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Microsoft

Excel 2016
Step by Step
Curtis Frye
PUBLISHED BY
Microsoft Press
A division of Microsoft Corporation
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, Washington 98052-6399
Copyright © 2015 by Curtis Frye
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this book may be reproduced or transmitted
in any form or by any means without the written permission of the publisher.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2015935269
ISBN: 978-0-7356-9880-2
Printed and bound in the United States of America.
First Printing
Microsoft Press books are available through booksellers and distributors worldwide. If
you need support related to this book, email Microsoft Press Support at
mspinput@microsoft.com. Please tell us what you think of this book at
http://aka.ms/tellpress.
This book is provided “as-is” and expresses the author’s views and opinions. The views,
opinions and information expressed in this book, including URL and other Internet
website references, may change without notice.
Some examples depicted herein are provided for illustration only and are fictitious. No
real association or connection is intended or should be inferred.
Microsoft and the trademarks listed at
http://www.microsoft.com/about/legal/en/us/IntellectualProperty/Trademarks/EN-US.aspx
are trademarks of the Microsoft group of companies. All other marks are property of their
respective owners.
Acquisitions Editor: Rosemary Caperton
Developmental Editor: Rosemary Caperton
Editorial Production: Online Training Solutions, Inc. (OTSI)
Technical Reviewer: Rozanne Whalen
Copyeditor: Kathy Krause (OTSI)
Indexer: Susie Carr (OTSI)
Cover: Twist Creative • Seattle
For my wife, Virginia
—CURTIS FRYE
Contents

I Introduction
Who this book is for
The Step by Step approach
Download the practice files
Sidebar: Adapt exercise steps
Ebook edition
Get support and give feedback
Errata and support
We want to hear from you
Stay in touch
Part 1: Create and format workbooks
1 Set up a workbook
Explore the editions of Excel 2016
Excel 2016
Excel Online
Excel Mobile Apps
Become familiar with new features in Excel 2016
Create workbooks
Modify workbooks
Modify worksheets
Merge and unmerge cells
Customize the Excel 2016 app window
Zoom in on a worksheet
Arrange multiple workbook windows
Add buttons to the Quick Access Toolbar
Customize the ribbon
Skills review
Practice tasks
2 Work with data and Excel tables
Enter and revise data
Manage data by using Flash Fill
Move data within a workbook
Find and replace data
Correct and expand upon data
Define Excel tables
Skills review
Practice tasks
3 Perform calculations on data
Name groups of data
Create formulas to calculate values
Sidebar: Operators and Precedence
Summarize data that meets specific conditions
Set iterative calculation options and enable or disable automatic calculation
Use array formulas
Find and correct errors in calculations
Skills review
Practice tasks
4 Change workbook appearance
Format cells
Define styles
Apply workbook themes and Excel table styles
Make numbers easier to read
Change the appearance of data based on its value
Add images to worksheets
Skills review
Practice tasks
Part 2: Analyze and present data
5 Manage worksheet data
Limit data that appears on your screen
Manipulate worksheet data
Sidebar: Select list rows at random
Summarize data in worksheets that have hidden and filtered rows
Find unique values within a data set
Define valid sets of values for ranges of cells
Skills review
Practice tasks
6 Reorder and summarize data
Sort worksheet data
Sort data by using custom lists
Organize data into levels
Look up information in a worksheet
Skills review
Practice tasks
7 Combine data from multiple sources
Use workbooks as templates for other workbooks
Link to data in other worksheets and workbooks
Consolidate multiple sets of data into a single workbook
Skills review
Practice tasks
8 Analyze alternative data sets
Examine data by using the Quick Analysis Lens
Define an alternative data set
Define multiple alternative data sets
Analyze data by using data tables
Vary your data to get a specific result by using Goal Seek
Find optimal solutions by using Solver
Analyze data by using descriptive statistics
Skills review
Practice tasks
9 Create charts and graphics
Create charts
Create new types of charts
Customize chart appearance
Find trends in your data
Create dual-axis charts
Summarize your data by using sparklines
Create diagrams by using SmartArt
Create shapes and mathematical equations
Skills review
Practice tasks
10 Create dynamic worksheets by using PivotTables
Analyze data dynamically by using PivotTables
Filter, show, and hide PivotTable data
Edit PivotTables
Format PivotTables
Create PivotTables from external data
Create dynamic charts by using PivotCharts
Skills review
Practice tasks
Part 3: Collaborate and share in Excel
11 Print worksheets and charts
Add headers and footers to printed pages
Prepare worksheets for printing
Fit your worksheet contents to the printed page
Change page breaks in a worksheet
Change the page printing order for worksheets
Print worksheets
Print parts of worksheets
Print charts
Skills review
Practice tasks
12 Automate repetitive tasks by using macros
Enable and examine macros
Set macro security levels in Excel 2016
Examine macros
Create and modify macros
Run macros when you click a button
Run a macro when you open a workbook
Insert form controls into a worksheet
Skills review
Practice tasks
13 Work with other Microsoft Office apps
Include Office documents in workbooks and other files
Link Office documents to Excel workbooks
Embed files in Excel and other Office apps
Create hyperlinks
Paste charts into documents
Skills review
Practice tasks
14 Collaborate with colleagues
Share workbooks
Save workbooks for electronic distribution
Manage comments
Track and manage colleagues’ changes
Add protection to workbooks and worksheets
Finalize workbooks
Authenticate workbooks
Save workbooks for the web
Import and export XML data
Work with OneDrive and Excel Online
Skills review
Practice tasks
Part 4: Perform advanced analysis
15 Perform business intelligence analysis
Enable the Data Analysis add-ins
Define relationships between tables
Analyze data by using Power Pivot
View data by using timelines
Bring in external data by using Power Query
Skills review
Practice tasks
16 Create forecasts and visualizations
Create Forecast Worksheets
Define and manage measures
Define and display Key Performance Indicators
Create 3D maps
Skills review
Practice tasks
Keyboard shortcuts
Glossary
Index
About the author

Give us feedback

Tell us what you think of this book and help Microsoft improve our products
for you. Thank you! http://aka.ms/tellpress
I. Introduction

Welcome! This Step by Step book has been designed so you can read it from the beginning
to learn about Microsoft Excel 2016 and then build your skills as you learn to perform
increasingly specialized procedures. Or, if you prefer, you can jump in wherever you need
ready guidance for performing tasks. The how-to steps are delivered crisply and concisely
—just the facts. You’ll also find informative, full-color graphics that support the
instructional content.

Who this book is for


Microsoft Excel 2016 Step by Step is designed for use as a learning and reference resource
by home and business users of Microsoft Office apps who want to use Excel to manage
their data, create useful analyses and visualizations, and discover insights into their
operations by using the rich business intelligence analysis tools found in Excel. The
content of the book is designed to be useful for people who have previously used earlier
versions of Excel and for people who are discovering Excel for the first time.

The Step by Step approach


The book’s coverage is divided into parts representing general Excel skill sets. Each part is
divided into chapters representing skill set areas, and each chapter is divided into topics
that group related skills. Each topic includes expository information followed by generic
procedures. At the end of the chapter, you’ll find a series of practice tasks you can
complete on your own by using the skills taught in the chapter. You can use the practice
files that are available from this book’s website to work through the practice tasks, or you
can use your own files.

Download the practice files


Before you can complete the practice tasks in this book, you need to download the book’s
practice files to your computer from http://aka.ms/Excel2016SBS/files. Follow the
instructions on the webpage.

Important
Excel 2016 is not available from the book’s website. You should install that
app before working through the procedures and practice tasks in this book.

You can open the files that are supplied for the practice tasks and save the finished
versions of each file. If you later want to repeat practice tasks, you can download the
original practice files again.
See Also
For information about opening and saving files, see “Create workbooks” in
Chapter 1, “Set up a workbook.”

The following table lists the practice files for this book.
Adapt exercise steps
This book contains many images of the Excel user interface elements (such as
the ribbon and the app window) that you’ll work with while performing tasks
in Excel on a Windows computer. Unless we’re demonstrating an alternative
view of content, the screen shots shown in this book were captured on a
horizontally oriented display at a screen resolution of 1920 × 1080 and a
magnification of 100 percent. If your settings are different, the ribbon on your
screen might not look the same as the one shown in this book. As a result,
exercise instructions that involve the ribbon might require a little adaptation.
Simple procedural instructions use this format:
1. On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click the Chart button.
If the command is in a list, our instructions use this format:
1. On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click the Find arrow and then, in
the Find list, click Go To.
If differences between your display settings and ours cause a button to appear
differently on your screen than it does in this book, you can easily adapt the
steps to locate the command. First click the specified tab, and then locate the
specified group. If a group has been collapsed into a group list or under a
group button, click the list or button to display the group’s commands. If you
can’t immediately identify the button you want, point to likely candidates to
display their names in ScreenTips.
Multistep procedural instructions use this format:
1. To select the paragraph that you want to format in columns, triple-click the
paragraph.
2. On the Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click the Columns button to
display a menu of column layout options.
3. On the Columns menu, click Three.
On subsequent instances of instructions that require you to follow the same
process, the instructions might be simplified in this format because the
working location has already been established:
1. Select the paragraph that you want to format in columns.
2. On the Columns menu, click Three.
The instructions in this book assume that you’re interacting with on-screen
elements on your computer by clicking (with a mouse, touchpad, or other
hardware device). If you’re using a different method—for example, if your
computer has a touchscreen interface and you’re tapping the screen (with
your finger or a stylus)—substitute the applicable tapping action when you
interact with a user interface element.
Instructions in this book refer to Excel user interface elements that you click
or tap on the screen as buttons, and to physical buttons that you press on a
keyboard as keys, to conform to the standard terminology used in
documentation for these products.
When the instructions tell you to enter information, you can do so by typing
on a connected external keyboard, tapping an on-screen keyboard, or even
speaking aloud, depending on your computer setup and your personal
preferences.

Ebook edition
If you’re reading the ebook edition of this book, you can do the following:
Search the full text
Print
Copy and paste
You can purchase and download the ebook edition from the Microsoft Press Store at
http://aka.ms/Excel2016SBS/detail.
Get support and give feedback
This topic provides information about getting help with this book and contacting us to
provide feedback or report errors.

Errata and support


We’ve made every effort to ensure the accuracy of this book and its companion content. If
you discover an error, please submit it to us at http://aka.ms/Excel2016SBS/errata.
If you need to contact the Microsoft Press Support team, please send an email message to
mspinput@microsoft.com.
For help with Microsoft software and hardware, go to http://support.microsoft.com.

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The survey is short, and we read every one of your comments and ideas. Thanks in
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Part 1: Create and format workbooks
CHAPTER 1
Set up a workbook
CHAPTER 2
Work with data and Excel tables
CHAPTER 3
Perform calculations on data
CHAPTER 4
Change workbook appearance
1. Set up a workbook

In this chapter
Explore the editions of Excel 2016
Become familiar with new features in Excel 2016
Create workbooks
Modify workbooks
Modify worksheets
Merge and unmerge cells
Customize the Excel 2016 app window

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch01 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

When you create a new Excel 2016 workbook, the app presents a blank workbook that
contains one worksheet. You can add or delete worksheets, hide worksheets within the
workbook without deleting them, and change the order of your worksheets within the
workbook. You can also copy a worksheet to another workbook or move the worksheet
without leaving a copy of the worksheet in the first workbook. If you and your colleagues
work with a large number of documents, you can define property values to make your
workbooks easier to find when you and your colleagues attempt to locate them by using
the Windows search box.
Another way to make Excel easier to use is by customizing the Excel app window to fit
your work style. If you find that you use a command frequently, you can add it to the
Quick Access Toolbar so it’s never more than one click away. If you use a set of
commands frequently, you can create a custom ribbon tab so they appear in one place. You
can also hide, display, or change the order of the tabs on the ribbon.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to creating and modifying workbooks,
creating and modifying worksheets, merging and unmerging cells, and customizing the
Excel 2016 app window.

Explore the editions of Excel 2016


The Microsoft Office 2016 suite includes apps that give you the ability to create and
manage every type of file you need to work effectively at home, business, or school. The
apps include Microsoft Word, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint, Access, OneNote, and
Publisher. You can purchase the apps as part of a package that includes multiple apps or
purchase most of the apps individually.
By using the Office 2016 apps, you can find the tools you need quickly and, because they
were designed as an integrated package, you’ll find that the skills you learn in one app
transfer readily to the others. That flexibility extends well beyond your personal computer.
In addition to the traditional desktop edition of Excel, you can also use Excel Online in
combination with Microsoft OneDrive (formerly called SkyDrive).

Excel 2016
The desktop version of Excel 2016 is installed directly on your computer. The desktop
version of the app includes all of the capabilities built into Excel 2016. You can purchase
Excel 2016 as part of an Office app suite, as a separate app, or as part of the Office 365
subscription package that lets you install the desktop versions of Office apps for both PCs
and Macs over the Internet.

Tip
Office 365 is a cloud-based subscription licensing solution. There are Office
365 subscription levels that provide access to the full version of Excel 2016,
Excel Online, or both.

Excel Online
Information workers require their data to be available to them at all times, not just when
they’re using their personal computers. To provide mobile workers with access to their
data, Microsoft developed Office Online, which includes online versions of Excel, Word,
PowerPoint, Outlook, and OneNote. Office Online is available as part of an Office 365
subscription or for free as part of the OneDrive cloud service.
You can use Excel Online to edit files stored in your OneDrive account or on a Microsoft
SharePoint site. Excel Online displays your Excel 2010 and later files as they appear in the
desktop version of the app and includes all of the functions you use to summarize your
data. You can also view and manipulate PivotTables, add charts, and format your data to
communicate its meaning clearly.
You can also use Excel Online to share your workbooks online, embed them as part of
another webpage, and create web-accessible surveys that save user responses directly to an
Excel workbook in your OneDrive account.
After you open a file by using Excel Online, you can choose to continue editing the file in
your browser or open the file in the desktop app. When you open the file in your desktop
app, any changes you save are written to the version of the file on your OneDrive account.
This practice means that you will always have access to the most recent version of your
file, regardless of where and how you access it.
At the time of this writing, Office Online is compatible with Microsoft Edge, Internet
Explorer 7 and later, Firefox 3.5 and later, and Chrome 3 and later for Windows. You can
also use Office Online on a Mac if you have Safari 4 or later and on Linux with Chrome 3
or later.
Excel Mobile Apps
In addition to providing versions of Excel 2016 for your PC, Mac, or for use online,
Microsoft also maintains versions of Excel for many mobile platforms. If you own a
Windows-based tablet, you can take advantage of the Office 2016 apps, all of which
require Windows 7 or later. Office Mobile apps (Word Mobile, Excel Mobile, PowerPoint
Mobile, and OneNote Mobile) require Windows 10.
For other platforms, Office for iPad and Office for iPhone require iOS 7.0 or later. If you
own an Android device, Office for Android can be installed on tablets and phones that are
running Android KitKat 4.4 or later and have an ARM-based or Intel x86 processor.

Become familiar with new features in Excel 2016


Excel 2016 includes all of the most useful capabilities included in previous versions of the
app. If you’ve used an earlier version of Excel, you probably want to know about the new
features introduced in Excel 2016, which include:
Tell Me Excel 2016 is a rich, powerful app, so it can be hard to remember
everything you can do. If you want to search for instructions on how to perform an
action, enter what you want to do in the new Tell Me box on the ribbon and press the
Enter key to get the information you need.
New chart types Excel 2016 introduces six new types of charts: waterfall,
histogram, Pareto, box-and-whisker, treemap, and sunburst. Each of these new chart
types enhances your ability to summarize your data and convey meaningful
information about your business.
Slicer multi-select Slicers provide a visual reference to filters you have applied to
Excel tables and PivotTables. In Excel 2013, you had to use the Ctrl and Shift keys
to select multiple values. In Excel 2016, you can click the Multi-Select button on the
Slicer title bar to enable multiple selections without using the Ctrl or Shift key when
you make your selections.
Math entry In Excel 2016, Word 2016, and PowerPoint 2016, you can now enter a
mathematical formula into a file by using a stylus or a finger on a touch-sensitive
device. Entering mathematical notation directly supplements the built-in Equation
Editor and could save you significant time.
Insights for Office Insights help you learn more about your content through sources
such as Bing Snapshot, Wikipedia, Bing image search, and the Oxford dictionary.

Create workbooks
Every time you want to gather and store data that isn’t closely related to any of your other
existing data, you should create a new workbook. The default new workbook in Excel has
one worksheet, although you can add more worksheets if you want. When you start Excel,
Excel displays the Start screen.
Create new workbooks from the Start screen
You can click one of the built-in templates available in Excel 2016 or create a blank
workbook. You can then begin to enter data into the worksheet’s cells or open an existing
workbook. After you start entering workbook values, you can save your work.

Tip
To save your workbook by using a keyboard shortcut, press Ctrl+S. For more
information about keyboard shortcuts, see “Keyboard shortcuts” at the end of
this book.

Important
Readers frequently ask, “How often should I save my files?” It is good
practice to save your changes every half hour or even every five minutes, but
the best time to save a file is whenever you make a change that you would
hate to have to make again.

When you save a file, you overwrite the previous copy of the file. If you have made
changes that you want to save, but you also want to keep a copy of the file as it was when
you saved it previously, you can save your file under a new name or in a new folder.
Tip
To open the Save As dialog box by using a keyboard shortcut, press F12.

You also can use the controls in the Save As dialog box to specify a different format for
the new file and a different location in which to save the new version of the file. For
example, if you work with a colleague who requires data saved in the Excel 97-2003 file
format, you can save a file in that format from within the Save As dialog box.
If you want to work with a file you created previously, you can open it by displaying the
Open page of the Backstage view.

Tip
To display the Open page of the Backstage view by using a keyboard
shortcut, press Ctrl+O.

After you create a file, you can add information to make the file easier to find when you
use the Windows search box to search for it. Each category of information, or property,
stores specific information about your file. In Windows, you can search for files based on
the file’s author or title, or by keywords associated with the file.

Assign properties to help locate workbooks on your server


In addition to setting property values on the Info page of the Backstage view, you can
display the Properties dialog box to select one of the existing custom categories or create
your own. You can also edit your properties or delete any you no longer want to use.
When you’re done modifying a workbook, you should save your changes and then close
the file.

Tip
To close a workbook by using a keyboard shortcut, press Ctrl+W.

To create a new workbook


1. Do any of the following:
• If Excel is not running, start Excel, and then on the Start screen, double-click
Blank workbook.
• If Excel is already running, click the File tab of the ribbon, click New to display
the New page of the Backstage view, and then double-click Blank workbook.
• If Excel is already running, press Ctrl+N.
To save a workbook under a new name or in a new location
1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Save As.
2. On the Save As page of the Backstage view, click the folder where you want to save
the workbook.
3. In the Save As dialog box, in the File name box, enter a new name for the
workbook.
Save a new version of your file by using the Save As dialog box
4. To save the file in a different format, in the Save as type list, click a new file type.
5. If necessary, use the navigation controls to move to a new folder.
6. Click Save.
Or
1. Press F12.
2. In the Save As dialog box, in the File name box, enter a new name for the
workbook.
3. To save the file in a different format, in the Save as type list, click a new file type.
4. If necessary, use the navigation controls to move to a new folder.
5. Click Save.
To open an existing workbook
1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Open.
Or
Press Ctrl+O.
2. On the Open page of the Backstage view, perform any of these actions:
• Click a file in the Recent list.
• Click another location in the navigation list and select the file.
• Click the Browse button, and then use the Open dialog box to find the file you
want to open, click the file, and click Open.
To define values for document properties
1. Display the Backstage view and, if necessary, click Info.
2. On the Info page of the Backstage view, in the Properties group, click the Add a
property text next to a label.
3. Enter a value or series of values (separated by commas) for the property.
4. Click a blank space on the Info page.
To create a custom property
1. On the Info page of the Backstage view, in the Properties group, click Properties,
and then click Advanced Properties.
2. In the filename Properties dialog box, click the Custom tab.

Define custom properties for your workbooks


3. In the Name list, click an existing property name.
Or
In the Name box, enter a name for the new property.
4. Click the Type arrow, and then click a data type.
5. In the Value box, enter a value for the property.
6. Click Add.
7. Click OK.
To close a workbook
1. Do either of the following:
• Display the Backstage view, and then click Close.
• Press Ctrl+W.

Modify workbooks
You can use Excel workbooks to record information about specific business activities.
Each worksheet within that workbook should represent a subdivision of that activity. To
display a particular worksheet, just click the worksheet’s tab (also called a sheet tab) on
the tab bar (just below the grid of cells). You can also create new worksheets when you
need them.

Display and create worksheets without leaving the main app window
When you create a worksheet, Excel assigns it a generic name such as Sheet2, Sheet3, or
Sheet4. After you decide what type of data you want to store on a worksheet, you should
change the worksheet’s name to something more descriptive. You can also move and copy
worksheets within and between workbooks. Moving a worksheet within a workbook
changes its position, whereas moving a worksheet to another workbook removes it from
the original workbook. Copying a worksheet keeps the original in its position and creates a
second copy in the new location, whether within the same workbook or in another
workbook.

Tip
Selecting the Create A Copy check box in the Move Or Copy dialog box
leaves the copied worksheet in its original workbook, whereas clearing the
check box causes Excel to delete the worksheet from its original workbook.
Move or copy worksheets within and among workbooks

Tip
You can also copy a worksheet within a workbook by holding down the Ctrl
key while dragging the worksheet’s tab to a new position in the workbook.

After the worksheet is in the target workbook, you can change the worksheet’s position
within the workbook, hide its tab on the tab bar without deleting the worksheet, unhide its
tab, or change the sheet tab’s color.

Tip
If you copy a worksheet to another workbook and the destination workbook
has the same Office Theme applied as the active workbook, the worksheet
retains its tab color. If the destination workbook has another theme applied,
the worksheet’s tab color changes to reflect that theme. For more information
about Office themes, see Chapter 4, “Change workbook appearance.”

If you determine that you no longer need a particular worksheet, such as one you created
to store some figures temporarily, you can delete the worksheet quickly.
To display a worksheet
1. On the tab bar in the lower-left corner of the app window, click the tab of the
worksheet you want to display.
To create a new worksheet
1. Next to the tab bar in the lower-left corner of the app window, click the New Sheet
button.
To rename a worksheet
1. Double-click the tab of the worksheet you want to rename.
2. Enter a new name for the worksheet.
3. Press Enter.
To move a worksheet within a workbook
1. Right-click the sheet tab of the worksheet you want to copy, and then click Move or
Copy.
2. In the Move or Copy dialog box, use the items in the Before sheet area to indicate
where you want the new worksheet to appear.
3. Click OK.
Or
1. On the tab bar in the lower-left corner of the app window, drag the sheet tab to the
new location.
To move a worksheet to another workbook
1. Open the workbook to which you want to move a worksheet from another
workbook.
2. In the source workbook, right-click the sheet tab of the worksheet you want to
move, and then click Move or Copy.
3. In the Move or Copy dialog box, click the To book arrow and select the open
workbook to which you want to move the worksheet.
4. Using the items in the Before sheet area, indicate where you want the moved
worksheet to appear.
5. Click OK.
To copy a worksheet within a workbook
1. Right-click the sheet tab of the worksheet you want to copy, and then click Move or
Copy.
2. In the Move or Copy dialog box, select the Create a copy check box.
3. Using the items in the Before sheet area, indicate where you want the new
worksheet to appear.
4. Click OK.
Or
1. Hold down the Ctrl key and drag the worksheet’s tab to a new location on the tab
bar.
To copy a worksheet to another workbook
1. Open the workbook to which you want to add a copy of a worksheet from another
workbook.
2. In the source workbook, right-click the sheet tab of the worksheet you want to copy,
and then click Move or Copy.
3. In the Move or Copy dialog box, select the Create a copy check box.
Copy worksheets to other workbooks without deleting the original sheet
4. Click the To book arrow and select the open workbook in which you want to create
a copy of the worksheet.
5. Using the items in the Before sheet area, indicate where you want the new
worksheet to appear.
6. Click OK.
To hide a worksheet
1. Right-click the sheet tab of the worksheet you want to hide, and then click Hide.
To unhide a worksheet
1. Right-click any visible sheet tab, and then click Unhide.
2. In the Unhide dialog box, click the worksheet you want to redisplay.
3. Click OK.
To change a sheet tab’s color
1. Right-click the sheet tab you want to change and point to Tab Color.

Change a sheet tab’s color to make it stand out


2. Click a color from the color palette.
Or
Click More Colors, use the tools in the Colors dialog box to pick a color, and then
click OK.
To delete a worksheet
1. Right-click the sheet tab of the worksheet you want to delete, and then click Delete.
2. If Excel displays a confirmation dialog box, click Delete.

Tip
Excel displays a confirmation dialog box when you start to delete a worksheet
that contains data.

Modify worksheets
After you put up the signposts that make your data easy to find, you can take other steps to
make the data in your workbooks easier to work with. For example, you can change the
width of a column or the height of a row in a worksheet by dragging the column’s right
border or the row’s bottom border to the position you want. Increasing a column’s width
or a row’s height increases the space between cell contents, making your data easier to
read and work with.

Tip
You can apply the same change to more than one row or column by selecting
the rows or columns you want to change and then dragging the border of one
of the selected rows or columns to the location you want. When you release
the mouse button, all the selected rows or columns change to the new height
or width.

Modifying column width and row height can make a workbook’s contents easier to work
with, but you can also insert a row or column between cells that contain data to make your
data easier to read. Adding space between the edge of a worksheet and cells that contain
data, or perhaps between a label and the data to which it refers, makes the workbook’s
contents less crowded.

Tip
Inserting a column adds a column to the left of the selected column or
columns. Inserting a row adds a row above the selected row or rows.

When you insert a row, column, or cell in a worksheet that has had formatting applied, the
Insert Options action button appears. Clicking the Insert Options button displays a list of
choices you can make about how the inserted row or column should be formatted. The
following table summarizes these options.

You can also delete, hide, and unhide columns. Deleting a column removes it and its
contents from the worksheet entirely, whereas hiding a column or row removes it from the
display without deleting its contents.

Important
If you hide the first row or column in a worksheet and then want to unhide it,
you must click the Select All button in the upper-left corner of the worksheet
(above the first row header and to the left of the first column header) or press
Ctrl+A to select the entire worksheet. Then, on the Home tab, in the Cells
group, click Format, point to Hide & Unhide, and then click either Unhide
Rows or Unhide Columns to make the hidden data visible again.

Just as you can insert rows or columns, you can insert individual cells into a worksheet.
After you insert cells, you can choose whether to shift the cells surrounding the inserted
cell down (if your data is arranged as a column) or to the right (if your data is arranged as
a row).

Tip
The Insert dialog box also includes options you can click to insert a new row
or column; the Delete dialog box has similar options for deleting an entire
row or column.

If you want to move the data in a group of cells to another location in your worksheet,
select the cells you want to move and then point to the selection’s border. When the
pointer changes to a four-pointed arrow, you can drag the selected cells to the target
location on the worksheet. If the destination cells contain data, Excel displays a dialog box
asking whether you want to overwrite the destination cells’ contents. You can choose to
overwrite the data or cancel the move.
To change row height
1. Select the row headers for the rows you want to resize.
2. Point to the bottom border of a selected row header.
3. When the pointer changes to a double-headed vertical arrow, drag the border until
the row is the height you want.
Or
1. Select the row headers for the rows you want to resize.
2. Right-click any of the selected row headers, and then click Row Height.

The Row Height dialog box displaying the default row height
3. In the Row Height dialog box, enter a new height for the selected rows.

Tip
The default row height is 15 points.

4. Click OK.
To change column width
1. Select the column headers for the columns you want to resize.
2. Point to the right border of a selected column header.
3. When the pointer changes to a double-headed horizontal arrow, drag the border until
the column is the width you want.
Or
1. Select the column headers for the columns you want to resize.
2. Right-click any of the selected column headers, and then click Column Width.
3. In the Column Width dialog box, enter a new width for the selected columns.

Tip
The default column width is 8.43 standard characters.

4. Click OK.
To insert a column
1. Right-click a column header, and then click Insert.
To insert multiple columns
1. Select a number of column headers equal to the number of columns you want to
insert.
2. Right-click any selected column header, and then click Insert.
To insert a row
1. Right-click a row header, and then click Insert.
To insert multiple rows
1. Select a number of row headers equal to the number of rows you want to insert.
2. Right-click any selected row header, and then click Insert.
To delete one or more columns
1. Select the column headers of the columns you want to delete.
2. Right-click any selected column header, and then click Delete.
To delete one or more rows
1. Select the row headers of the rows you want to delete.
2. Right-click any selected row header, and then click Delete.
To hide one or more columns
1. Select the column headers of the columns you want to hide.
2. Right-click any selected column header, and then click Hide.
To hide one or more rows
1. Select the row headers of the rows you want to hide.
2. Right-click any selected row header, and then click Hide.
To unhide one or more columns
1. Select the column headers to the immediate left and right of the column or columns
you want to unhide.
2. Right-click any selected column header, and then click Unhide.
Or
1. Press Ctrl+A to select the entire worksheet.
2. Right-click anywhere in the worksheet, and then click Unhide.
To unhide one or more rows
1. Select the row headers immediately above and below the row or rows you want to
unhide.
2. Right-click any selected column header, and then click Unhide.
Or
1. Press Ctrl+A to select the entire worksheet.
2. Right-click anywhere in the worksheet, and then click Unhide.
To insert one or more cells
1. Select a cell range the same size as the range you want to insert.
2. On the Home tab of the ribbon, in the Cells group, click Insert.
Or
Right-click a cell in the selected range, and then click Insert.
3. If necessary, use the controls in the Insert dialog box to tell Excel how to shift the
existing cells.

Indicate how Excel should move existing cells when you insert new cells into a worksheet
4. Click OK.
To move one or more cells within a worksheet
1. Select the cell range you want to move.
2. Point to the edge of the selected range.
3. When the pointer changes to a four-headed arrow, drag the cell range to its new
position.
4. If necessary, click OK to confirm that you want to delete data in the target cells.

Merge and unmerge cells


Most Excel worksheets contain data about a specific subject. One of the best ways to
communicate the contents of a worksheet is to use a label.
Merge and center cell contents to create effective labels
For example, consider a worksheet in which the label text Distribution Center Hubs
appears to span three cells, B2:D2, but is in fact contained within cell B2. If you select cell
B2, Excel highlights the cell’s border, which obscures the text. If you want to combine
cells B2:D2 into a single cell, you can do so by merging the cells into a single cell.

A worksheet with the main label contained within a merged cell

Important
When you merge two or more cells, Excel retains just the text in the range’s
upper-left cell. All other text is deleted.
When you click the Merge & Center button, a list of options appears. In addition to
merging cells, you can click Merge & Center to combine the selected cells into a single
cell and center the text within the merged cell. You should strongly consider using the
Merge & Center option for label text, such as above a list of data where the title spans
more than one column. You can also merge the cells in multiple rows at the same time by
using Merge Across.

Merge cells in multiple rows by using Merge Across

Important
Selecting the header cells, clicking the Home tab, clicking Merge & Center,
and then clicking either Merge & Center or Merge Cells will delete any text
that is not in the upper-left cell of the selected range.

If you want to split merged cells into their individual cells, you can always unmerge them.
To merge cells
1. Select the cells you want to merge.
2. On the Home tab, in the Alignment group, click the Merge & Center arrow (not
the button), and then click Merge Cells.
To merge and center cells
1. Select the cells you want to merge.
2. Click the Merge & Center arrow (not the button), and then click Merge & Center.
To merge cells in multiple rows by using Merge Across
1. Select the cells you want to merge.
2. Click the Merge & Center arrow (not the button), and then click Merge Across.
To split merged cells into individual cells
1. Select the cells you want to unmerge.
2. Click the Merge & Center arrow (not the button), and then click Unmerge Cells.

Customize the Excel 2016 app window


How you use Excel 2016 depends on your personal working style and the type of data
collections you manage. The Excel product team interviews customers, observes how
differing organizations use the app, and sets up the user interface so that many users won’t
need to change it to work effectively. If you do want to change the Excel app window,
including the user interface, you can. You can change how Excel displays your
worksheets; zoom in on worksheet data; add frequently used commands to the Quick
Access Toolbar; hide, display, and reorder ribbon tabs; and create custom tabs to make
groups of commands readily accessible.

Zoom in on a worksheet
One way to make Excel easier to work with is to change the app’s zoom level. Just as you
can “zoom in” with a camera to increase the size of an object in the camera’s viewer, you
can use the zoom setting to change the size of objects within the Excel 2016 app window.
You can change the zoom level from the ribbon or by using the Zoom control in the lower-
right corner of the Excel 2016 window.

Change worksheet magnification by using the Zoom control


The minimum zoom level in Excel 2016 is 10 percent; the maximum is 400 percent.
To zoom in on a worksheet
1. Using the Zoom control in the lower-right corner of the app window, click the
Zoom In button (which looks like a plus sign).
To zoom out on a worksheet
1. Using the Zoom control in the lower-right corner of the app window, click the
Zoom Out button (which looks like a minus sign).
To set the zoom level to 100 percent
1. On the View tab of the ribbon, in the Zoom group, click the 100% button.
To set a specific zoom level
1. In the Zoom group, click the Zoom button.
Set a magnification level by using the Zoom dialog box
2. In the Zoom dialog box, enter a value in the Custom box.
3. Click OK.
To zoom in on specific worksheet highlights
1. Select the cells you want to zoom in on.
2. In the Zoom group, click the Zoom to Selection button.

Arrange multiple workbook windows


As you work with Excel, you will probably need to have more than one workbook open at
a time. For example, you could open a workbook that contains customer contact
information and copy it into another workbook to be used as the source data for a mass
mailing you create in Word 2016. When you have multiple workbooks open
simultaneously, you can switch between them or arrange your workbooks on the desktop
so that most of the active workbook is shown prominently but the others are easily
accessible.
Arrange multiple Excel windows to make them easier to access
Many Excel 2016 workbooks contain formulas on one worksheet that derive their value
from data on another worksheet, which means you need to change between two
worksheets every time you want to see how modifying your data changes the formula’s
result. However, an easier way to approach this is to display two copies of the same
workbook simultaneously, displaying the worksheet that contains the data in the original
window and displaying the worksheet with the formula in the new window. When you
change the data in either copy of the workbook, Excel updates the other copy.
If the original workbook’s name is Merge Cells, Excel 2016 displays the name Merge
Cells:1 on the original workbook’s title bar and Merge Cells:2 on the second workbook’s
title bar.
Display two copies of the same workbook side by side
To switch to another open workbook
1. On the View tab, in the Window group, click Switch Windows.
2. In the Switch Windows list, click the workbook you want to display.
To display two copies of the same workbook
1. In the Window group, click New Window.
To change how Excel displays multiple open workbooks
1. In the Window group, click Arrange All.
2. In the Arrange Windows dialog box, click the windows arrangement you want.
3. If necessary, select the Windows of active workbook check box.
4. Click OK.
Add buttons to the Quick Access Toolbar
As you continue to work with Excel 2016, you might discover that you use certain
commands much more frequently than others. If your workbooks draw data from external
sources, for example, you might find yourself using certain ribbon buttons much more
often than the app’s designers might have expected. You can make any button accessible
with one click by adding the button to the Quick Access Toolbar, located just above the
ribbon in the upper-left corner of the Excel app window. You’ll find the tools you need to
change the buttons on the Quick Access Toolbar in the Excel Options dialog box.

Control which buttons appear on the Quick Access Toolbar


You can add buttons to the Quick Access Toolbar, change their positions, and remove
them when you no longer need them. Later, if you want to return the Quick Access
Toolbar to its original state, you can reset just the Quick Access Toolbar or the entire
ribbon interface.
You can also choose whether your Quick Access Toolbar changes affect all your
workbooks or just the active workbook. If you’d like to export your Quick Access Toolbar
customizations to a file that can be used to apply those changes to another Excel 2016
installation, you can do so quickly.
To add a button to the Quick Access Toolbar
1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Options.
2. In the Excel Options dialog box, click Quick Access Toolbar.
3. If necessary, click the Customize Quick Access Toolbar arrow and select whether
to apply the change to all documents or just the current document.
4. If necessary, click the Choose commands from arrow and click the category of
commands from which you want to choose.
5. Click the command to add to the Quick Access Toolbar.
6. Click Add.
7. Click OK.
To change the order of buttons on the Quick Access Toolbar
1. Open the Excel Options dialog box, and then click Quick Access Toolbar.
2. In the right pane, which contains the buttons on the Quick Access Toolbar, click
the button you want to move.

Change the order of buttons on the Quick Access Toolbar


3. Click the Move Up button (the upward-pointing triangle on the far right) to move
the button higher in the list and to the left on the Quick Access Toolbar.
Or
Click the Move Down button (the downward-pointing triangle on the far right) to
move the button lower in the list and to the right on the Quick Access Toolbar.
4. Click OK.
To delete a button from the Quick Access Toolbar
1. Open the Excel Options dialog box, and then click Quick Access Toolbar.
2. In the right pane, click the button you want to delete.
3. Click Remove.
To export your Quick Access Toolbar settings to a file
1. Display the Quick Access Toolbar page of the Excel Options dialog box.
2. Click Import/Export, and then click Export all customizations.
3. In the File Save dialog box, in the File name box, enter a name for the settings file.
4. Click Save.
To reset the Quick Access Toolbar to its original configuration
1. Display the Quick Access Toolbar page of the Excel Options dialog box.
2. Click Reset.
3. Click Reset only Quick Access Toolbar.
4. Click OK.

Customize the ribbon


Excel 2016 enhances your ability to customize the entire ribbon: you can hide and display
ribbon tabs, reorder tabs displayed on the ribbon, customize existing tabs (including tool
tabs, which appear when specific items are selected), and create custom tabs. You’ll find
the tools to customize the ribbon in the Excel Options dialog box.
Control which items appear on the ribbon by using the Excel Options dialog box
From the Customize Ribbon page of the Excel Options dialog box, you can select which
tabs appear on the ribbon and in what order. Each ribbon tab’s name has a check box next
to it. If a tab’s check box is selected, that tab appears on the ribbon.
Just as you can change the order of the tabs on the ribbon, with Excel 2016, you can
change the order in which groups of commands appear on a tab. For example, the Page
Layout tab contains five groups: Themes, Page Setup, Scale To Fit, Sheet Options, and
Arrange. If you use the Themes group less frequently than the other groups, you could
move the group to the right end of the tab.

Change the order of items on built-in ribbon tabs


You can also remove groups from a ribbon tab. If you remove a group from a built-in tab
and later decide you want to restore it, you can put it back without too much worry.
The built-in ribbon tabs are designed efficiently, so adding new command groups might
crowd the other items on the tab and make those controls harder to find. Rather than
adding controls to an existing ribbon tab, you can create a custom tab and then add groups
and commands to it. The default New Tab (Custom) name doesn’t tell you anything about
the commands on your new ribbon tab, so you can rename it to reflect its contents.
You can export your ribbon customizations to a file that can be used to apply those
changes to another Excel 2016 installation. When you’re ready to apply saved
customizations to Excel, import the file and apply it. And, as with the Quick Access
Toolbar, you can always reset the ribbon to its original state.
The ribbon is designed to use space efficiently, but you can hide it and other user interface
elements such as the formula bar and row and column headings if you want to increase the
amount of space available inside the app window.

Tip
Press Ctrl+F1 to hide and unhide the ribbon.

To display a ribbon tab


1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Options.
2. In the Excel Options dialog box, click Customize Ribbon.
3. In the tab list on the right side of the dialog box, select the check box next to the
tab’s name.

