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Unit-3-Foundation Construction in Difficult Soil

1) Write a brief applications of ground improvement techniques using

a) Pre-compression b) Sand Drains c) Grouting d) Soil reinforcement
2) Write a brief application of geotextile in construction of roadways and railways

Unit-4-Deep Foundations
1) List and explain the classification of pile foundation based on function
2) Explain with neat sketch “Under”-reamed Piles” and Negative Skin Friction

3) Calculate the efficiency of piles group by Feld’s rule for the diagram shown below: (Refer Book G.

5) A group of 16 piles of 50 cm diameter is arranged with a centre to centre spacing of 1.0 m.

The piles are 9 m long and are embedded in soft clay with cohesion 30 kN/m2. Bearing
resistance may be neglected for the piles—Adhesion factor is 0.6. Determine the ultimate
load capacity of the pile group. (Refer Book G. Venkatramaiah)
6) A square group of 9 piles was driven into soft clay extending to a large depth. The
diameter and length of the piles were 30 cm and 9 m respectively. If the unconfined
compression strength of the clay is 90 kN/m2, and the pile spacing is 90 cm centre to centre,
what is the capacity of the group? Assume a factor of safety of 2.5 and adhesion factor of
0.75. (Refer Book G. Venkatramaiah)

7) A 16-pile group has to be arranged in the form of a square in soft clay with uniform
spacing. Neglecting end-bearing, determine the optimum value of the spacing of the piles in
terms of the pile diameter, assuming a shear mobilisation factor of 0.6. (Refer Book G.

8) A square pile group of 9 piles passes through a recently filled up material of 4.5m depth.
The diameter of the pile is 30 cm and pile spacing is 90 cm centre to centre. If the unconfined
compression strength of the cohesive material is 60 kN/m2 and unit weight is 15 kN/m3,
compute the negative skin friction of the pile group. (Refer Book G. Venkatramaiah)

9) Explain the working principle of Pneumatic caissons with neat sketch.

10) Draw a neat sketch of well foundation and explain the component parts.

1) A cut has been made at an angle of 300 to the horizontal radius is 10m
passing through the toe of the cut slope and through a point 4m away on the top
ground from the edge of the cut C=Kn/m2, O=30ogamma=18kn/m3, depth of
the cut=5m. Find Factor of safety by Swedish Circle method
2) Determine the factor of safety against sliding for the slip surface shown in
fig-1 below. Use Swedish Circle method. Soil properties are C=15kN/m2, ø
=300, Ƴ =18KN/m3, Slope of embankment is 1:1.5

3) A cut hast to be made 12m deep inclined at an

angle of 35 to the horizontal. The possible circular failure circular failure
surface has a radius equal to 20.2m and is passing through the toe of cut slope &
through the point 4m away on the top ground from the edge of cut. The C.G of
the failure mass is at a distance of 9.4m from the center of the failure circle. The
properties of soil are C=30KN/m2, ø=150, Ƴ =20KN/m3, Find the Factor of
safety that would be available on failure surface by Friction Circle method


1. - Swedish slip circle method
2.Friction circle method | analysis of finite slope