 xSin20
= 172.885 kg/ m²
Pressure at CBL is zero,

Leverarm about base of pier 2.575 x2 + 1.000 = 2.717 m


3
Area .= ( 6.250 + 5.750 )/2 x 2.200 = 13.200 m²

Total force on peir = 0.5 x ( 172.885 ) x 13.200 = 1141.04 kgs

Moment about the base of the pier = 1141.04 x 2.717 = 3.100 t.m
1000
Moment about top of soil = 1141.04 x 3.467
1000 = 3.956 t.m
Case(ii): (as per cl. 213.6 of IRC:6-2000)
The moment obtained in case (i) should not be less than the moments due to
net hydrostatic pressure with a difference of 250 mm in water levels on opposite faces
of the pier. However case (i) is considered even though the case (ii) produces max.
moment as the flow is regulated in the canal.

Direct loads :-
without with
Dead loads :- buoyancy 15 %buoyancy

Dead load from super structure 61.64 t 61.64 t


Dead load from pier cap 4.69 t 4.69 t
Weight of Soil 7.35 t 7.35 t
Weight of pier 60.48 t 57.24 t
Total load coming at base of pier 134.16 t 130.93 t
Weight of footing 58.73 t 34.26 t
Total load coming on foundation 192.89 t 165.18 t
Live loads :-
Live load 26.385 t 26.385 t
Change in ver. Reaction due to braking force = 1.440 t 1.440 t
Total load coming at base of pier with LL 161.99 t 158.75 t
Total load coming on foundation with LL 220.71 t 193.01 t
Moments :-
Transverse Longitudinal
moment moment
(Traffic dir.) (Canal flow dir)
At base of pier
Due to braking force 26.49
Due to live load eccentricity 6.73 27.70
Due to frictional resistance 13.793
Due to wind force 17.96
Due to water current forces 3.10 0.62
On soil
Due to braking force 30.93
Due to frictinal resistance 16.104
Due to liveload eccentricity 6.73 27.70
Due to wind force 20.13
Due to water current forces 3.96 0.80

Stresss in the pier at base on top of foundation concrete and on top of soil :-
without wind effect :-
A) When the canal is empty and traffic allowed on the road :-

I) Stress in pier at base :-

= 161.99 + 47.01 + 28.33 = 78.23 t/m²


6.036 1.006 6.072 = -24.56 t/m²

ii) Stress on soil :-

= 220.71 + 53.76 + 28.50 = 9.69 t/m²


32.625 24.469 39.422 3.84 t/m²

B) When the canal is running full and traffic allowed on the road :-

I) Stress in pier at base :-

= 158.75 + 50.11 + 28.33 = 80.78 t/m²


6.036 1.006 6.072 = -28.18 t/m²

ii) Stress on soil :-

= 193.01 + 57.72 + 28.50 = 9.00 t/m²


32.625 24.469 39.422 2.83 t/m²
Stresss in the pier at base on top of foundation concrete and on top of soil :-
with wind effect :-
A) When the canal is empty and traffic allowed on the road :-

I) Stress in pier at base :-

= 161.99 + 47.01 + 45.66 = 81.09 t/m²


6.036 1.006 6.072 = -27.42 t/m²

ii) Stress on soil :-

= 220.71 + 53.76 + 47.83 = 10.18 t/m²


32.625 24.469 39.422 3.35 t/m²

B) When the canal is running full and traffic allowed on the road :-

I) Stress in pier at base :-

= 158.75 + 50.11 + 46.29 = 83.74 t/m²


6.036 1.006 6.072 = -31.14 t/m²

ii) Stress on soil :-

= 193.01 + 57.72 + 48.63 = 9.51 t/m²


32.625 24.469 39.422 2.32 t/m²
Stress table:
On base On soil
Max Min Max Min
83.7 -31.1 10.18 2.32

(vide Table 9 of IRC:21-2000, 303.1table 9&303.3 table 11)


Max. stress (compression) = 83.7 < allowable comp. stress of concrete
for M25 grade i.e. 625t/m2
Min. stress (tension ) = -31.1 < allowable tensile stress of concrete
for M25grade i.e. 61t/m
(vide Table 11 of IRC:21-2000,
(with wind load) 303.1table 9&303.3 table 11)