Select the check box next to the tab you want to appear on the ribbon
4. Click OK.
To hide a ribbon tab
1. In the Excel Options dialog box, click Customize Ribbon.
2. In the tab list on the right side of the dialog box, clear the check box next to the
tab’s name.
3. Click OK.
To reorder ribbon elements
1. In the Excel Options dialog box, click Customize Ribbon.
2. In the tab list on the right side of the dialog box, click the element you want to
move.
3. Click the Move Up button (the upward-pointing triangle on the far right) to move
the button or group higher in the list and to the left on the ribbon tab.
Or
Click the Move Down button (the downward-pointing triangle on the far right) to
move the button or group lower in the list and to the right on the ribbon tab.
4. Click OK.
To create a custom ribbon tab
1. On the Customize Ribbon page of the Excel Options dialog box, click New Tab.
To create a custom group on a ribbon tab
1. On the Customize Ribbon page of the Excel Options dialog box, click the ribbon
tab where you want to create the custom group.
2. Click New Group.
To add a button to the ribbon
1. On the Customize Ribbon page of the Excel Options dialog box, click the ribbon
tab or group to which you want to add a button.
2. If necessary, click the Customize the Ribbon arrow and select Main Tabs or Tool
Tabs.

Tip
The tool tabs are the contextual tabs that appear when you work with
workbook elements such as shapes, images, or PivotTables.

3. If necessary, click the Choose commands from arrow and click the category of
commands from which you want to choose.
4. Click the command to add to the ribbon.
5. Click Add.
6. Click OK.
To rename a ribbon element
1. On the Customize Ribbon page of the Excel Options dialog box, click the ribbon
tab or group you want to rename.
2. Click Rename.
3. In the Rename dialog box, enter a new name for the ribbon element.
4. Click OK.
To remove an element from the ribbon
1. On the Customize Ribbon page of the Excel Options dialog box, click the ribbon
tab or group you want to remove.
2. Click Remove.
To export your ribbon customizations to a file
1. On the Customize Ribbon page of the Excel Options dialog box, click
Import/Export, and then click Export all customizations.
2. In the File Save dialog box, in the File name box, enter a name for the settings file.
3. Click Save.
To import ribbon customizations from a file
1. On the Customize Ribbon page of the Excel Options dialog box, click
Import/Export, and then click Import customization file.

Import ribbon settings saved from another Office installation


2. In the File Open dialog box, click the configuration file.
3. Click Open.
To reset the ribbon to its original configuration
1. On the Customize Ribbon page of the Excel Options dialog box, click Reset, and
then click Reset all customizations.
2. In the dialog box that appears, click Yes.
To hide or unhide the ribbon
1. Press Ctrl+F1.
To hide or unhide the formula bar
1. On the View tab, in the Show group, select or clear the Formula Bar check box.
To hide or unhide the row and column headings
1. In the Show group, select or clear the Headings check box.
To hide or unhide gridlines
1. In the Show group, select or clear the Gridlines check box.

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Explore the editions of Excel 2016
Become familiar with new features in Excel 2016
Create workbooks
Modify workbooks
Modify worksheets
Merge and unmerge cells
Customize the Excel 2016 app window

Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch01 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Create workbooks
Open the CreateWorkbooks workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Close the CreateWorkbooks file, and then create a new, blank workbook.
2. Save the new workbook as Exceptions2015.
3. Add the following tags to the file’s properties: exceptions, regional, and
percentage.
4. Add a tag to the Category property called performance.
5. Create a custom property called Performance, leave the value of the Type field as
Text, and assign the new property the value Exceptions.
6. Save your work.

Modify workbooks
Open the ModifyWorkbooks workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Create a new worksheet named 2016.
2. Rename the Sheet1 worksheet to 2015 and change its tab color to green.
3. Delete the ScratchPad worksheet.
4. Copy the 2015 worksheet to a new workbook, and then save the new workbook
under the name Archive2015.
5. In the ModifyWorkbooks, workbook, hide the 2015 worksheet.

Modify worksheets
Open the ModifyWorksheets workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. On the May 12 worksheet, insert a new column A and a new row 1.
2. After you insert the new row 1, click the Insert Options action button, and then
click Clear Formatting.
3. Hide column E.
4. On the May 13 worksheet, delete cell B6, shifting the remaining cells up.
5. Click cell C6, and then insert a cell, shifting the other cells down. Enter the value
4499 in the new cell C6.
6. Select cells E13:F13 and move them to cells B13:C13.

Merge and unmerge cells


Open the MergeCells workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Merge cells B2:D2.
2. Merge and center cells B3:F3.
3. Merge the cell range B5:E8 by using Merge Across.
4. Unmerge cell B2.

Customize the Excel 2016 app window


Open the CustomizeRibbonTabs workbook in Excel, and then perform the following
tasks:
1. Add the Spelling button to the Quick Access Toolbar.
2. Move the Review ribbon tab so it is positioned between the Insert and Page
Layout tabs.
3. Create a new ribbon tab named My Commands.
4. Rename the New Group (Custom) group to Formatting.
5. In the list on the left side of the dialog box, display the Main Tabs.
6. From the buttons on the Home tab, add the Styles group to the My Commands
ribbon tab you created earlier.
7. Again using the buttons available on the Home tab, add the Number group to the
Formatting group on your custom ribbon tab.
8. Save your ribbon changes and click the My Commands tab on the ribbon.
2. Work with data and Excel tables

In this chapter
Enter and revise data
Manage data by using Flash Fill
Move data within a workbook
Find and replace data
Correct and expand upon data
Define Excel tables

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch02 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

With Excel 2016, you can visualize and present information effectively by using charts,
graphics, and formatting, but the data is the most important part of any workbook. By
learning to enter data efficiently, you will make fewer data entry errors and give yourself
more time to analyze your data so you can make decisions about your organization’s
performance and direction.
Excel provides a wide variety of tools you can use to enter and manage worksheet data
effectively. For example, you can organize your data into Excel tables so that you can
store and analyze your data quickly and efficiently. Also, you can enter a data series
quickly; repeat one or more values; and control how Excel formats cells, columns, and
rows that you move from one part of a worksheet to another; all with a minimum of effort.
With Excel, you can check the spelling of worksheet text, look up alternative words by
using the thesaurus, and translate words to foreign languages.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to entering and revising Excel data,
moving data within a workbook, finding and replacing existing data, using proofing and
reference tools to enhance your data, and organizing your data by using Excel tables.

Enter and revise data


After you create a workbook, you can begin entering data. The simplest way to enter data
is to click a cell and type a value. This method works very well when you’re entering a
few pieces of data, but it is less than ideal when you’re entering long sequences or series
of values. For example, you could create a worksheet tracking each customer’s monthly
program savings.
Store important business data in your worksheets

Tip
To cancel data entry and return a cell to its previous state, press Esc.

Repeatedly entering the sequence January, February, March, and so on can be handled by
copying and pasting the first occurrence of the sequence, but there’s an easier way to do it:
use AutoFill. With AutoFill, you enter the first element in a recognized series, and then
drag the fill handle in the lower-right corner of the cell until the series extends far enough
to accommodate your data. By using a similar tool, FillSeries, you can enter two values in
a series and use the fill handle to extend the series in your worksheet.
You do have some control over how Excel extends the values in a series when you drag
the fill handle. If you drag the fill handle up (or to the left), Excel extends the series to
include previous values. For example, if you enter January in a cell and then drag that
cell’s fill handle up (or to the left), Excel places December in the first cell, November in
the second cell, and so on.
Another way to control how Excel extends a data series is by holding down the Ctrl key
while you drag the fill handle. If you select a cell that contains the value January and then
drag the fill handle down, Excel extends the series by placing February in the next cell,
March in the cell after that, and so on. If you hold down the Ctrl key while you drag the
fill handle, however, Excel repeats the value January in each cell you add to the series.
Tip
Experiment with how the fill handle extends your series and how pressing the
Ctrl key changes that behavior. Using the fill handle can save you a lot of
time entering data.

Other data entry techniques you’ll learn about in this topic are AutoComplete, which
detects when a value you’re entering is similar to previously entered values; Pick From
Drop-Down List, which you can use to choose a value from among the existing values in a
column; and Ctrl+Enter, which you can use to enter a value in multiple cells
simultaneously.

Tip
If an AutoComplete suggestion doesn’t appear as you begin entering a cell
value, the option might be turned off. To turn on AutoComplete, display the
Backstage view, and then click Options. In the Excel Options dialog box,
display the Advanced page. In the Editing Options section, select the Enable
AutoComplete For Cell Values check box, and then click OK.

The following table summarizes these data entry techniques.

Another handy feature in Excel is the AutoFill Options button that appears next to data
you add to a worksheet by using the fill handle.
Use AutoFill options to control how the fill handle affects your data
Clicking the AutoFill Options button displays a menu of actions Excel can take regarding
the cells affected by your fill operation. The options on the menu are summarized in the
following table.
See Also
For more information about Flash Fill, see “Manage data by using Flash Fill”
later in this chapter.

To enter values into a cell


1. Click the cell into which you want to enter the value.
2. Type the value by using the keyboard.
3. Press Enter to enter the value and move one cell down.
Or
Press Tab to enter the value and move one cell to the right.
To extend a series of values by using the fill handle
1. Select the cells that contain the series values.
2. Drag the fill handle to cover the cells where you want the new values to appear.
To enter a value into multiple cells at the same time
1. Select the cells into which you want to enter the value.
2. Enter the value.
3. Press Ctrl+Enter.
To enter cell data by using AutoComplete
1. Start entering a value into a cell.
2. Use the arrow keys or the mouse to highlight a suggested AutoComplete value.
3. Press Tab.
To enter cell data by picking from a list
1. Right-click the cell below a list of data.
2. Click Pick From Drop-down List.
3. Click the value you want to enter.
To control AutoFill options
1. Create an AutoFill sequence.
2. Click the AutoFill options button.
3. Click the option you want to apply.

Manage data by using Flash Fill


When you manage data in Excel, you will often find that you want to combine values from
several cells into a single value. One common data configuration is to have a customer’s
first name and last name in separate cells.
Fill in data according to a pattern by using Flash Fill
In this example, the contacts’ names appear in three columns: LastName, FirstName, and
Initial. Note that not every contact has a middle initial. You could combine the names
manually or by creating a formula, but Flash Fill can figure out the pattern if you give it a
few examples.

Flash Fill suggests values if it detects a pattern in your data


Note that Flash Fill did not include the middle initials in any row due to the lack of an
initial in some of the rows. If you click in the FullName cell next to a row that contains an
Initial value and edit the name as you would like it to appear, Flash Fill recognizes the
new pattern for this subset of the data and offers to fill in the values. You can press Enter
to accept the values Flash Fill suggests.

Edit a Flash Fill value to add data to the pattern


Flash Fill also lets you fix errors in your data. One common issue occurs when you try to
enter numbers with leading zeros, such as United States postal codes, into cells formatted
as General or with a number format. If you enter a zero-leading number into such a cell,
Excel removes the zero.

Use Flash Fill to correct common data-entry issues


To fix this error, you would select the cells that contain the postal codes and format the
cells as text. Then, in the blank cell next to the first postal code that should have a leading
zero, enter the postal code as it should appear, and press Enter. When you start entering
the postal code into the second cell, Flash Fill offers to change the data by adding a zero to
every value in the list.

Flash Fill can overgeneralize the rule it applies to your data


The logic behind Flash Fill guessed that you wanted to add a zero to every postal code, but
this change is incorrect for any value that should start with a number other than zero. To
correct this, after you accept the values Flash Fill suggests, you would move to a blank
cell next to a postal code that shouldn’t start with a zero and enter the correct value. When
you do, Flash Fill updates its logic to suggest the correct values.

Correct Flash Fill changes to fix your data


Tip
The error icon indicates that you have stored a number as text. Because you
won’t be performing any mathematical operations on the postal code
numbers, you can ignore the error.

To enter data by using Flash Fill


1. In a cell on the same row as data that can be combined or split, enter the result you
want for that row’s data, and press Enter.
2. In the cell directly below the first cell into which you entered data, start entering a
new value for the row.
3. Press Enter to accept the suggested values.
To correct a Flash Fill entry
1. Create a series of Flash Fill values in a worksheet.
2. Edit a cell that contains an incorrect Flash Fill value that so it contains the correct
value.
3. Press Enter.

Move data within a workbook


You can move to a specific cell in lots of ways, but the most direct method is to start by
clicking the cell with the contents you want to move. The cell you click will be outlined in
black, and its contents, if any, will appear in the formula bar. When a cell is outlined, it is
the active cell, meaning that you can modify its contents. You use a similar method to
select multiple cells (referred to as a cell range). After you select the cell or cells you want
to work with, you can cut, copy, delete, or change the format of the contents of the cell or
cells.

Important
When you select a group of cells, the first cell you click is designated as the
active cell.

You’re not limited to selecting cells individually or as part of a range. For example, you
might need to move a column of price data one column to the right to make room for a
column of headings that indicate to which category a set of numbers belongs. To move an
entire column (or entire columns) of data at a time, you click the column’s header, located
at the top of the worksheet. Clicking a column header highlights every cell in that column
so that you can copy or cut the column and paste it elsewhere in the workbook. Similarly,
clicking a row’s header highlights every cell in that row, so that you can copy or cut the
row and paste it elsewhere in the workbook.
When you copy a cell, cell range, row, or column, Excel copies the cells’ contents and
formatting. The Paste Live Preview capability in Excel displays what your pasted data will
look like without forcing you to commit to the paste operation.

View live previews of your pasted data


If you point to one icon in the Paste gallery and then point to another icon without
clicking, Excel will update the preview to reflect the new option. Depending on the cells’
contents, two or more of the paste options might lead to the same result.

Tip
If pointing to an icon in the Paste gallery doesn’t result in a live preview, that
option might be turned off. To turn Paste Live Preview on, in the Backstage
view, click Options to open the Excel Options dialog box. Click General,
select the Enable Live Preview check box, and click OK.

After you click an icon to complete the paste operation, Excel displays the Paste Options
button next to the pasted cells. Clicking the Paste Options button also displays the Paste
Options palette, but pointing to one of those icons doesn’t generate a preview. If you want
to display Paste Live Preview again, you will need to press Ctrl+Z to undo the paste
operation and, if necessary, cut or copy the data again to use the icons in the Clipboard
group of the Home tab.
Tip
If the Paste Options button doesn’t appear, you can turn the feature on by
clicking Options in the Backstage view to open the Excel Options dialog box.
In the Excel Options dialog box, display the Advanced page and then, in the
Cut, Copy, And Paste area, select the Show Paste Options Button When
Content Is Pasted check box. Click OK to close the dialog box and save your
setting.

After cutting or copying data to the Clipboard, you can access additional paste options
from the Paste gallery and from the Paste Special dialog box.

Use the Paste Special dialog box for uncommon paste operations
In the Paste Special dialog box, you can specify the aspect of the Clipboard contents you
want to paste, restricting the pasted data to values, formats, comments, or one of several
other options. You can perform mathematical operations involving the cut or copied data
and the existing data in the cells you paste the content into, and you can transpose data—
change rows to columns and columns to rows—when you paste it.
To select a cell or cell range
1. Click the first cell you want to select, and then drag to highlight the other cells you
want to select.
To select disconnected groups of cells
1. Select a cell range.
2. Hold down the Ctrl key and select subsequent groups of cells.
To move a cell range
1. Select a cell range.
2. Point to the edge of the selection.
Move a cell range by dragging its border
3. Drag the range to its new location.

Tip
If you move the cell range to cover cells that already contain values, Excel
displays a message box asking if you want to replace the existing data.

To select one or more rows


1. Do any of the following:
• At the left edge of the worksheet, click the row’s header.
• Click a row header and drag to select other row headers.
• Click a row header, press and hold the Ctrl key, and click the headers of other
rows you want to copy. The rows do not need to be adjacent to the first row.
To select one or more columns
1. Do any of the following:
• At the top edge of the worksheet, click the column’s header.
• Click a column header and drag to select other column headers.
• Click a column header, press and hold the Ctrl key, and click the column headers
of other columns you want to copy. The columns do not need to be adjacent to the
first column.
To copy a cell range
1. Select the cell range you want to copy.
2. On the Home tab of the ribbon, in the Clipboard group, click Copy.
Or
Press Ctrl+C.
To cut a cell range
1. Select the cell range you want to cut.
2. In the Clipboard group, click Cut.
Or
Press Ctrl+X.
To paste a cell range
1. Cut or copy a cell range.
2. Click the cell in the upper-left corner of the range where you want the pasted range
to appear.
3. In the Clipboard group, click Paste.
Or
Press Ctrl+V.
To paste a cell range by using paste options
1. Copy a cell range.
2. Click the cell in the upper-left corner of the range where you want the pasted range
to appear.
3. In the Clipboard group, click the Paste arrow (not the button).
4. Click the icon representing the paste operation you want to use.
To display a preview of a cell range you want to paste
1. Copy a cell range.
2. Click the cell in the upper-left corner of the range where you want the pasted range
to appear.
3. Click the Paste arrow (not the button).
4. Point to the paste operation for which you want to see a preview.
To paste a cell range by using the Paste Special dialog box controls
1. Copy a cell range.
2. Click the cell in the upper-left corner of the range where you want the pasted range
to appear.
3. Click the Paste arrow (not the button), and then click Paste Special.
4. Select the options you want for the paste operation.
5. Click OK.

Find and replace data


Excel worksheets can hold more than one million rows of data, so in large data collections
it’s unlikely that you would have the time to move through a worksheet one row at a time
to locate the data you want to find. You can locate specific data in an Excel worksheet by
using the Find And Replace dialog box, which has two tabs (one named Find, the other
named Replace) that you can use to search for cells that contain particular values. Using
the controls on the Find tab identifies cells that contain the data you specify; by using the
controls on the Replace tab, you can substitute one value for another.
Tip
To display the Find tab of the Find And Replace dialog box by using a
keyboard shortcut, press Ctrl+F. Press Ctrl+H to display the Replace tab of
the Find And Replace dialog box.

When you need more control over the data that you find and replace—for instance, if you
want to find cells in which the entire cell value matches the value you’re searching for—
you can expand the Find And Replace dialog box to display more options.

Expand the Find And Replace dialog box for more options

Tip
By default, Excel looks in formulas, not cell values. To change that option, in
the Look In drop-down list, click Values.

The following table summarizes the elements of the Find And Replace dialog box.
To edit a cell’s contents
1. Do any of the following:
• Click the cell, enter a new value, and press Enter.
• Click the cell, edit the value on the formula bar, and press Enter.
• Double-click the cell, edit the value in the body of the cell, and press Enter.
To edit part of a cell’s contents
1. Click the cell.
2. Edit the part of the cell’s value that you want to change on the formula bar.
3. Press Enter.
Or
1. Double-click the cell.
2. Edit the part of the cell’s value that you want to change in the body of the cell.
3. Press Enter.
To find the next occurrence of a value in a worksheet
1. On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click the Find & Select button to display a
menu of choices, and then click Find.
2. In the Find what box, enter the value you want to find.
3. Click Find Next.
To find all instances of a value in a worksheet
1. On the Find & Select menu, click Find.
2. In the Find what box, enter the value you want to find.
3. Click Find All.
To replace a value with another value
1. On the Find & Select menu, click Replace.
2. In the Find what box, enter the value you want to change.
3. In the Replace with box, enter the value you want to replace the value from the
Find what box.
4. Click the Replace button to replace the next occurrence of the value.
Or
Click the Replace All button to replace all occurrences of the value.
To require Find or Replace to match an entire cell’s contents
1. On the Find & Select menu, click either Find or Replace.
2. Set your Find or Replace values.
3. Click Options.
4. Select the Match entire cell contents check box.
5. Complete the find or replace operation.
To require Find or Replace to match cell contents, including uppercase and lowercase
letters
1. On the Find & Select menu, click either Find or Replace.
2. Set your Find or Replace values.
3. Click Options.
4. Select the Match case check box.
5. Complete the find or replace operation.
To find or replace formats
1. On the Find & Select menu, click either Find or Replace.
2. Set your Find or Replace values.
3. Click Options.
4. Click the Find what row’s Format button, set a format by using the Find Format
dialog box, and click OK.
5. If you want to perform a Replace operation, click the Replace with row’s Format
button, set a format by using the Find Format dialog box, and click OK.
6. Finish your find or replace operation.

Correct and expand upon data


After you enter your data, you should take the time to check and correct it. You do need to
verify visually that each piece of numeric data is correct, but you can make sure that your
worksheet’s text is spelled correctly by using the Excel spelling checker. When the
spelling checker encounters a word it doesn’t recognize, it highlights the word and offers
suggestions representing its best guess of the correct word. You can then edit the word
directly, pick the proper word from the list of suggestions, or have the spelling checker
ignore the misspelling. You can also use the spelling checker to add new words to a
custom dictionary so that Excel will recognize them later, saving you time by not
requiring you to identify the words as correct every time they occur in your worksheets.

Tip
To start checking spelling by using a keyboard shortcut, press F7.

After you make a change in a workbook, you can usually remove the change as long as
you haven’t closed the workbook. You can even change your mind again if you decide you
want to restore your change.

Tip
To undo an action by using a keyboard shortcut, press Ctrl+Z. To redo an
action, press Ctrl+Y.

Excel 2016 includes a new capability called Smart Lookup, which lets you find
information relating to a highlighted word or phrase by using the Bing search engine.
Excel displays the Insights task pane, which has two tabs: Explore and Define. The
Explore tab displays search results from Wikipedia and other web resources. The Define
tab displays definitions provided by OxfordDictionaries from Oxford University Press.
If you’re not sure of your word choice, or if you use a word that is almost but not quite
right for your intended meaning, you can check for alternative words by using the
thesaurus.

Get suggestions for alternative words by using the thesaurus


Finally, if you want to translate a word from one language to another, you can do so by
selecting the cell that contains the value you want to translate and clicking the Translate
button on the Review tab. The Research task pane opens (or changes if it’s already open)
and displays tools you can use to select the original and destination languages.

Important
Excel displays a message box indicating that the information will be sent over
the web to a third-party translation service. Click Yes to agree. If you don’t
want Excel to display this message box in the future, select the Don’t Show
Again check box and click Yes.
Translate words to other languages

Important
Excel translates a sentence by using word substitutions, which means that the
translation routine doesn’t always pick the best word for a particular context.
The translated sentence might not capture your exact meaning.

To undo or redo an action


1. Do either of the following:
• Click the Undo button on the Quick Access Toolbar to undo the action.
• Click the Redo button on the Quick Access Toolbar to restore the change.
To check spelling in a worksheet
1. Click Spelling.
2. For the first misspelled word, do one of the following:
• Click Change to accept the first suggested replacement for this occurrence of the
word.
• Click a word from the Suggestions list and click Change.
• Enter the spelling you want in the Not in Dictionary box and click Change.
• Click Ignore Once to ignore this occurrence and move to the next misspelled
word.
• Click Ignore All to ignore all occurrences of the word.
• Click the word with which you want to replace the misspelled word and click
Change All.
3. Repeat step 2 until you have checked spelling for the entire worksheet.
4. Click Close.

Tip
Excel starts checking spelling with the active cell. If that cell isn’t A1, Excel
asks if you want to continue checking spelling from the beginning of the
worksheet.

To add a word to the main dictionary


1. Click Spelling.
2. When the word you want to add appears in the Not in Dictionary box, click Add to
Dictionary.
3. Finish checking spelling and click Close.
To change the dictionary used to check spelling
1. Click Spelling.
2. Click the the arrow next to the Dictionary language box, and click the dictionary
you want to use.
To look up word alternatives by using the thesaurus
1. Select the cell that contains the word for which you want to find alternatives.
2. In the Proofing group, click Thesaurus.
3. Use the tools in the Thesaurus task pane to find alternative words.
4. On the title bar of the Thesaurus task pane, click the Close button to close the task
pane.
To research a word by using Smart Lookup
1. Select the cell that contains the word you want to research.
2. In the Insights group, click the Smart Lookup button.
3. On the Explore tab of the Insights task pane, use the resources in the Explore with
Wikipedia and other web resources lists.
Or
On the Define tab of the task pane, look up definitions of the selected word.
4. On the title bar of the Insights task pane, click the Close button to close the task
pane.
To translate a word from one language to another
1. Click the cell that contains the word you want to translate.
2. In the Language group, click Translate.
3. If necessary, click Yes to send the text over the Internet.
4. Review the results.
5. Click the Close button to close the task pane.

Define Excel tables


With Excel, you’ve always been able to manage lists of data effectively, so that you can
sort your worksheet data based on the values in one or more columns, limit the data
displayed by using criteria (for example, show only those routes with fewer than 100
stops), and create formulas that summarize the values in visible (that is, unfiltered) cells.
Excel 2016 provides those capabilities, and more, through Excel tables.

Manage data by using Excel tables

Tip
Sorting, filtering, and summarizing data are all covered elsewhere in this
book.
Excel can also create an Excel table from an existing cell range as long as the range has no
blank rows or columns within the data and there is no extraneous data in cells immediately
below or next to the list. If your existing data has formatting applied to it, that formatting
remains applied to those cells when you create the Excel table, but you can have Excel
replace the existing formatting with the Excel table’s formatting.

Tip
To create an Excel table by using a keyboard shortcut, press Ctrl+L and then
click OK.

Entering values into a cell below or to the right of an Excel table adds a row or column to
the Excel table. After you enter the value and move out of the cell, the AutoCorrect
Options action button appears. If you didn’t mean to include the data in the Excel table,
you can click Undo Table AutoExpansion to exclude the cells from the Excel table. If you
never want Excel to include adjacent data in an Excel table again, click Stop
Automatically Expanding Tables.

Tip
To stop Table AutoExpansion before it starts, click Options in the Backstage
view. In the Excel Options dialog box, click Proofing, and then click the
AutoCorrect Options button to open the AutoCorrect dialog box. Click the
AutoFormat As You Type tab, clear the Include New Rows And Columns In
Table check box, and then click OK twice.

You can resize an Excel table manually by using your mouse. If your Excel table’s headers
contain a recognizable series of values (such as Region1, Region2, and Region3), and you
drag the resize handle to create a fourth column, Excel creates the column with a label that
is the next value in the series—in this example, Region4.
Excel tables often contain data you can summarize by calculating a sum or average, or by
finding the maximum or minimum value in a column. To summarize one or more columns
of data, you can add a total row to your Excel table.
An Excel table with a total row
When you add the total row, Excel creates a formula that summarizes the values in the
rightmost Excel table column. You can change the summary function by picking a new
one from the partial list displayed in the Excel table or by selecting a function from the
full set.
Much as it does when you create a new worksheet, Excel gives your Excel tables generic
names such as Table1 and Table2. You can change an Excel table’s name to something
easier to recognize in your formulas. Changing an Excel table name might not seem
important, but it helps make formulas that summarize Excel table data much easier to
understand. You should make a habit of renaming your Excel tables so you can recognize
the data they contain.

See Also
For more information about using the Insert Function dialog box and about
referring to tables in formulas, see “Create formulas to calculate values” in
Chapter 3, “Perform calculations on data.”

If for any reason you want to convert your Excel table back to a normal range of cells, you
can do so quickly.
To create an Excel table
1. Click a cell in the list of data you want to make into an Excel table.
2. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click Format as Table.
3. Click the style you want to apply to the table.
4. Verify that the cell range is correct.
5. If necessary, select or clear the My table has headers check box, and then click
OK.
To create an Excel table with default formatting
1. Click a cell in the range that you want to make into an Excel table.
2. Press Ctrl+L.
3. Click OK.
To add a column or row to an Excel table
1. Click a cell in the row below or the column to the right of the Excel table.
2. Enter the data and press Enter.
To expand or contract an Excel table
1. Click any cell in the Excel table.
2. Point to the lower-right corner of the Excel table.
3. When the mouse pointer changes to a diagonal arrow, drag the Excel table’s outline
to redefine the table.
To add a total row to an Excel table
1. Click any cell in the Excel table.
2. On the Design tool tab of the ribbon, in the Table Style Options group, select the
Total Row check box.
To change the calculation used in a total row cell
1. Click any Total row cell that contains a calculation.
2. Click the cell’s arrow.
3. Select a summary function.
Or
Click More Functions, use the Insert Function dialog box to create the formula,
and click OK.
To rename an Excel table
1. Click any cell in the Excel table.
2. On the Design tool tab, in the Properties group, enter a new name for the Excel
table in the Table Name box.
3. Press Enter.
To convert an Excel table to a cell range
1. Click any cell in the Excel table.
2. On the Design tool tab, in the Tools group, click Convert to Range.
3. In the confirmation dialog box that appears, click Yes.

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Enter and revise data
Manage data by using Flash Fill
Move data within a workbook
Find and replace data
Correct and expand upon data
Define Excel tables

Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch02 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Enter and revise data


Open the EnterData workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Use the fill handle to copy the value from cell B3, Fabrikam, to cells B4:B7.
2. Extend the series of months starting in cell C3 to cell C7, and then use the Auto Fill
Options button to copy the cell’s value instead of extending the series.
3. In cell B8, enter the letters Fa and accept the AutoComplete value Fabrikam.
4. In cell C8, enter February.
5. Enter the value Ground in cell D8 by using Pick From Drop-down List.
6. Edit the value in cell E5 to $6,591.30.

Manage data by using Flash Fill


Open the CompleteFlashFill workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. On the Names worksheet, in cell D2, enter Mark Hassall and press Enter.
2. In cell D3, enter J and, when Excel displays a series of names in column D, press
Enter to accept the Flash Fill suggestions.
3. Edit the value in cell D3 to include the middle initial found in cell C3, and press
Enter.
4. Click the Addresses sheet tab.
5. Select cells F2:F5 and then, on the Home tab, in the Number group, click the
arrow next to the Number Format button and click Text.
6. In cell F2, enter 03214 and press Enter.
7. In cell F3, enter 0 and then press Enter to accept the Flash Fill suggestions.
8. Edit the value in cell F4 to read 98012.

Move data within a workbook


Open the MoveData workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. On the Count worksheet, copy the values in cells B2:D2.
2. Display the Sales worksheet, preview what the data would look like if pasted as
values only, and paste the contents you just copied into cells B2:D2.
3. On the Sales worksheet, cut column I and paste it into the space currently occupied
by column E.

Find and replace data


Open the FindValues workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. On the Time Summary worksheet, find the cell that contains the value 114.
2. On the Time Summary worksheet, find the cell with contents formatted as italic
type.
3. Click the Customer Summary sheet tab.
4. Replace all instances of the value Contoso with the value Northwind Traders.

Correct and expand upon data


Open the ResearchItems workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Check spelling in the file and accept the suggested changes for shipped and within.
2. Ignore the suggestion for TwoDay.
3. Add the word ThreeDay to the main dictionary.
4. Use the Thesaurus to find alternate words for the word Overnight in cell B6, then
translate the same word to French.
5. Click cell B2 and use Smart Lookup to find more information about the word level.

Define Excel tables


Open the CreateExcelTables workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Create an Excel table from the list of data on the Sort Times worksheet.
2. Add a row of data to the Excel table for driver D116, and assign a value of 100
sorting minutes.
3. Add a Total row to the Excel table, and then change the summary function to
Average.
4. Rename the Excel table to SortTimes.
3. Perform calculations on data

In this chapter
Name groups of data
Create formulas to calculate values
Summarize data that meets specific conditions
Set iterative calculation options and enable or disable automatic calculation
Use array formulas
Find and correct errors in calculations

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch03 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

Excel 2016 workbooks give you a handy place to store and organize your data, but you
can also do a lot more with your data in Excel. One important task you can perform is to
calculate totals for the values in a series of related cells. You can also use Excel to
discover other information about the data you select, such as the maximum or minimum
value in a group of cells. Regardless of your needs, Excel gives you the ability to find the
information you want. And if you make an error, you can find the cause and correct it
quickly.
Often, you can’t access the information you want without referencing more than one cell,
and it’s also often true that you’ll use the data in the same group of cells for more than one
calculation. Excel makes it easy to reference several cells at the same time, so that you can
define your calculations quickly.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to streamlining references to groups of
data on your worksheets and creating and correcting formulas that summarize an
organization’s business operations.

Name groups of data


When you work with large amounts of data, it’s often useful to identify groups of cells that
contain related data. For example, you can create a worksheet in which columns of cells
contain data summarizing the number of packages handled during a specific time period
and each row represents a region.
Worksheets often contain logical groups of data
Instead of specifying the cells individually every time you want to use the data they
contain, you can define those cells as a range (also called a named range). For example,
you can group the hourly packages handled in the Northeast region into a group called
NortheastVolume. Whenever you want to use the contents of that range in a calculation,
you can use the name of the range instead of specifying the range’s address.

Tip
Yes, you could just name the range Northeast, but if you use the range’s
values in a formula in another worksheet, the more descriptive range name
tells you and your colleagues exactly what data is used in the calculation.

If the cells you want to define as a named range have labels in a row or column that’s part
of the cell group, you can use those labels as the names of the named ranges. For example,
if your data appears in worksheet cells B4:I12 and the values in column B are the row
labels, you can make each row its own named range.

Select a group of cells to create a named range


If you want to manage the named ranges in your workbook, perhaps to edit a range’s
settings or delete a range you no longer need, you can do so in the Name Manager dialog
box.
Manage named ranges in the Name Manager dialog box

Tip
If your workbook contains a lot of named ranges, you can click the Filter
button in the Name Manager dialog box and select a criterion to limit the
names displayed in the dialog box.

To create a named range


1. Select the cells you want to include in the named range.
2. In the Name box, which is next to the formula bar, enter the name for your named
range.
Or
1. Select the cells you want to include in the named range.
2. On the Formulas tab of the ribbon, in the Defined Names group, click Define
Name.
3. In the New Name dialog box, enter a name for the named range.
4. Verify that the named range includes the cells you want.
5. Click OK.
To create a series of named ranges from worksheet data with headings
1. Select the cells that contain the headings and data cells you want to include in the
named ranges.
2. In the Defined Names group, click Create from Selection.
3. In the Create Names from Selection dialog box, select the check box next to the
location of the heading text from which you want to create the range names.
4. Click OK.
To edit a named range
1. In the Defined Names group, click Name Manager.
2. Click the named range you want to edit.
3. In the Refers to box, change the cells that the named range refers to.
Or
Click Edit, edit the named range in the Edit Range box, and click OK.
4. Click Close.
To delete a named range
1. Click Name Manager.
2. Click the named range you want to delete.
3. Click Delete.
4. Click Close.

Create formulas to calculate values


After you add your data to a worksheet and define ranges to simplify data references, you
can create a formula, which is an expression that performs calculations on your data. For
example, you can calculate the total cost of a customer’s shipments, figure the average
number of packages for all Wednesdays in the month of January, or find the highest and
lowest daily package volumes for a week, month, or year.
To write an Excel formula, you begin the cell’s contents with an equal (=) sign; Excel then
knows that the expression following it should be interpreted as a calculation, not text.
After the equal sign, you enter the formula. For example, you can find the sum of the
numbers in cells C2 and C3 by using the formula =C2+C3. After you have entered a
formula into a cell, you can revise it by clicking the cell and then editing the formula in
the formula bar. For example, you can change the preceding formula to =C3–C2, which
calculates the difference between the contents of cells C2 and C3.

Important
If Excel treats your formula as text, make sure that you haven’t accidentally
put a space before the equal sign. Remember, the equal sign must be the first
character!

Entering the cell references for 15 or 20 cells in a calculation would be tedious, but in
Excel you can easily enter complex calculations by using the Insert Function dialog box.
The Insert Function dialog box includes a list of functions, or predefined formulas, from
which you can choose.

Create formulas with help in the Insert Function dialog box


The following table describes some of the most useful functions in the list.

Two other functions you might use are the NOW and PMT functions. The NOW function
displays the time at which Excel updated the workbook’s formulas, so the value will
change every time the workbook recalculates. The proper form for this function is
=NOW(). You could, for example, use the NOW function to calculate the elapsed time
from when you started a process to the present time.
The PMT function is a bit more complex. It calculates payments due on a loan, assuming a
constant interest rate and constant payments. To perform its calculations, the PMT
function requires an interest rate, the number of payments, and the starting balance. The
elements to be entered into the function are called arguments and must be entered in a
certain order. That order is written as PMT(rate, nper, pv, fv, type). The following table
summarizes the arguments in the PMT function.
If a company wanted to borrow $2,000,000 at a 6 percent interest rate and pay the loan
back over 24 months, you could use the PMT function to figure out the monthly payments.
In this case, you would write the function =PMT(6%/12, 24, 2000000), which calculates a
monthly payment of $88,641.22.

Tip
The 6-percent interest rate is divided by 12 because the loan’s interest is
compounded monthly.

You can also use the names of any ranges you defined to supply values for a formula. For
example, if the named range NortheastLastDay refers to cells C4:I4, you can calculate the
average of cells C4:I4 with the formula =AVERAGE(NortheastLastDay). With Excel, you
can add functions, named ranges, and table references to your formulas more efficiently
by using the Formula AutoComplete capability. Just as AutoComplete offers to fill in a
cell’s text value when Excel recognizes that the value you’re typing matches a previous
entry, Formula AutoComplete offers to help you fill in a function, named range, or table
reference while you create a formula.
As an example, consider a worksheet that contains a two-column Excel table named
Exceptions. The first column is labeled Route; the second is labeled Count.
Excel tables track data in a structured format
You refer to a table by typing the table name, followed by the column or row name in
brackets. For example, the table reference Exceptions[Count] would refer to the Count
column in the Exceptions table.
To create a formula that finds the total number of exceptions by using the SUM function,
you begin by typing =SU. When you enter the letter S, Formula AutoComplete lists
functions that begin with the letter S; when you enter the letter U, Excel narrows the list
down to the functions that start with the letters SU.

Excel displays Formula AutoComplete suggestions to help with formula creation


To add the SUM function (followed by an opening parenthesis) to the formula, click SUM
and then press Tab. To begin adding the table reference, enter the letter E. Excel displays a
list of available functions, tables, and named ranges that start with the letter E. Click
Exceptions, and press Tab to add the table reference to the formula. Then, because you
want to summarize the values in the table’s Count column, enter an opening bracket, and
in the list of available table items, click Count. To finish creating the formula, enter a
closing bracket followed by a closing parenthesis to create the formula
=SUM(Exceptions[Count]).
If you want to include a series of contiguous cells in a formula, but you haven’t defined
the cells as a named range, you can click the first cell in the range and drag to the last cell.
If the cells aren’t contiguous, hold down the Ctrl key and select all of the cells to be
included. In both cases, when you release the mouse button, the references of the cells you
selected appear in the formula.

A SUM formula that adds individual cells instead of a continuous range


In addition to using the Ctrl key to add cells to a selection, you can expand a selection by
using a wide range of keyboard shortcuts.
The following table summarizes many of those shortcuts.
After you create a formula, you can copy it and paste it into another cell. When you do,
Excel tries to change the formula so that it works in the new cells. For instance, suppose
you have a worksheet where cell D8 contains the formula =SUM(C2:C6). Clicking cell
D8, copying the cell’s contents, and then pasting the result into cell D16 writes
=SUM(C10:C14) into cell D16. Excel has reinterpreted the formula so that it fits the
surrounding cells! Excel knows it can reinterpret the cells used in the formula because the
formula uses a relative reference, or a reference that can change if the formula is copied to
another cell. Relative references are written with just the cell row and column (for
example, C14).
Relative references are useful when you summarize rows of data and want to use the same
formula for each row. As an example, suppose you have a worksheet with two columns of
data, labeled Sale Price and Rate, and you want to calculate your sales representative’s
commission by multiplying the two values in a row. To calculate the commission for the
first sale, you would enter the formula =A2*B2 in cell C2.
Use formulas to calculate values such as commissions
Selecting cell C2 and dragging the fill handle until it covers cells C2:C7 copies the
formula from cell C2 into each of the other cells. Because you created the formula by
using relative references, Excel updates each cell’s formula to reflect its position relative
to the starting cell (in this case, cell C2.) The formula in cell C7, for example, is =A7*B7.

Copying formulas to other cells summarizes additional data


You can use a similar technique when you add a formula to an Excel table column. If the
sale price and rate data were in an Excel table and you created the formula =A2*B2 in cell
C2, Excel would apply the formula to every other cell in the column. Because you used
relative references in the formula, the formulas would change to reflect each cell’s
distance from the original cell.
Adding a formula to an Excel table cell creates a calculated column
If you want a cell reference to remain constant when you copy the formula that is using it
to another cell, you can use an absolute reference. To write a cell reference as an absolute
reference, you enter $ before the row letter and the column number. For example, if you
want the formula in cell D16 to show the sum of values in cells C10 through C14
regardless of the cell into which it is pasted, you can write the formula as
=SUM($C$10:$C$14).

Tip
Another way to ensure that your cell references don’t change when you copy
a formula to another cell is to click the cell that contains the formula, copy the
formula’s text in the formula bar, press the Esc key to exit cut-and-copy
mode, click the cell where you want to paste the formula, and press Ctrl+V.
Excel doesn’t change the cell references when you copy your formula to
another cell in this manner.

One quick way to change a cell reference from relative to absolute is to select the cell
reference in the formula bar and then press F4. Pressing F4 cycles a cell reference through
the four possible types of references:
Relative columns and rows (for example, C4)
Absolute columns and rows (for example, $C$4)
Relative columns and absolute rows (for example, C$4)
Absolute columns and relative rows (for example, $C4)
To create a formula by entering it in a cell
1. Click the cell in which you want to create the formula.
2. Enter an equal sign (=).
3. Enter the remainder of the formula, and then press Enter.
To create a formula by using the Insert Function dialog box
1. On the Formulas tab, in the Function Library group, click the Insert Function
button.
2. Click the function you want to use in your formula.
Or
Search for the function you want, and then click it.
3. Click OK.
4. In the Function Arguments dialog box, enter the function’s arguments.
5. Click OK.
To display the current date and time by using a formula
1. Click the cell in which you want to display the current date and time.
2. Enter =NOW() into the cell.
3. Press Enter.
To update a NOW() formula
1. Press F9.
To calculate a payment by using a formula
1. Create a formula with the syntax =PMT(rate, nper, pv, fv, type), where:
• rate is the interest rate, to be divided by 12 for a loan with monthly payments, by 4
for quarterly payments, and so on.
• nper is the total number of payments for the loan.
• pv is the amount loaned.
• fv is the amount to be left over at the end of the payment cycle.
• type is 0 or 1, indicating whether payments are made at the beginning or at the end
of the month.
2. Press Enter.
To refer to a named range in a formula
1. Click the cell where you want to create the formula.
2. Enter = to start the formula.
3. Enter the name of the named range in the part of the formula where you want to use
its values.
4. Complete the formula.
5. Press Enter.
To refer to an Excel table column in a formula
1. Click the cell where you want to create the formula.
2. Enter = to start the formula.
3. At the point in the formula where you want to include the table’s values, enter the
name of the table.
Or
Use Formula AutoComplete to enter the table name.
4. Enter an opening bracket ([) followed by the column name.
Or
Enter [ and use Formula AutoComplete to enter the column name.
5. Enter ]) to close the table reference.
6. Press Enter.
To copy a formula without changing its cell references
1. Click the cell that contains the formula you want to copy.
2. Select the formula text in the formula bar.
3. Press Ctrl+C.
4. Click the cell where you want to paste the formula.
5. Press Ctrl+V.
6. Press Enter.

Operators and precedence


When you create an Excel formula, you use the built-in functions and
arithmetic operators that define operations such as addition and
multiplication. In Excel, mathematical operators are evaluated in the order
listed in the following table.

If two operators at the same level, such as + and –, occur in the same
equation, Excel evaluates them in left-to-right order. For example, the
operations in the formula = 4 + 8 * 3 – 6 would be evaluated in this order:
1. 8 * 3, with a result of 24
2. 4 + 24, with a result of 28
3. 28 – 6, with a final result of 22
To move a formula without changing its cell references
1. Click the cell that contains the formula you want to copy.
2. Point to the edge of the cell you selected.
3. Drag the outline to the cell where you want to move the formula.
To copy a formula while changing its cell references
1. Click the cell that contains the formula you want to copy.
2. Press Ctrl+C.
3. Click the cell where you want to paste the formula.
4. Press Ctrl+V.

You can control the order in which Excel evaluates operations by using
parentheses. Excel always evaluates operations in parentheses first. For
example, if the previous equation were rewritten as = (4 + 8) * 3 – 6, the
operations would be evaluated in this order:
1. (4 + 8), with a result of 12
2. 12 * 3, with a result of 36
3. 36 – 6, with a final result of 30
If you have multiple levels of parentheses, Excel evaluates the expressions
within the innermost set of parentheses first and works its way out. As with
operations on the same level, such as + and –, expressions in the same
parenthetical level are evaluated in left-to-right order.
For example, the formula = 4 + (3 + 8 * (2 + 5)) – 7 would be evaluated in
this order:
1. (2 + 5), with a result of 7
2. 7 * 8, with a result of 56
3. 56 + 3, with a result of 59
4. 4 + 59, with a result of 63
5. 63 – 7, with a final result of 56

To create relative and absolute cell references


1. Enter a cell reference into a formula.
2. Click within the cell reference.
3. Enter a $ in front of a row or column reference you want to make absolute.
Or
Press F4 to advance through the four possible combinations of relative and absolute
row and column references.
Summarize data that meets specific conditions
Another use for formulas is to display messages when certain conditions are met. This
kind of formula is called a conditional formula; one way to create a conditional formula in
Excel is to use the IF function. Clicking the Insert Function button next to the formula bar
and then choosing the IF function displays the Function Arguments dialog box with the
fields required to create an IF formula.

The Function Arguments dialog box for an IF formula


When you work with an IF function, the Function Arguments dialog box has three boxes:
Logical_test, Value_if_true, and Value_if_false. The Logical_test box holds the condition
you want to check.
Now you need to have Excel display messages that indicate whether the condition is met
or not. To have Excel print a message from an IF function, you enclose the message in
quotes in the Value_if_true or Value_if_false box. In this case, you would type “High-
volume shipper—evaluate for rate decrease” in the Value_if_true box and “Does not
qualify at this time” in the Value_if_false box.
Excel also includes several other conditional functions you can use to summarize your
data, as shown in the following table.
You can use the IFERROR function to display a custom error message, instead of relying
on the default Excel error messages to explain what happened. For example, you could use
an IFERROR formula when looking up a value by using the VLOOKUP function. An
example of creating this type of formula would be to look up a customer’s name, found in
the second column of a table named Customers, based on the customer identification
number entered into cell G8. That formula might look like this:
=IFERROR(VLOOKUP(G8,Customers,2,false),”Customer not found”). If the function
finds a match for the CustomerID in cell G8, it displays the customer’s name; if it doesn’t
find a match, it displays the text Customer not found.

Tip
The last two arguments in the VLOOKUP function tell the formula to look in
the Customers table’s second column and to require an exact match. For more
information about the VLOOKUP function, see “Look up information in a
worksheet” in Chapter 6, “Reorder and summarize data.”

Just as the COUNTIF function counts the number of cells that meet a criterion and the
SUMIF function finds the total of values in cells that meet a criterion, the AVERAGEIF
function finds the average of values in cells that meet a criterion. To create a formula that
uses the AVERAGEIF function, you define the range to be examined for the criterion, the
criterion, and, if required, the range from which to draw the values. As an example,
consider a worksheet that lists each customer’s ID number, name, state, and total monthly
shipping bill.

A list of data that contains customer information


If you want to find the average order of customers from the state of Washington
(abbreviated in the worksheet as WA), you can create the formula =AVERAGEIF(C3:C6,
“WA”, D3:D6).
The AVERAGEIFS, SUMIFS, and COUNTIFS functions extend the capabilities of the
AVERAGEIF, SUMIF, and COUNTIF functions to allow for multiple criteria. If you want
to find the sum of all orders of at least $100,000 placed by companies in Washington, you
can create the formula =SUMIFS(D3:D6, C3:C6, “=WA”, D3:D6, “>=100000”).
The AVERAGEIFS and SUMIFS functions start with a data range that contains values that
the formula summarizes; you then list the data ranges and the criteria to apply to that
range. In generic terms, the syntax runs =AVERAGEIFS(data_range, criteria_range1,
criteria1[,criteria_range2, criteria2…]). The part of the syntax in brackets (which aren’t
used when you create the formula) is optional, so an AVERAGEIFS or SUMIFS formula
that contains a single criterion will work. The COUNTIFS function, which doesn’t
perform any calculations, doesn’t need a data range—you just provide the criteria ranges
and criteria. For example, you could find the number of customers from Washington who
were billed at least $100,000 by using the formula =COUNTIFS(D3:D6, “=WA”, E3:E6,
“>=100000”).
To summarize data by using the IF function
1. Click the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
2. Enter a formula with the syntax =IF(Logical_test, Value_if_true, Value_if_false)
where:
• Logical_test is the logical test to be performed.
• Value_if_true is the value the formula returns if the test is true.
• Value_if_false is the value the formula returns if the test is false.
To create a formula by using the Insert Function dialog box
1. To the left of the formula bar, click the Insert Function button.
2. In the Insert Function dialog box, click the function you want to use in your
formula.
3. Click OK.
4. In the Function Arguments dialog box, define the arguments for the function you
chose.
5. Click OK.
To count cells that contain numbers in a range
1. Click the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
2. Create a formula with the syntax =COUNT(range), where range is the cell range in
which you want to count cells.
To count cells that are non-blank
1. Click the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
2. Create a formula with the syntax =COUNTA(range), where range is the cell range
in which you want to count cells.
To count cells that contain a blank value
1. Click the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
2. Create a formula with the syntax =COUNTBLANK(range), where range is the cell
range in which you want to count cells.
To count cells that meet one condition
1. Click the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
2. Enter a formula of the form =COUNTIF(range, criteria) where:
• range is the cell range that might contain the criteria value.
• criteria is the logical test used to determine whether to count the cell or not.
To count cells that meet multiple conditions
1. Click the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
2. Enter a formula of the form =COUNTIFS(criteria_range, criteria,…) where for
each criteria_range and criteria pair:
• criteria_range is the cell range that might contain the criteria value.
• criteria is the logical test used to determine whether to count the cell or not.
To find the sum of data that meets one condition
1. Click the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
2. Enter a formula of the form =SUMIF(range, criteria, sum_range) where:
• range is the cell range that might contain the criteria value.
• criteria is the logical test used to determine whether to include the cell or not.
• sum_range is the range that contains the values to be included if the range cell in
the same row meets the criterion.
To find the sum of data that meets multiple conditions
1. Click the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
2. Enter a formula of the form =SUMIFS(sum_range, criteria_range, criteria,…)
where:
• sum_range is the range that contains the values to be included if all criteria_range
cells in the same row meet all criteria.
• criteria_range is the cell range that might contain the criteria value.
• criteria is the logical test used to determine whether to include the cell or not.
To find the average of data that meets one condition
1. Click the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
2. Enter a formula of the form =AVERAGEIF(range, criteria, average_range) where:
• range is the cell range that might contain the criteria value.
• criteria is the logical test used to determine whether to include the cell or not.
• average_range is the range that contains the values to be included if the range cell
in the same row meets the criterion.
To find the average of data that meets multiple conditions
1. Click the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
2. Enter a formula of the form =AVERAGEIFS(average_range, criteria_range,
criteria,…) where:
• average_range is the range that contains the values to be included if all
criteria_range cells in the same row meet all criteria.
• criteria_range is the cell range that might contain the criteria value.
• criteria is the logical test used to determine whether to include the cell or not.
To display a custom message if a cell contains an error
1. Click the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
2. Enter a formula with the syntax =IFERROR(value, value_if_error) where:
• value is a cell reference or formula.
• value_if_error is the value to be displayed if the value argument returns an error.

Set iterative calculation options and enable or disable automatic


calculation
Excel formulas use values in other cells to calculate their results. If you create a formula
that refers to the cell that contains the formula, you have created a circular reference.
Under most circumstances, Excel treats circular references as a mistake for two reasons.
First, the vast majority of Excel formulas don’t refer to their own cell, so a circular
reference is unusual enough to be identified as an error. The second, more serious
consideration is that a formula with a circular reference can slow down your workbook.
Because Excel repeats, or iterates, the calculation, you need to set limits on how many
times the app repeats the operation.
You can control your workbook’s calculation options by using the controls on the
Formulas page of the Excel Options dialog box.

Set iterative calculation options on the Formulas page of the Excel Options dialog box
The Calculation Options section of the Excel Options dialog box has three available
settings:
Automatic The default setting; recalculates a worksheet whenever a value affecting
a formula changes
Automatic except for data tables Recalculates a worksheet whenever a value
changes, but doesn’t recalculate data tables
Manual Requires you to press F9 or, on the Formulas tab, in the Calculation group,
click the Calculate Now button to recalculate your worksheet
You can also use options in the Calculation Options section to allow or disallow iterative
calculations. If you select the Enable Iterative Calculation check box, Excel repeats
calculations for cells that contain formulas with circular references. The default Maximum
Iterations value of 100 and Maximum Change of 0.001 are appropriate for all but the most
unusual circumstances.
Tip
You can also control when Excel recalculates its formulas by clicking the
Formulas tab on the ribbon, clicking the Calculation Options button, and
selecting the behavior you want.

To recalculate a workbook
1. Display the workbook you want to recalculate.
2. Press F9.
Or
On the Formulas tab, in the Calculation group, click Calculate Now.
To recalculate a worksheet
1. Display the worksheet you want to recalculate.
2. In the Calculation group, click the Calculate Sheet button.
To set worksheet calculation options
1. Display the worksheet whose calculation options you want to set.
2. In the Calculation group, click the Calculate Options button.
3. Click the calculation option you want in the list.
To set iterative calculation options
1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Options.
2. In the Excel Options dialog box, click Formulas.
3. In the Calculation options section, select or clear the Enable iterative calculation
check box.
4. In the Maximum Iterations box, enter the maximum iterations allowed for a
calculation.
5. In the Maximum Change box, enter the maximum change allowed for each
iteration.
6. Click OK.

Use array formulas


Most Excel formulas calculate values to be displayed in a single cell. For example, you
could add the formulas =B1*B4, =B1*B5, and =B1*B6 to consecutive worksheet cells to
calculate shipping insurance costs based on the value of a package’s contents.
A worksheet with data to be summarized by an array formula
Rather than add the same formula to multiple cells one cell at a time, you can add a
formula to every cell in the target range at the same time by creating an array formula. To
create an array formula, you enter the formula’s arguments and press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to
identify the formula as an array formula. To calculate package insurance rates for values in
the cell range B4:B6 and the rate in cell B1, you would select a range of cells with the
same shape as the value range and enter the formula =B1*B4:B6. In this case, the values
are in a three-cell column, so you must select a range of the same shape, such as C4:C6.

A worksheet with an array formula ready to be entered

Important
If you enter the array formula into a range of the wrong shape, Excel displays
duplicate results, incomplete results, or error messages, depending on how the
target range differs from the value range.

When you press Ctrl+Shift+Enter, Excel creates an array formula in the selected cells. The
formula appears within a pair of braces to indicate that it is an array formula.

Important
You can’t add braces to a formula to make it an array formula—you must
press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to create it.

In addition to creating an array formula that combines a single cell’s value with an array,
you can create array formulas that use two separate arrays. For example, a company might
establish a goal to reduce sorting time in each of four distribution centers.
A worksheet with data for an array formula that multiplies two arrays
This worksheet stores the previous sorting times in minutes in cells B2:B5, and the
percentage targets in cells C2:C5. The array formula to calculate the targets for each of the
four centers is =B2:B5*C2:C5 which, when entered into cells D2:D5 by pressing
Ctrl+Shift+Enter, would appear as {= B2:B5*C2:C5}.
To edit an array formula, you must select every cell that contains the array formula, click
the formula bar to activate it, edit the formula in the formula bar, and then press
Ctrl+Shift+Enter to re-enter the formula as an array formula.

Tip
Many operations that used to require an array formula can now be calculated
by using functions such as SUMIFS and COUNTIFS.

To create an array formula


1. Select the cells into which you want to enter the array formula.
2. Enter your array formula.
3. Press Ctrl+Shift+Enter.
To edit an array formula
1. Select the cells that contain the array formula.
2. Edit your array formula.
3. Press Ctrl+Shift+Enter.

Find and correct errors in calculations


Including calculations in a worksheet gives you valuable answers to questions about your
data. As is always true, however, it is possible for errors to creep into your formulas. With
Excel, you can find the source of errors in your formulas by identifying the cells used in a
specific calculation and describing any errors that have occurred. The process of
examining a worksheet for errors is referred to as auditing.
Excel identifies errors in several ways. The first way is to display an error code in the cell
holding the formula generating the error.
A worksheet with an error code displayed
When a cell with an erroneous formula is the active cell, an Error button is displayed next
to it. If you point to the Error button Excel displays an arrow on the button’s right edge.
Clicking the arrow displays a menu with options that provide information about the error
and offer to help you fix it.
The following table lists the most common error codes and what they mean.

Another technique you can use to find the source of formula errors is to ensure that the
appropriate cells are providing values for the formula. You can identify the source of an
error by having Excel trace a cell’s precedents, which are the cells with values used in the
active cell’s formula. You can also audit your worksheet by identifying cells with formulas
that use a value from a particular cell. Cells that use another cell’s value in their
calculations are known as dependents, meaning that they depend on the value in the other
cell to derive their own value.
A worksheet with a cell’s dependents indicated by tracer arrows
If the cells identified by the tracer arrows aren’t the correct cells, you can hide the arrows
and correct the formula.
If you prefer to have the elements of a formula error presented as text in a dialog box, you
can use the Error Checking dialog box to move through the formula one step at a time, to
choose to ignore the error, or to move to the next or the previous error.

Identify and manage errors by using the Error Checking dialog box

Tip
You can have the Error Checking tool ignore formulas that don’t use every
cell in a region (such as a row or column) by modifying this option in the
Excel Options dialog box. To do so, on the Formulas tab of the dialog box, if
you clear the Formulas Which Omit Cells In A Region check box, you can
create formulas that don’t add up every value in a row or column (or
rectangle) without Excel marking them as an error.

For times when you just want to display the results of each step of a formula and don’t
need the full power of the Error Checking tool, you can use the Evaluate Formula dialog
box to move through each element of the formula. The Evaluate Formula dialog box is
much more useful for examining formulas that don’t produce an error but aren’t
generating the result you expect.
Step through formulas by using the Evaluate Formula dialog box
Finally, you can monitor the value in a cell regardless of where in your workbook you are
by opening a Watch Window that displays the value in the cell. For example, if one of
your formulas uses values from cells in other worksheets or even other workbooks, you
can set a watch on the cell that contains the formula and then change the values in the
other cells.
As soon as you enter the new value, the Watch Window displays the new result of the
formula. When you’re done watching the formula, you can delete the watch and hide the
Watch Window.

Follow cell values by using the Watch Window


To display information about a formula error
1. Click the cell that contains the error.
2. Point to the error indicator next to the cell.
Or
Click the error indicator to display more information.
To display arrows identifying formula precedents
1. On the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Trace Precedents
button.
To display arrows identifying cell dependents
1. In the Formula Auditing group, click the Trace Dependents button.
To remove tracer arrows
1. Do either of the following:
• In the Formula Auditing group, click the Remove Arrows button (not its arrow).
• Click the Remove Arrows arrow and select the arrows you want to remove.
To move through a calculation one step at a time
1. Click the cell that contains the formula you want to evaluate.
2. In the Formula Auditing group, click the Evaluate Formula button.
3. In the Evaluate Formula dialog box, click Evaluate.
4. Click Step In to move forward by one calculation.
Or
Click Step Out to move backward by one calculation.
5. Click Close.
To change error display options
1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Options.
2. In the Excel Options dialog box, click Formulas.
3. In the Error Checking section, select or clear the Enable background error
checking check box.
4. Click the Indicate errors using this color button and select a color.
5. Click Reset Ignored Errors to return Excel to its default error indicators.
6. In the Error checking rules section, select or clear the check boxes next to errors
you want to indicate or ignore, respectively.
To watch the values in a cell range
1. Click the cell range you want to watch.
2. In the Formula Auditing group, click the Watch Window button.
3. In the Watch Window dialog box, click Add Watch.
4. Click Add.
To delete a watch
1. Click the Watch Window button.
2. In the Watch Window dialog box, click the watch you want to delete.
3. Click Delete Watch.

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Name groups of data
Create formulas to calculate values
Summarize data that meets specific conditions
Set iterative calculation options and enable or disable automatic calculation
Use array formulas
Find and correct errors in calculations

Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch03 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Name groups of data


Open the CreateNames workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Create a named range named Monday for the V_101 through V_109 values (found
in cells C4:C12) for that weekday.
2. Edit the Monday named range to include the V_110 value for that column.
3. Select cells B4:H13 and create named ranges for V_101 through V_110, drawing
the names from the row headings.
4. Delete the Monday named range.

Create formulas to calculate values


Open the BuildFormulas workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. On the Summary worksheet, in cell F9, create a formula that displays the value
from cell C4.
2. Edit the formula in cell F9 so it uses the SUM function to find the total of values in
cells C3:C8.
3. In cell F10, create a formula that finds the total expenses for desktop software and
server software.
4. Edit the formula in F10 so the cell references are absolute references.
5. On the JuneLabor worksheet, in cell F13, create a SUM formula that finds the total
of values in the JuneSummary table’s Labor Expense column.

Summarize data that meets specific conditions


Open the CreateConditionalFormulas workbook in Excel, and then perform the following
tasks:
1. In cell G3, create an IF formula that tests whether the value in F3 is greater than or
equal to 35,000. If it is, display Request discount; if not, display No discount
available.
2. Copy the formula from cell G3 to the range G4:G14.
3. In cell I3, create a formula that finds the average cost of all expenses in cells
F3:F14 where the Type column contains the value Box.
4. In cell I6, create a formula that finds the sum of all expenses in cells F3:F14 where
the Type column contains the value Envelope and the Destination column contains
the value International.

Set iterative calculation options and enable or disable automatic


calculation
Open the SetIterativeOptions workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. On the Formulas tab, in the Calculation group, click the Calculation Options
button, and then click Manual.
2. In cell B6, enter the formula =B7*B9, and then press Enter.
Note that this result is incorrect because the Gross Savings minus the Savings
Incentive should equal the Net Savings value, which it does not.
3. Press F9 to recalculate the workbook and read the message box indicating you have
created a circular reference.
4. Click OK.
5. Use options in the Excel Options dialog box to enable iterative calculation.
6. Close the Excel Options dialog box and recalculate the worksheet.
7. Change the workbook’s calculation options to Automatic.

Use array formulas


Open the CreateArrayFormulas workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. On the Fuel worksheet, select cells C11:F11.
2. Enter the array formula =C3*C9:F9 in the selected cells.
3. Edit the array formula you just created to read =C3*C10:F10.
4. Display the Volume worksheet.
5. Select cells D4:D7.
6. Create the array formula =B4:B7*C4:C7.

Find and correct errors in calculations


Open the AuditFormulas workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Create a watch that displays the value in cell D20.
2. Click cell D8, and then display the formula’s precedents.
3. Remove the tracer arrows from the worksheet.
4. Click cell A1, and then use the Error Checking dialog box to identify the error in
cell D21.
5. Show the tracer arrows for the error.
6. Remove the arrows, then edit the formula in cell D21 so it is =C12/D20.
7. Use the Evaluate Formula dialog box to evaluate the formula in cell D21.
8. Delete the watch you created in step 1.
4. Change workbook appearance

In this chapter
Format cells
Define styles
Apply workbook themes and Excel table styles
Make numbers easier to read
Change the appearance of data based on its value
Add images to worksheets

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch04 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

Entering data into a workbook efficiently saves you time, but you must also ensure that
your data is easy to read. Microsoft Excel 2016 gives you a wide variety of ways to make
your data easier to understand; for example, you can change the font, character size, or
color used to present a cell’s contents. Changing how data appears on a worksheet helps
set the contents of a cell apart from the contents of surrounding cells. To save time, you
can define a number of custom formats and then apply them quickly to the cells you want
to emphasize.
You might also want to specially format a cell’s contents to reflect the value in that cell.
For example, you could create a worksheet that displays the percentage of improperly
delivered packages from each regional distribution center. If that percentage exceeds a
threshold, Excel could display a red traffic light icon, indicating that the center’s
performance is out of tolerance and requires attention.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to changing the appearance of data,
applying existing formats to data, making numbers easier to read, changing data’s
appearance based on its value, and adding images to worksheets.

Format cells
Excel worksheets can hold and process lots of data, but when you manage numerous
worksheets, it can be hard to remember from a worksheet’s title exactly what data is kept
in that worksheet. Data labels give you and your colleagues information about data in a
worksheet, but it’s important to format the labels so that they stand out visually. To make
your data labels or any other data stand out, you can change the format of the cells that
hold your data.
Use formatting to set labels apart from worksheet data

Tip
Deleting a cell’s contents doesn’t delete the cell’s formatting. To delete a
selected cell’s formatting, on the Home tab, in the Editing group, click the
Clear button (which looks like an eraser), and then click Clear Formats.
Clicking Clear All from the same list will remove the cell’s contents and
formatting.

Many of the formatting-related buttons on the ribbon have arrows at their right edges.
Clicking the arrow displays a list of options for that button, such as the fonts available on
your system or the colors you can assign to a cell.

Tip
Clicking the body of the Border, Fill Color, or Font Color button applies the
most recently applied formatting to the currently selected cells.
Change font color to help labels and values stand out
You can also make a cell stand apart from its neighbors by adding a border around the cell
or changing the color or shading of the cell’s interior.

Add borders to set cells apart from their neighbors


Tip
You can display the most commonly used formatting controls by right-
clicking a selected range. When you do, a mini toolbar containing a subset of
the Home tab formatting tools appears above the shortcut menu.

If you want to change the attributes of every cell in a row or column, you can click the
header of the row or column you want to modify and then select the format you want.
One task you can’t perform by using the tools on the ribbon is to change the default font
for a workbook, which is used in the formula bar. The default font when you install Excel
is Calibri, a simple font that is easy to read on a computer screen and on the printed page.
If you’d prefer to change the default font, you can do so, but only from the Excel Options
dialog box, not from the ribbon.

Important
The new standard font doesn’t take effect until you exit Excel and restart the
app.

To change the font used to display cell contents


1. Select the cell or cells you want to format.
2. On the Home tab of the ribbon, in the Font group, click the Font arrow.
3. In the font list, click the font you want to apply.
To change the size of characters in a cell or cells
1. Select the cell or cells you want to format.
2. Click the Font Size arrow.
3. In the list of sizes, click the size you want to apply.
To change the size of characters in a cell or cells by one increment
1. Select the cell or cells you want to format.
2. Click the Increase Font Size button.
Or
Click the Decrease Font Size button.
To change the color of a font
1. Select the cell or cells you want to format.
2. Click the Font Color arrow (not the button).
3. Click the color you want to apply.
Or
Click More Colors, select the color you want from the Colors dialog box, and then
click OK.
To change the background color of a cell or cells
1. Select the cell or cells you want to format.
2. Click the Fill Color arrow (not the button).

Change the fill color of a cell to make it stand out


3. Click the color you want to apply.
Or
Click More Colors, select the color you want from the Colors dialog box, and click
OK.
To add a border to a cell or cells
1. Select the cell or cells you want to format.
2. Click the Border arrow (not the button).
3. Click the border pattern you want to apply.
Or
Click More Borders, select the borders you want from the Border tab of the
Format Cells dialog box, and click OK.
To change font appearance by using the controls on the Font tab of the Format Cells
dialog box
1. Click the Font dialog box launcher.
2. Make the formatting changes you want, and then click OK.
To copy formatting between cells
1. Select the cell that contains the formatting you want to copy.
2. Click the Format Painter button.
3. Select the cells to which you want to apply the formatting.
Or
1. Select the cell that contains the formatting you want to copy.
2. Double-click the Format Painter button.
3. Select cells or groups of cells to which you want to apply the formatting.
4. Press the Esc key to turn off the Format Painter.
To delete cell formatting
1. Select the cell or cells from which you want to remove formatting.
2. In the Editing group, click the Clear button.

Use the Clear button to delete formats from a cell


3. In the menu that appears, click Clear Formats.
To change the default font of a workbook
1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Options.
2. On the General page of the Excel Options dialog box, in the Use this as the
default font list, click the font you want to use.
3. In the Font size list, click the font size you want.
4. Click OK.
5. Exit and restart Excel to complete the default font change.
Define styles
As you work with Excel, you will probably develop preferred formats for data labels,
titles, and other worksheet elements. Instead of adding a format’s characteristics one
element at a time to the target cells, you can format the cell in one action by using a cell
style. Excel comes with many built-in styles, which you can apply by using the Cell Style
gallery. You can also create your own styles by using the Style dialog box and apply them
as needed. If you want to preview how the contents of your cell (or cells) will look when
you apply the style, point to the style to get a live preview.

Tip
Depending on your screen’s resolution, cell style options might be accessed
via an in-ribbon gallery instead of a Cell Styles button. If you see an in-
ribbon gallery, click the More button that appears in the lower-right corner of
the gallery (it looks like a small, downward-pointing black triangle) to display
the full set of cell styles available.

It’s likely that any cell styles you create will be useful for more than one workbook. If you
want to include cell styles from another workbook into your current workbook, you can
merge the two workbooks’ style collections.

Apply built-in styles from the Cell Styles gallery


To apply a cell style to worksheet cells
1. Select the cells to which you want to apply the style.
2. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the Cell Styles button.
3. In the gallery that appears, click the style you want to apply.
To create a cell style
1. Click the Cell Styles button, and then click New Cell Style.

Define a custom cell style by using the Style dialog box


2. In the Style dialog box, enter a name for the new style.
3. Select the check boxes next to any elements you want to include in the style
definition.
4. Click the Format button.
5. Use the controls in the Format Cells dialog box to define your style.
6. Click OK.
To modify an existing cell style
1. Click the Cell Styles button. Right-click the style you want to modify, and then
click Modify.
2. In the Style dialog box, modify the name of your style and select the elements to
include in the style.
3. Click the Format button.
4. Use the controls in the Format Cells dialog box to define your style.
5. Click OK.
To duplicate a cell style
1. Click the Cell Styles button. Right-click the style you want to duplicate, and then
click Duplicate.
2. In the Style dialog box, modify the name of your style and select the elements to
include in the style.
3. Click the Format button.
4. Use the controls in the Format Cells dialog box to define your style.
5. Click OK.
To merge cell styles from another open workbook
1. Click the Cell Styles button, and then click Merge Styles.
2. In the Merge Styles dialog box, click the workbook from which you want to import
cell styles.
3. Click OK.
To delete a custom cell style
1. Click the Cell Styles button, right-click the style you want to delete, and then click
Delete.

Apply workbook themes and Excel table styles


Microsoft Office 2016 includes powerful design tools that you can use to create attractive,
professional documents quickly. The Excel product team implemented these capabilities
by defining workbook themes and Excel table styles. A theme is a way to specify the
fonts, colors, and graphic effects that appear in a workbook. Excel comes with many
themes.
Change a workbook’s overall appearance by using an Office theme
When you start to format a workbook element, Excel displays a palette of colors with two
sections: standard colors, which remain constant regardless of the workbook’s theme, and
colors that are available within the active theme. If you format workbook elements by
using colors specific to a theme, applying a different theme changes the colors of those
elements.

Select theme-specific or standard colors


You can change a theme’s colors, fonts, and graphic effects. If you like the combination
you create, you can save your changes as a new theme that will appear at the top of the
themes gallery.
Tip
When you save a theme, you save it as an Office theme file. You can also
apply the theme to other Office 2016 documents.

Just as you can define and apply themes to entire workbooks, you can apply and define
Excel table styles. After you give your style a descriptive name, you can set the
appearance for each Excel table element, decide whether to make your new style the
default for the current document, and save your work.

Define new Excel table styles in the New Table Style dialog box

Tip
To remove formatting from a table element, click the name of the table
element and then click the Clear button.

To apply a table style


1. Click any cell in the list of data you want to format as a table.
2. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the Format as Table button, and then
click the table style you want to apply.
3. In the Format As Table dialog box, verify that Excel has identified the data range
correctly.
Verify that Excel has identified your table data correctly
4. Select or clear the My table has headers check box to reflect whether or not your
list of data has headers.
5. Click OK.
To apply a table style and overwrite existing formatting
1. Click any cell in the list of data you want to format as a table.
2. Click the Format as Table button, and right-click the table style you want to apply.
3. On the shortcut menu that appears, click Apply and Clear Formatting.
4. Click OK.
To create a new table style
1. Click the Format as Table button, and then click New Table Style.
2. In the New Table Style dialog box, enter a name for the new style.
3. Click the table element you want to format.
4. Click the Format button, change the element by using the controls in the Format
Cells dialog box, and then click OK.
5. Click OK to close the New Table Style dialog box.
To modify an existing table style
1. Click the Format as Table button, right-click the table style you want to modify,
and then click Modify.

Important
You can’t modify the built-in Excel table styles, just the ones you create.

2. In the Modify Table Style dialog box, edit style elements you want to modify.
3. Click OK.
To delete a table style
1. Click the Format as Table button, right-click the table style you want to delete, and
then click Delete.
Important
You can’t delete the built-in Excel table styles, just the ones you create.

2. In the message box that appears, click OK.


To apply an Office theme to a workbook
1. On the Page Layout tab of the ribbon, in the Themes group, click the Themes
button.
2. Click the theme you want to apply.
To change the fonts, colors, and effects of an Office theme
1. Click the Colors, Fonts, or Effects button.
2. Click the set of colors, fonts, or effects you want to apply.
To create a new Office theme
1. Use the controls in the Themes group to change the fonts, colors, or effects applied
to the current theme.
2. Click the Themes button, and then click Save Current Theme.
3. Enter a name for your new theme.
4. Click Save.
To delete a custom Office theme
1. Click the Themes button, and then click Save Current Theme.
2. In the Save Current Theme dialog box, right-click the theme you want to delete,
and then click Delete.
3. Click Cancel.

Make numbers easier to read


Changing the format of the cells in your worksheet can make your data much easier to
read, both by setting data labels apart from the actual data and by adding borders to define
the boundaries between labels and data even more clearly. Of course, using formatting
options to change the font and appearance of a cell’s contents doesn’t help with
idiosyncratic data types such as dates, phone numbers, or currency values.
As an example, consider US phone numbers. These numbers are 10 digits long and have a
3-digit area code, a 3-digit exchange, and a 4-digit line number written in the form (###)
###-####. Although it’s certainly possible to enter a phone number with the expected
formatting in a cell, it’s much simpler to enter a sequence of 10 digits and have Excel
change the data’s appearance.
Select built-in number formats from the Special category
You can watch this format in operation if you compare the contents of the active cell and
the contents of the formula box for a cell with the Phone Number formatting.

Change the appearance of data without affecting the underlying data


Important
If you enter a 9-digit number in a field that expects a phone number, you
won’t get an error message; instead, you’ll get a 2-digit area code. For
example, the number 425550012 would be displayed as (42) 555-0012. An
11-digit number would be displayed with a 4-digit area code. If the phone
number doesn’t look right, you probably left out a digit or included an extra
one, so you should make sure your entry is correct.

Just as you can instruct Excel to expect a phone number in a cell, you can also have it
expect a date or a currency amount. You can pick from a wide variety of date, currency,
and other formats to best reflect your worksheet’s contents, your company standards, and
how you and your colleagues expect the data to appear.

Tip
In the Excel user interface you can make the most common format changes
by displaying the Home tab and then, in the Number group, either clicking a
button representing a built-in format or selecting a format from the Number
Format list.

You can also create a custom numeric format to add a word or phrase to a number in a
cell. For example, you can add the phrase per month to a cell with a formula that
calculates average monthly sales for a year, to ensure that you and your colleagues will
recognize the figure as a monthly average. If one of the built-in formats is close to the
custom format you’d like to create, you can base your custom format on the one already
included in Excel.

Important
You need to enclose any text to be displayed as part of the format in quotation
marks so that Excel recognizes the text as a string to be displayed in the cell.

To apply a special number format


1. Select the cells to which you want to apply the format.
2. On the Home tab, in the Number group, click the Number Format arrow, and then
click More Number Formats.
3. In the Format Cells dialog box, in the Category list, click Special.
4. In the Type list, click the format you want to apply.
5. Click OK.
To create a custom number format
1. On the Number Format menu, click More Number Formats.
2. In the Format Cells dialog box, in the Category list, click Custom.
3. Click the format you want to use as the base for your new format.
4. Edit the format in the Type box.
5. Click OK.
To add text to a number format
1. On the Number Format menu, click More Number Formats.
2. In the Format Cells dialog box, in the Category list, click Custom.
3. Click the format you want to use as the base for your new format.
4. In the Type box, after the format, enter the text you want to add, in quotation marks
—for example, “boxes”.

Define custom number formats that display text after values


5. Click OK.

Change the appearance of data based on its value


Recording information such as package volumes, vehicle miles, and other business data in
a worksheet enables you to make important decisions about your operations. And as you
saw earlier in this chapter, you can change the appearance of data labels and the worksheet
itself to make interpreting your data easier.
Another way you can make your data easier to interpret is to have Excel change the
appearance of your data based on its value. The formats that make this possible are called
conditional formats, because the data must meet certain conditions, defined in conditional
formatting rules, to have a format applied to it. In Excel, you can define conditional
formats that change how the app displays data in cells that contain values above or below
the average values of the related cells, that contain values near the top or bottom of the
value range, or that contain values duplicated elsewhere in the selected range.
When you select which kind of condition to create, Excel displays a dialog box that
contains fields and controls you can use to define your rule. If your cells already have
conditional formats applied to them, you can display those formats.

Manage conditional formats by using the Conditional Formatting Rules Manager


You can control your conditional formats in the following ways:
Create a new rule.
Change a rule.
Remove a rule.
Move a rule up or down in the order.
Control whether Excel continues evaluating conditional formats after it finds a rule
to apply.
Save any rule changes and stop editing rules.
Save any rule changes and continue editing.
Discard any unsaved changes.
Clicking the New Rule button in the Conditional Formatting Rules Manager opens the
New Formatting Rule dialog box. The commands in the New Formatting Rule dialog box
duplicate the options displayed when you click the Conditional Formatting button in the
Styles group on the Home tab. You can use those controls to define your new rule and the
format to be displayed if the rule is true.
Create rules by using the New Formatting Rule dialog box

Important
Excel doesn’t check to make sure that your conditions are logically
consistent, so you need to be sure that you plan and enter your conditions
correctly.

You can also create three other types of conditional formats in Excel: data bars, color
scales, and icon sets. Data bars summarize the relative magnitude of values in a cell range
by extending a band of color across the cell.

Apply data bars to view how values compare to one another


You can create two types of data bars in Excel 2016: solid fill and gradient fill. When data
bars were introduced in Excel 2007, they filled cells with a color band that decreased in
intensity as it moved across the cell. This gradient fill pattern made it a bit difficult to
determine the relative length of two data bars because the end points weren’t as distinct as
they would have been if the bars were a solid color. In Excel 2016 you can choose
between a solid fill pattern, which makes the right edge of the bars easier to discern, and a
gradient fill, which you can use if you share your workbook with colleagues who use
Excel 2007.
Excel 2016 also draws data bars differently than in Excel 2007. Excel 2007 drew a very
short data bar for the lowest value in a range and a very long data bar for the highest
value. The problem was that similar values could be represented by data bars of very
different lengths if there wasn’t much variance among the values in the conditionally
formatted range. In Excel 2016, data bars compare values based on their distance from
zero, so similar values are summarized by using data bars of similar lengths.

Tip
Excel 2016 data bars summarize negative values by using bars that extend to
the left of a baseline that the app draws in a cell.

Color scales compare the relative magnitude of values in a cell range by applying colors
from a two-color or three-color set to your cells. The intensity of a cell’s color reflects the
value’s tendency toward the top or bottom of the values in the range.

Apply a color scale to emphasize the magnitude of values within a cell range
Icon sets are collections of three, four, or five images that Excel displays when certain
rules are met.

Icon sets show how values compare to a standard


When icon sets were introduced in Excel 2007, you could apply an icon set as a whole, but
you couldn’t create custom icon sets or choose to have Excel 2007 display no icon if the
value in a cell met a criterion. In Excel 2016, you can display any icon from any set for
any criterion or display no icon, plus you can edit your format in other ways so it
summarizes your data exactly as you want it to.
When you click a color scale or icon set in the Conditional Formatting Rules Manager and
then click the Edit Rule button, you can control when Excel applies a color or icon to your
data.