Direct stress calculated = 26.84 t/ m² Max in above cases


Direct stress allowable = 625.00 t/ m² (vide Table 9 of IRC:21-2000)
Bending stress calculated = 49.81 t/ m²
Bending stress allowable = 833.00 t/ m² (vide Table 9 of IRC:21-2000)

Direct stress calculated + Bending stress calculated = 0.103 < 1


Direct stress allowable Bending stress allowable

Case( ii)
As per cl. 306.2.2. of IRC:21-2000, the minimum steel shall not be in any case less than
0.3% of gross area
Minimum steel = 0.3 x 6.036 = 0.01811 m2
100 = 181.08 cm2
However provide 20 Φ - 60 Nos.
Ast provided = 188.60 cm2
Transverse reinforcement :

As per clause 306.3.2 of IRC-2, the diameter of lateral ties works out to 8 mm minimum
As per clause 306.3.2 of IRC-2, the spacing of lateral ties shall be least of the following
i) > 300 mm
ii) Least lateral dimension i.e. 1200 mm
iii) 12 times dia. of smallest longitudinal reinforcement in the column/pier
i.e. 12 x 20= 240 mm

However provide10 mm dia lateral ties at240 mm c/c

DESIGN OF FOOTING

Grade of concrete : M25


Grade of steel : Fe 415 1.75 1.75
s st = 2000 kg/cm2
s cbc = 83.3 kg/cm2 1.00
m= 10
k = 0.294 4.50 0.750 0.750
j = 0.902
Q = 11.046
P1 P2
Stresses at corners: 0.607
Stress at P1 = 10.18 t/m²
Stress at P2 = 7.75 t/m²
Stress at P3 = 5.78 t/m² 7.25
Stress at P4 = 2.32 t/m²

P3 P4
From stress trepezoid on P1 and P2
Stress at the face of pier = 9.23 t/m²

From stress trepezoid on P1 and P3


Stress at the face of pier = 9.81 t/m²

Using 25 Φ bars and clear cover of 50 mm


Effective depth = 687.5 mm
Stress at the distance 'd' from face of pedestal = 9.60 t/m²

Moment and shear:


Moment in traffic direction
( 10.18 - 9.232 )1.75 2 / 3 +
9.232 x 1.75 2 / 2 = 15.100 tm
Shear in traffic direction at dist of eff depth
( 1.75 - 0.6875 )x 1.2 x 10.18 = 12.974 t
Moment in canal flow direction
= 10.18 - 9.808 ) 0.607 2 / 3 +
9.808 x 0.607 2 / 2 = 1.852 tm
Shear in canal flow direction at dist of eff depth
( 0.607 - 0.6875 )x 1.0 x 10.18 = 0.000 t

Effective depth :
Eff. Depth required = 15.100 x 105 = 36.973 cm
11.046 x 100
Reinforcement requirement:

Area of steel in traffic dir 15.100 x 105 = 12.17 Cm²


2000 0.902 68.75
Provide 20 f bars at 200 mm c/c Ast = 15.71 Cm²

Area of steel in canal dir = 1.852 x 105 = 1.54 Cm²


2000 0.902 66.75
Provide dist steel 20 f bars at 250 mm c/c
Ast = 12.57 Cm²
Distribution steel:
Min steel = 1/2 x 0.12 x 75.00 x 100 = 4.50 cm²
100
Provide 12 Φ @240c/c at top face in both directions as minimum steel.
(Ast on each direction= 5.65 cm2)

Check for shear


One way shear: Critical section is at 'd' from face of the pier
Depth at a distance 'd' from the face of pier with 0.75m depth at edge = 0.688 m
Percent of steel Pt = 100 x 15.71 /( 100 x 68.75 ) = % 0.229
for Pt 0.229 % allowable shear stress in concrete = 25.11 Kg/cm²
Shear strength = 25.11 x 100 x 68.75 /1000 =
172.661 t
Which is more than 12.974 t , design shear and hence safe

Two way shear: Critical section is at 'd/2' from face of the pier
Design shear = 161.99 t
Perimeate at 'd/2' critical section
= 2x( ( 1.000 + 0.688 )+( 6.25 + 0.6875 ) =
17.250 m
Area = 17.250 x 0.688 =
11.859 m²
Shear resistance = 11.859 x 105 x 0.16 x sqrt 20 =
848.59 t
Which is more than 161.99 t , design shear and hence safe