Important
Be sure to not include cells that contain summary formulas in your
conditionally formatted ranges. The values, which could be much higher or
lower than your regular cell data, could throw off your comparisons.

To create a conditional formatting rule


1. Select the cells you want to format.
2. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the Conditional Formatting button,
point to Highlight Cells Rules, and then click the type of rule you want to create.
3. In the rule dialog box that appears, set the rules for the condition.
4. Click the arrow next to the with box, and then click Custom Format.
5. Use the controls in the Format Cells dialog box to define the custom format.
6. Click OK to close the Format Cells dialog box.
7. Click OK to close the rule dialog box.
To edit a conditional formatting rule
1. Select the cells to which the rule is applied.
2. Click the Conditional Formatting button, and then click Manage Rules.
3. In the Conditional Formatting Rules Manager, click the rule you want to edit.
4. Click Edit Rule.
5. Use the controls in the Edit Formatting Rule dialog box to change the rule
settings.
6. Click OK twice to close the Edit Formatting Rule dialog box and the Conditional
Formatting Rules Manager.
To change the order of conditional formatting rules
1. Select the cells to which the rules are applied.
2. Click the Conditional Formatting button, and then click Manage Rules.
3. In the Conditional Formatting Rules Manager, click the rule you want to move.
4. Click the Move Up button to move the rule up in the order.
Or
Click the Move Down button to move the rule down in the order.
5. Click OK.
To stop applying conditional formatting rules when a condition is met
1. Select the cells to which the rule is applied.
2. Click the Conditional Formatting button, and then click Manage Rules.
3. In the Conditional Formatting Rules Manager, select the Stop If True check box
next to the rule where you want Excel to stop.

Stop checking conditional formats if a specific condition is met


4. Click OK.
To create a data bar conditional format
1. Click the Conditional Formatting button, point to Data Bars, and then click the
format you want to apply.
To create a color scale conditional format
1. Click the Conditional Formatting button, point to Color Scales, and then click the
color scale you want to apply.
To create an icon set conditional format
1. Click the Conditional Formatting button, point to Icon Sets, and then click the
icon set you want to apply.
To delete a conditional format
1. Select the cells to which the rules are applied.
2. Click the Conditional Formatting button, and then click Manage Rules.
3. In the Conditional Formatting Rules Manager, click the rule you want to delete.
Delete a conditional format you no longer need
4. Click Delete Rule.
5. Click OK.
To delete all conditional formats from a worksheet
1. Click the Conditional Formatting button, point to Clear Rules, and then click
Clear Rules from Entire Sheet.

Add images to worksheets


Establishing a strong corporate identity helps you ensure that your customers remember
your organization and the products and services you offer. Setting aside the obvious need
for sound management, two important physical attributes of a strong retail business are a
well-conceived shop space and an eye-catching, easy-to-remember logo. After you or your
graphic artist creates a logo, you should add the logo to all your documents, especially any
that might be seen by your customers. Not only does the logo mark the documents as
coming from your company, it also serves as an advertisement, encouraging anyone who
sees your worksheets to call or visit your company.
One way to add a picture to a worksheet is to locate the picture you want to add from your
hard disk, insert it, and then make any formatting changes you want. For example, you can
rotate, reposition, and resize the picture.
Insert images to enhance your data
With Excel 2016, you can remove the background of an image you insert into a workbook.
When you indicate that you want to remove an image’s background, Excel guesses which
aspects of the image are in the foreground and eliminates the rest.

An image just after the Remove Background tool has been applied
You can drag the handles on the inner square of the background removal tool to change
how the tool analyzes the image, and save your results when you’re done.
If you want to generate a repeating image in the background of a worksheet to form a tiled
pattern or texture behind your worksheet’s data, or perhaps add a single image that serves
as a watermark, you can do so.

Tip
To remove a background image from a worksheet, display the Page Layout
tab, and then in the Page Setup group, click Delete Background.

To add an image stored on your computer to a worksheet


1. On the Insert tab of the ribbon, in the Illustrations group, click Pictures.
2. In the Insert Picture dialog box, navigate to the folder that contains the image you
want to add to your worksheet.
3. Click the image.
4. Click Insert.
To add an online image by using Bing Image Search
1. Click the Online Pictures button.
2. In the Insert Pictures dialog box, enter search terms identifying the type of image
you want to find online.
3. Press Enter.
4. Click the image you want to add to your worksheet.
5. Click Insert.
To resize an image
1. Click the image.

Drag a handle to resize an image


2. Drag one of the handles that appears on the image’s border.
Or
On the Format tool tab of the ribbon, in the Size group, enter new values for the
image’s vertical and horizontal size in the Height and Width boxes.
To edit an image
1. Click the image.
2. Use the controls in the Size group to change your image’s appearance.
To delete an image
1. Click the image.
2. Press the Delete key.
To remove the background from an image
1. Click the image.
2. Click the Remove Background button.
3. Drag the handles on the frame until the foreground of the image is defined correctly.
4. On the Background Removal tool tab of the ribbon, click the Keep Changes
button.
To set an image as a repeating background
1. On the Page Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click the Background button.
2. Click the Browse button and navigate to the folder that contains the file you want to
use as your repeating background.
Or
Enter search terms in the Search Bing box, and then press Enter.
3. Click the image you want to set as your background.
4. Click Insert.

Add repeating images to enhance the background of a worksheet

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Format cells
Define styles
Apply workbook themes and Excel table styles
Make numbers easier to read
Change the appearance of data based on its value
Add images to worksheets

Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch04 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Format cells
Open the FormatCells workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Change the formatting of cell B4 so the text it contains is displayed in 14 point, bold
type.
2. Center the text within cell B4.
3. Change the background fill color of cell B4.
4. Draw a border around the cell range B4:C13.

Define styles
Open the DefineStyles workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Apply an existing cell style to the values in cells B4 and C3.
2. Create a new cell style and apply it to the values in cell ranges B5:B13 and C4:N4.
3. Edit the new cell style you just created.

Apply workbook themes and Excel table styles


Open the ApplyStyles workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Display the MilesLastWeek worksheet and change the Office theme applied to the
workbook.
2. Change the colors used for the current Office theme.
3. Save a new Office theme based on the settings currently applied to the workbook.
4. On the Summary worksheet, create an Excel table from the list of data in the cell
range A1:B10.
5. Define a new Excel table style and apply it to the same data.

Make numbers easier to read


Open the FormatNumbers workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Apply a phone number format to the value in cell G3.
2. Apply a currency or accounting format to the value in cell H3.
3. For cell H3, create a custom number format that displays the value in that cell as
$255,000 plus benefits.

Change the appearance of data based on its value


Open the CreateConditionalFormats workbook in Excel, and then perform the following
tasks:
1. Apply a conditional format to cell C15 that displays the cell’s contents with a red
background if the value the cell contains is less than 90 percent.
2. Apply a data bar conditional format to cells C4:C12.
3. Apply a color scale conditional format to cells F4:F12.
4. Apply an icon set conditional format to cells I4:I12.
5. Delete the conditional format from the cell range C4:C12.
6. Edit the data bar conditional format so the bars are a different color.

Add images to worksheets


Open the AddImages workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Insert the phone image file from the Excel2016SBS\Ch04 folder.
2. Remove the background from the phone image.
3. Resize the phone image so it will fit between the Call Volume label in cell B4 and
the top of the worksheet.
4. Move the image to the upper-left corner of the worksheet, resizing it if necessary so
it doesn’t block any of the worksheet text.
5. Add a repeating background image by using the texture image from the
Excel2016SBS\Ch04 folder.
Part 2: Analyze and present data
CHAPTER 5
Manage worksheet data
CHAPTER 6
Reorder and summarize data
CHAPTER 7
Combine data from multiple sources
CHAPTER 8
Analyze alternative data sets
CHAPTER 9
Create charts and graphics
CHAPTER 10
Create dynamic worksheets by using PivotTables
5. Manage worksheet data

In this chapter
Limit data that appears on your screen
Manipulate worksheet data
Define valid sets of values for ranges of cells

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch05 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

With Excel 2016, you can manage huge data collections, but storing more than 1 million
rows of data doesn’t help you make business decisions unless you have the ability to focus
on the most important data in a worksheet. Focusing on the most relevant data in a
worksheet facilitates decision making. Excel includes many powerful and flexible tools
with which you can limit the data displayed in your worksheet. When your worksheet
displays the subset of data you need to make a decision, you can perform calculations on
that data. You can discover what percentage of monthly revenue was earned in the 10 best
days in the month, find your total revenue for particular days of the week, or locate the
slowest business day of the month.
Just as you can limit the data displayed by your worksheets, you can also create validation
rules that limit the data entered into them. When you set rules for data entered into cells,
you can catch many of the most common data entry errors, such as entering values that are
too small or too large, or attempting to enter a word in a cell that requires a number. If you
add a validation rule after data has been entered, you can circle any invalid data so that
you know what to correct.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to limiting the data that appears on
your screen, manipulating list data, and creating validation rules that limit data entry to
appropriate values.

Limit data that appears on your screen


Excel worksheets can hold as much data as you need them to, but you might not want to
work with all the data in a worksheet at the same time. For example, you might want to
look at the revenue figures for your company during the first third, second third, and final
third of a month. You can limit the data shown on a worksheet by creating a filter, which is
a rule that selects rows to be shown in a worksheet.
Important
When you turn on filtering, Excel treats the cells in the active cell’s column as
a range. To ensure that the filtering works properly, you should always have a
label at the top of the column you want to filter. If you don’t, Excel treats the
first value in the list as the label and doesn’t include it in the list of values by
which you can filter the data.

When you turn on filtering, a filter arrow appears to the right of each column label in the
list of data. Clicking the filter arrow displays a menu of filtering options and a list of the
unique values in the column. Each item has a check box next to it, which you can use to
create a selection filter. Some of the commands vary depending on the type of data in the
column. For example, if the column contains a set of dates, you will get a list of
commands specific to that data type.

Tip
In Excel tables, filter arrows are turned on by default.

Tip
When a column contains several types of data, the filter command for it is
Number Filters.
Use filters to limit the data that appears in a worksheet
When you click a filtering option, Excel displays a dialog box in which you can define the
filter’s criteria. As an example, you could create a filter that displays only dates after
3/31/2016.

Columns with a filter applied display a funnel icon on their filter arrows
If you want to display the highest or lowest values in a data column, you can create a Top
10 filter. You can choose whether to show values from the top or bottom of the list, define
the number of items you want to display, and choose whether that number indicates the
actual number of items or the percentage of items to be shown when the filter is applied.

Tip
Top 10 filters can be applied only to columns that contain number values.

Excel 2016 includes a capability called the search filter, which you can use to enter a
search string that Excel uses to identify which items to display in an Excel table or a data
list. Enter the character string you want to search for, and Excel limits your data to values
that contain that string.

Applying a search filter limits the items that appear in the selection list
When you create a custom filter, you can define a rule that Excel uses to decide which
rows to show after the filter is applied. For instance, you can create a rule that determines
that only days with package volumes of less than 100,000 should be shown in your
worksheet. With those results in front of you, you might be able to determine whether the
weather or another factor resulted in slower business on those days.
Excel indicates that a column has a filter applied by changing the appearance of the
column’s filter arrow to include an icon that looks like a funnel. After you finish
examining your data by using a filter, you can clear the filter or turn off filtering entirely
and hide the filter arrows.
To turn on filter arrows
1. Click any cell in the list of data you want to filter.
2. On the Home tab of the ribbon, in the Editing group, click Sort & Filter, and then
click Filter.
To create a selection filter
1. Click Sort & Filter, and then click Filter.
2. Click the filter arrow for the column by which you want to filter your data.
3. Clear the check boxes next to the items you want to hide.
Or
Clear the Select All check box and select the check boxes next to the items you want
to display.
4. Click OK.
To create a filter rule
1. Display the filter arrows for your list of data.
2. Click the filter arrow for the field by which you want to filter your data.
3. Point to the Type Filters item to display the available filters for the column’s data
type.
4. Click the filter you want to create.
5. Enter the arguments required to define the rule.
6. Click OK.
To create a Top 10 filter
1. Display the filter arrows for your list of data.
2. Click the filter arrow for a column that contains number values, point to Number
Filters, and then click Top 10.
3. In the Top 10 AutoFilter dialog box, click the arrow for the first list box, and select
whether to display the top or bottom values.
4. Click the arrow for the last list box, and select whether to base the rule on the
number of items or the percentage of items.
5. Click in the middle box and enter the number or percentage of items to display.
6. Click OK.
To create a search filter
1. Display the filter arrows for your list of data.
2. Click the filter arrow for the field by which you want to filter your data.
3. Enter the character string that should appear in the values you want to display in the
filter list.
4. Click OK.
To clear a filter
1. Click the filter arrow for the field that has the filter you want to clear.
2. Click Clear Filter From Field.
To turn off the filter arrows
1. Click any cell in the list of data.
2. Click Sort & Filter, and then click Filter.

Manipulate worksheet data


Excel includes a wide range of tools you can use to summarize worksheet data. This topic
describes how to select rows at random by using the RAND and RANDBETWEEN
functions, how to summarize worksheet data by using the SUBTOTAL and AGGREGATE
functions, and how to display a list of unique values within a data set.
Select list rows at random
In addition to filtering the data that is stored in your Excel worksheets, you
can choose rows at random from a list. Selecting rows randomly is useful for
choosing which customers will receive a special offer, deciding which days of
the month to audit, or picking prize winners at an employee party.
To choose rows randomly, you can use the RAND function, which generates a
random decimal value between 0 and 1, and compare the value it returns with
a test value included in a formula. If you recalculate the RAND function 10
times and check each time to find out whether the value is below 0.3, it’s very
unlikely that you would get exactly three instances where the value is below
0.3. Just as flipping a coin can result in the same result 10 times in a row by
chance, so can the RAND function’s results appear to be off if you only
recalculate it a few times. However, if you were to recalculate the function
10,000 times, it is extremely likely that the number of values less than 0.3
would be very close to 30 percent.
TIP Because the RAND function is a volatile function (that is, it recalculates
its results every time you update the worksheet), you should copy the cells
that contain the RAND function in a formula and paste the formulas’ values
back into their original cells. To do so, select the cells that contain the RAND
formulas and paste them back into the same cells as values.
The RANDBETWEEN function generates a random whole number within a
defined range. For example, the formula =RANDBETWEEN(1,100) would
generate a random integer value from 1 through 100, inclusive. The
RANDBETWEEN function is very useful for creating sample data collections
for presentations. Before the RANDBETWEEN function was introduced, you
had to create formulas that added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided the
results of the RAND function, which are always decimal values between 0 and
1, to create data.
To use RAND or RANDBETWEEN to select a row, create an IF formula that
tests the random values. If you want to check 30 percent of the rows, a
formula such as =IF(cell_address<0.3, “TRUE”, “FALSE”) would display
TRUE in the formula cells for any value of 0.3 or less and FALSE otherwise.

Summarize data in worksheets that have hidden and filtered rows


The ability to analyze the data that’s most vital to your current needs is important, but
there are some limitations to how you can summarize your filtered data by using functions
such as SUM and AVERAGE. One limitation is that any formulas you create that include
the SUM and AVERAGE functions don’t change their calculations if some of the rows
used in the formula are hidden by the filter.
Excel provides two ways to summarize just the visible cells in a filtered data list. The first
method is to use AutoCalculate. To use AutoCalculate, you select the cells you want to
summarize. When you do, Excel displays the average of the values in the cells, the sum of
the values in the cells, and the number of visible cells (the count) in the selection. You’ll
find the display on the status bar at the lower edge of the Excel window.
When you use AutoCalculate, you aren’t limited to finding the sum, average, and count of
the selected cells. You can add or remove calculations to suit your needs; a check mark
appears next to a function’s name if that function’s result appears on the status bar.

The status bar displays summary values when you select more than one cell that contains
numeric data
AutoCalculate is great for finding a quick total or average for filtered cells, but it doesn’t
make the result available in the worksheet. Formulas such as =SUM(C3:C26) always
consider every cell in the range, regardless of whether you hide a cell’s row manually or
not, so you need to create a formula by using either the SUBTOTAL function or the
AGGREGATE function to summarize just those values that are visible in your worksheet.
The SUBTOTAL function lets you choose whether to summarize every value in a range or
summarize only those values in rows you haven’t manually hidden. The SUBTOTAL
function has this syntax: =SUBTOTAL(function_num, ref1, ref2, …). The function_num
argument holds the number of the operation you want to use to summarize your data. (The
operation numbers are summarized in a table later in this section.) The ref1, ref2, and
further arguments represent up to 29 ranges to include in the calculation.
As an example, assume you have a worksheet where you hid rows 20-26 manually. In this
case, the formula =SUBTOTAL(9, C3:C26, E3:E26, G3:G26) would find the sum of all
values in the ranges C3:C26, E3:E26, and G3:G26, regardless of whether that range
contained any hidden rows. The formula =SUBTOTAL(109, C3:C26, E3:E26, G3:G26)
would find the sum of all values in cells C3:C19, E3:E19, and G3:G19, ignoring the
values in the manually hidden rows.

Important
Be sure to place your SUBTOTAL formula in a row that is even with or above
the headers in the range you’re filtering. If you don’t, your filter might hide
the formula’s result!

The following table lists the summary operations available for the SUBTOTAL formula.
Excel displays the available summary operations as part of the Formula AutoComplete
functionality, so you don’t need to remember the operation numbers or look them up in the
Help system.
As the preceding table shows, the SUBTOTAL function has two sets of operations. The
first set (operations 1–11) represents operations that include hidden values in their
summary, and the second set (operations 101–111) represents operations that summarize
only values visible in the worksheet. Operations 1–11 summarize all cells in a range,
regardless of whether the range contains any manually hidden rows. By contrast,
operations 101–111 ignore any values in manually hidden rows. What the SUBTOTAL
function doesn’t do, however, is change its result to reflect rows hidden by using a filter.

Important
Excel treats the first cell in the data range as a header cell, so it doesn’t
consider the cell as it builds the list of unique values. Be sure to include the
header cell in your data range!

The AGGREGATE function extends the capabilities of the SUBTOTAL function. With it,
you can select from a broader range of functions and use another argument to determine
which, if any, values to ignore in the calculation. AGGREGATE has two possible syntaxes,
depending on the summary operation you select. The first syntax is
=AGGREGATE(function_num, options, ref1…), which is similar to the syntax of the
SUBTOTAL function. The other possible syntax, =AGGREGATE(function_num, options,
array, [k]), is used to create AGGREGATE functions that use the LARGE, SMALL,
PERCENTILE.INC, QUARTILE.INC, PERCENTILE.EXC, and QUARTILE.EXC
operations.
The following table summarizes the summary operations available for use in the
AGGREGATE function.
You use the second argument, options, to select which items the AGGREGATE function
should ignore. These items can include hidden rows, errors, and SUBTOTAL and
AGGREGATE functions. The following table summarizes the values available for the
options argument and the effect they have on the function’s results.

To summarize values by using AutoCalculate


1. Select the cells in your worksheet.
2. View the summaries on the status bar.
To change the AutoCalculate summaries displayed on the status bar
1. Right-click the status bar.
2. Click a summary operation without a check mark to display it.
Or
Click a summary operation with a check mark to hide it.
To create a SUBTOTAL formula
1. In a cell, enter a formula that uses the syntax =SUBTOTAL(function_num, ref1, ref2,
…). The arguments in the syntax are as follows:
• The function_num argument is the reference number of the function you want to
use.
• The ref1, ref2, and subsequent ref arguments refer to cell ranges.
To create an AGGREGATE formula
1. Do one of the following:
• Create a formula of the syntax =AGGREGATE(function_num, options, ref1…).
The arguments in the syntax are as follows:
• The function_num argument is the reference number of the function you want to
use.
• The options argument is the reference number for the options you want.
• The ref1, ref2, and subsequent ref arguments refer to cell ranges.
Or
• Create a formula with the syntax =AGGREGATE(function_num, options, array,
[k]). The arguments in the syntax are as follows:
• The function_num argument is the reference number of the function you want to
use.
• The options argument is the reference number for the options you want to use.
• The array argument represents the cell range (array) that provides data for the
formula.
• The optional k argument, used with the LARGE, SMALL, PERCENTILE.INC,
QUARTILE.INC, PERCENTILE.EXC, and QUARTILE.EXC, indicates which
value, percentile, or quartile to return.

Find unique values within a data set


Summarizing numerical values can provide valuable information that helps you run your
business. It can also be helpful to know how many different values appear within a
column. For example, you might want to display all of the countries and regions in which
Consolidated Messenger has customers. If you want to display a list of the unique values
in a column, you can do so by creating an advanced filter.
Use the Advanced Filter dialog box to find unique records in a list
All you need to do is identify the rows that contain the values you want to filter and
indicate that you want to display unique records so that you get only the information you
want.
To find unique values within a data set
1. Click any cell in the range for which you want to find unique values.
2. On the Data tab of the ribbon, in the Sort & Filter group, click Advanced.
3. Click Filter the list, in place.
Or
Click Copy to another location.
4. Verify that the address of your data range appears in the List range box.
5. If necessary, click in the Copy to box and select the cells where you want the
filtered list to appear.
6. Select the Unique records only check box.
7. Click OK.

Define valid sets of values for ranges of cells


Part of creating efficient and easy-to-use worksheets is to do what you can to ensure that
the data entered into your worksheets is as accurate as possible. Although it isn’t possible
to catch every typographical or transcription error, you can set up a validation rule to make
sure that the data entered into a cell meets certain standards. For example, you can specify
the type of data you want, the range of acceptable values, and whether blank values are
allowed. Setting accurate validation rules can help you and your colleagues avoid entering
a customer’s name in the cell designated to hold the phone number or setting a credit limit
above a certain level.
Create data validation rules to ensure that appropriate data is entered into worksheet cells
You can select the cells where you want to add a validation rule, even if those cells already
contain data. Excel doesn’t tell you whether any of those cells contain data that violates
your rule at the moment you create the rule, but you can find out by having Excel circle
any worksheet cells that contain data that violates the cell’s validation rule. When you’re
done, you can have Excel clear the validation circles or have Excel turn off data validation
for those cells entirely.

Validation circles indicate data previously entered into a worksheet that violates data
validation rules
To add a validation rule to a cell
1. On the Data tab, in the Data Tools group, click Data Validation.
2. In the Data Validation dialog box, on the Settings tab, click the Allow arrow, and
then click the type of values to allow.
3. Use the controls to define the rule.
4. Select the Ignore blank check box to allow blank values.
Or
Clear the Ignore blank check box to require a value be entered.
5. On the Input Message tab, enter an input message for the cell.
6. On the Error Alert tab, create an error alert message for values that violate the rule.
7. Click OK.
To edit a validation rule
1. Select one or more cells that contain the validation rule.
2. Click Data Validation.
3. On the Settings tab, select the Apply these changes to all other cells with the
same settings check box to affect other cells with the same rule.
Or
Leave the Apply these changes to all other cells with the same settings check box
cleared to affect only the selected cells.
4. Use the controls in the dialog box to edit the rule, input message, and error alert.
5. Click OK.
To circle invalid data in a worksheet
1. Click the Data Validation arrow.
2. Click Circle Invalid Data.
To remove validation circles
1. Click the Data Validation arrow.
2. Click Clear Validation Circles.

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Limit data that appears on your screen
Manipulate worksheet data
Define valid sets of values for ranges of cells

Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch05 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Limit data that appears on your screen


Open the LimitData workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Create a filter that displays only those package exceptions that happened on RT189.
2. Clear the previous filter, and then create a filter that shows exceptions for the
Northeast and Northwest centers.
3. With the previous filter still in place, create a filter that displays only those
exceptions that occurred before April 1, 2016.
4. Clear the filter that shows values related to the Northeast and Northwest centers.
5. Turn off filtering for the list of data.

Manipulate worksheet data


Open the SummarizeValues workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Combine the IF and RAND functions into formulas in cells H3:H27 that display
TRUE if the value is less than 0.3 and FALSE otherwise.
2. Use AutoCalculate to find the SUM, AVERAGE, and COUNT of cells G12:G16.
3. Remove the COUNT summary from the status bar and add the MINIMUM
summary.
4. Create a SUBTOTAL formula that finds the average of the values in cells G3:G27.
5. Create an AGGREGATE formula that finds the maximum of values in cells
G3:G27.
6. Create an advanced filter that finds the unique values in cells F3:F27.

Define valid sets of values for ranges of cells


Open the ValidateData workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Create a data validation rule in cells J4:J7 that requires values entered into those
cells be no greater than $25,000.
2. Attempt to type the value 30000 in cell J7, observe the message that appears, and
then cancel data entry.
3. Edit the rule you created so it includes an input message and an error alert.
4. Display validation circles to highlight data that violates the rule you created, and
then hide the circles.
6. Reorder and summarize data

In this chapter
Sort worksheet data
Sort data by using custom lists
Organize data into levels
Look up information in a worksheet

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch06 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

One of the most important uses of business information is to record when something
happens. Whether you ship a package to a client or pay a supplier, tracking when you took
those actions, and in what order, helps you analyze your performance. Sorting your
information based on the values in one or more columns helps you discover useful trends,
such as whether your sales are generally increasing or decreasing, whether you do more
business on specific days of the week, or whether you sell products to lots of customers
from certain regions of the world.
Microsoft Excel has capabilities you might expect to find only in a database program—the
ability to organize your data into levels of detail you can show or hide, and formulas that
let you look up values in a list of data. Organizing your data by detail level lets you focus
on the values you need to make a decision, and looking up values in a worksheet helps
you find specific data. If a customer calls to ask about an order, you can use the order
number or customer number to discover the information that customer needs.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to sorting your data by using one or
more criteria, calculating subtotals, organizing your data into levels, and looking up
information in a worksheet.

Sort worksheet data


Although Excel makes it easy to enter your business data and to manage it after you’ve
saved it in a worksheet, unsorted data will rarely answer every question you want to ask it.
For example, you might want to discover which of your services generates the most
profits, or which service costs the most for you to provide. You can discover that
information by sorting your data.
When you sort data in a worksheet, you rearrange the worksheet rows based on the
contents of cells in a particular column or set of columns. For instance, you can sort a
worksheet to find your highest-revenue services.
You can sort a group of rows in a worksheet in a number of ways, but the first step is to
identify the column that will provide the values by which the rows should be sorted. In the
revenue example, you could find the highest revenue totals by sorting on the cells in the
Revenue column. You can do this by using the commands available from the Sort & Filter
button on the Home tab of the ribbon.

Tip
The exact set of values that appears in the Sort & Filter list changes to reflect
the data in your column. If your column contains numerical values, you’ll get
the options Sort Largest To Smallest, Sort Smallest To Largest, and Custom
List. If your column contains text values, the options will be Sort A To Z
(ascending order), Sort Z To A (descending order), and Custom List. And if
your column contains dates, you’ll get Sort Newest To Oldest, Sort Oldest To
Newest, and Custom List.

Revenue sorted in descending order


The Sort Smallest To Largest and Sort Largest To Smallest options let you sort rows in a
worksheet quickly, but you can use them only to sort the worksheet based on the contents
of one column, even though you might want to sort by two columns. For example, you
might want to order the worksheet rows by service category and then by total so that you
can tell which service categories are used most frequently.
Sort a list of data by more than one column
You can sort rows in a worksheet by the contents of more than one column by using the
Sort dialog box, in which you can pick any number of columns to use as sort criteria and
choose whether to sort the rows in ascending or descending order. If you want to create
two similar rules, perhaps changing just the field to which the rules are applied, you can
create a rule for one field, copy it within the Sort dialog box, and change the field name.
If your data cells have fill colors applied to them, perhaps representing cells with values
you want your colleagues to notice, you can sort your list of data by using those colors. In
addition, you can create more detailed sorting rules, change the order in which rules are
applied, and edit and delete rules by using the controls in the Sort dialog box.

Use the Sort dialog box to create detailed sorting rules


To sort worksheet data based on values in a single column
1. Click a cell in the column that contains the data by which you want to sort.
2. On the Home tab of the ribbon, in the Editing group, click the Sort & Filter button
to display a menu of sorting and filtering choices.
3. Click Sort A to Z to sort the data in ascending order.
Or
Click Sort Z to A to sort the data in descending order.
To sort worksheet data based on values in multiple columns
1. Click a cell in the list of data you want to sort.
2. On the Sort & Filter menu, click Custom Sort.
3. If necessary, select the My data has headers check box.
4. In the Sort by list, select the first field; in the Sort On list, select the option by
which you want to sort the data (Values, Cell Color, Font Color, or Cell Icon). Then,
in the Order list, select an order for the sort operation.

You can create up to 64 sorting levels in Excel 2016


5. Click the Add Level button.
6. In the Then by list, create another rule by using the techniques described in step 4.
7. When you are done creating sort levels, click OK to sort the values.
A list of data that has had sorting rules applied to it
To sort by cell color
1. Select a cell in the list of data.
2. On the Sort & Filter menu, click Custom Sort.
3. If necessary, select the My data has headers check box.
4. In the Sort by list, select the field by which you want to sort.
5. In the Sort On list, select Cell Color.
6. In the Order list, select the cell color on which you want to sort.
7. In the last list box, select the position you want for the color you identified (On Top
or On Bottom).
Sort lists of data by using cell fill colors as a criterion
8. When you are done creating sorting rules, click OK to sort the values.
To copy a sorting level
1. Select a cell in the list of data.
2. On the Sort & Filter menu, click Custom Sort.
3. Select the sorting level you want to copy.
4. Click the Copy Level button, and edit the rule as needed.
5. Click OK.
To move a sorting rule up or down in priority
1. On the Sort & Filter menu, click Custom Sort.
2. Select the sorting rule you want to move.
3. Click the Move Up button to move the rule up in the order.
Or
Click the Move Down button to move the rule down in the order.
4. Click OK.
To delete a sorting rule
1. On the Sort & Filter menu, click Custom Sort.
2. Select the sorting level you want to delete.
3. Click the Delete Level button.
4. Click OK.

Sort data by using custom lists


The default setting for Excel is to sort numbers according to their values and to sort words
in alphabetical order, but that pattern doesn’t work for some sets of values. One example
in which sorting a list of values in alphabetical order would yield incorrect results is the
months of the year. In an “alphabetical” calendar, April is the first month and September is
the last! Fortunately, Excel recognizes a number of special lists, such as days of the week
and months of the year. You can have Excel sort the contents of a worksheet based on
values in a known list; if needed, you can create your own list of values. For example, the
default lists of weekdays in Excel start with Sunday. If you keep your business records
based on a Monday–Sunday week, you can create a new list with Monday as the first day
and Sunday as the last.
You can create a new custom list by using controls that are reached through the Excel
Options dialog box, which gives you the choice of entering the values yourself or
importing them from a cell range in your workbook.

Manage your lists by using the Custom Lists dialog box


Tip
Another benefit of creating a custom list is that dragging the fill handle of a
list cell that contains a value causes Excel to extend the series for you. For
example, if you create the list Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter, and then enter
Summer in a cell and drag the cell’s fill handle, Excel extends the series as
Fall, Winter, Spring, Summer, Fall, and so on.

To define a custom list by entering its values


1. On the File tab, click Options.
2. In the Excel Options dialog box, click the Advanced category.
3. Scroll down to the General area, and then click the Edit Custom Lists button.
4. In the Custom Lists dialog box, enter a list of items in the List entries area.
5. Click Add.
6. Click OK, and then click OK to close the Excel Options dialog box.
To define a custom list by copying values from a worksheet
1. Select the cells that contain the values for your custom list.
2. In the Excel Options dialog box, click the Advanced category.
3. Scroll down to the General area, and click the Edit Custom Lists button.
4. In the Custom Lists dialog box, click the Import button.
5. Click OK, and then click OK to close the Excel Options dialog box.
To sort worksheet data by using a custom list
1. Click a cell in the list of data you want to sort.
2. On the Home tab, click the Sort & Filter button, and then click Custom Sort.
3. If necessary, select the My data has headers check box.
4. In the Sort by list, select the field that contains the data by which you want to sort.
5. If necessary, in the Sort On list, select Values.
6. In the Order list, select Custom List.
7. In the Custom Lists dialog box, select the list you want to use.
8. Click OK.
Organize data into levels
After you have sorted the rows in an Excel worksheet or entered the data so that it doesn’t
need to be sorted, you can have Excel calculate subtotals (totals for a portion of the data).
In a worksheet with sales data for three different product categories, for example, you can
sort the products by category, select all the cells that contain data, and then open the
Subtotal dialog box.

Apply subtotals to data by using the Subtotal dialog box


In the Subtotal dialog box, you can choose the column on which to base your subtotals
(such as every change of value in the Week column), the summary calculation you want to
perform, and the column or columns with values to be summarized. After you define your
subtotals, they appear in your worksheet.
A list of data with Subtotal outlining applied
When you add subtotals to a worksheet, Excel also defines groups based on the rows used
to calculate a subtotal. The groupings form an outline of your worksheet based on the
criteria you used to create the subtotals. For example, all the rows representing months in
the year 2014 could be in one group, rows representing months in 2015 in another, and so
on. The outline area at the left of your worksheet holds controls you can use to hide or
display groups of rows in your worksheet.
A list of data with details for the year 2014 hidden
When you hide a group of rows, the button displayed next to the group changes to a Show
Detail button (the button with the plus sign). Clicking a group’s Show Detail button
restores the rows in the group to the worksheet.
The level buttons are the other buttons in the outline area of a worksheet with subtotals.
Each button represents a level of organization in a worksheet; clicking a level button hides
all levels of detail below that of the button you clicked. The following table describes the
data contained at each level of a worksheet with three levels of organization.

A list of data with details hidden at level 2


If you want, you can add levels of detail to the outline that Excel creates. For example,
you might want to be able to hide revenues from January and February, which you know
are traditionally strong months. You can also delete any groupings you no longer need, or
remove subtotals and outlining entirely.
Tip
If you want to remove all subtotals from a worksheet, open the Subtotal
dialog box, and click the Remove All button.

To organize data into levels


1. Click a cell in the group of data you want to organize.
2. On the Data tab of the ribbon, in the Outline group, click the Subtotal button.
3. In the Subtotal dialog box, in the At each change in list, select the field that
controls when subtotals appear.
4. In the Use function list, select the summary function you want to use for each
subtotal.
5. In the Add subtotal to group, select the check box next to any field you want to
summarize.
6. Click OK.
To show or hide detail in a list with a subtotal summary
1. Do either of the following:
• Click a Hide Detail control to hide a level of detail.
• Click a Show Detail control to show a level of detail.
To create a custom group in a list that has a subtotal summary
1. Select the rows you want to include in the group.
A data list with rows selected to create a custom group
2. Click the Group button.
To remove a custom group in a list that has a subtotal summary
1. Select the rows you want to remove from the group.
2. Click the Ungroup button.
To remove subtotals from a data list
1. Click any cell in the list.
2. Click the Subtotal button.
3. In the Subtotal dialog box, click Remove All.
Look up information in a worksheet
Whenever you create a worksheet that holds information about a list of distinct items, such
as products offered for sale by a company, you should ensure that at least one column in
the list contains a unique value that distinguishes that row (and the item the row
represents) from every other row in the list. Assigning each row a column that contains a
unique value means that you can associate data in one list with data in another list. For
example, if you assign every customer a unique identification number, you can store a
customer’s contact information in one worksheet and all orders for that customer in
another worksheet. You can then associate the customer’s orders and contact information
without writing the contact information in a worksheet every time the customer places an
order.
In technical terms, the column that contains a unique value for each row is known as the
primary key column. When you look up information in an Excel worksheet, it is very
useful to position the primary key column as the first column in your list of data.
If you know an item’s primary key value, it’s no trouble to look through a list of 20 or 30
items to find it. If, however, you have a list of many thousands of items, looking through
the list to find one would take quite a bit of time. Instead, you can use the VLOOKUP
function to find the value you want.

An Excel table for use with VLOOKUP


The VLOOKUP function finds a value in the leftmost column of a named range, such as a
table, and then returns the value from the specified cell to the right of the cell with the
found value. A properly formed VLOOKUP function has four arguments (data that is
passed to the function), as shown in the following definition: =VLOOKUP(lookup_value,
table_array, col_index_num, range_lookup).
The following table summarizes the values Excel expects for each of these arguments.
Important
When range_lookup is left blank or set to TRUE, for VLOOKUP to work
properly, the rows in the named range specified in the table_array argument
must be sorted in ascending order based on the values in the leftmost column
of the named range.

The VLOOKUP function works a bit differently depending on whether the range_lookup
argument is set to TRUE or FALSE. The following list summarizes how the function
works based on the value of range_lookup:
If the range_lookup argument is left blank or set to TRUE, and VLOOKUP doesn’t
find an exact match for lookup_value, the function returns the largest value that is
less than lookup_value.
If the range_lookup argument is left blank or set to TRUE, and lookup_value is
smaller than the smallest value in the named range, an #N/A error is returned.
If the range_lookup argument is left blank or set to TRUE, and lookup_value is
larger than all values in the named range, the largest value in the named range is
returned.
If the range_lookup argument is set to FALSE, and VLOOKUP doesn’t find an
exact match for lookup_value, the function returns an #N/A error.
As an example of a VLOOKUP function, consider the following data, which shows an
Excel table with its headers in row 2 and the first column in column B of the worksheet.
If the =VLOOKUP (E3, B3:C6, 2, FALSE) formula is used, when you enter CU03 in cell
E3 and press Enter, the VLOOKUP function searches the first column of the table, finds
an exact match, and returns the value Tailspin Toys to cell F3.

A VLOOKUP formula that looks up a customer name when a customer ID is provided

Tip
The related HLOOKUP function matches a value in a column of the first row
of a table and returns the value in the specified row number of the same
column. The letter H in the HLOOKUP function name refers to the horizontal
layout of the data, just as the V in the VLOOKUP function name refers to the
data’s vertical layout. For more information on using the HLOOKUP
function, click the Excel Help button, enter HLOOKUP in the search terms
box, and then click Search.

Important
Be sure to give the cell in which you type the VLOOKUP formula the same
format as the data you want the formula to display. For example, if you create
a VLOOKUP formula in cell G14 that finds a date, you must apply a date cell
format to cell G14 for the result of the formula to display properly.

To look up worksheet values by using VLOOKUP


1. Ensure that the data list includes a unique value in each cell of the leftmost column
and that the values are sorted in ascending order.
2. In the cell where you want to enter the VLOOKUP formula, enter a formula of the
form =VLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num, range_lookup).
3. Enter TRUE for the range_lookup argument to allow an approximate match.
Or
Enter FALSE for the range_lookup argument to require an exact match.
4. Enter a lookup value in the cell named in the VLOOKUP formula’s first argument,
and press Enter.

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Sort worksheet data
Sort data by using custom lists
Organize data into levels
Look up information in a worksheet

Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch06 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Sort worksheet data


Open the SortData workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Sort the data in the list in ascending order based on the values in the Revenue
column.
2. Sort the data in the list in descending order based on the values in the Revenue
column.
3. Sort the data in the list in ascending order based on a two-level sort where the first
sorting level is the Customer column and the second is the Season column.
4. Change the order of the fields in the previous sort so that the first criterion is the
Season column and the second is the Customer column.
5. Sort the data so that the cells in the Revenue column that have a red fill color are at
the top of the list.

Sort data by using custom lists


Open the SortCustomData workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Create a custom list by using the values in cells G4:G7.
2. Sort the data in the cell range B3:D14 by the values in the Season column based on
the custom list you just created.
3. Create a two-level sort by using the values in the Customer column, in ascending
order, as the first criterion, and the custom list–based sort for the Season column as
the second.

Organize data into levels


Open the OrganizeData workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Outline the data list in cells A1:D25 to find the subtotal for each year.
2. Hide the details of rows for the year 2015.
3. Create a new group consisting of the rows showing data for June and July 2014.
4. Hide the details of the group you just created.
5. Show the details of all months for the year 2015.
6. Remove the subtotal outline from the entire data list.

Look up information in a worksheet


Open the LookupData workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Sort the values in the first table column in ascending order.
2. In cell C3, create a formula that finds the CustomerID value for a ShipmentID
entered into cell B3.
3. Edit the formula so that it finds the DestinationPostalCode value for the same
package.
7. Combine data from multiple sources

In this chapter
Use workbooks as templates for other workbooks
Link to data in other worksheets and workbooks
Consolidate multiple sets of data into a single workbook

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch07 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

Excel 2016 gives you a wide range of tools with which to format, summarize, and present
your data. After you have created a workbook to hold data about a particular subject, you
can create as many worksheets as you need to make that data easier to find within your
workbook. To ensure that every year’s workbook has a similar appearance, you can create
a workbook with the characteristics you want, and save it as a pattern, or template, for
similar workbooks you will create in the future.
A consequence of organizing your data into different workbooks and worksheets is that
you need ways to manage, combine, and summarize data from more than one Excel
document. You can always copy data from one worksheet to another, but if the original
value were to change, that change would not be reflected in the cell range to which you
copied the data. Rather than remembering which cells you need to update when a value
changes, you can create a link to the original cell. That way, Excel will update the value
for you whenever you open the workbook. If multiple worksheets hold related values, you
can use links to summarize those values in a single worksheet.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to using a workbook as a template for
other workbooks, linking to data in other workbooks, and consolidating multiple sets of
data into a single workbook.

Use workbooks as templates for other workbooks


After you decide on the type of data you want to store in a workbook and what that
workbook should look like, you probably want to be able to create similar workbooks
without adding all of the formatting and formulas again. For example, you might have
established a design for your monthly sales-tracking workbook.
When you have settled on a design for your workbooks, you can save one of the
workbooks as a template for similar workbooks you will create in the future. You can
leave the workbook’s labels to aid in data entry, but you should remove any existing data
from a workbook that you save as a template, both to avoid data entry errors and to
remove any confusion as to whether the workbook is a template. You can also remove any
worksheets you and your colleagues won’t need by right-clicking the tab of an unneeded
worksheet and, on the shortcut menu that appears, clicking Delete.

Tip
You can also save your Excel 2016 workbook either as an Excel 97–2003
template (.xlt) or as a macro-enabled Excel 2016 workbook template (.xltm).
For information about using macros in Excel 2016 workbooks, see Chapter
12, “Automate repetitive tasks by using macros.”

After you save a workbook as a template, you can use it as a model for new workbooks.

Important
Be sure to save your Excel template file in the Custom Office Templates
folder so it’s available for you to use later.

The Backstage view displays available Excel workbook templates


When you create a new workbook by using the tools found in the Backstage view, the
New page displays the blank workbook template, built-in templates, a search box you can
use to locate helpful templates on Office.com, and a set of sample search terms.
From the list of available templates, you can click the template you want to use as the
model for your workbook. Excel creates a new workbook (an .xlsx workbook file, not an
.xltx template file) with the template’s formatting and contents in place.
In addition to creating a workbook template, you can add a worksheet based on a
worksheet template to your workbook by using the Insert dialog box.

Add specific worksheet types by using the Insert dialog box


The Insert dialog box splits its contents into two tabs. The General tab contains icons you
can click to insert a blank worksheet, a chart sheet, and any worksheet templates available
to you.

Tip
The other two options on the General tab, MS Excel 4.0 Macro and MS Excel
5.0 Dialog, are there to help users include solutions built in earlier versions of
Excel into Excel 2016.

The Spreadsheet Solutions tab contains a set of useful templates for a variety of financial
and personal tasks. If you want to create a worksheet template, as opposed to a workbook
template, delete all but one worksheet from your file and save it as a template.
Create useful worksheets from the Spreadsheet Solutions tab
To create a workbook by using an existing template
1. Click the File tab to display the Backstage view.
2. Click New.
3. If necessary, enter a search term in the Search for online templates box and press
Enter.
4. Click the template you want to use.
5. Click Create.
To insert a worksheet template into a workbook
1. Right-click any sheet tab and, on the shortcut menu that appears, click Insert.
2. In the Insert dialog box, click the tab that contains the worksheet template you want
to use.
3. Click the worksheet template.
4. Click OK.
To save a workbook as a template
1. Create the workbook you want to save as a template.
2. In the Backstage view, click Save As.
3. Click Browse.
4. Click the Save as type arrow, and then click Excel Template.
Click the Excel Template file type to use your file as a pattern for other workbooks
5. In the File name box, enter a name for the template workbook.
6. Click Save.
To save a workbook as a macro-enabled template
1. Create the workbook you want to save as a macro-enabled template.
2. In the Backstage view, click Save As.
3. Click Browse.
4. Click the Save as type arrow, and then click Excel Macro-Enabled Template.
5. In the File name box, enter a name for the template workbook.
6. Click Save.

Link to data in other worksheets and workbooks


Copying and pasting data from one workbook to another is a quick and easy way to gather
related data in one place, but there is a substantial limitation: If the data from the original
cell changes, the change is not reflected in the cell to which the data was copied. In other
words, copying and pasting a cell’s contents doesn’t create a relationship between the
original cell and the target cell.
You can ensure that the data in the target cell reflects any changes in the original cell by
creating a link between the two cells. Instead of entering a value into the target cell by
typing or pasting, you create a formula that identifies the source from which Excel derives
the target cell’s value, and that updates the value when it changes in the source cell.
You can link to a cell in another workbook by starting to create your formula, displaying
the worksheet that contains the value you want to use, and then selecting the cell or cell
range you want to include in the calculation. When you press Enter and switch back to the
workbook with the target cell, the value in the formula bar shows that Excel has filled in
the formula with a reference to the cell you clicked.

A 3-D cell reference to another workbook


The reference =‘[FleetOperatingCosts.xlsx]Truck Fuel’!$C$15 gives three pieces of
information: the workbook, the worksheet, and the cell you linked to in the worksheet.
The first element of the reference, the name of the workbook, is enclosed in brackets; the
end of the second element (the worksheet) is marked with an exclamation point; and the
third element, the cell reference, has a dollar sign before both the row and the column
identifier. The single quotes around the workbook name and worksheet name are there to
allow for the space in the Truck Fuel worksheet’s name. This type of reference is known
as a 3-D reference, reflecting the three dimensions (workbook, worksheet, and cell range)
that you need to point to a group of cells in another workbook.

Tip
For references to cells in the same workbook, the workbook information is
omitted. Likewise, references to cells in the same worksheet don’t use a
worksheet identifier.

You can also link to cells in an Excel table. Such links include the workbook name,
worksheet name, the name of the Excel table, and row and column references of the cell to
which you’ve linked. Creating a link to the Cost column’s cell in a table’s Totals row, for
example, results in a reference such as =‘FleetOperatingCosts.xlsx’!Truck
Maintenance[[#Totals],[Cost]].
Link to an Excel table value in another workbook

Important
Hiding or displaying a table’s Totals row affects any links to a cell in that row.
Hiding the Totals row causes references to that row to display a #REF! error
message.

Whenever you open a workbook containing a link to another document, Excel tries to
update the information in linked cells. If the app can’t find the source, as would happen if
a workbook or worksheet is deleted or renamed, an alert box appears to indicate that there
is a broken link. From within that alert box, you can access tools to fix the link reference.

A dialog box that indicates that the workbook just opened contains one or more broken
links
If you enter a link into a cell and you make an error, a #REF! error message appears in the
cell that contains the link.

Cells that contain incorrect links display a #REF! error


To fix the link, click the cell, delete its contents, and then either retype the link or create it
with the point-and-click method described in the procedures for this topic. Excel might
also display errors if the cell values in the worksheet cells you link to change in value and
cause errors such as DIV/0! (divide by zero).

Tip
Excel tracks workbook changes, such as when you change a workbook’s
name, very well. Unless you delete a worksheet or workbook, or move a
workbook to a new folder, odds are good that Excel can update your link
references automatically to reflect the change.

To create a link to a cell or cell range on another worksheet


1. Start creating a formula that will include a value from a cell or cell range on another
worksheet.
2. Click the sheet tab of the worksheet with the cell or cell range you want to include
in the formula.
3. Select the cell or cells to include in the formula.
4. Press Enter.
To create a link to a cell or cell range in another workbook
1. Open the workbook where you want to create the formula that references an
external cell or cell range.
2. Open the workbook that contains the cell or cell range you want to include in your
formula.
3. Switch back to the original workbook and start creating a formula that will include a
value from a cell or cell range in the other workbook.
4. Display the workbook that contains the cell or cell range you want to include in the
formula.
5. Click the sheet tab of the worksheet with the cell or cell range you want to include
in the formula.
6. Select the cell or cells to include in the formula.
7. Press Enter.
To create a link to cells in an Excel table
1. Start creating a formula that will include a value from cells in an Excel table.
2. Click the sheet tab of the worksheet with the Excel table that contains the cells you
want to include in the formula.
3. Select the cell or cells to include in the formula.
4. Press Enter.
To open the source of a linked value
1. Open a workbook that contains a link to an external cell or cell range.
2. On the Data tab of the ribbon, in the Connections group, click the Edit Links
button.

Manage workbook links by using the Edit Links dialog box


3. In the Edit Links dialog box, click the link you want to work with.
4. Click the Open Source button.
To fix a link that returns an error because it references the wrong workbook
1. Click the Edit Links button.
2. In the Edit Links dialog box, click the link that returns an error.
3. Click Change Source.
4. Click the workbook that contains the correct source value.
5. If the Select Sheet dialog box appears, click the worksheet that contains the correct
source value, and click OK.
6. Click Close.
To break a link
1. In a workbook that contains a link to a cell on another worksheet or in another
workbook, click the Edit Links button.
2. In the Edit Links dialog box, click the link you want to edit.
3. Click the Break Link button. When prompted, click Break Links to confirm that
you want to break the link.
4. Click Close.
Tip
If you can’t easily fix a link that returns an error, the best choice is often to
delete the link from the formula and re-create it.

Consolidate multiple sets of data into a single workbook


When you create a series of worksheets that contain similar data, perhaps by using a
template, you build a consistent set of workbooks in which data is stored in a predictable
place. For example, consider a workbook template used to track the number of calls
received from 9:00 A.M. to 10:00 P.M.

Consolidation targets should have labels but no data


Using links to bring data from one worksheet to another gives you a great deal of power to
combine data from several sources into a single resource. For example, you can create a
worksheet that lists the number of calls you receive during specific hours of the day, use
links to draw the values from the worksheets in which the call counts were recorded, and
then create a formula to perform calculations on the data. However, for large worksheets
with hundreds of cells filled with data, creating links from every cell is a time-consuming
process. Also, to calculate a sum or an average for the data, you would need to include
links to cells in every workbook.
Fortunately, there is an easier way to combine data from multiple worksheets in a single
worksheet. By using this process, called data consolidation, you can define ranges of cells
from multiple worksheets and have Excel summarize the data. You define these ranges in
the Consolidate dialog box.

Important
To consolidate data, every range included in the consolidation must be of the
same shape and size.
Summarize data sets of the same shape by using consolidation
Cells that are in the same relative position in the ranges have their contents summarized
together. When you consolidate the ranges, the cell in the upper-left corner of one range is
added to the cell in the upper-left corner of every other range, even if those ranges are in
different areas of the worksheet. After you choose the ranges to be used in your summary,
you can choose the calculation to perform on the data. Excel sums the data by default, but
you can select other functions to summarize the data.

Important
You can define only one data consolidation summary per workbook.

To consolidate cell ranges from multiple worksheets or workbooks


1. Open the workbook into which you want to consolidate your data and the
workbooks supplying the data for the consolidated range.
2. In the workbook into which you want to consolidate your data, on the Data tab, in
the Data Tools group, click Consolidate.
3. In the Consolidate dialog box, click the Collapse Dialog button at the right edge of
the Reference field to collapse the dialog box.

Clicking the Collapse Dialog button minimizes the Consolidate dialog box
4. On the View tab, in the Window group, click Switch Windows and then, in the list,
click the first workbook that contains data you want to include.
5. Select the cell range, click the Expand Dialog button to restore the Consolidate
dialog box to its full size, and click Add to add the selected range to the All
references pane.
Add data ranges to create a consolidation range
6. Repeat steps 3 through 5 to add additional ranges to the consolidation.
7. If you want to change the summary function, click the Function arrow in the
Consolidate dialog box and select a new function from the list.
8. Click OK.

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Use workbooks as templates for other workbooks
Link to data in other worksheets and workbooks
Consolidate multiple sets of data into a single workbook

Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch07 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Use workbooks as templates for other workbooks


Open the CreateTemplate workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Add a worksheet based on an existing template, such as the Sales Report template,
to the workbook.
2. Save the new workbook as a template and close it.
3. In the Backstage view, click New.
4. Create a new workbook based on an existing template.
Link to data in other worksheets and workbooks
Open the CreateDataLinks and FleetOperatingCosts workbooks in Excel, and then
perform the following tasks:
1. In the CreateDataLinks workbook, create links to the FleetOperatingCosts
workbook that copy truck fuel, truck maintenance, airplane fuel, and airplane
maintenance costs to the appropriate cells in column I on Sheet1 of the
CreateDataLinks workbook.
2. Close the FleetOperatingCosts workbook.
3. View the links in the CreateDataLinks workbook and show the source for one of
the links.
4. Break the link to the airplane fuel source data cell.

Consolidate multiple sets of data into a single workbook


Open the ConsolidateData, JanuaryCalls, and FebruaryCalls workbooks in Excel, and then
perform the following tasks:
1. In the ConsolidateData workbook, create a consolidation target by using cells
C5:O13.
2. Add call data from the JanuaryCalls workbook’s cell range C5:O13 as a
consolidation range.
3. Add call data from the FebruaryCalls workbook’s cell range C5:O13 as a
consolidation range.
4. Click OK.

A completed consolidation summary


8. Analyze alternative data sets

In this chapter
Examine data by using the Quick Analysis Lens
Define an alternative data set
Define multiple alternative data sets
Analyze data by using data tables
Vary your data to get a specific result by using Goal Seek
Find optimal solutions by using Solver
Analyze data by using descriptive statistics

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch08 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

When you store data in an Excel 2016 workbook, you can use that data, either by itself or
as part of a calculation, to discover important information about your organization. You
can summarize your data quickly by using the Quick Analysis Lens to create charts,
calculate totals, or apply conditional formatting.
The data in your worksheets is great for answering “what-if” questions, such as, “How
much money would we save if we reduced our labor to 20 percent of our total costs?” You
can always save an alternative version of a workbook and create formulas that calculate
the effects of your changes, but you can do the same thing in your existing workbooks by
defining one or more alternative data sets. You can also create a data table that calculates
the effects of changing one or two variables in a formula, find the input values required to
generate the result you want, and describe your data statistically.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to examining data by using the Quick
Analysis Lens, defining an alternative data set, defining multiple alternative data sets,
analyzing data by using data tables, varying data to get a specific result by using Goal
Seek, finding optimal solutions by using Solver, and analyzing data by using descriptive
statistics.

Examine data by using the Quick Analysis Lens


One useful tool in Excel 2016 is the Quick Analysis Lens, which brings the most
commonly used formatting, charting, and summary tools into one convenient location.
After you select the data you want to summarize, clicking the Quick Analysis action
button displays the tools you can use to analyze your data.
Click the Quick Analysis action button to display analysis tools

Tip
To display the Quick Analysis toolbar by using a keyboard shortcut, press
Ctrl+Q.

The Quick Analysis toolbar makes a wide range of tools available, including the ability to
create an Excel table or PivotTable, insert a chart, or add conditional formatting. You can
also add total columns and rows to your data range.

Select from several categories of analysis tools


You can use the tools on the Totals tab of the Quick Analysis toolbar to add summary
operations to your data. You can add one summary column and one summary row to each
data range. If you select a new summary column or row when one exists, Excel displays a
confirmation dialog box to verify that you want to replace the existing summary.
To add formatting by using the Quick Analysis Lens
1. Select the cells you want to analyze.
2. Click the Quick Analysis action button.
3. If necessary, click the Formatting tab.
4. Click the button that represents the formatting you want to apply.
To add totals by using the Quick Analysis Lens
1. Select the cells you want to analyze.
2. Click the Quick Analysis action button.
3. If necessary, click the Totals tab.
4. Click the button that represents the total you want to apply.
To add tables by using the Quick Analysis Lens
1. Select the cells you want to analyze.
2. Click the Quick Analysis action button.
3. If necessary, click the Tables tab.
4. Click the button that represents the type of table you want to create.

Define an alternative data set


When you save data in an Excel worksheet, you create a record that reflects the
characteristics of an event or object. That data could represent the number of deliveries in
an hour on a particular day, the price of a new delivery option, or the percentage of total
revenue accounted for by a delivery option. After the data is in place, you can create
formulas to generate totals, find averages, and sort the rows in a worksheet based on the
contents of one or more columns. However, if you want to perform a what-if analysis or
explore the impact that changes in your data would have on any of the calculations in your
workbooks, you need to change your data.
The problem with manipulating data that reflects an event or item is that when you change
any data to affect a calculation, you run the risk of destroying the original data if you
accidentally save your changes. You can avoid ruining your original data by creating a
duplicate workbook and making your changes to it, but you can also create an alternative
data set, or scenario, within an existing workbook.
When you create a scenario, you give Excel alternative values for a list of cells in a
worksheet. You can use the Scenario Manager to add, delete, and edit scenarios.
Track and change scenarios by using the Scenario Manager
When you’re ready to add a scenario, you start by providing its name and, if you want, a
comment describing the scenario.

Tip
Adding a comment gives you and your colleagues valuable information about
the scenario and your purpose for creating it. Many Excel users create
scenarios without comments, but comments are extremely useful when you
work on a team or revisit a workbook after several months.

Define a scenario in the Add Scenario dialog box


After you name your scenario, you can define its values.
Enter alternative data in the Scenario Values dialog box
After you have created your scenario, clicking the Show button in the Scenario Manager
replaces the values in the original worksheet with the alternative values you just defined in
the scenario. Any formulas that reference cells with changed values will recalculate their
results. You can then remove the scenario by clicking the Undo button on the Quick
Access Toolbar.

Important
If you save and close a workbook while a scenario is in effect, those values
become the default values for the cells changed by the scenario! You should
seriously consider creating a scenario that contains the original values of the
cells you change or creating a scenario summary worksheet (a subject
covered in the next topic).

The tools available in the Scenario Manager also let you edit your scenarios and delete the
ones you no longer need.
To define an alternative data set by creating a scenario
1. On the Data tab, in the Forecast group, click the What-If Analysis button to
display a menu of the what-if choices, and then click Scenario Manager.
2. In the Scenario Manager dialog box, click Add.
3. In the Scenario name box, enter a name for the scenario.
4. Click in the Changing cells box, and then select the cells you want to change.
5. Click OK.
6. In the Scenario Values dialog box, enter new values for each of the changing cells.
7. Click OK.
8. Click Close to close the Scenario Manager dialog box.
To display an alternative data set
1. On the What-if Analysis menu, click Scenario Manager.
2. In the Scenario Manager dialog box, click the scenario you want to display.
3. Click Show.
4. If you want to close the Scenario Manager dialog box, click Close.
To edit an alternative data set
1. On the What-If Analysis menu, click Scenario Manager.
2. In the Scenario Manager dialog box, click the scenario you want to edit.
3. Click Edit.
4. In the Edit Scenario dialog box, change the values in the Scenario name,
Changing cells, or Comment box.
5. Click OK.
6. In the Scenario Values dialog box, enter new values for each of the changing cells.
7. Click OK.
8. Click Close to close the Scenario Manager dialog box.
To delete an alternative data set
1. On the What-if Analysis menu, click Scenario Manager.
2. In the Scenario Manager dialog box, click the scenario you want to delete.
3. Click Delete.
4. Click Close to close the Scenario Manager dialog box.

Define multiple alternative data sets


One great feature of Excel scenarios is that you’re not limited to creating one alternative
data set—you can create as many scenarios as you want and apply them by using the
Scenario Manager.

Tip
If you apply a scenario to a worksheet and then apply another scenario to the
same worksheet, both sets of changes appear. If multiple scenarios change the
same cell, the cell will contain the value in the most recently applied scenario.

Applying multiple scenarios alters the values in your worksheets. You can see how those
changes affect your formulas, but Excel also lets you create a record of your different
scenarios by using the Scenario Summary dialog box. From within the dialog box, you can
choose the type of summary worksheet you want to create and the cells you want to
display in the summary worksheet.
Summarize scenarios by using the Scenario Summary dialog box

Important
Make sure you don’t have any scenarios applied to your workbook when you
create the summary worksheet. If you do have an active scenario, Excel will
record the scenario’s changed values as the originals, and your summary will
be inaccurate.

It’s a good idea to create an “undo” scenario named Normal that holds the original values
of the cells you’re going to change before you change them in other scenarios. For
example, if you create a scenario that changes the values in three cells, your Normal
scenario restores those cells to their original values. That way, even if you accidentally
modify your worksheet, you can apply the Normal scenario and not have to reconstruct the
worksheet from scratch.

Important
Each scenario can change a maximum of 32 cells, so you might need to create
more than one scenario to ensure that you can restore a worksheet.

To apply multiple alternative data sets


1. On the Data tab, in the Forecast group, click the What-If Analysis button to
display a menu of the what-if choices, and then click Scenario Manager.
2. In the Scenario Manager dialog box, click the scenario you want to display.
3. Click Show.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for any additional scenarios you want to display.
5. Click Close.
To create a scenario summary worksheet
1. On the What-if Analysis menu, click Scenario Manager.
2. In the Scenario Manager dialog box, click Summary.
3. In the Scenario Summary dialog box, click Scenario summary.
4. Click OK.
Analyze data by using data tables
When you examine business data in Excel, you will often want to discover what the result
of a formula would be with different input values. In Excel 2016, you can calculate the
results of those changes by using a data table. To create a data table with one variable, you
create a worksheet that contains the data required to calculate the variations in the table.

Perform data analysis by changing one variable

Important
You must lay out the data and formulas in a rectangle so the data table you
create will appear in the lower-right corner of the cell range you select.

For example, you can put the formula used to summarize the base data in cell D2, the cells
with the changing values in the range C3:C5, and the cells to contain the calculations
based on those values in D3:D5. Given the layout of this specific worksheet, you would
select cells C2:D5, which contain the summary formula, the changing values, and the cells
where the new calculations should appear.
After you select the data and the formula, you can use the Data Table dialog box to
perform your analysis.

Identify input cells for your data table


To change a single variable, you identify the cell that contains the summary formula’s
value that will change in the data table’s cells. In this example, that cell is B3. Because the
target cells D3:D5 are laid out as a column, you would identify that range as the column
input cell.
Tip
If your target cells were laid out as a row, you would enter the address of the
cell containing the value to be changed in the Row Input Cell box.

When you click OK, Excel fills in the results of the data table, using the replacement
values in cells C3:C5 to provide the values for cells D3:D5.

A completed one-variable data table


To create a two-variable data table, you lay your data out with one set of replacement
values as row headers and the other set as column headers.

Two-variable data tables replace both row and column values


In this example, you would select the cell range C2:E5 and create the data table. Because
you’re creating a two-variable data table, you need to enter cell addresses for both the
column input cell and row input cell. The column input cell is B3, which represents the
rate increase, and the row input cell is B4, which contains the package count. When you’re
done, Excel creates your data table.
Replacing both row and column values generates multiple outcomes

Tip
For a two-value data table, the summary formula should be the top-left cell in
the range you select before creating the data table.

To create a one-variable data table


1. Create a worksheet with a summary formula, the input values that the summary
formula uses to calculate its value, and a series of adjacent cells that contain
alternative values for one of the summary formula’s input values.
2. Select the cells representing the summary formula and the changing values, and the
cells where the alternative summary formula results should appear.
3. On the Data tab, in the Forecast group, click the What-If Analysis button to
display a menu of the what-if choices, and then click Data Table.
4. In the Data Table dialog box, do either of the following:
• If the changing values appear in a row, in the Row input cell box, enter the cell
address of the changing value.
• If the changing values appear in a column, in the Column input cell box, enter the
cell address of the changing value.
5. Click OK.
To create a two-variable data table
1. Create a worksheet with a summary formula, the input values that the summary
formula uses to calculate its value, and two series of adjacent cells (one in a row, one
in a column) that contain alternative values for two of the summary formula’s input
values.
2. Select the cells representing the summary formula and the changing values, and the
cells where the alternative summary formula results should appear.
3. On the What-If Analysis menu, click Data Table.
4. In the Data Table dialog box, in the Row input cell box, enter the cell address of
the cell that has alternative values that appear in a worksheet row.
5. In the Column input cell box, enter the cell address of the cell that has alternative
values that appear in a worksheet column.
6. Click OK.

Vary your data to get a specific result by using Goal Seek


When you run an organization, you must track how every element performs, both in
absolute terms and in relation to other parts of the organization. There are many ways to
measure your operations, but one useful technique is to limit the percentage of total costs
contributed by a specific item.
As an example, consider a worksheet that contains the actual costs and percentage of total
costs for several production input values.

A worksheet that calculates the percentage of total costs for each of four categories
Under the current pricing structure, Labor represents 22.79 percent of the total costs for
the product. If you’d prefer that Labor represent no more than 20 percent of total costs,
you can change the cost of Labor manually until you find the number you want. Rather
than do it manually, though, you can use Goal Seek to have Excel find the solution for
you.
When you use Goal Seek, you identify the cell that contains the formula you use to
evaluate your data, the target value, and the cell you want to change to generate that target
value.

Identify the cell that contains the formula you want to use to generate a target value
Clicking OK tells Excel to find a solution for the goal you set. When Excel finishes its
work, the new values appear in the designated cells, and the Goal Seek Status dialog box
opens.

Important
If you save a workbook with the results of a Goal Seek calculation in place,
you will overwrite the values in your workbook.
A worksheet where Goal Seek found a solution to a problem

Tip
Goal Seek finds the closest solution it can without exceeding the target value.

To find a target value by using Goal Seek


1. On the Data tab, in the Forecast group, click the What-If Analysis button, and
then click Goal Seek.
2. In the Goal Seek dialog box, in the Set cell box, enter the address of the cell that
contains the formula you want to use to produce a specific value.
3. In the To value box, enter the target value for the formula you identified.
4. In the By changing cell box, enter the address of the cell that contains the value you
want to vary to produce the result you want.
5. Click OK.

Find optimal solutions by using Solver


Goal Seek is a great tool for finding out how much you need to change a single input
value to generate a specific result from a formula, but it’s of no help if you want to find
the best mix of several input values. For more complex problems that seek to maximize or
minimize results based on several input values and constraints, you need to use Solver.
Use Solver to select a product distribution to maximize revenue

Tip
It helps to spell out every aspect of your problem so that you can identify the
cells you want Solver to use in its calculations.

If you performed a complete installation when you installed Excel on your computer, the
Solver button will appear on the Data tab in the Analyze group. If not, you can install the
Solver add-in from the Add-Ins page of the Excel Options dialog box. After the
installation is complete, Solver appears on the Data tab, in the Analyze group, and you can
create your model.
Create a Solver model by using the Solver Parameters dialog box
The first step in setting up your Solver problem is to identify the cell that contains the
summary formula you want to establish as your objective, followed by indicating whether
you want to minimize the cell’s value, maximize the cell’s value, or make the cell take on
a specific value. Next, you select the cells Solver should vary to change the value in the
objective cell. You can, if you want, require Solver to find solutions that use only integer
values (that is, values that are whole numbers and have no decimal component).

Important
Finding integer-only solutions, or integer programming, is much harder than
finding solutions that allow decimal values. It might take Solver several
minutes to find a solution or to discover that a solution using just integer
values isn’t possible.

Next, you create constraints that will set the limits for the values Solver can use. The best
way to set your constraints is to specify them in your worksheet. Basing Solver constraints
on worksheet cell values lets you add labels and explanatory text in neighboring cells and
change the constraints quickly, without opening the Solver Parameters dialog box.
Tip
After you run Solver, you can use the commands in the Solver Results dialog
box to save the results as changes to your worksheet or create a scenario
based on the changed data.

Finally, you need to select the solving method that Solver will use to look for a solution to
your problem. There are three options, each of which works best for a specific type of
problem:
Simplex LP Used to solve problems where all of the calculations are linear,
meaning they don’t involve exponents or other non-linear elements.
GRG Nonlinear Used to solve problems where the calculations involve exponents
or other non-linear mathematical elements.
Evolutionary Uses genetic algorithms to find a solution. This method is quite
complex and can take far longer to run than either of the other two engines, but if
neither the Simplex LP or GRG Nonlinear engines can find a solution, the
Evolutionary engine might be able to.

Tip
If you’re using the Simplex LP engine and Solver returns an error
immediately, indicating that it can’t find a solution, try using the GRG
Nonlinear engine.

To add Solver to the ribbon


1. Click the File tab, and then in the Backstage view, click Options.
2. In the Excel Options dialog box, click the Add-Ins category.
3. If necessary, in the Manage list, click Excel Add-ins. When Excel Add-ins appears
in the Manage box, click Go.
4. In the Add-Ins dialog box, select the Solver Add-in check box.
5. Click OK.
To open the Solver Parameters dialog box
1. On the Data tab, in the Analyze group, click Solver.
To identify the objective cell of a model
1. Click Solver.
2. In the Solver Parameters dialog box, click in the Set Objective box.
3. Click the cell that includes the formula you want to optimize.
To specify the type of result your Solver model should return
1. In the Solver Parameters dialog box, do any of the following:
• Select Max to maximize the objective cell’s value.
• Select Min to minimize the objective cell’s value.
• Select Value Of and enter the target value in the box to the right to generate a
specific result.
To identify the cells with values that can be changed
1. In the Solver Parameters dialog box, click in the By Changing Variable Cells
box.
2. Select the cells you will allow Solver to change to generate a solution.

Identify the cells Solver can change to find a solution


To add a constraint to your Solver model
1. In the Solver Parameters dialog box, click Add.
2. In the Add Constraint dialog box, in the Cell Reference box, identify the cells to
which you want to apply the constraint.
3. In the middle list box, click the arrow, and then click the type of constraint you want
to apply.
4. Click in the Constraint box and do either of the following:
• Enter the address of the cell that contains the constraint’s comparison value.
• Select the cell that contains the constraint’s comparison value.

Add constraints to reflect the specified circumstances of your business


5. Click Add to create a new constraint.
Or
Click OK to close the Add Constraint dialog box.
To require a value to be a binary number (0 or 1)
1. In the Add Constraint dialog box, in the Cell Reference box, identify the cells to
which you want to apply the constraint.
2. In the middle list box, click the arrow, and then click bin.
3. Click OK.
To require a value to be an integer
1. In the Add Constraint dialog box, in the Cell Reference box, identify the cells to
which you want to apply the constraint.
2. In the middle list box, click the arrow, and then click int.
3. Click OK.
To edit a constraint
1. In the Solver Parameters dialog box, click the constraint you want to edit.
2. Click Change.
3. In the Change Constraint dialog box, in the Cell Reference box, identify the cells
to which you want to apply the constraint.
4. In the middle list box, click the arrow, and then click the type of constraint you want
to apply.
5. Click in the Constraint box and do either of the following:
• Enter the address of the cell that contains the constraint’s comparison value.
• Select the cell that contains the constraint’s comparison value.
6. Click OK.
To delete a constraint
1. In the Solver Parameters dialog box, click the constraint you want to delete.
2. Click Delete.
To require changing cells to contain non-negative values
1. In the Solver Parameters dialog box, select the Make Unconstrained Variables
Non-Negative check box.
To select a solving method
1. In the Solver Parameters dialog box, click the Select a Solving Method arrow.
2. Click the method you want to use.
To reset the Solver model
1. In the Solver Parameters dialog box, click Reset All.
2. Click OK.
3. Click Close.

Analyze data by using descriptive statistics


Experienced business people can tell a lot about numbers just by looking at them to
determine if they “look right.” That is, the sales figures are approximately where they’re
supposed to be for a particular hour, day, or month; the average seems about right; and
sales have increased from year to year. When you need more than an informal assessment,
however, you can use the tools in the Analysis ToolPak.
If the Data Analysis button, which displays a set of analysis tools when clicked, doesn’t
appear in the Analyze group on the Data tab, you can install it by using tools available on
the Excel Options dialog box Add-Ins page. After you complete its installation, the Data
Analysis button appears in the Analyze group on the Data tab.

Adding Data Analysis, Solver, or both adds the Analyze group to the Data tab
To add the Data Analysis button to the ribbon
1. In the Backstage view, click Options.
2. In the Excel Options dialog box, click the Add-Ins category.
3. If necessary, click the Manage arrow and then click Excel Add-ins. When Excel
Add-ins appears in the Manage box, click Go.
4. In the Add-Ins dialog box, select the Analysis ToolPak check box.
5. Click OK.
To analyze your data by using descriptive statistics
1. On the Data tab, in the Analyze group, click Data Analysis.
2. In the Data Analysis dialog box, click Descriptive Statistics.
3. Click OK.
4. Click in the Input Range box, and then select the cells that contain the data you
want to summarize.
5. Select the Summary statistics check box.
6. Click OK.

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Examine data by using the Quick Analysis Lens
Define an alternative data set
Define multiple alternative data sets
Analyze data by using data tables
Vary your data to get a specific result by using Goal Seek
Find optimal solutions by using Solver
Analyze data by using descriptive statistics

Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch08 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Examine data by using the Quick Analysis Lens


Open the PerformQuickAnalysis workbook in Excel, and then perform the following
tasks:
1. Select cells B2:B10.
2. Use the Quick Analysis action button to add a total row to the bottom of the
selected range.
3. Use the Quick Analysis action button to add a running total column to the right of
the selected range.
Define an alternative data set
Open the CreateScenarios workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Create a scenario called Overnight that changes the Base Rate value for Overnight
and Priority Overnight packages (in cells C6 and C7) to $18.75 and $25.50.
2. Apply the scenario.
3. Undo the scenario application by pressing Ctrl+Z.
4. Close the Scenario Manager dialog box.

Define multiple alternative data sets


Open the ManageMultipleScenarios workbook in Excel, and then perform the following
tasks:
1. Create a scenario called HighVolume that increases Ground packages to
17,000,000 and 3Day to 14,000,000.
2. Create a second scenario called NewRates that increases the Ground rate to $9.45
and the 3Day rate to $12.
3. Open the Scenario Manager and create a summary worksheet.
4. Apply the HighVolume scenario, and then apply the NewRates scenario.
5. Close the Scenario Manager dialog box.

Analyze data by using data tables


Open the DefineDataTables workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. On the RateIncreases worksheet, select cells C2:D5.
2. Use the What-If Analysis button to start creating a data table.
3. In the Column input cell box, enter B3.
4. Click OK.
5. On the RateAndVolume worksheet, select cells C2:E6.
6. On the What-If Analysis menu, click Data Table.
7. In the Row input cell box, enter B4.
8. In the Column input cell box, enter B3.
9. Click OK.

Vary your data to get a specific result by using Goal Seek


Open the PerformGoalSeekAnalysis workbook in Excel, and then perform the following
tasks:
1. Click cell C4.
2. Open the Goal Seek dialog box.
3. Verify that C4 appears in the Set cell box.
4. In the To value box, enter 20%.
5. In the By changing cell box, enter C3.
6. Click OK.

Find optimal solutions by using Solver


Open the BuildSolverModel workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Click cell F19, and then open the Solver Parameters dialog box.
2. Verify that cell F19 appears in the Set Objective box, and then select Max.
3. In the By Changing Variable Cells box, select cells C3:E7.
4. Add a constraint to require cell C8 to be less than or equal to the value in cell I10.
5. Add a constraint that requires the values in cells F3:F7 to be less than or equal to
the values in cells I3:I7.
6. Make the unconstrained variables non-negative.
7. Solve the model by using the GRG Nonlinear engine.
Define your solution by using the Solver Parameters dialog box
8. Click OK to close the Solver Results dialog box and examine the result.
Solver generates a solution without integer constraints
9. Reopen the Solver Parameters dialog box and add another constraint that requires
the values in cells C3:E7 to be integers.
10. Click Solve, close the Solver Parameters dialog box, and note how the solution
has changed.

Analyze data by using descriptive statistics


Open the UseDescriptiveStatistics workbook in Excel, and then perform the following
tasks:
1. Open the Data Analysis dialog box.
2. Click Descriptive Statistics, and then click OK.
3. In the Descriptive Statistics dialog box, click in the Input Range box and select
cells C3:C17.
4. Select the Summary statistics check box, and then click OK.
9. Create charts and graphics

In this chapter
Create charts
Create new types of charts
Customize chart appearance
Find trends in your data
Create dual-axis charts
Summarize your data by using sparklines
Create diagrams by using SmartArt
Create shapes and mathematical equations

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch09 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

When you enter data into an Excel 2016 worksheet, you create a record of important
events, whether they are individual sales, sales for an hour of a day, or the price of a
product. What a list of values in cells can’t communicate easily, however, is the overall
trends in the data. The best way to communicate trends in a large collection of data is by
creating a chart, which summarizes data visually. In addition to the standard charts, with
Excel 2016 you can create compact charts called sparklines, which summarize a data
series by using a graph contained within a single cell.
You have a great deal of control over the appearance of your chart—you can change the
color of any chart element, choose a different chart type to better summarize the
underlying data, and change the display properties of text and numbers in a chart. If the
data in the worksheet used to create a chart represents a progression through time, such as
sales over several months, you can have Excel extrapolate future sales and add a trendline
to the graph representing that prediction.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to creating a chart (including six chart
types that are new in Excel 2016), customizing chart elements, finding trends in your data,
summarizing data by using sparklines, and creating and formatting shapes, diagrams, and
shapes containing mathematical equations.

Create charts
Excel 2016 lets you create charts quickly by using the Quick Analysis Lens, which
displays recommended charts to summarize your data. When you select the entire data
range you want to chart, clicking the Quick Analysis action button lets you display the
types of charts Excel recommends.
Use the Quick Analysis Lens to add a chart to your worksheet
You can display a preview of each recommended chart by pointing to the icon
representing that chart.

Tip
Press the F11 key to create a chart of the default type on a new chart sheet.
Unless you or another user changed the default, Excel creates a column chart.
For more information about keyboard shortcuts, see “Keyboard shortcuts” at
the end of this book.
Display a live preview of a chart
Clicking the icon adds the chart to your worksheet.
If the chart you want to create doesn’t appear in the list of charts recommended by the
Quick Analysis Lens, you can select the chart type you want from a gallery on the Insert
tab of the ribbon. When you point to a subtype in the gallery, Excel displays a preview of
the chart you will create by clicking that subtype.
Create charts by using tools on the Insert tab of the ribbon
When you click a chart subtype, Excel creates the chart by using the default layout and
color scheme defined in your workbook’s theme.
If Excel doesn’t plot your data the way you want it to, you can change the axis on which
Excel plots a data column. The most common reason for incorrect data plotting is that the
column to be plotted on the horizontal axis contains numerical data instead of textual data.
For example, if your data includes a Year column and a Volume column, instead of
plotting volume data for each consecutive year along the horizontal axis, Excel plots both
of those columns in the body of the chart and creates a sequential series to provide values
for the horizontal axis.
A chart with horizontal axis labels plotted as data
You can change which data Excel applies to the vertical axis (also known as the y-axis)
and the horizontal axis (also known as the x-axis). If Excel has swapped the values for the
vertical and horizontal axes, you can switch the row and column data to update your chart.
If the problem is a little more involved, you can edit how Excel interprets your source
data.
Change how Excel plots your data by using the Select Data Source dialog box
The Year column should appear on the horizontal axis as a data category, which Excel
refers to as the axis labels.

Identify horizontal (category) labels by using the Axis Labels dialog box
After you identify the cell range that provides the values for your axis labels, Excel will
revise your chart.

A chart with horizontal and vertical axis values plotted correctly


After you create your chart, you can change its size to reflect whether the chart should
dominate its worksheet or take on a role as another informative element on the worksheet.
Just as you can control a chart’s size, you can also control its location. You can drag a
chart to a new location on its current worksheet, move the chart to another worksheet, or
move the chart to its own chart sheet.

Pick a destination for a chart by using the Move Chart dialog box
To create a chart
1. Select the data you want to appear in your chart.
2. On the Insert tab of the ribbon, in the Charts group, click the type and subtype of
the chart you want to create.
To create a chart of the default type by using a keyboard shortcut
1. Select the data you want to summarize in a chart.
2. Do either of the following:
• Press F11 to create the chart on a new chart sheet.
• Press the Alt+F1 key combination to create the chart on the active worksheet.
To create a chart by using the Quick Analysis Lens
1. Select the data you want to appear in your chart.
2. Click the Quick Analysis action button.
3. In the gallery that appears, click the Charts tab.
4. Click the chart type you want to create.
To create a recommended chart
1. Select the data you want to visualize.
2. In the Charts group, click the Recommended Charts button.
View Excel chart recommendations
3. Click the chart you want to create.
4. Click OK.
To change how Excel plots your data in a chart
1. Click the chart you want to change.
2. On the Design tool tab, in the Data group, click Select Data.
3. In the Select Data Source dialog box, do any of the following:
• Delete a Legend Entries (Series) data set by clicking the series and clicking the
Remove button.
• Add a Legend Entries (Series) data set by clicking the Add button and, in the
Edit Series dialog box that appears, selecting the cells that contain the data you
want to add, and then clicking OK.
• Edit a Legend Entries (Series) data set by clicking the series you want to edit,
clicking the Edit button, and, in the Edit Series dialog box, selecting the cells that
provide values for the series.
• Change the order of Legend Entries (Series) data sets by clicking the series you
want to move and clicking either the Move Up or Move Down button.
• Switch row and column data series by clicking the Switch Row/Column button.
• Change the values used to provide Horizontal (Category) Axis Labels by
clicking that section’s Edit button and then, in the Axis Labels dialog box that
appears, selecting the cells to provide the label values and then clicking OK.
To switch row and column values
1. Click the chart you want to edit.
2. In the Data group, click the Switch Row/Column button.
To resize a chart
1. Click the chart you want to edit.
2. On the Format tool tab, in the Size group, enter new values into the Height and
Width boxes.
Or
Drag a handle to change the position of the chart’s edge or corner. You can do any of
the following:
• Drag a handle in the middle of the top or bottom to change the chart’s height.
• Drag a handle in the middle of the left or right side to change the chart’s width.
• Drag a handle at a corner to change both the chart’s height and its width.
To reposition a chart within a worksheet
1. Click the chart.
2. Drag it to its new position.
To move a chart to another worksheet
1. Click the chart.
2. On the Design tool tab, in the Location group, click the Move Chart button.
3. In the Move Chart dialog box, click the Object in arrow.
4. In the Object in list, click the sheet to which you want to move the chart.
5. Click OK.
To move a chart to its own chart sheet
1. Click the chart.
2. In the Location group, click the Move Chart button.
3. In the Move Chart dialog box, click in the New sheet box.
4. Enter a name for the new sheet.
5. Click OK.
Create new types of charts
Excel 2016 introduces six new types of charts: waterfall, histogram, Pareto, box-and-
whisker, treemap, and sunburst. Each of these new chart types enhances your ability to
summarize your data and convey meaningful information about your business.
Waterfall charts summarize financial data by distinguishing increases from decreases and
indicating whether a particular line item is an individual account, such as Direct Materials,
or a broader measure, such as Starting Balance or Ending Balance.

Use waterfall charts to summarize financial data


Excel doesn’t automatically recognize which entries should be treated as totals, but you
can double-click any columns that represent totals (or subtotals) and identify them so
Excel knows how to handle them.
Histograms, which were previously available as part of the Data Analysis ToolPak, are
now part of the standard Excel chart package. A histogram counts the number of
occurrences of values within a set of ranges, where each range is called a bin. For
example, a summary of daily package volumes for a delivery area could fall into several
ranges.

Histograms summarize values by using groups called bins


A Pareto chart combines a histogram and a line chart to show both the contributions of
categories of values, such as package delivery options (for example, overnight, priority
overnight, and ground), and the cumulative contributions after each category is counted.

Pareto charts show category revenue and share of the total


A box-and-whisker chart combines several statistical measures, including the average (or
mean), median, minimum, and maximum values for a data series, into a single chart.
These charts provide a compact yet informative view of your data from a statistical
standpoint.

Box-and-whisker charts provide graphic statistical summaries


The treemap chart divides data into categories, which are represented by colors, and shows
the hierarchy of values within each category by using the size of the rectangles within the
category. For example, you could represent regional frequencies for each package delivery
option available to customers.
Treemap charts display contributions from elements of each data category
A sunburst chart breaks down a data set’s hierarchy to an even deeper level, showing the
details of how much each subcategory of data contributes to the whole.

Sunburst charts show category contributions in detail


To create a waterfall chart
1. Select the data you want to visualize.
2. On the Insert tab, in the Charts group, click the Insert Waterfall or Stock Chart
button.
3. Click the Waterfall chart type.
4. If necessary, identify a column as a total by clicking the column once to select the
series, clicking the column again to select it individually, right-clicking the column,
and then clicking Set as Total.
To create a histogram chart
1. Select the data you want to visualize.
2. In the Charts group, click the Insert Statistic Chart button.
3. In the Histogram group, click the Histogram subtype.
To create a Pareto chart
1. Select the data you want to visualize.
2. Click the Insert Statistic Chart button.
3. In the Histogram group, click the Pareto subtype.
To create a box-and-whisker chart
1. Select the data you want to visualize.
2. Click the Insert Statistic Chart button.
3. In the Histogram group, click the Box and Whisker subtype.
To create a treemap chart
1. Select the data you want to visualize.
2. In the Charts group, click the Insert Hierarchy Chart button.
3. In the Treemap group, click the Treemap subtype.
To create a sunburst chart
1. Select the data you want to visualize.
2. Click the Insert Hierarchy Chart button.
3. In the Sunburst group, click the Sunburst subtype.

Customize chart appearance


If you want to change a chart’s appearance, you can do so by using the Chart Styles
button, which appears in a group of three buttons next to a selected chart. These buttons
put chart formatting and data controls within easy reach of your chart.
Customize your chart by using the action buttons that appear beside the chart
The Chart Styles gallery has two tabs: Style and Color. The Style tab contains 14 styles
from which to choose, and the Color tab displays a series of color schemes you can select
to change your chart’s appearance.

Tip
If you prefer to work with the ribbon, these same styles appear in the Chart
Styles gallery on the Design tab.

Select a color palette for your chart


Tip
The colors and styles in the Chart Styles gallery are tied to your workbook’s
theme. If you change your workbook’s theme, Excel changes your chart’s
appearance to reflect the new theme’s colors.

When you create a chart, Excel creates a visualization that focuses on the data. In most
cases, the chart has a title, a legend (a list of the data series displayed in the chart),
horizontal lines in the body of the chart to make it easier to discern individual values, and
axis labels. If you want to create a chart that has more or different elements, such as
additional data labels for each data point plotted on your chart, you can do so by selecting
a new layout. If it’s still not quite right, you can show or hide individual elements by using
the Chart Elements action button.

Click the Chart Elements action button to display or hide elements in the active chart
After you select a chart element, you can change its size and appearance by using controls
specifically created to work with that element type.
Format a chart element by using a task pane designed for that element
You can use the third action button, Chart Filters, to focus on specific data in your chart.
Clicking the Chart Filters action button displays a filter interface that is very similar to that
used to limit the data displayed in an Excel table.
Focus on the data you want by using a chart filter
Selecting or clearing a check box displays or hides data related to a specific value within a
series. You can also use the check boxes in the Series section of the panel to display or
hide entire data series.
If you think you want to apply the same set of changes to charts you’ll create in the future,
you can save your chart as a chart template. When you select the data you want to
summarize visually and apply the chart template, you’ll create consistently formatted
charts in a minimum of steps.
To apply a built-in chart style
1. Click the chart you want to format.
2. On the Design tool tab, in the Chart Styles gallery, click the style you want to
apply.
Or
1. Click the chart you want to format.
2. Click the Chart Styles action button.
3. If necessary, click the Style tab.
4. Click the style you want to apply.
To apply a built-in chart layout
1. Click the chart you want to format.
2. In the Chart Layouts group, click the Quick Layout button.
Select a new layout from the Quick Layout gallery
3. Click the layout you want to apply.
To change a chart’s color scheme
1. Click the chart you want to format.
2. In the Chart Styles group, click the Change Colors button.
3. Click the color scheme you want to apply.
Or
1. Click the chart you want to format.
2. Click the Chart Styles action button.
3. If necessary, click the Color tab.
4. Click the color scheme you want to apply.
To select a chart element
1. Click the chart element.
Or
1. Click the chart.
2. On the Format tool tab, in the Current Selection group, click the Chart Elements
arrow.
3. Click the chart element you want to select.
To format a chart element
1. Select the chart element.
2. Use the tools on the Format tool tab to change the element’s formatting.
Or
In the Current Selection group, click the Format Selection button to display the
Format Chart Element task pane.
3. Change the element’s formatting.
To display or hide a chart element
1. Click the chart and do either of the following:
• On the Design tool tab, in the Chart Layouts group, click the Add Chart
Element button, point to the element on the list, and click None to hide the
element, or one of the other options to show the element.
• Click the Chart Elements action button and select or clear the check box next to
the element you want to show or hide.
To create a chart filter
1. Click the chart you want to filter.
2. Click the Chart Filters action button.
3. Use the tools on the Values and Names tabs to create your filter.
To save a chart as a chart template
1. Right-click the chart.
2. Click Save as Template.

Save a chart as a template so that you can apply consistent formatting quickly
3. In the File name box, enter a name for the template.
4. Click Save.
To apply a chart template
1. Click the chart to which you want to apply a template.
2. On the Design tool tab, in the Type group, click Change Chart Type.
3. Click the All Charts tab.
4. Click the Templates category.

Apply a chart template to give your charts a consistent appearance


5. Click the template you want to apply.
6. Click OK.

Find trends in your data


You can use the data in Excel workbooks to discover how your business has performed in
the past, but you can also have Excel 2016 make its best guess, for example, as to future
shipping revenues if the current trend continues. As an example, consider a line chart that
shows package volume data for the years 2009 through 2015.
Line chart that shows data over time
The total has increased from 2009 to 2015, but the growth hasn’t been uniform, so
guessing how much package volume would increase if the overall trend continued would
require detailed mathematical computations. Fortunately, Excel knows that math and can
use it to add a trendline to your data.

Create a trendline to forecast future data values


You can choose the data distribution that Excel should expect when it makes its projection.
The right choice for most business data is Linear—the other distributions (such as
Exponential, Logarithmic, and Polynomial) are used for scientific and operations research
applications. You can also tell how far ahead Excel should look—looking ahead by zero
periods shows the best-fit line for the current data set, whereas looking ahead two periods
would project two periods into the future, assuming current trends continued.
Change trendline characteristics by using the Format Trendline task pane

Tip
When you click the Trendline button in the Analysis group, one of the options
Excel displays is Linear Forecast Trendline, which adds a trendline with a
two-period forecast.

As with other chart elements, you can double-click the trendline to open a formatting
dialog box and change the line’s appearance.
To add a trendline to a chart
1. Click the chart to which you want to add a trendline.
2. On the Design tool tab, in the Chart Layouts group, click the Add Chart Element
button.
3. Point to Trendline and click the type of trendline you want to add.
To edit a trendline’s properties and appearance
1. Click the chart that contains the trendline.
2. On the Format tool tab, in the Current Selection group, click the Chart Elements
arrow.
3. Click the element that ends with the word Trendline.
4. Click Format Selection.
5. Use the controls in the Format Trendline task pane to edit the trendline’s properties
and appearance.
To delete a trendline
1. Click the trendline.
2. Press the Delete key.

Create dual-axis charts


The Excel 2016 charting engine is powerful, but it does have its quirks. Some data
collections you might want to summarize in Excel will have more than one value related
to each category. For example, each regional center for a package delivery company could
have both overall package volume and revenue for the year. You can restructure the data in
your Excel table to create a dual-axis chart, or combo chart, which uses two vertical axes
to show both value sets in the same chart.

Tip
A Pareto chart, discussed earlier in this chapter, is a specific type of dual-axis
chart.

To create a dual-axis chart


1. Select the data you want to visualize.
2. On the Insert tab, in the Charts group, click the Insert Combo Chart button.
3. Click the type of combo chart you want to create.
Or
Click Create Custom Combo Chart and use the settings in the Combo category of
the All Charts tab to define your combo chart.

Summarize your data by using sparklines


You can create charts in Excel to summarize your data visually, by using legends, labels,
and colors to highlight aspects of your data. It is possible to create very small charts to
summarize your data in an overview worksheet, but you can also use a sparkline to create
a compact, informative chart that provides valuable context for your data.
Edward Tufte introduced sparklines in his book Beautiful Evidence (Graphics Press,
2006), with the goal of creating charts that imparted their information in approximately
the same space as a word of printed text. In Excel, a sparkline occupies a single cell,
which makes it ideal for use in summary worksheets.
Data that Excel can summarize by using sparklines
You can create three types of sparklines: line, column, and win/loss. The line and column
sparklines are compact versions of the standard line and column charts. The win/loss
sparkline indicates whether a cell value is positive (a win), negative (a loss), or zero (a
tie).

Examples of line, column, and win/loss sparklines


After you create a sparkline, you can change its appearance. Because a sparkline takes up
the entire interior of a single cell, resizing that cell’s row or column resizes the sparkline.
You can also change a sparkline’s formatting, modify its labels, or delete it entirely.

Format sparklines by using tools on the Sparkline Tools Design tool tab of the ribbon
Tip
Remember that sparklines work best when displayed in compact form. If you
find yourself adding markers and labels to a sparkline, you might consider
using a regular chart to take advantage of its wider range of formatting and
customization options.

To create a sparkline
1. Select the data you want to visualize.
2. On the Insert tab, in the Sparklines group, do one of the following:
• Click the Line button.
• Click the Column button.
• Click the Win/Loss button.

Insert a sparkline by using the Create Sparklines dialog box


3. Verify that the data you selected appears in the Data Range box. If not, click the
Collapse Dialog button next to the Data Range box, select the cells that contain
your data, and then click the Expand Dialog button.
4. Click the Collapse Dialog button next to the Location Range box, click the cell
where you want the sparkline to appear, and then click the Expand Dialog button.
5. Click OK.
To format a sparkline
1. Click the cell that contains the sparkline.
2. Use the tools on the Design tool tab to format the sparkline.
To delete a sparkline
1. Click the cell that contains the sparkline.
2. On the Design tool tab, in the Group group, click the Clear button.
Create diagrams by using SmartArt
Businesses define processes to manage product development, sales, and other essential
functions. Excel 2016 comes with a selection of built-in diagram types, referred to as
SmartArt, that you can use to illustrate processes, lists, and hierarchies within your
organization.

Create SmartArt graphics by using the Choose A SmartArt Graphic dialog box
Clicking one of the buttons in the dialog box selects the type of diagram the button
represents and causes a description of the diagram type to appear in the rightmost pane of
the dialog box. The following table lists the nine categories of diagrams from which you
can choose.
Tip
Some of the diagram types can be used to illustrate several types of
relationships. Be sure to examine all your options before you decide on the
type of diagram to use to illustrate your point.

After you click the button representing the type of diagram you want to create, clicking
OK adds the diagram to your worksheet. As with other drawing objects and shapes, you
can move, copy, and delete the SmartArt diagram as needed.
Show how your ideas relate by using SmartArt
While the diagram is selected, you can add and edit text; add, edit, or reposition shapes;
and use the buttons on the ribbon to change the shapes’ formatting. To add text, you can
either type directly into the shape or use the Text Pane, which appears beside the SmartArt
diagram. When you’re done, click outside the shape to stop editing.

Tip
Pressing the Enter key after you edit the text in a SmartArt shape adds a new
shape to the diagram.

To create a SmartArt graphic


1. Display the worksheet where you want the SmartArt graphic to appear.
2. On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click the SmartArt button.
3. In the Choose a SmartArt Graphic dialog box, click the category from which you
want to choose your graphic style.
4. Click the style of graphic you want to create.
5. Click OK.
To edit text in a SmartArt graphic shape
1. Click the shape, and then do either of the following:
• Edit the text directly in the shape.
• Click the corresponding line in the Text Pane and edit the text there.
To format shape text
1. Click the shape that contains the text you want to format.
2. Use the tools on the mini toolbar or the Home tab of the ribbon to format the text.
To add a shape
1. Click the shape next to where you want the new shape to appear.
2. On the Design tool tab, in the Create Graphic group, click the Add Shape arrow
(not the button) and select where you want the new shape to appear.

Tip
If you click the Add Shape button (not the arrow), Excel adds a shape below
or to the left of the current shape.

To delete a shape
1. Click the shape.
2. Press Delete.
To change a shape’s position
1. Click the shape you want to move.
2. In the Create Graphic group, do either of the following:
• Click Move Up.
• Click Move Down.
To change a shape’s level
1. Click the shape you want to move.
2. In the Create Graphic group, do either of the following:
• Click Promote.
• Click Demote.
To change a SmartArt graphic’s layout
1. Click the SmartArt graphic.
2. On the Design tool tab, in the Layouts group, click the More button in the lower-
right corner of the Layouts gallery.
Select a new layout for your SmartArt diagram
3. Click the new layout.
Or
Click More Layouts to display the Choose a SmartArt Graphic dialog box, click
a new layout in the dialog box, and click OK.
To change a SmartArt graphic’s color scheme
1. Click the SmartArt graphic.
2. On the Design tool tab, in the SmartArt Styles group, click the Change Colors
button and click a new color scheme.
To apply a SmartArt Style
1. Click the SmartArt graphic.
2. In the SmartArt Styles group, click the More button in the lower-right corner of
the SmartArt Styles gallery, and click the style you want to apply.
To format a shape
1. Click the shape you want to format.
2. Use the tools on the Format tool tab to change the shape’s formatting.
To delete a SmartArt diagram
1. Right-click the diagram, and then click Cut.

Create shapes and mathematical equations


With Excel, you can analyze your worksheet data in many ways, including summarizing
your data and business processes visually by using charts and SmartArt. You can also
augment your worksheets by adding objects such as geometric shapes, lines, flowchart
symbols, and banners.

Tip
A SmartArt diagram is a collection of shapes that Excel treats as a collective
unit. The shapes described in this topic are individual objects that Excel
manages independently.

After you draw a shape on a worksheet, or select it after you’ve drawn it, you can use the
controls on the Format tool tab of the ribbon to change its appearance.

Change shape formatting by using tools on the Drawing Tools Format tool tab

Tip
Holding down the Shift key while you draw a shape keeps the shape’s
proportions constant. For example, clicking the Rectangle tool and then
holding down the Shift key while you draw the shape causes you to draw a
square.

You can resize a shape by clicking the shape and then dragging one of the resizing handles
around the edge of the shape. You can drag a handle on a side of the shape to drag that
side to a new position; if you drag a handle on the corner of the shape, you affect height
and width simultaneously. If you hold down the Shift key while you drag a shape’s corner,
Excel keeps the shape’s height and width in proportion as you drag the corner. You can
also rotate a shape until it is in the orientation you want.
Tip
You can assign your shape a specific height and width by clicking the shape
and then, on the Format tool tab, in the Size group, entering the values you
want in the Height and Width boxes.

After you create a shape, you can use the controls on the Format tool tab to change its
formatting. You can apply predefined styles or use the Shape Fill, Shape Outline, and
Shape Effects buttons’ options to change those aspects of the shape’s appearance.

Tip
When you point to a formatting option, such as a style or option displayed in
the Shape Fill, Shape Outline, or Shape Effects lists, Excel displays a live
preview of how your shape would appear if you applied that formatting
option. You can preview as many options as you want before committing to a
change.

If you want to use a shape as a label or header in a worksheet, you can add text to the
shape’s interior by clicking the shape and typing. If you want to edit a shape’s text, point
to the text. When the mouse pointer is in position, it will change from a white pointer with
a four-pointed arrow to a black I-bar. You can then click the text to start editing it or
change its formatting.

Add text to shapes to make your labels stand out


You can move a shape within your worksheet by dragging it to a new position. If your
worksheet contains multiple shapes, you can align and distribute them within the
worksheet. Aligning shapes horizontally means arranging them so they are lined up by
their top edge, bottom edge, or horizontal center. Aligning them vertically means lining
them up so that they have the same right edge, left edge, or vertical center. Distributing
shapes moves the shapes so they have a consistent horizontal or vertical distance between
them.
If you have multiple shapes on a worksheet, you will find that Excel arranges them from
front to back, placing newer shapes in front of older shapes.
Align shapes to make more attractive worksheets
You can change the order of the shapes to create exactly the arrangement you want,
whether by moving a shape one step forward or backward, or moving it all the way to the
front or back of the stack.
One other way to enhance your Excel files is to add mathematical equations to a
worksheet. You can create a wide range of formulas by using built-in structures and
symbols.

Build an equation by using the tools on the Equation Tools Design tool tab of the ribbon

Tip
Clicking the arrow next to the Equation button at the left end of the Equation
Tools tab displays a list of common equations, such as the Pythagorean
Theorem, that you can add with a single click.

Excel 2016 also provides the new capability of interpreting a handwritten equation that
you draw directly into your worksheet.
Create an equation by writing it in the Ink Equation dialog box
To add a shape to a worksheet
1. On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click the Shapes button to display the
Shapes list.
2. Click the shape you want to add.
3. Click and drag in the body of the worksheet to define the shape.
To move a shape
1. Click the shape and drag it to its new location.
To resize a shape
1. Do either of the following:
• Grab a handle on a corner or edge of the shape to move one or more edges.
• On the Format tool tab, in the Size group, enter new values in the Height and
Width boxes.
To rotate a shape
1. Click the shape and do one of the following:
• Drag the rotate handle (it looks like a clockwise-pointing circular arrow) above the
shape to a new position.
• On the Format tool tab, in the Arrange group, click the Rotate button, and then
select the rotate option you want.
• Click the Rotate button, and then click More Rotation Options to use the tools in
the Format Shape task pane.
To change shape formatting
1. Click the shape you want to format.
2. Use the tools on the Format tool tab to change the shape’s appearance.
To add text to a shape
1. Click the shape.
2. Enter the text you want to appear in the shape.
3. Click outside the shape to stop editing its text.
To edit shape text
1. Point to the text in the shape. When the mouse pointer changes to a thin I-bar, click
once.
2. Edit the shape’s text.
3. Click outside the shape to stop editing its text.
To format shape text
1. Point to the text in the shape. When the mouse pointer changes to a thin I-bar, click
once.
2. Select the text you want to edit.
3. Use the tools on the mini toolbar and the Home tab of the ribbon to format the text.
4. Click outside the shape to stop editing its text.
To align shapes
1. Select the shapes you want to align.
2. On the Format tool tab, in the Arrange group, click the Align button.
3. Click the alignment option you want to apply to your shapes.
To distribute shapes
1. Select three or more shapes.
2. Click the Align button, and do either of the following:
• Click Distribute Horizontally to place the shapes on the worksheet with even
horizontal gaps between them.
• Click Distribute Vertically to place the shapes on the worksheet with even
vertical gaps between them.
To reorder shapes
1. Click the shape you want to move.
2. In the Arrange group, do either of the following:
• Click the Bring Forward arrow, and then click Bring Forward or Bring to
Front.
• Click the Send Backward arrow, and then click Send Backward or Send to
Back.
To delete a shape
1. Click the shape.
2. Press Delete.
To add a preset equation to a worksheet
1. On the Insert tab, in the Symbols group, click the Equation arrow (not the button).
2. Click the equation you want to add.
To add an equation to a worksheet
1. In the Symbols group, click the Equation button.
2. Use the tools on the Design tool tab of the ribbon to create the equation.
To add a handwritten equation to a worksheet
1. Click the Equation arrow.
2. Click Ink Equation.
3. In the Write Math Here area, write the equation you want to enter.
4. Click Insert.
To edit an equation
1. Click the part of the equation you want to edit.
2. Enter new values for the equation.
To delete an equation
1. Click the edge of the equation’s shape to select it.
2. Press Delete.

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Create charts
Create new types of charts
Customize chart appearance
Find trends in your data
Create dual-axis charts
Summarize your data by using sparklines
Create diagrams by using SmartArt
Create shapes and mathematical equations
Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch09 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Create charts
Open the CreateCharts workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Using the values on the Data worksheet, create a column chart.
2. Change the column chart so it uses the Year values in cells A3:A9 as the horizontal
(category) axis values, and the Volume values in cells B3:B9 as the vertical axis
values.
3. Using the same set of values, create a line chart.
4. Using the Quick Analysis Lens, create a pie chart from the same data.

Create new types of charts


Open the CreateNewCharts workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Use the data on the Waterfall worksheet to create a waterfall chart. Identify the
Opening Balance and Closing Balance values as totals.
2. Use the data on the Histogram worksheet to create a histogram.
3. Use the data on the Pareto worksheet to create a Pareto chart.
4. Use the data on the BoxAndWhisker worksheet to create a box-and-whisker chart.
5. Use the data on the Treemap worksheet to create a treemap chart.
6. Use the data on the Sunburst worksheet to create a sunburst chart.

Customize chart appearance


Open the CustomizeCharts workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Using the chart on the Presentation worksheet, change the chart’s color scheme.
2. Change the same chart’s layout.
3. Using the chart on the Yearly Summary worksheet, change the chart’s type to a line
chart.
4. Move the chart on the Yearly Summary worksheet to a new chart sheet.

Find trends in your data


Open the IdentifyTrends workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Using the chart on the Data worksheet, add a linear trendline that draws the best-fit
line through the existing data.
2. Edit the trendline so it shows a forecast two periods into the future.
3. Delete the trendline.

Create dual-axis charts


Open the MakeDualAxisCharts workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Using the data on the Summary worksheet, create a dual-axis chart that displays the
Volume series as a column chart and the Exceptions series as a line chart.
2. Ensure that the Exceptions values are plotted on the minor vertical axis at the right
edge of the chart.

Summarize your data by using sparklines


Open the CreateSparklines workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Using the data in cells C3:C14, create a line sparkline in cell G3.
2. Using the data in cells C3:C14, create a column sparkline in cell H3.
3. Using the data in cells E3:E14, create a win/loss sparkline in cell I3.
4. Change the color scheme of the win/loss sparkline.
5. Delete the sparkline in cell H3.

Create diagrams by using SmartArt


Open the MakeSmartArt workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Create a process SmartArt diagram.
2. Fill in the shapes with the steps for a process with which you’re familiar.
3. Add a shape to the process.
4. Change the place where one of the shapes appears in the diagram.
5. Change the diagram’s color scheme.
6. Delete a shape from the diagram.

Create shapes and mathematical equations


Open the CreateShapes workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Create three shapes and add text to each of them.
2. Edit and format the text in one of the shapes.
3. Move the shapes so you can determine which is in front, which is in the middle, and
which is in back.
4. Change the shapes’ order and observe how it changes the appearance of the
worksheet.
5. Align the shapes so their middles are on the same line.
6. Distribute the shapes evenly in the horizontal direction.
7. Delete one of the shapes.
8. Add a built-in equation such as the quadratic formula.
9. Enter an equation manually.
10. Create dynamic worksheets by using PivotTables

In this chapter
Analyze data dynamically by using PivotTables
Filter, show, and hide PivotTable data
Edit PivotTables
Format PivotTables
Create PivotTables from external data
Create dynamic charts by using PivotCharts

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch10 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

When you create Excel 2016 worksheets, you must consider how you want the data to
appear when you show it to your colleagues. You can change the formatting of your data
to emphasize the contents of specific cells, sort and filter your worksheets based on the
contents of specific columns, or hide rows containing data that isn’t relevant to the point
you’re trying to make.
One limitation of the standard Excel worksheet is that you can’t easily change how the
data is organized on the page. There is an Excel tool with which you can create
worksheets that can be sorted, filtered, and rearranged dynamically to emphasize different
aspects of your data. That tool is the PivotTable.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to creating and editing PivotTables
from an existing worksheet, focusing your PivotTable data by using filters and Slicers,
formatting PivotTables, creating a PivotTable with data imported from a text file, and
summarizing your data visually by using a PivotChart.

Analyze data dynamically by using PivotTables


In Excel worksheets, you can gather and present important data, but the standard
worksheet can’t be changed from its original configuration easily. As an example, consider
a worksheet that records monthly package volumes for each of nine distribution centers in
the United States.
Static worksheets summarize data one way
The data in the worksheet is organized so that each row represents a distribution center
and each column represents a month of the year.
Such a neutral presentation of your data is useful, but it has limitations. First, although you
can use sorting and filtering to restrict the rows or columns shown, it’s difficult to change
the worksheet’s organization. For example, in this worksheet, you can’t easily reorganize
the contents of your worksheet so that the months are assigned to the rows and the
distribution centers are assigned to the columns.
The Excel tool you can use to reorganize and redisplay your data dynamically is the
PivotTable. In Excel 2016, you can quickly create a PivotTable from the Recommended
PivotTables dialog box.
Excel analyzes your data and recommends PivotTable layouts
Pointing to a recommended PivotTable shows a preview of what that PivotTable would
look like if you clicked that option, so you can view several possibilities before deciding
which one to create.

Tip
If Excel 2016 has no recommended PivotTables for your data, it gives you the
option to create a blank PivotTable.

If none of the recommended PivotTables meet your needs, you can create a PivotTable by
adding individual fields. For instance, you can create a PivotTable with the same layout as
the worksheet described previously, which emphasizes totals by month, and then change
the PivotTable layout to have the rows represent the months of the year and the columns
represent the distribution centers. The new layout emphasizes the totals by regional
distribution center.
Reorganize your PivotTable by changing the order of fields
To create a PivotTable quickly, you must have your data collected in a list. Excel tables
mesh perfectly with PivotTable dynamic views; Excel tables have a well-defined column
and row structure, and the ability to refer to an Excel table by its name greatly simplifies
PivotTable creation and management.
In an Excel table used to create a PivotTable, each row of the table should contain a value
representing the attribute described by each column. Columns could include data on
distribution centers, years, months, days, weekdays, and package volumes, for example.
Excel needs that data when it creates the PivotTable so that it can maintain relationships
among the data.

Important
It’s okay if some cells in the source data list or Excel table are blank, but the
source shouldn’t contain any blank rows. If Excel encounters a blank row
while creating a PivotTable, it stops looking for additional data.

Use an Excel table or list of data to create a PivotTable


After you identify the data you want to summarize, you can start creating your PivotTable.
Verify the data source and target location of your PivotTable
In most cases, the best choice is to place your new PivotTable on its own worksheet to
avoid cluttering the display. If you do want to put it on an existing worksheet, perhaps as
part of a summary worksheet with multiple visualizations, you can do so.

Add a blank PivotTable to a worksheet, then add data and organization


PivotTables have four areas where you can place fields: Rows, Columns, Values, and
Filters. To define your PivotTable’s data structure, drag field names from the PivotTable
field list to the four areas at the bottom of the PivotTable Fields task pane.
Adding a data field to the Values area summarizes all values in that field
It’s important to note that the order in which you enter the fields in the Rows and Columns
areas affects how Excel organizes the data in your PivotTable. As an example, consider a
PivotTable that groups the PivotTable rows by distribution center and then by month.

A PivotTable with package volume data arranged by distribution center and then by month
The same PivotTable data could also be organized by month and then by distribution
center.
A PivotTable with package volume data arranged by month and then by distribution center
In the preceding examples, all the field headers are in the Rows area. If you drag the
Distribution Center header from the Rows area to the Columns area in the PivotTable
Fields pane, the PivotTable reorganizes (pivots) its data to form a different configuration.

A PivotTable arranged in cross-tabular format


If your data set is large or if you based your PivotTable on a data collection on another
computer, it might take some time for Excel to reorganize the PivotTable after a pivot. You
can have Excel delay redrawing the PivotTable until you’re ready for Excel to display the
reorganized contents.
If you expect your PivotTable source data to change, such as when you link to an external
database, you should ensure that your PivotTable summarizes all the available data. To do
that, you can refresh the PivotTable connection to its data source. If Excel detects new
data in the source table, it updates the PivotTable contents accordingly.
To organize your data for use in a PivotTable
1. Do either of the following:
• Create an Excel table.
• Create a data list that contains no blank rows or columns and has no extraneous
data surrounding the list.
To create a recommended PivotTable
1. Click a cell in the Excel table or data list you want to summarize.
2. On the Insert tab of the ribbon, in the Tables group, click Recommended
PivotTables.
3. In the Recommended PivotTables dialog box, click the recommended PivotTable
you want to create.
4. Click OK to create the recommended PivotTable on a new worksheet.
To create a PivotTable
1. Click a cell in the Excel table or data list you want to summarize.
2. In the Tables group, click PivotTable.
3. In the Create PivotTable dialog box, verify that Excel has correctly identified the
data source you want to use.
4. Click New Worksheet.
Or
Click Existing Worksheet, click in the Location box, and click the cell where you
want the PivotTable to start.
5. Click OK.
To add fields to a PivotTable
1. If necessary, click a cell in the PivotTable and then, on the Analyze tool tab of the
ribbon, in the Show group, click Field List to display the PivotTable Fields pane.
2. In the PivotTable Fields pane, drag a field header from the field list to the Data,
Columns, Rows, or Filters area.
To remove a field from a PivotTable
1. In the PivotTable Fields pane, drag a field header from the Data, Columns, Rows,
or Filters area to the field list.
To pivot a PivotTable
1. In the PivotTable Fields pane, drag a field header from the Data, Columns, Rows,
or Filters area to another area.
To defer PivotTable updates
1. In the PivotTable Fields pane, select the Defer Layout Update check box.

Defer PivotTable updates that might take a while to execute


2. When you want to update your PivotTable, click Update.
3. To turn updating back on, clear the Defer Layout Update check box.

Filter, show, and hide PivotTable data


PivotTables often summarize huge data sets in a relatively small worksheet. The more
details you can capture and write to a table, the more flexibility you have in analyzing the
data. As an example, consider all the details captured in a table in which each row
contains a value representing the distribution center, date, month, week, weekday, day, and
volume for every day of the year. You could filter this data to only display values for
Mondays.

Filter Excel tables to focus on relevant data


Each column, in turn, contains numerous values: there are nine distribution centers, data
from two years, 12 months in a year, seven weekdays, and as many as five weeks and 31
days in a month. Just as you can filter the data that appears in an Excel table or other data
collection, you can filter the data displayed in a PivotTable by selecting which values you
want the PivotTable to include.

Filter a PivotTable by clicking a filter arrow

See Also
For more information about filtering an Excel table, see “Limit data that
appears on your screen” in Chapter 5, “Manage worksheet data.”

Clicking the column header in the PivotTable displays several sorting options, commands
for different categories of filters, and a list of items that appear in the field you want to
filter. Every list item has a check box next to it. Items whose check boxes are selected are
currently displayed in the PivotTable, and items whose check boxes are cleared are
hidden.
The first entry at the top of the item list is the Select All check box. The Select All check
box can have one of three states: displaying a check mark (selected), displaying a black
square, or cleared. If the Select All check box contains a check mark, the PivotTable
displays every item in the list. If the Select All check box is cleared, no filter items are
selected. Finally, if the Select All check box contains a black square, it means that some,
but not all, of the items in the list are displayed. Selecting only the Northwest check box,
for example, leads to a PivotTable configuration in which only the data for the Northwest
center is displayed.
Limit data by using selection filters
If you’d rather display PivotTable data on the entire worksheet, you can hide the
PivotTable Fields pane and filter the PivotTable by using the filter arrows on the Row
Labels and Column Labels headers within the body of the PivotTable. Excel indicates that
a PivotTable has filters applied by placing a filter indicator next to the Column Labels or
Row Labels header, as appropriate, and next to the filtered field name in the PivotTable
Fields task pane.
So far, all the fields by which we’ve talked about filtering the PivotTable will change the
organization of the data in the PivotTable. Adding some fields to a PivotTable, however,
might create unwanted complexity. For example, you might want to filter a PivotTable by
month, but adding the Month field to the body of the PivotTable expands the table
unnecessarily.
Adding multiple fields to an area expands PivotTables substantially
Instead of adding the Month field to the Rows or Columns area, adding the field to the
Filters area leaves the body of the PivotTable unchanged, but adds a new filter control
above the PivotTable in its worksheet. When you click the filter arrow of a field in the
Filters area, Excel displays a list of the values in the field. You can choose to filter based
on one or more values.

Add a field to the Filter area to filter a PivotTable without changing its organization

Tip
In Excel 2003 and earlier versions, the Filter area was called the Page Field
area.

If your PivotTable has more than one field in the Rows area of the PivotTable Fields pane,
you can filter values in a PivotTable by hiding and collapsing levels of detail within the
report. To do that, you click the Hide Detail control (which looks like a box with a minus
sign in it) or the Show Detail control (which looks like a box with a plus sign in it) next to
a header.

Summarize levels of data by using the Show Detail and Hide Detail controls

Tip
If a PivotTable area, such as Rows or Columns, contains more than one field,
you can select the field by which to filter by clicking the Select Field arrow
and clicking the field you want.

Excel 2016 provides two other ways for you to filter PivotTables: search filters and
Slicers. By using a search filter, you can enter a series of characters for Excel to use to
filter that field’s values.
Filter a PivotTable field by using a search filter

Tip
Search filters look for the character string you specify anywhere within a
field’s value, not just at the start of the value. In the previous example, the
search filter string “cen” would return both Central and North Central.

In versions of Excel prior to Excel 2013, the only visual indication that you had applied a
filter to a field was the indicator added to a field’s filter arrow. The indicator told users that
there was an active filter applied to that field but provided no information on which values
were displayed and which were hidden. In Excel 2016, Slicers provide a visual indication
of which items are currently displayed or hidden in a PivotTable.
When you’re ready to create a Slicer, you display the Insert Slicers dialog box and select
the data you want to filter.
Select fields for which you want to display a Slicer
After you make your selections, Excel displays a Slicer for each field you identified.

Slicers provide visually summarized values affected by filters


Tip
If you have already applied a filter to the field for which you display a Slicer,
the Slicer reflects the filter’s result.

A Slicer displays the values within the PivotTable field you identified. Any value
displayed in color (or gray if you have a gray-and-white color scheme) appears within the
PivotTable. Values displayed in light gray or white do not appear in the PivotTable.
Clicking an item in a Slicer changes that item’s state—if a value is currently displayed in a
PivotTable, clicking it hides it. If it’s hidden, clicking its value in the Slicer displays it in
the PivotTable. As with other objects in an Excel 2016 workbook, you can use the Shift
and Ctrl keys to help define your selections.
Clicking a value creates a filter that limits the data displayed to only that value, and
clicking a selected value removes it from the filter. If you want to display values related to
multiple items in the Slicer, click the Multi-Select button on the Slicer’s title bar.

Select multiple items in a Slicer by using Multi-Select


Now when you click additional items, Excel adds them to the Slicer instead of replacing
the original selection. You can also select multiple values by holding down the Ctrl key
and clicking individual values, or by holding down the Shift key and clicking two values
in sequence, which selects the two values you clicked and all values between them.
Slicers provide a visual reference for filtered fields
As with other drawing objects in Excel, you can move and resize the Slicer as needed.
When you’re done filtering values, you can clear the Slicer filter and get rid of the Slicer
entirely.

Tip
You can change a Slicer’s formatting by clicking the Slicer and then, on the
Slicer Tools Options tool tab on the ribbon, clicking a style in the Slicer
Styles gallery.

To filter a PivotTable by using the values in a field


1. In the body of a PivotTable, click the filter arrow at the right edge of a field header.
2. Use the controls in the filter list to create your filter.
3. Click OK.
To hide the PivotTable Fields pane
1. Click the Close button in the upper-right corner of the PivotTable Fields pane.
Or
1. Click a cell in the body of the PivotTable.
2. On the Analyze tool tab of the ribbon, in the Show group, click the Field List
button.
To show the PivotTable Fields task pane
1. Click a cell in the body of the PivotTable.
2. Click the Field List button.
To filter a PivotTable by using a field in the Filters area of the PivotTable Fields pane
1. Display the PivotTable Fields pane.
2. Drag a field to the Filters area.
3. In the Filter area of the PivotTable, click the field’s filter arrow.
4. Click the value by which you want to filter.
Or
Select the Select Multiple Items check box and select the check boxes next to the
items you want to appear in the PivotTable.
To hide a level of detail in a PivotTable
1. Click the Hide Detail control next to a PivotTable field’s row header.
To show a level of detail in a PivotTable
1. Click the Show Detail control next to a PivotTable field header.
To add a Slicer to your workbook
1. Click a cell in the body of the PivotTable.
2. On the Analyze tool tab, in the Filter group, click the Insert Slicer button.
3. In the Insert Slicers dialog box, select the check box next to the field for which you
want to create a Slicer.
4. Click OK.
To select multiple values in a Slicer filter
1. On the Slicer title bar, click the Multi-Select button.
2. Click the values you want to appear in the PivotTable.
To filter a field by using a Slicer
1. In the body of the Slicer, do any of the following:
• Click the single value you want to display.
• Hold down the Ctrl key and click the values you want to display.
• Hold down the Shift key and click two values to display those values and all
values between them.
To clear the filter in a Slicer
1. On the Slicer title bar, click the Clear Filter button.
To change the appearance of a Slicer
1. Right-click the Slicer’s title bar and then click Size and Properties.
2. Use the settings in the Format Slicer pane to change the Slicer’s appearance.
3. Click the pane’s Close button to close it and apply the changes.
To remove a Slicer
1. Right-click the Slicer and then click Remove field.

Edit PivotTables
After you create a PivotTable, you can rename it, edit it to control how it summarizes your
data, and use the PivotTable cell data in a formula. As an example, consider a PivotTable
named PivotTable1 that summarizes package volume data.

PivotTables summarize large data sets in a compact format


Excel assigns the PivotTable a name, such as PivotTable1, when you create it. Of course,
the name PivotTable1 doesn’t help you or your colleagues understand the data the
PivotTable contains, particularly if you use the PivotTable data in a formula on another
worksheet. You can provide more information about your PivotTable and the data it
contains by changing its name to something more descriptive.
When you create a PivotTable with at least one field in the Rows area and one field in the
Columns area of the PivotTable Fields pane, Excel adds a grand total row and column to
summarize your data. You can control which totals and subtotals appear, and where they
appear, to best suit your data and analysis goals.
After you create a PivotTable, Excel determines the best way to summarize the data in the
column you assign to the Values area. For numeric data, for example, Excel uses the SUM
function, but you can change the function used to summarize your data.
Control how your PivotTable summarizes your values
You can also change how the PivotTable displays the data in the Values area. Some of
those methods include displaying each value as a percentage of the grand total, row total,
or column total, or as a running total.

You can change how Excel summarizes values in the body of a PivotTable
If you want, you can create a formula that incorporates a value from a PivotTable cell.
When you get to a point in your formula where you want to use PivotTable data, click the
cell that contains the value you want to include in the formula. When you do, a
GETPIVOTDATA formula appears in the formula bar of the worksheet that contains the
PivotTable. When you press the Enter key, Excel creates the GETPIVOTDATA formula
and displays the contents of the PivotTable cell in the target cell.
To rename a PivotTable
1. Click any cell in the body of the PivotTable.
2. On the Analyze tool tab, in the PivotTable group, click in the PivotTable Name
box.
3. Enter a new name for the PivotTable, and press the Enter key.
To show or hide PivotTable subtotals
1. Click any cell in the body of the PivotTable.
2. On the Design tool tab of the ribbon, in the Layout group, click the Subtotals
button.
3. In the list, click any of the following items:
• Do Not Show Subtotals
• Show all Subtotals at Bottom of Group
• Show all Subtotals at Top of Group
To show or hide PivotTable grand totals
1. Click any cell in the body of the PivotTable.
2. In the Layout group, click the Grand Totals button.
3. In the list, click any of the following items:
• Off for Rows and Columns
• On for Rows and Columns
• On for Rows Only
• On for Columns Only
To change the summary operation for the Values area
1. Click any cell in the body of the PivotTable that contains data.
2. On the Analyze tool tab, in the Active Field group, click Field Settings.
3. In the Value Field Settings dialog box, on the Summarize Values By tab, click the
operation you want to use to summarize your PivotTable data.
4. Click OK.
To change how Excel displays data in the Values area
1. Click any cell in the body of the PivotTable that contains data.
2. In the Value Field Settings dialog box, on the Show Values As tab, click the Shows
values as arrow.
3. Click the calculation you want to use.
4. If necessary, in the Base item list, click the value you want to base your calculation
on.
5. Click OK.
To use PivotTable data in a formula
1. Start entering a formula in a cell.
2. When you want to use data from a PivotTable cell in your formula, click the
PivotTable cell that contains the data you want to use.
3. Complete the formula and press Enter.

Format PivotTables
PivotTables are the ideal tools for summarizing and examining large data tables, even
those containing more than 10,000 or even 100,000 rows. Although PivotTables often end
up as compact summaries, you should do everything you can to make your data more
comprehensible. One way to improve your data’s readability is to apply a number format
to the PivotTable Values field.

See Also
For more information about selecting and defining cell formats by using the
Format Cells dialog box, see “Format cells” in Chapter 4, “Change workbook
appearance.”

Analysts often use PivotTables to summarize and examine organizational data for the
purpose of making important decisions about the company. Excel extends the capabilities
of your PivotTables by enabling you to apply a conditional format to the PivotTable cells.
Additionally, you can select whether to apply the conditional format to every cell in the
Values area, to every cell at the same level as the selected cell (that is, a regular data cell, a
subtotal cell, or a grand total cell), or to every cell that contains or draws its values from
the selected cell’s field.

Summarize values visually by adding a conditional format


When you apply a conditional format to a PivotTable, Excel displays a Formatting
Options action button, which offers three options for applying the conditional format:
Selected Cells Applies the conditional format to the selected cells only
All Cells Showing Sum of field_name Values Applies the conditional format to
every cell in the body of the PivotTable that contains data, regardless of whether the
cell is in the data area, a subtotal row or column, or a grand total row or column
All Cells Showing Sum of field_name Values for Fields Applies the conditional
format to every cell at the same level (for example, data cell, subtotal, or grand total)
as the selected cells

See Also
For more information about creating conditional formats, see “Change the
appearance of data based on its value” in Chapter 4, “Change workbook
appearance.”

In Excel, you can take full advantage of the Microsoft Office system enhanced formatting
capabilities to apply existing formats to your PivotTables. Just as you can create Excel
table formats, you can also create your own PivotTable formats to match your
organization’s preferred color scheme. After you give the new style a name, you can
format each element of PivotTables to which you apply the style.

Define custom styles by using the New PivotTable Style dialog box
The Design tool tab contains many other tools you can use to format your PivotTable, but
one of the most useful is the Banded Columns check box. If you select a PivotTable style
that offers banded rows as an option, selecting the Banded Rows check box turns banding
on. If you prefer not to have Excel band the rows in your PivotTable, clearing the check
box turns banding off.
To apply a number format to PivotTable data
1. Click any data cell in the body of the PivotTable.
2. On the Analyze tool tab, in the Active Field group, click Field Settings.
3. In the Value Field Settings dialog box, click the Number Format button.
4. Use the tools on the Number tab of the Format Cells dialog box to define a
number format for your PivotTable data field.
5. Click OK to close the Format Cells dialog box, and again to close the Value Field
Settings dialog box.
To apply a conditional format to a PivotTable
1. Click any data cell in the body of the PivotTable.
2. On the Home tab of the ribbon, in the Styles group, click the Conditional
Formatting button, and define the conditional format you want to apply.
3. Next to the cell you selected, click the Formatting Options action button.
4. Do any of the following:
• Click Selected Cells to only apply the conditional format to the cell you clicked
before creating the format.
• Click All cells showing “Summary of Field” values to format all data cells,
including subtotals and grand totals.
• Click All cells showing “Sum of field” values for “Field1” and “Field2” to
format all data cells that are not subtotals or grand totals.
To apply an existing PivotTable style
1. Click any cell in the PivotTable.
2. On the Design tool tab, in the PivotTable Styles group, click the style you want to
apply.
To create a new PivotTable style
1. Click any cell in the PivotTable.
2. In the PivotTable Styles group, click the More button (which looks like a
downward-pointing black triangle) in the lower-right corner of the PivotTable
Styles gallery.
3. Click New PivotTable Style.
4. In the New PivotTable Style dialog box, click in the Name box and enter a name
for the new PivotTable Style.
5. In the Table Element list, click the element for which you want to define a format.
6. Click the Format button.
7. Define a format for the selected element by using the settings in the Format Cells
dialog box.
8. Click OK.
9. Repeat steps 5 through 8 to define formats for other PivotTable elements.
10. Click OK to close the New PivotTable Style dialog box and apply the style.
To apply banded rows to a PivotTable
1. Click any cell in the body of a PivotTable.
2. If necessary, apply a PivotTable Style that includes banded rows.
3. On the Design tool tab, in the PivotTable Style Options group, select the Banded
Rows check box.

Create PivotTables from external data


Although most of the time you will create PivotTables from data stored in Excel
worksheets, you can also bring data from outside sources into Excel. For example, you
might need to work with data created in another spreadsheet program with a file format
that Excel can’t read directly. Fortunately, you can export the data from the original
program into a text file, which Excel then translates into a worksheet.

Tip
The data import technique shown here isn’t exclusive to PivotTables. You can
use this procedure to bring data into your worksheets for any purpose.

Spreadsheet programs store data in cells, so the goal of representing spreadsheet data in a
text file is to indicate where the contents of one cell end and those of the next cell begin.
The character that marks the end of a cell is a delimiter, in that it marks the end (or
“limit”) of a cell. The most common cell delimiter is the comma, so the delimited
sequence 15, 18, 24, 28 represents data in four cells. The problem with using commas to
delimit financial data is that larger values—such as 52,802—can be written by using
commas as thousands markers. To avoid confusion when importing a text file, some
financial data programs export their data by using the tab character as a delimiter.

Tip
You can open files in which the values are separated by commas, called
comma-separated value files, directly into Excel. These files often have .csv
extensions.

To start importing data from a text file, you identify the file that contains the data you
want to work with.
Identify the file you want to import in the Import Text File dialog box
After you identify the file that holds the data you want to import, Excel launches the Text
Import wizard.

Identify whether the data file has delimited or fixed-width fields


On the first page of the Text Import Wizard, you can indicate whether the data file you are
importing is delimited or fixed-width; fixed-width means that each cell value will fall
within a specific position in the file. After you choose the proper setting, which with
contemporary data programs will almost always be Delimited, you can move to the next
page of the wizard.

Identify the delimiter character and verify that your data appears to be separated
correctly
On the second page, you can choose the delimiter for the file (for example, if Excel
detected tabs in the file, it will select the Tab check box for you) and view a preview of
what the text file will look like when imported. Clicking Next advances you to the final
wizard page.
You can identify the data types for your text file’s columns
On this page, you can change the data type and formatting of the columns in your data.
Because you’ll assign formatting after you create the PivotTable, you can click Finish to
import the data into your worksheet. After the data is in Excel, you can work with it
normally.
To import data from a text file
1. Display the worksheet where you want the imported data to appear.
2. On the Data tab, in the Get External Data group, click From Text.
3. In the Import Text File dialog box, navigate to the folder that contains the file you
want to import, click the file, and then click Import.
4. On the first page of the Text Import Wizard, verify that Delimited is selected, and
then click Next.
5. On the second page of the Text Import Wizard, select the check box next to the
file’s delimiter character, and then click Next.
6. If you want to identify data formats for individual columns, click the column in the
Data preview area, and then use the options in the Column data format section of
the wizard to set options for the column.
7. If necessary, repeat step 6 for additional columns.
8. Click Finish.
9. Using the tools in the Import Data dialog box, select a destination for the imported
data, and then click OK.
To create a PivotTable from imported data
1. Click a cell in the imported data list.
2. On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click PivotTable.
3. In the Create PivotTable dialog box, verify that Excel has correctly identified the
data source you want to use.
4. Select the New Worksheet option button.
Or
Select the Existing Worksheet option button, click in the Location box, and click
the cell where you want to the PivotTable to start.
5. Click OK.

Create dynamic charts by using PivotCharts


Just as you can create a PivotTable that you can reorganize whenever you want, to
emphasize different aspects of the data in a list, you can also create a dynamic chart, or
PivotChart, to reflect the contents and organization of a PivotTable.

Define a PivotChart in the Create PivotChart dialog box


You can create a PivotTable and its associated PivotChart at the same time, or you can
create a PivotChart from an existing PivotTable. If you create the PivotTable and
PivotChart at the same time, blank outlines for each appear in your worksheet.
Creating a PivotChart also creates a PivotTable
Any changes to the PivotTable on which the PivotChart is based are reflected in the
PivotChart. For example, applying a PivotTable filter that limits the data displayed to
values for the year 2014 focuses the chart on that data.

Summarize your data visually by using a PivotChart


You can also filter a PivotChart by using tools available in the body of the PivotChart, or
change the PivotChart’s chart type to represent your data differently.

Important
If your data is the wrong type to be represented by the chart type you select,
Excel displays an error message.
To create a PivotTable and PivotChart at the same time
1. Click a cell in the Excel table or data list you want to summarize.
2. On the Insert tab, in the Charts group, click the PivotChart arrow.
3. In the PivotChart list, click PivotChart & PivotTable.
4. In the Create PivotTable dialog box, verify that Excel has correctly identified the
data source you want to use.
5. Select the New Worksheet option button.
Or
Select the Existing Worksheet option button, click in the Location box, and click
the cell where you want to the PivotTable to start.
6. Click OK.
To create a PivotChart from an existing PivotTable
1. Click a cell in the PivotTable.
2. In the Charts group, click the PivotChart button.
3. In the Insert Chart dialog box, click the category of chart you want to create.
4. If necessary, click the subtype of chart you want to create.
5. Click OK.
To change the chart type of a PivotChart
1. Click the PivotChart.
2. On the Design tool tab, in the Type group, click Change Chart Type.
3. In the Change Chart Type dialog box, click the category of chart you want to
create.
4. If necessary, click the subtype of chart you want to create.
5. Click OK.

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Analyze data dynamically by using PivotTables
Filter, show, and hide PivotTable data
Edit PivotTables
Format PivotTables
Create PivotTables from external data
Create dynamic charts by using PivotCharts
Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch10 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Analyze data dynamically by using PivotTables


Open the CreatePivotTables workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Click a cell in the Excel table on Sheet1 and create a PivotTable based on that data.
2. In the PivotTable Fields pane, add the Year field to the Columns area, the Center
field to the Rows area, and the Volume field to the Values area.
3. Pivot the PivotTable so the Year field is above the Center field in the Rows area.

Filter, show, and hide PivotTable data


Open the FilterPivotTables workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Using the Month field, create a selection filter that displays data for January,
April, and July.
2. Remove the filter.
3. Add the Weekday field to the Filters area and limit the data shown to Tuesday.
4. Change the Weekday field’s filter to include multiple values, and then set it to
display values for Tuesday and Wednesday.
5. Create a Slicer for the Month field, and then display values for the month of
December.
6. Change the Slicer filter to allow multiple selections, and then display values for
January and December.
7. Clear the Slicer filter, and then delete the Slicer.

Edit PivotTables
Open the EditPivotTables workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Change the name of the PivotTable on Sheet2 to PackageVolume.
2. Change the PivotTable’s subtotals so they appear at the bottom of each group.
3. Change the summary function for the body of the PivotTable from Sum to Average.
4. In cell E3, create a formula that displays the data from cell B4 (the Sum of Volume
value for the Atlantic center).

Format PivotTables
Open the FormatPivotTables workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Change the format of the Volume field, currently providing data for the Values area,
so that the numbers are displayed in the Comma number format with no digits after
the decimal point.
2. Click any cell in the data area of the PivotTable, and then create a conditional
format that changes the fill color of cells that contain a value that is above average
for the field.
3. Apply a different PivotTable style to the PivotTable.
4. Create a new PivotTable style and apply it.

Create PivotTables from external data


Open the ImportPivotData workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. On the Data tab, use the tools in the Get External Data group to start importing
data from the text file ImportData.txt.
2. In the Text Import Wizard, identify the tab character as the data file’s delimiter
and finish importing the data.
3. Create a PivotTable from the data list consisting of the data you just imported.

Create dynamic charts by using PivotCharts


Open the CreatePivotCharts workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Click any cell in the Excel table on Sheet1 and create a clustered column PivotChart
with the Center field in the Legend (Series) area and Volume (which will be
displayed as Sum of Volume) in the Values area.
2. Remove the Center field from the body of the PivotTable, and then drag the Year
field to the Axis (Category) area.
3. Change the chart type of the PivotChart to a line chart.
4. Add the Center field to the Legend (Series) area.
Part 3: Collaborate and share in Excel
CHAPTER 11
Print worksheets and charts
CHAPTER 12
Automate repetitive tasks by using macros
CHAPTER 13
Work with other Microsoft Office apps
CHAPTER 14
Collaborate with colleagues
11. Print worksheets and charts

In this chapter
Add headers and footers to printed pages
Prepare worksheets for printing
Print worksheets
Print parts of worksheets
Print charts

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch11 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

Microsoft Excel 2016 gives you a wide range of tools with which to create and manipulate
your data. By using filters, by sorting, and by creating PivotTables and charts, you can
change your worksheets so that they convey the greatest possible amount of information.
After you configure your worksheet so that it shows your data to best advantage, you can
print your Excel documents to use in a presentation or include in a report. You can choose
to print all or part of any of your worksheets, change how your data and charts appear on
the printed page, and even suppress any error messages that might appear in your
worksheets.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to preparing your worksheets for
printing, printing all or part of a worksheet, printing charts, and adding headers and footers
to your worksheets.

Add headers and footers to printed pages


If you want to ensure that the same information appears at the top or bottom of every
printed page, you can do so by using headers or footers. A header is a section that appears
at the top of every printed page; a footer is a section that appears at the bottom of every
printed page.
Headers and footers provide space to add information about your workbook
When you display your workbook’s headers and footers, Excel displays the workbook in
Page Layout view. Page Layout view shows you exactly how your workbook will look
when printed, while still enabling you to edit your file, a capability not provided by Print
Preview.
Excel divides its headers and footers into left, middle, and right sections. When you point
to an editable header or footer section, Excel highlights the section to indicate that clicking
will open that header or footer section for editing.

Tip
If you have a chart selected when you click the Header & Footer button on
the Insert tab, Excel displays the Header/Footer page of the Page Setup dialog
box instead of opening a header or footer section for editing.
Excel generates headers based on your worksheet’s properties
When you activate a header or footer section, you can add one of several standard headers
and footers, such as page numbers by themselves or followed by the name of the
workbook. The list of headers that appears will vary depending on the properties and
contents of your worksheet and workbook.
You can also create custom headers by entering your own or adding a graphic, such as a
company logo, to a worksheet. By adding graphics, you can identify the worksheet as
referring to your company and help reinforce your company’s identity if you include the
worksheet in a printed report distributed outside your company. After you insert a graphic
into a header or footer, you can make it larger or smaller, change its appearance, or add
borders.
When you print or display a worksheet, you might want to have different headers for odd
and even pages, or perhaps just for the first page. After you indicate that you want
separate headers, Excel indicates whether a header or footer applies to the first page or, if
appropriate, an odd or even page.
Your worksheet’s header and footer will always be the same width as the printed
worksheet, but you can adjust their vertical size.

Change header and footer heights in the Page Setup dialog box
To edit headers and footers
1. On the Insert tab of the ribbon, in the Text group, click Header & Footer.
2. Click in the header or footer section you want to edit.
To switch between the header and the footer
1. Click Header & Footer.
2. Click the Go to Footer button to move to the footer.
Or
Click the Go to Header button to move to the header.
To add text to a header or footer
1. Open a header or footer section for editing.
2. On the Design tab of the ribbon, in the Header & Footer Elements group, click a
button representing the text you want to add to your header or footer.
3. Enter any additional text you want to appear in the header or footer.
4. Use the controls on the Home tab to format the text.
To add an automatically generated header or footer
1. Open a header or footer section for editing.
2. In the Header & Footer group, click the Header button and click the automatically
generated header you want to add.
Or
Click the Footer button and click the automatically generated footer you want to
add.
To add a graphic from your computer to a header or footer
1. Open a header or footer section for editing.
2. In the Header & Footer Elements group, click Picture.

Add a graphic to a header or footer from the Insert Pictures dialog box
3. In the Insert Pictures dialog box, click From a file.
4. Navigate to the folder that contains the picture you want to add.
5. Double-click the file.
To edit a graphic in a header or footer
1. Activate the header or footer section that contains the &[Picture] code.
2. In the Header & Footer Elements group, click Format Picture.
Edit graphics you have added to a header or footer
3. Make the changes you want in the Format Picture dialog box.
4. Click OK.
To put a different header on the first printed page
1. Activate a header or footer in your worksheet.
2. In the Options group, select the Different First Page check box.
3. Display the first page of the worksheet and create its header.
To use separate headers and footers for odd and even pages
1. Activate a header or footer in your workbook.
2. In the Options group, select the Different Odd & Even Pages check box.
3. Display an odd page and create the header for odd pages.
Or
Display an even page and create the header for even pages.
To change the vertical size of headers and footers
1. Activate a header or footer in your worksheet.
2. On the Page Layout tab of the ribbon, click the Margins button, and then click
Custom Margins.
3. On the Margins tab of the Page Setup dialog box, change the Header and Footer
margins to the values you want.
Prepare worksheets for printing
When you are ready to print your workbook, you can change the workbook’s properties to
ensure that your worksheets display all your information and that printing is centered on
the page. In Excel, all of these printing functions are gathered together in one place: the
Backstage view.

You can control most aspects of your printed worksheet

Tip
Press Ctrl+P to preview your worksheet in the Backstage view.

You can change the number of copies to print, the printer to which you will send the file,
whether Excel should print the page in landscape or portrait orientation, which paper size
to use, which margin settings you want, and whether to scale the worksheet’s contents so
they fit on a specific number of printed pages.

Fit your worksheet contents to the printed page


Excel comes with three margin settings: Normal, Wide, and Narrow. Excel applies the
Normal setting by default, but you can select any of the three options you want, or you can
set your own custom margins.
You can control the white space, or margins, around your printed worksheet
A potential issue with printing worksheets is that the data in worksheets tends to be wider
horizontally than a standard sheet of paper. If that’s the case, you can change the
alignment of the rows and columns on the page. When the columns parallel the long edge
of a piece of paper, the page is laid out in portrait mode; when the columns parallel the
short edge of a piece of paper, it is in landscape mode. Changing between portrait and
landscape mode might result in a better fit.

Select landscape or portrait mode for a better fit


If you can’t fit your worksheet contents on a single page by changing its orientation, you
can change its scale. Scaling a worksheet for printing lets you specify the number of
printed pages the worksheet will take up. You can scale your worksheet until everything
fits on a specified number of printed pages, specify the number of printed pages the
columns will appear on, or specify the number of printed pages the rows will appear on. If
you have a list of data that’s 15 columns wide and 100 rows long, you could scale it so the
columns all fit on each page of your printout.
When you look at your worksheet in the Backstage view, you can preview what it will
look like when printed, including the number of pages it will be printed on.

Tip
When you display a workbook in the Backstage view, you can view the next
printed page by pressing the Page Down key; to move to the previous page,
press the Page Up key. You can also use the Previous and Next arrows at the
bottom of the Backstage view, enter a page number in the Current Page box,
or scroll through the pages by using the vertical scroll bar at the right edge of
the Backstage view.

To select landscape or portrait mode for a printed worksheet


1. Display the Backstage view.
2. In the left pane of the Backstage view, click Print.
3. On the Print page, in the Settings area, click the Orientation button.
4. Click the orientation you want.
To scale a worksheet for printing
1. On the Print page of the Backstage view, in the Settings area, click the Scaling
button.
Select a scaling option to print your worksheet on a set number of pages
2. Click the scaling option you want.

Change page breaks in a worksheet


Another way to affect how your worksheet will appear on the printed page is to change
where Excel assigns its page breaks. A page break is the point at which Excel prints all
subsequent data on a new sheet of paper. You can make these changes indirectly by
modifying a worksheet’s margins, but you can also do so directly. You can view a
worksheet in Page Break Preview mode by displaying the View tab of the ribbon and
clicking the Page Break Preview button. In Page Break Preview mode, the blue lines in the
window represent the page breaks.
In Page Break Preview mode, page breaks appear in blue

Important
If you want to insert a single page break (not both vertical and horizontal
page breaks at the same point) in Page Break Preview mode, be sure to click a
row header or column header. If you right-click a cell within the body of a
worksheet in Page Break Preview mode and then click Insert Page Break,
Excel creates both a vertical page break to the left of the selected cell and a
horizontal page break above the selected cell.

You can also move a page break by dragging it to its new position. Excel will change the
worksheet’s properties so that the area you defined will be printed on a single page, if
possible.
To add a page break to a worksheet
1. Click the row or column header where you want to add the page break.
2. On the Page Layout tab of the ribbon, in the Page Setup group, click the Breaks
button, and then click Insert Page Break.
To remove a page break
1. Click the column header to the right of the page break.
Or
Click the row header below the page break.
2. In the Page Setup group, click the Breaks button, and then click Remove Page
Break.
To reset all page breaks
1. Click the Breaks button, and then click Reset All Page Breaks.

Change the page printing order for worksheets


When you view a document in Page Break Preview mode, Excel indicates the order in
which the pages will be printed with light gray words on the worksheet pages. (These
indicators appear only in Page Break Preview mode; they don’t show up when the
document is printed.) If you want, you can change the order in which the pages are
printed. One reason to change the order in which Excel prints your worksheet pages would
be to keep related information on consecutive pages.

You can change the order in which worksheet pages are printed
To change the order in which worksheet pages are printed
1. On the Page Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click the dialog box launcher.
2. In the Page Setup dialog box, click the Sheet tab.
3. Select Down, then over.
Or
Select Over, then down.
4. Click OK.
Print worksheets
When you’re ready to print a worksheet, you can control how Excel prints it. For example,
you can choose the printer to which you want to send this job, print multiple copies of the
worksheet, and select whether the copies are collated (all pages of a document are printed
together) or not (multiple copies of the same page are printed together). You can also print
more than one worksheet at a time by selecting the worksheet tabs in the tab bar before
you start printing, or you can have Excel print the entire workbook at once.

Tip
The worksheets you select for printing do not need to be next to one another
in the workbook.
Control your print job from the Print page of the Backstage view
Some worksheets you print might be works in progress, where some of the formulas might
display errors due to missing values. You can select how Excel will print any errors in
your worksheet: printing it as it normally appears in the worksheet, printing a blank cell in
place of the error, or choosing one of two other indicators that are not standard error
messages.
To print a worksheet in Excel
1. Display the worksheet you want to print.
2. In the left pane of the Backstage view, click Print.
Or
Press Ctrl+P.
3. Select the options you want to apply to the print job.
4. Click the Print button.
To print multiple copies of a worksheet
1. Press Ctrl+P.
2. Change the value in the Copies box.
3. Click the Print button.
To print multiple worksheets
1. Hold down the Ctrl key and click the tabs of any worksheets you want to print.
2. Press Ctrl+P.
3. Click the Print button.
To control how Excel prints worksheet errors
1. On the Page Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click the dialog box launcher.
2. In the Page Setup dialog box, click the Sheet tab.
3. In the Cell errors as list, select the option representing how you want errors to be
printed.

Specify how Excel should print worksheet errors


4. Click OK.
Print parts of worksheets
Excel gives you a great deal of control over what your worksheets look like when you
print them, but you also have a lot of control over which parts of your worksheets will be
printed. For example, you can choose which pages of a multipage worksheet you want to
print. If you want to print a portion of a worksheet instead of the entire worksheet, you can
define the area or areas you want to have printed and use the Center On Page controls on
the Margins tab of the Page Setup dialog box to specify how Excel should position the
area on the printed page.

Tip
You can include noncontiguous groups of cells in the area to be printed by
holding down the Ctrl key as you select the cells.

Center printed items on the page horizontally and vertically


If the contents of a worksheet will take up more than one printed page, you can have Excel
repeat one or more rows at the top of the page or columns at the left of the page.
Repeating a row with headers makes the data easier to read throughout the printed
document, because you and your colleagues won’t need to refer to the first page to know
which data each row and column contains.
To print specific pages
1. Press Ctrl+P.
2. On the Print page of the Backstage view, in the first Pages box, enter the number of
the first page you want to print.
3. In the second Pages box, enter the number of the last page you want to print.
To define a print area
1. Select the cells you want to print.
2. On the Page Layout tab, in the Print Setup group, click Print Area to display a
menu of print area choices, and then click Set Print Area.
When you click Print in the Backstage view, your selections will be reflected in the
preview. You can then print the worksheet or go back to the worksheet and repeat
the steps to adjust your changes.
To define a multiregion print area
1. Select the first cell region you want to print.
2. Hold down the Ctrl key and select any other cells you want to print.
3. On the Print Area menu, click Set Print Area.
When you click Print in the Backstage view, your selections will be reflected in the
preview. You can then print the worksheet or go back to the worksheet and repeat
the steps to adjust your changes.
To remove a print area
1. Click any cell in the print area.
2. On the Print Area menu, click Clear Print Area.
When you click Print in the Backstage view, your selections will be reflected in the
preview. You can then print the worksheet or go back to the worksheet and repeat
the steps to adjust your changes.
To position printed material on the page
1. In the Page Setup group, click the dialog box launcher.
2. In the Page Setup dialog box, click the Margins tab.
3. Select the Horizontally check box to center printing on the page horizontally.
Or
Select the Vertically check box to center printing on the page vertically.
When you click Print in the Backstage view, your selections will be reflected in the
preview. You can then print the worksheet or go back to the worksheet and repeat
the steps to adjust your changes.
To repeat columns at the left of each printed page
1. In the Page Setup group, click Print Titles.
2. On the Sheet tab of the Page Setup dialog box, at the right edge of the Columns to
repeat at left box, click the Collapse Dialog button to collapse the dialog box.
Identify rows or columns to repeat on printed pages
3. Select the column headers of the columns you want to repeat at the left of the page.
4. Click the Expand Dialog button.
5. Click OK.
When you click Print in the Backstage view, your selections will be reflected in the
preview. You can then print the worksheet or go back to the worksheet and repeat
the steps to adjust your changes.
To repeat rows at the top of each printed page
1. Click Print Titles.
2. On the Sheet tab of the Page Setup dialog box, at the right edge of the Rows to
repeat at top box, click the Collapse Dialog button to collapse the dialog box.
3. Select the row headers of any rows you want to repeat at the top of the page.
4. Click the Expand Dialog button.
5. Click OK.
When you click Print in the Backstage view, your selections will be reflected in the
preview. You can then print the worksheet or go back to the worksheet and repeat
the steps to adjust your changes.

Print charts
With charts, which are graphic representations of your Excel data, you can communicate a
lot of information with a single picture. Depending on your data and the type of chart you
make, you can show trends across time, indicate the revenue share for various departments
in a company for a month, or project future sales by using trendline analysis. After you
create a chart, you can print it to include in a report or use in a presentation.
If you embed a chart in a worksheet, however, the chart will probably obscure some of
your data unless you move the chart to a second page in the worksheet. That’s one way to
handle printing a chart or the underlying worksheet, but there are other ways that don’t
involve changing the layout of your worksheets.

Click a chart in your worksheet to print it by itself on a page


To print a chart
1. Select the chart.
2. Press Ctrl+P.
3. Verify that the Print Selected Chart option is selected.
4. Click the Print button.

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Add headers and footers to printed pages
Prepare worksheets for printing
Print worksheets
Print parts of worksheets
Print charts

Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch11 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Add headers and footers to printed pages


Open the AddHeaders workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Enter the text Q1 2016 in the center section of the header, and press Enter.
2. Add a code to display the name of the current file, followed by a comma and a
space, and then add a control to display the current date.
3. Create separate headers for odd and even pages.
4. In the middle section of the footer, add the ConsolidatedMessenger.png file, and
then click any worksheet cell above the footer to view what the image looks like in
the footer.
5. Edit the image so it is 80 percent of its original size.
6. Change the margins for both the header and footer so they are 0.5 inches high.

Prepare worksheets for printing


Open the PrepareWorksheets workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Change the orientation of the JanFeb worksheet to Landscape.
2. Change the scale of the JanFeb worksheet to 80 percent.
3. On the JanFeb worksheet, set a horizontal page break above row 38.
4. Set the margins of the MarJun worksheet to the Wide preset values.
5. For the MarJun worksheet, change the page print order to Over, then down.

Print worksheets
Open the PrintWorksheets workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Configure the worksheet so cell errors are displayed as blank cells.
2. Select the Summary and Northwind sheets, and display them on the Print page of
the Backstage view.
3. If you want, click the Print button to print your worksheets on the local printer.

Print parts of worksheets


Open the PrintParts workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Set the print titles of the worksheet so that columns A and B are repeated at the left
edge of each printed page.
2. Change the printer properties so Excel will print only pages 1 and 2 of the
worksheet.
3. Scale the worksheet so its columns will fit on one page when printed, and preview
what the worksheet will look like when printed.
4. Define a multiregion print area including cells A1:E8 and A38:E45.
5. Center the regions on the printed page.
6. Clear the print area you created.

Print charts
Open the PrintCharts workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Select the revenue chart.
2. Continue as if you are going to print the revenue chart, and then change the settings
on the Print page of the Backstage view to print the entire worksheet.
12. Automate repetitive tasks by using macros

In this chapter
Enable and examine macros
Create and modify macros
Run macros when you click a button
Run a macro when you open a workbook
Insert form controls into a worksheet

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch12 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

Many tasks you perform in Excel 2016, such as entering data or creating formulas, you do
only once. However, there are probably one or two tasks you perform frequently that
require a lot of steps to accomplish. To save time, you can create a macro, which is a
recorded series of actions, to perform the steps for you. After you have created a macro,
you can run, edit, or delete it as needed.
You can make your macros easier to access by creating new buttons on the Quick Access
Toolbar and assigning your macros to them. If you run a macro to highlight specific cells
in a worksheet every time you show that worksheet to a colleague, you can save time by
adding a Quick Access Toolbar button that runs the macro to highlight the cells for you.
You can also create macros that run whenever you open the workbook that contains them,
and you can add form controls, such as list boxes, to your worksheets to facilitate data
entry.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to opening, running, creating, and
modifying macros; creating Quick Access Toolbar buttons you can use to run macros with
a single mouse click; defining macro security settings; running a macro when a workbook
is opened; and inserting form controls into a worksheet.

Enable and examine macros


It’s possible for unscrupulous programmers to write viruses and other harmful programs
by using the Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) programming language, so
you need to be sure that you don’t run macros from unknown sources. In addition to
running protective software such as Windows Defender, you can also change your Excel
macro security settings to control when macros can be run. After you’re sure a macro is
safe, you can open it in the Visual Basic Editor to examine its code.
Set macro security levels in Excel 2016
In versions of Excel prior to Excel 2007, you could define macro security levels to
determine which macros, if any, your workbooks would be allowed to run, but there was
no workbook type in which all macros were disallowed. Excel 2016 has several file types
you can use to control whether a workbook will allow macros to run. The following table
summarizes the macro-related file types.

When you open a macro-enabled workbook, the Excel app-level security settings might
prevent the workbook from running the macro code. When that happens, Excel displays a
security warning on the message bar.

Macro security settings help reduce outside threats


Clicking the Enable Content button lets the workbook use its macros. Always take the
time to verify the workbook’s source and consider whether you expected the workbook to
contain macros before you enable the content. If you decide not to enable the macros in a
workbook, close the message bar without enabling the content. You will still be able to
edit the workbook, but macros and other active content will not be available.
You can change your app-level security settings to make them more or less restrictive by
using the Trust Center dialog box.

Define macro security settings in the Trust Center


The Excel default macro security level is Disable All Macros With Notification, which
means that Excel displays a warning on the message bar but allows you to enable the
macros manually. Selecting the Disable All Macros Without Notification option does
exactly what the label says. If you work in an environment where your workbooks contain
macros verified with digital signatures, you could select the Disable All Macros Except
Digitally Signed Macros option.

Important
Because it is possible to write macros that act as viruses, potentially causing
harm to your computer and spreading copies of themselves to other
computers, you should never choose the Enable All Macros security setting,
even if you have virus-checking software installed on your computer.

To change macro security settings


1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Options.
2. In the Excel Options dialog box, click the Trust Center category.
3. Click Trust Center Settings.
4. Click Macro Settings.
5. Select one of the following security levels:
• Disable all macros without notification
• Disable all macros with notification
• Disable all macros except digitally signed macros
• Enable all macros (not recommended; potentially dangerous code can run)
6. Click OK twice.

Examine macros
One great way to get an idea of how macros work is to examine an existing macro. The
Macro dialog box displays a list of macros in your workbook by default, but you can also
choose to display the macros available in other workbooks. When you display a macro’s
code, Excel opens it in the Visual Basic Editor.

View and edit macros in the Visual Basic Editor

Tip
You can also open and close the Visual Basic Editor by pressing Alt+F11.

Consider, for example, the code for a macro that selects the cell range C4:C9 and changes
the cells’ formatting to bold. The first line of the macro identifies the cell range to be
selected (in this case, cells C4:C9). After the macro selects the cells, the next line of the
macro changes the formatting of the selected cells to bold, which has the same result as
clicking a cell and then clicking the Bold button in the Font group on the Home tab.
You can move through a macro one step at a time to observe how the code executes, run
the macro to a breakpoint, or run the macro the whole way through.

Tip
To execute an instruction, press F8. The highlight moves to the next
instruction, and your worksheet then changes to reflect the action that resulted
from executing the preceding instruction.

Step through a macro one instruction at a time


You can run a macro without stopping from within the Macro dialog box. You’ll usually
run the macro this way; after all, the point of using macros is to save time.

Tip
To open the Macro dialog box by using a keyboard shortcut, press Alt+F8.

To examine a macro
1. On the View tab of the ribbon, in the Macros group, click the Macros button.
2. In the Macro dialog box, click the macro you want to examine.
3. Click Edit.
4. Make any changes you want to the macro’s code.
5. In the Visual Basic Editor, click File, and then click Close and Return to
Microsoft Excel.
To move through a macro one step at a time
1. Click the Macros button.
2. In the Macro dialog box, click the macro you want to step through.
3. Click Step Into.
4. In the Visual Basic Editor, press F8 to execute the highlighted step.
5. Do one of the following:
• Repeat step 4 until you have moved through the entire macro.
• Press F5 to run the remaining steps without stopping.
• On the Visual Basic Editor toolbar, click the Reset button to stop stepping through
the macro.
6. In the Visual Basic Editor, click File, and then click Close and Return to
Microsoft Excel.

Create and modify macros


The first step in creating a macro is to plan the process you want to automate. Computers
today are quite fast, so adding an extra step during recording doesn’t slow you down
noticeably, but leaving out a step means that you will need to re-record your macro. After
you plan your process, you can record your macro by using the tools in the Record Macro
dialog box.

Automate repeatable processes by using the Record Macro dialog box to create a macro
After you give your macro a name and description, you can record your actions. To
modify an existing macro, you can simply delete the macro and re-record it. Or, if you just
need to make a quick change, you can open it in the Visual Basic Editor and add to or
change the macro’s instructions.
Tip
For more information about using the Visual Basic Editor, press Alt+F11 to
display the Visual Basic Editor, press F1 to display the Context Help dialog
box, click VBA, and then click Help to display the Visual Basic Help dialog
box.

To record a macro
1. On the View tab, in the Macros group, click the Macros arrow (not the button), and
then click Record Macro.
2. In the Macro name box, enter a name for your macro.
3. Enter a quick description for your macro in the Description box.
4. Click OK.
5. Perform the steps you want to record in your macro.
6. Click the Macros arrow (not the button), and then click Stop Recording.
To edit a macro
1. Click the Macros button.
2. Click the macro you want to edit.
3. Click Edit.
4. Make the changes you want to make to your macro’s code.
5. Press Ctrl+S to save your changes.
6. In the Visual Basic Editor, click File, and then click Close and Return to
Microsoft Excel.
To delete a macro
1. Click the Macros button.
2. Click the macro you want to delete.
3. Click Delete.
4. In the confirmation dialog box that appears, click Yes.

Run macros when you click a button


You can use the ribbon to quickly access the commands built into Excel. However, it can
take a few seconds to open the Macro dialog box. When you’re in the middle of a
presentation, taking even those few seconds can reduce your momentum and force you to
regain your audience’s attention.
If you want to run a macro without having to display the Macro dialog box, you can do so
by adding a button representing the macro to the Quick Access Toolbar. Clicking that
button runs the macro immediately, which is very handy when you create a macro for a
task you perform frequently.
If you want to add more than one macro button to the Quick Access Toolbar, or if you
want to change the button that represents your macro on the Quick Access Toolbar, you
can select a new button from more than 160 options.

Change the appearance of buttons on your Quick Access Toolbar


Finally, you can have Excel run a macro when you click a shape in your workbook. By
using this technique, you can create “buttons” that are graphically richer than those
available on the Quick Access Toolbar. If you want, you can even create custom button
layouts that represent other objects, such as a remote control.

Important
When you assign a macro to run when you click a shape, don’t change the
name of the macro that appears in the Assign Macro dialog box. The name
that appears refers to the object and what the object should do when it is
clicked; changing the macro name breaks that connection and prevents Excel
from running the macro.

To add a macro button to the Quick Access Toolbar


1. Right-click any ribbon tab, and then click Customize Quick Access Toolbar.
Change the buttons on the Quick Access Toolbar to enhance your usage
2. In the Excel Options dialog box, click the Choose commands from arrow, and
then click Macros.

Tip
If you have more than one workbook open, the macro list will contain macros
stored in the other workbooks. To limit the list to macros available in the
active workbook, click the Customize Quick Access Toolbar button, and then
click For workbook.xlsm.

3. Click the macro you want to add, and then click the Add button.
4. Click Modify.
5. In the Symbol pane, click the button image you want.
6. the Display name box, enter a new name for the button.
7. Click OK twice to close the Modify Button dialog box and then the Excel Options
dialog box.
To edit the appearance of a macro button on the Quick Access Toolbar
1. On the Quick Access Toolbar page of the Excel Options dialog box, in the list of
commands that are on the toolbar, click the button you want to modify.
2. Click Modify.
3. In the Symbol pane, click the button image you want.
4. In the Display name box, enter a new name for the button.
5. Click OK twice to close the Modify Button dialog box and then the Excel Options
dialog box.
To assign a macro to a shape
1. Right-click the shape to which you want to assign a macro, and then click Assign
Macro.

See Also
For information about how to edit the text displayed within a shape, see
Chapter 9, “Create charts and graphics.”

2. In the Assign Macro dialog box, click the name of the macro you want to run when
the shape is clicked.
3. Click OK.
To run a macro assigned to a shape
1. Click the shape to which the macro has been assigned.
To edit a shape to which a macro has been assigned
1. Right-click the shape you want to edit.
2. In the shortcut menu, click Format Shape.
3. Use the tools in the Format Shape task pane to change the shape’s formatting.
4. Click the Close button to close the Format Shape task pane.

Run a macro when you open a workbook


One advantage of writing Excel macros in VBA is that you can have Excel run a macro
whenever you open a workbook. For example, if you use a worksheet for presentations,
you can create macros that render the contents of selected cells in bold type, italic, or
different typefaces to set the data apart from data in neighboring cells. If you close a
workbook without removing that formatting, however, the contents of your workbook will
still have that formatting applied the next time you open it. Although this change might
not be a catastrophe, returning the workbook to its original formatting might take some
time to accomplish.
Instead of running a macro manually, or even from a toolbar button or a menu, you can
have Excel run a macro whenever you open a workbook. The trick of making that happen
is in the name you give the macro. When Excel finds a macro with the name Auto_Open,
it runs the macro when the workbook to which it is attached is opened.

Tip
If you have your macro security set to the Disable All Macros With
Notification level, you can click the Options button that appears on the
message bar, select the Enable This Content option, and then click OK to
allow the Auto_Open macro to run.

To run a macro when you open a workbook


1. On the View tab, in the Macros group, click the Macros button.
2. Click the macro you want to run when the workbook is opened.
3. Click Edit.
4. Edit the Sub MacroName() line so it reads Sub Auto_Open().
5. Press Ctrl+S to save your changes.
6. In the Visual Basic Editor, click File, and then click Close and Return to
Microsoft Excel.
Or
1. Click the Macros arrow (not the button), and then click Record Macro.
2. In the Macro name box, enter Auto_Open.
3. Click OK.
4. Record the steps you want Excel to execute when the workbook is opened.
5. Click the Macros arrow (not the button), and then click Stop Recording.

Insert form controls into a worksheet


When you summarize data in an Excel workbook, you can change the values used in your
visualizations in many different ways. Some of those methods include creating filters,
sorting your data, or entering new values into a cell to change the result of a formula or
filter. You can enhance those capabilities by adding form controls to your worksheets, a
process you start by displaying the Developer tab of the ribbon.

Manage macros and other advanced elements by using the options on the Developer tab
A form control provides additional interactivity that you can use to change your worksheet
quickly and visually.
Tip
The form controls described in this chapter mimic controls such as list boxes,
check boxes, and option buttons that are available in many Excel dialog
boxes.

Two form controls, the list box and the combo box, display a list of values from a cell
range you define. The difference between the list box and the combo box is that a list box
displays all of its values at the same time, and a combo box has an arrow you can click to
display the values from which you can choose.

Select values by using list boxes and combo boxes


After you add a combo box or list box to your worksheet, you can use the settings in the
Format Control dialog box to identify the cells that provide values for the control, the cell
that displays the control’s value, and many other properties on the other tabs of the dialog
box.
Set form control parameters by using the Format Control dialog box

Tip
The cells that provide values for your list box or combo box don’t have to be
on the same worksheet as the form control. Putting the values on another
worksheet lets you reduce the clutter in the worksheet that contains the
visualization. Hiding the worksheet that contains the source data also helps
prevent users from changing those values.

Another form control, the spin button, lets you change numerical values in increments. For
example, you could use spin buttons to increase or decrease the pounds and ounces
representing a package’s weight.

A worksheet with two spin buttons to change cell values


Spin buttons are effective presentation tools. With a series of mouse clicks, you can
change a value up or down in increments you define, illustrating how your worksheet’s
results change.
Spin buttons use slightly different parameters than combo boxes or list boxes. Rather than
identifying the cell range that provides values for the control, you specify the maximum
value, minimum value, increment (amount the value changes with each mouse click), and
which worksheet cell displays the spin button’s value.

Change a spin button’s values in the Format Control dialog box

Important
The maximum, minimum, and increment values must be whole numbers. If
you want to use a spin button to change a percentage, for example, you’ll
need to create a formula in another cell that divides the spin button’s value by
100.

The button form control, also referred to as a command button, runs a macro when it’s
clicked. When you add a button to a worksheet, the Assign Macro dialog box appears so
you can tell it which macro to run.
The Assign Macro dialog box for a newly created command button
The next two form controls, the check box and option button, both let users turn particular
options on or off. For example, a package delivery company could allow customers to
waive a signature when a package is dropped off. If the Signature required option button
(the first option button in the group) is selected, the cell displaying the option button’s
value would contain the number 1. If the Signature waived option button is selected, the
cell would contain the number 2.

Option button groups let the user select one of several values

Tip
Even though the check box and option button serve the same purpose, you
should consider using both types of controls to distinguish among different
sets of options.

You can have a cell display whether a check box or option button is selected, or define a
control group that contains the possible options.
Tip
Control groups can contain either option buttons or check boxes, but you
can’t mix them in the same group.

After you add your controls to your worksheet, you can move, align, edit, and delete them,
just as you can with other shapes. One important element to edit is the control’s caption, or
label, which indicates the type of value the control represents. For example, an option
button could have the label Signature required, indicating that selecting that option
requires the delivery person to have the recipient sign for the package.
To display the Developer tab of the ribbon
1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Options.
2. In the Excel Options dialog box, click Customize Ribbon.
3. If necessary, click the Customize the Ribbon arrow, and then click Main Tabs.
4. In the pane below the list box, select the Developer check box.
5. Click OK.
To add a list box to a worksheet
1. On the Developer tab, in the Controls group, click the Insert button, and then click
the List Box (Form Control) icon.
2. In the body of the worksheet, draw the list box.
3. Right-click the list box, and then click Format Control to display the Control tab
of the Format Control dialog box.
4. Click in the Input range box, and then select the cells that will provide the values
for the list box.
5. Click in the Cell link box, and then click the cell where you want to display the
control’s value.
6. In the Selection type group, select the option button representing the type of
selection you want to allow.
7. To display the list box with 3-D shading, select the 3-D shading check box.
8. Click OK.
To add a combo box to a worksheet
1. Click the Insert button, and then click the Combo Box (Form Control) icon.
2. In the body of the worksheet, draw the combo box.
3. Right-click the combo box, and then click Format Control to display the Control
tab of the Format Control dialog box.
4. Click in the Input range box, and then select the cells that will provide the values
for the combo box.
5. Click in the Cell link box, and then click the cell where you want to display the
control’s value.
6. In the Drop down lines box, enter the number of items to be displayed when you
click the combo box’s arrow.
7. To display the list box with 3-D shading, select the 3-D shading check box.
8. Click OK.
To add a spin button to a worksheet
1. Click the Insert button, and then click the Spin Button (Form Control) icon.
2. In the body of the worksheet, draw the spin button.
3. Right-click the spin button, and then click Format Control to display the Control
tab of the Format Control dialog box.
4. In the Current value box, enter the control’s initial value.
5. In the Minimum value box, enter the smallest value allowed in the spin control.
6. In the Maximum value box, enter the largest value allowed in the spin control.
7. In the Incremental change box, enter the increment by which the value should
increase or decrease with each click.
8. Click in the Cell link box, and then click the cell where you want to display the
control’s value.
9. To display the spin button with 3-D shading, select the 3-D shading check box.
10. Click OK.
To add a button to a worksheet
1. Click the Insert button, and then click the Button (Form Control) icon.
2. In the body of the worksheet, draw the button.
3. In the Assign Macro dialog box, click the macro you want to run when the button is
clicked.
4. Click OK.
To add a check box to a worksheet
1. Click the Insert button, and then click the Check Box (Form Control) icon.
2. In the body of the worksheet, draw the check box.
3. Right-click the check box, and then click Format Control to display the Control
tab of the Format Control dialog box.
4. In the Value group, indicate whether the check box should initially be selected,
cleared, or mixed.
5. Click in the Cell link box, and then click the cell where you want to display the
control’s value.
6. To display the check box with 3-D shading, select the 3-D shading check box.
7. Click OK.
To add an option button to a worksheet
1. Click the Insert button, and then click the Option Button (Form Control) icon.
2. In the body of the worksheet, draw the option button.
3. Right-click the option button, and then click Format Control to display the
Control tab of the Format Control dialog box.
4. In the Value group, indicate whether the option button should initially be selected or
unselected.
5. Click in the Cell link box, and then click the cell where you want to display the
control’s value.
6. To display the option button with 3-D shading, select the 3-D shading check box.
7. Click OK.
To create a group of form controls
1. Click the Insert button, and then click the Group Box (Form Control) icon.
2. In the body of the worksheet, draw the group box around the items you want to
make up your group.
To resize a form control
1. Right-click the control, and then click Format Control.
2. Click the Size tab.
3. Use the settings available on the Size tab to change the control’s size.
4. Click OK.
Or
1. Select the control, and then drag the handles on the control’s edges to change the
control’s shape.
To edit the text of a form control
1. Right-click the control, and then click Edit Text.
2. Edit the control’s text in the text box.
3. Click away from the control to stop editing.
To delete a form control
1. Right-click the control, and then click Cut.

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Enable and examine macros
Create and modify macros
Run macros when you click a button
Run a macro when you open a workbook
Insert form controls into a worksheet

Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch12 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Enable and examine macros


Open the ExamineMacros workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. If necessary, on the message bar that appears when you open the workbook, click
Enable Content to enable macros.
2. Open the Macro dialog box.
3. Open the HighlightSouthern macro for editing.
4. Press F8 to step through the first three macro steps, and then press F5 to run the rest
of the macro without stopping.
5. Close the Visual Basic Editor and return to Excel.

Create and modify macros


Open the RecordMacros workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Record a macro that removes bold formatting from cells C4:C5. You are
intentionally leaving the values in cells C6:C7 bold.
2. Restore bold formatting to cells C4:C5, and then run the macro.
3. Restore bold formatting to cells C4:C5 again, and then edit the macro so it removes
bold formatting from cells C4:C7.
4. Run the macro you created.
5. Delete the macro.

Run macros when you click a button


Open the AssignMacros workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Assign the SavingsHighlight macro to a button on the Quick Access Toolbar.
2. Change the button icon assigned to the SavingsHighlight macro button on the
Quick Access Toolbar.
3. Run the SavingsHighlight macro.
4. Assign the EfficiencyHighlight macro to the Show Efficiency shape in the
worksheet.
5. Run the EfficiencyHighlight macro.

Run a macro when you open a workbook


Open the RunOnOpen workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Run the Highlight macro to display the values in cells C4, C6, and C10 in bold.
2. Record a macro named Auto_Open that first applies and then removes bold
formatting from the cell range B3:C11.
3. Re-run the Highlight macro to highlight the values in cells C4, C6, and C10.
4. Save the RunOnOpen workbook, close it, and then reopen it to run the Auto_Open
macro.

Insert form controls into a worksheet


Open the InsertFormControls workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Create a spin button, with the label text Pounds, that initially displays the number 0
and lets the user enter a value from 0 to 70 pounds, in increments of 1 pound, into
cell A2.
2. Create a spin button, with the label text Ounces, that initially displays the number 0
and lets the user enter a value from 0 to 16 ounces, in increments of 1 ounce, into
cell B2.
3. Create a combo box with the label text Method that derives its values from cells
A2:A6 on the ServiceLevels worksheet, and assign its output to cell C2.
4. Create two option buttons labeled Signature Required and Signature Waived.
Assign the value of the Signature Required option button to cell D2 and the value
of the Signature Waived option button to cell E2.
5. Create a group that allows either the Signature Required or Signature Waived
option button to be selected, but not both.
13. Work with other Microsoft Office apps

In this chapter
Include Office documents in workbooks and other files
Create hyperlinks
Paste charts into documents

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch13 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

By itself, Excel 2016 provides a broad range of tools so that you can store, present, and
summarize your data. When you use other Microsoft Office 2016 apps, you can extend
your capabilities even further. For example, you can include a file created with another
Office app in an Excel workbook. If you use Microsoft Word 2016 to write a quick note
about why a customer’s shipping expenditures decreased significantly in January, you can
include the report in your workbook. Similarly, you can include your Excel workbooks in
documents created with other Office apps. If you want to copy only part of a workbook,
such as a chart, to another Office document, you can also do that.
Excel integrates well with the web. If you know of a web-based resource that would be
useful to someone who is viewing a document, you can create a hyperlink, which is a
connection from one place in a document to a place in the same file, or to another file
anywhere on a network or on the Internet, as long as the user’s computer can reach that
location.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to including an Office 2016 document
in a workbook, storing an Excel workbook as part of another Office document, creating
hyperlinks, and pasting an Excel chart into another document.

Include Office documents in workbooks and other files


One benefit of working with Excel 2016 is that because it is part of Office 2016, you can
combine data from Excel and other Office apps to create informative documents and
presentations. Just as you do when you combine data from more than one Excel document,
when you combine information from another Office file with an Excel workbook, you can
either embed the other Office document into the Excel workbook or create a link between
the workbook and the other document.
Embed an Excel workbook in another Office file
When you link to an Office file from within Excel, any changes made to the Office file
will appear in your Excel workbook.

Link to other Office documents from Excel


Link Office documents to Excel workbooks
There are two advantages to creating a link between your Excel workbook and the other
file. The first benefit is that linking to the other file, as opposed to copying the entire file
into your workbook, keeps your Excel workbook small. If the workbook is copied to
another drive or computer, you can maintain the link by copying the linked file along with
the Excel workbook or by re-creating the link if the linked file is on the same network as
the Excel workbook. It is also possible to use the workbook if the linked file isn’t
available. The second benefit of linking to another file is that any changes in the file to
which you link are reflected in your Excel workbook.
You create a link between an Excel workbook and another Office document by identifying
the file, specifying how to connect to it, and choosing how to display the file within your
workbook. After you’ve defined this connection, you can still edit the file by opening it
from within Excel or in the app used to create it.

Identify the file to include in your workbook by using the Object dialog box

Tip
The upper-left corner of the linked or embedded file, or the icon that
represents the file, appears in the worksheet’s active cell.

To create a link to an Office document


1. On the Insert tab of the ribbon, in the Text group, click Object to open the Object
dialog box.
2. Click the Create from File tab to display the Create From File page.
3. Click Browse to open the Browse dialog box.
4. Browse to the directory that contains the file you want to insert, select it in the file
list, and then click Insert.
5. Select the Link to file check box, and then click OK to create a link from your
workbook to the presentation.
To edit a file from its link in an Excel workbook
1. Right-click the linked file in your Excel workbook, point to ObjectType, and click
Edit.
2. Edit the file in the other Office app, then save and close the file.

Embed files in Excel and other Office apps


The preceding section described how to link to another file from within your Excel
workbook. The advantages of linking to a second file are that the size of your workbook is
kept small, and any changes in the second document will be reflected in your workbook.
The disadvantage is that the second document must be copied with the workbook—or it
must at least be on a network-accessible computer. If Excel can’t find or access the second
file where the link says it is located, Excel can’t display it. You can still open your
workbook, but you won’t be able to view the linked file’s contents.
If file size isn’t an issue and you want to ensure that the second document is always
available, you can embed the file in your workbook. Embedding another file in an Excel
workbook means that the entirety of the other file is saved as part of your workbook.
Wherever your workbook goes, the embedded file goes along with it. Of course, the
embedded version of the file is no longer connected to the original file, so changes in one
aren’t reflected in the other.

Important
To view a linked or embedded file, you must have the app used to create it
installed on the computer on which you open the workbook.

If you don’t want your workbook to take up much room in the file where you embed it,
you can have the other app display the workbook as an icon to save space. As with a
linked file, you can always edit your workbook in Excel.
Similarly, you can also embed an Excel workbook in another Office file. This is done from
the Insert Object dialog box in the other Office file. In this dialog box, if the Link check
box is cleared, the Excel workbook will be embedded. If that check box is selected, you
will create a link to the Excel workbook instead of embedding it.
Include an Excel workbook in other Office documents by using the Insert Object dialog
box
To embed an Office document in an Excel workbook
1. On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Object.
2. In the Object dialog box, click the Create from File tab.
3. Click Browse.
4. Navigate to the folder that contains the file you want to embed, click the file, and
then click Insert.
5. Click OK.
To embed an Excel workbook in an Office document
1. In the Office app, on the Insert tab, click Object.
2. Click Create from file.
3. Click Browse to open the Browse dialog box, navigate to the folder that contains
the workbook you want to embed, and double-click the file’s name.
4. Click OK.
Embed Excel files in Microsoft PowerPoint and Word documents

Create hyperlinks
One of the characteristics of the web is that documents published on webpages can have
references, or hyperlinks, that you can click to display them. In Excel, you can also create
hyperlinks that connect to locations in the same document or to other web documents. A
hyperlink functions much like a link between two cells or between two files, but
hyperlinks can reach any computer on the Internet, not just those on a corporate network.
Hyperlinks that haven’t been clicked usually appear as underlined blue text, and
hyperlinks that have been followed appear as underlined purple text, but you can change
those settings.
Add resources to your workbook by using hyperlinks
You can choose exactly what kind of hyperlink you want to create and specify the text you
want to represent it in your workbook.

Create a link to an existing file or webpage


You can choose one of four types of targets, or destinations, for your hyperlink: an
existing file or webpage, a place in the current document, a new document you create on
the spot, or an email address. Creating a mailto hyperlink, which is the technical term for a
hyperlink that creates an email message, also lets you specify a subject for messages
generated by clicking the link. Regardless of the type of hyperlink you create, you can
change the text that appears in your worksheet, edit the hyperlink, or remove it at any
time.
To create a hyperlink to an existing file
1. Click the cell where you want the hyperlink to appear.
2. On the Insert tab, in the Links group, click the Hyperlink button.
3. In the Insert Hyperlink dialog box, click the Existing File or Web Page button.
4. Use the controls in the Look in box to locate the file to which you want to create a
hyperlink.
5. Select the file name.
6. In the Text To Display box, enter the text you want to appear in your workbook.
7. Click OK.
To create a hyperlink to a webpage
1. Click the cell where you want the hyperlink to appear.
2. Click the Hyperlink button.
3. In the Insert Hyperlink dialog box, click the Existing File or Web Page button.
4. In the Text to display box, enter the text to appear in the cell that contains the
hyperlink.
5. In the Address box, enter the address of the webpage to which you want to link.
Or
Click the Address box’s arrow and select a web address.
Or
Click the Browsed Pages button and click a recently visited page to add its address
to the hyperlink definition.
6. Click OK.
To create a hyperlink to a place in the current file
1. Click the cell where you want the hyperlink to appear.
2. Click the Hyperlink button.
3. In the Insert Hyperlink dialog box, click the Place in This Document button.
Create hyperlinks that lead to places in the current workbook
4. Enter the cell reference in the Type the cell reference box.
Or
Click the link target in the Or select a place in this document box.
5. In the Text to display box, enter the text you want to appear in your workbook.
6. Click OK.
To create a hyperlink to a new file
1. Click the cell where you want the hyperlink to appear.
2. Click the Hyperlink button.
3. In the Insert Hyperlink dialog box, click the Create New Document button.
4. In the Name of new document box, enter a name for the new document.
5. Click the Change button and then, in the Create New Document dialog box, select
the folder where you want to create the document.
6. In the Save as type list, select the type of file you want to create, and click OK.
7. Select Edit the new document later.
Or
Select Edit the new document now.
8. In the Text to display box, enter the text you want to appear in your workbook.
9. Click OK.
To create a mailto hyperlink that creates an email message when clicked
1. Click the cell where you want the hyperlink to appear.
2. Click the Hyperlink button.
3. In the Insert Hyperlink dialog box, click the E-mail Address button.

Create a hyperlink that generates a new email message


4. In the Text to display box, enter the text you want to appear in your workbook.
5. Enter the target email address in the E-mail address box.
Or
Select an email address in the Recently used e-mail addresses box.
6. Enter a subject for the email message in the Subject box.
7. Click OK.
To display the target of a hyperlink
1. Click the hyperlink.
To edit a hyperlink
1. Right-click the hyperlink and click Edit Hyperlink on the shortcut menu.
2. Make the changes you want in the Edit Hyperlink dialog box.
3. Click OK.
To delete a hyperlink
1. Right-click the hyperlink and click Remove Hyperlink on the shortcut menu.

Paste charts into documents


One more way to include objects from a workbook in another Office document is to copy
the object you want to share and then paste it into its new location. You can copy Excel
charts to Word documents and PowerPoint presentations directly, which lets the chart
update whenever the data in the source workbook changes. You can also copy the chart’s
current appearance as an image. Doing so doesn’t create a link to the original data, but it
does provide an accurate picture of the chart’s appearance when you captured the image.
Important
If you create a link to an Excel chart, the Excel workbook must keep the same
relationship with the file as when you linked the chart. If the workbook and
other Office file are in the same folder, they must remain in the same folder. If
the workbook is on a networked computer, it must remain in its original
folder so the link path remains the same.

To paste a chart into an Office document, preserving a link to the original workbook
1. In Excel, right-click the chart and click Copy.
2. Display the Office file in which you want to paste the chart, and press Ctrl+V.
To paste an image of a chart in an Office document
1. In Excel, right-click the chart and click Copy.
2. Display the Office file in which you want to paste the chart, and press Ctrl+V.
3. Click the Paste Options button in the lower-right corner of the pasted chart.

Add links to charts or just copy the chart’s current appearance


4. Click the Picture icon.

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Include Office documents in workbooks and other files
Create hyperlinks
Paste charts into documents

Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch13 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Important
You must have PowerPoint installed to complete some of the following
procedures.

Include Office documents in workbooks and other files


Open the LinkFiles workbook in Excel and the LinkWorkbooks presentation in
PowerPoint, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Click cell B3.
2. Create a link to the LinkWorkbooks PowerPoint presentation.
3. Display the linked file as an icon in your workbook.
4. Open the LinkWorkbooks presentation for editing from within Excel, save your
changes, and close the presentation.
5. Switch to the LinkWorkbooks presentation and display the second slide.
6. Embed the EmbedWorkbook Excel workbook in the PowerPoint presentation.
7. Edit the embedded file from within PowerPoint, make a change, and save the
presentation.
8. Open the EmbedWorkbook workbook in Excel and compare it with your changed
file.

Create hyperlinks
Open the CreateHyperlinks workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. On the Revenue by Level worksheet, click cell E2.
2. Create a hyperlink to the LevelDescriptions workbook in the practice files folder.
3. Click cell B11 and create a hyperlink from the Notes text on the Revenue by Level
worksheet to the Notes worksheet.
4. Click cell C11 and create a mailto hyperlink that sends a message to your email
account with the subject Test from Excel.
5. Edit the Text to display field of the hyperlink to the LevelDescriptions workbook
to read Information on service levels.
6. Delete the hyperlink to the Notes worksheet.

Paste charts into documents


Open the LinkCharts workbook in Excel and the ReceiveLinks and LinkWorkbooks
presentations in PowerPoint, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Paste the chart from the LinkCharts workbook into the ReceiveLinks presentation.
2. Paste an image of the chart from the LinkCharts workbook into the
LinkWorkbooks presentation.
14. Collaborate with colleagues

In this chapter
Share workbooks
Save workbooks for electronic distribution
Manage comments
Track and manage colleagues’ changes
Add protection to workbooks and worksheets
Finalize workbooks
Authenticate workbooks
Save workbooks for the web
Import and export XML data
Work with OneDrive and Excel Online

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch14 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

Many individuals have input into business decisions. You and your colleagues can
enhance the Excel 2016 workbook data you share by adding comments that offer insight
into the information the data represents. If the workbook in which those projections and
comments are stored is available on a network or an intranet, you can allow more than one
user to access the workbook at a time by turning on workbook sharing, and you can track
changes.
If you prefer to limit the number of colleagues who can view and edit your workbooks,
you can add password protection to a workbook, worksheet, cell range, or even an
individual cell. You can also hide formulas used to calculate values. If you work in an
environment in which you exchange files frequently, you can use a digital signature to
help verify that your workbooks and any macros they contain are from a trusted source.
Finally, if you want to display information on a website, you can do so by saving a
workbook as a webpage.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to sharing a workbook, saving
workbooks for electronic distribution and for the web, managing comments in workbook
cells, tracking and managing colleagues’ changes, adding protection to workbooks and
worksheets, finalizing and authenticating workbooks, importing and exporting XML data,
and working with OneDrive and Excel Online.
Share workbooks
If you want several users to be able to edit a workbook simultaneously, you must turn on
workbook sharing. Workbook sharing works well for businesses where multiple users
might require access to a file at the same time. When you share a workbook, you can set
the sharing options to maintain a change history and manage which changes take priority.

Define how Excel should manage your shared workbook

Important
You can’t share a workbook that contains an Excel table. If you do want to
share a workbook that contains an Excel table, convert the Excel table to a
regular cell range.

On the Advanced page of the Share Workbook dialog box, two settings are of particular
interest. The first determines whether Excel should maintain a history of changes made to
the workbook and, if so, for how many days it should keep the history. The default setting
is for the app to retain a record of all changes made in the past 30 days, but you can enter
any number of days you want. If you revisit your workbook on a regular basis,
maintaining a list of all changes for the past 180 days might be reasonable. For a
workbook that changes less frequently, a history reaching back 365 days (one year) could
meet your tracking and auditing needs. Excel rejects and deletes the record of any changes
made earlier than the time you set.
Tip
You should find out whether your organization has an information retention
policy that would affect the amount of time you should keep your workbooks’
change histories.

The other important setting on this page deals with how Excel decides which of two
conflicting changes in a cell should be applied. You can have the most recent changes win
or have Excel let you review the changes to indicate which ones to keep.
When you share a workbook, you and your colleagues can turn off change tracking and
have Excel stop noting changes to the file. You can, if you want, require a password to
turn off change tracking in a shared workbook.
There are two main ways to share a workbook with your colleagues: you can make it
available over your organization’s network, or you can send a copy of the file to your
colleagues via email. Every organization’s network is different, so you should check with
your network administrators to determine the best way to share a file. Although the
specific command to attach a file to an email message is different in every email app, the
most common method of attaching a file is to create a new email message and then click
the Attach button, as in Microsoft Outlook 2016.
To share a workbook
1. On the Review tab of the ribbon, in the Changes group, click Share Workbook.
2. On the Editing tab of the Share Workbook dialog box, select the Allow changes
by more than one user at the same time check box.
3. Change the settings on the Advanced tab of the Share Workbook dialog box to do
any of the following:
• Control how long the change history is maintained.
• Indicate when to update changes.
• Indicate how to handle conflicting changes.
• Include print settings or personal settings in each user’s personal view of the
workbook.
4. Click OK to close the Share Workbook dialog box.
5. In the confirmation dialog box that appears, click OK to save and share the
workbook.
To require a password to turn off change tracking
1. In the Changes group, click Protect and Share Workbook.
Important
The Protect And Share Workbook button is activated only when the
workbook is not shared.

2. In the Protect Shared Workbook dialog box, select the Sharing with track
changes check box.

Require a password to turn off change tracking in a workbook


3. In the Password box, enter a password.
4. Click OK.
5. In the Confirm Password dialog box, re-enter the password and click OK.
6. Click OK to verify that you want to save the workbook.
To unprotect a shared workbook
1. In the Changes group, click Unprotect Shared Workbook.
2. In the Unprotect Sharing dialog box, enter the password.
3. Click OK.
4. In the message box that appears, click Yes to remove the password.
To end workbook sharing
1. In the Changes group, click Share Workbook.
2. On the Editing tab of the Share Workbook dialog box, clear the Allow changes by
more than one user at the same time check box.
3. Click OK.
4. In the message box that appears, click Yes to remove the workbook from shared use,
erase the change history, and prevent other users who are currently editing the
workbook from saving their changes.
To send a workbook as an email attachment from within Excel by using Outlook
Important
You must have Outlook configured on your system to follow this procedure.

1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Share.


2. Click Email.
3. Click Send as Attachment.
4. Create and send the message in Outlook 2016.

Save workbooks for electronic distribution


Even though most businesses use Excel, there might be times when you want to distribute
a copy of your data in a file other than an Excel workbook. You can create a read-only
copy of a workbook for electronic distribution by saving it as a PDF or XML Paper
Specification (XPS) file.

Export a workbook as a PDF or XPS file


Publishing your workbook as a PDF or XPS document gives your colleagues the
information they need to make decisions in an easily readable format that also preserves
the integrity of your data.

Tip
You can also save a workbook as a PDF or XPS document by clicking Save
As in the Backstage view. Then, in the Save As dialog box, in the Save As
Type list, select either PDF or XPS to create a file of the type you want.
To export a workbook as a PDF or XPS file
1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Export.
2. If necessary, click Create PDF/XPS Document, and then click Create PDF/XPS.
3. In the Publish as PDF or XPS dialog box, in the File name box, enter a name for
the file.
4. Click the Save as type arrow and select the target file type.
5. Use the navigation tools to display the folder to which you want to export the file.
6. Set the output options you want to apply to the file, choosing either to publish it at
standard size, which is appropriate for publishing online or by printing, or to
minimize file size for online-only publishing.
7. Click Publish.

Manage comments
Excel makes it easy for you and your colleagues to insert comments in workbook cells,
adding insights that go beyond the cell data. When you add a comment to a cell, a flag
appears in the upper-right corner of the cell. When you point to a cell that contains a
comment, the comment appears in a box next to the cell, along with the user name of the
user who was logged on to the computer on which the comment was created.

An Excel worksheet with a comment in cell D4

Important
Note that the name attributed to a comment might not be the same as the
name of the person who actually created it. Access controls, such as those
that require users to enter account names and passwords when they access a
computer, can help track the person who made a comment or change.

Normally, Excel only displays a cell’s comment when you point to the cell. You can
change that behavior to display an individual comment or to show all comments within a
worksheet. If you want to edit a comment, you can do so, or you can delete a comment
from your workbook.
Manage comments by using the tools on the Review tab of the ribbon

Important
When someone other than the original user edits a comment, that person’s
input is marked with the new user’s name and is added to the original
comment.

You can control whether a cell displays just the comment indicator or the indicator and the
comment itself. Also, if you’ve just begun to review a worksheet, you can display all of
the comments on the sheet or move through them one at a time.
To add a comment to a cell
1. Click the cell where you want to add a comment.
2. On the Review tab of the ribbon, in the Comments group, click New Comment.
Or
Right-click the cell, and then click Insert Comment.
3. In the comment box that appears, enter a comment.
4. Click away from the cell to close the comment box.
To display a comment
1. Point to the cell that contains the comment.
To show or hide a comment
1. Click the cell that contains the comment.
2. In the Comments group, click Show/Hide Comment.
Or
Right-click the cell, and then click Show/Hide Comments.
To edit a comment
1. Click the cell that contains the comment.
2. In the Comments group, click Edit Comment.
Or
Right-click the cell, and then click Edit Comment.
3. In the comment box that appears, edit the text of the comment.
4. Click away from the cell to close the comment box.
To delete a comment
1. Click the cell that contains the comment.
2. In the Comments group, click Delete.
Or
Right-click the cell, and then click Delete Comment.
To change how Excel indicates that a cell contains a comment
1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Options.
2. In the Excel Options dialog box, click Advanced.

Manage how Excel displays comments


3. In the Display section of the Advanced page, select one of the three available
comment display options:
• No comments or indicators
• Indicators only, and comments on hover
• Comments and indicators
To display or hide all comments
1. In the Comments group, click Show All Comments.
To move through worksheet comments
1. In the Comments group, do either of the following:
• Click Previous to display the previous comment.
• Click Next to display the next comment.

Track and manage colleagues’ changes


Whenever you collaborate with your colleagues to produce or edit a document, you should
consider tracking the changes each user makes. When you turn on change tracking, any
changes made to the workbook are highlighted in a color assigned to the user who made
the changes. One benefit of tracking changes is that if you have a question about a change,
you can quickly identify who made the change and verify that it is correct.

Turn on change tracking in the Highlight Changes dialog box

Tip
Selecting the When check box and choosing the All option has the same
effect as clearing the check box.

You can use the commands in the Highlight Changes dialog box to choose which changes
to track. Most commonly you will have Excel track all changes, but you can also specify a
time frame, users, or areas of the workbook to limit which changes are highlighted. Each
user’s changes are displayed in a unique color. When you point to a cell that contains a
change, the date and time when the change was made and the name of the user who made
it appear as a ScreenTip.
Point to a cell with a tracked change to see a summary of the change
After you and your colleagues finish modifying a workbook, anyone with permission to
open the workbook can decide which changes to accept and which changes to reject. You
can select which changes to review and then accept or reject individual changes.

Review individual changes in your workbook

Tip
When you and your colleagues have finished making changes, you should
turn off workbook sharing to help ensure that you are the only person able to
review the changes and decide which to accept.

Important
Clicking the Undo button on the Quick Access Toolbar or pressing Ctrl+Z
will not undo accepting or rejecting a change.

To turn on change tracking


1. On the Review tab, in the Changes group, click Track Changes, and then click
Highlight Changes.
2. Select the Track changes while editing check box.
3. Use the When, Who, and Where boxes to specify which changes to track.
4. Click OK.
5. In the confirmation dialog box that appears, click OK to save the workbook and
start tracking changes.

Important
Turning off change tracking erases the changes you and your colleagues have
made.

To accept and reject changes


1. With change tracking turned on, click Track Changes, and then click
Accept/Reject Changes.
2. In the confirmation dialog box that appears, click OK to save the workbook and
continue.
3. In the Select Changes to Accept or Reject dialog box, specify which changes to
review.
4. Click OK.
5. In the Accept or Reject Changes dialog box, perform any of these actions:
• Click Accept to accept the current change.
• Click Reject to reject the current change.
• Click Accept All to accept all changes.
• Click Reject All to reject all changes.
• Click Close to stop reviewing changes and close the dialog box.
To turn off change tracking
1. Click Track Changes, and then click Highlight Changes.
2. Clear the Track changes while editing check box.
3. Click OK.
4. In the confirmation dialog box that appears, click Yes to stop tracking changes and
remove the workbook from shared use.

Add protection to workbooks and worksheets


You can use Excel to share your workbooks on the web, on a corporate intranet, or by
copying files for other users to take on business trips. An important part of sharing files,
however, is ensuring that only those users you want to have access to the files can open or
modify them. It doesn’t help a company to have unauthorized personnel, even those with
good intentions, accessing critical workbooks.
You can limit access to your workbooks or elements within workbooks by setting
passwords. When you set a password for an Excel workbook, any users who want to
access the protected workbook must enter the workbook’s password in a dialog box that
opens when they try to open the file. If users don’t know the password, they cannot open
the workbook.

Encrypt a workbook by setting a password to open the file


To remove the passwords from a workbook, repeat these steps, but delete the passwords
rather than setting them.

Tip
The best passwords are long strings of random characters, but random
characters are hard to remember. One reasonable method of creating hard-to-
guess passwords is to string two or more words and a number together. For
example, the password genuinestarcalibration302 is 24 characters long,
combines letters and numbers, and is easy to remember. If you must create a
shorter password to meet a system’s constraints, avoid dictionary words and
include uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numbers, and any special symbols
such as ! or # if they are allowed.

If you want to allow anyone to open a workbook but want to prevent unauthorized users
from editing a worksheet, you can protect an individual worksheet. You can also set a
password that a user must type in before protection can be turned off, and choose which
elements of the worksheet a user can change while protection is turned on.
Limit the worksheet elements that a user can edit without a password
The check box at the top of the list of allowed actions in the Protect Sheet dialog box
mentions locked cells. A locked cell is a cell that can’t be changed when worksheet
protection is turned on. You can lock or unlock a cell by changing the cell’s formatting.
When worksheet protection is turned on, selecting the Locked check box prevents
unauthorized users from changing the contents or formatting of the locked cell, whereas
selecting the Hidden check box hides the formulas in the cell. You might want to hide the
formula in a cell if you draw sensitive data, such as customer contact information, from
another workbook and don’t want casual users to see the name of the workbook in a
formula.
Finally, you can password-protect a cell range. For example, you might want to let users
enter values in most worksheet cells but also want to protect the cells with formulas that
perform calculations based on those values.

Define ranges users can edit after a worksheet is protected

Tip
Remember that a range of cells can mean just one cell!
To require a password to open a workbook
1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Info.
2. Click Protect Workbook, and then click Encrypt with Password.
3. In the Encrypt Document dialog box, enter a password for the file.
4. Click OK.
5. In the Confirm Password dialog box, re-enter the password, and then click OK.
To remove a password from a workbook
1. Open the password-protected workbook.
2. On the Info page of the Backstage view, click Protect Workbook, and then click
Encrypt with Password.
3. In the Encrypt Document dialog box, delete the existing password.
4. Click OK.
To require a password to change workbook structure
1. On the Review tab of the ribbon, in the Changes group, click Protect Workbook.
2. In the Protect Structure and Windows dialog box, enter a password for the
workbook.
3. Click OK.
4. In the Confirm Password dialog box, re-enter the password.
5. Click OK.
To remove a password that protects a workbook’s structure
1. Click Protect Workbook.
2. In the Unprotect Workbook dialog box, enter the workbook’s password.
3. Click OK.
To protect a worksheet by setting a password
1. In the Changes group, click Protect Sheet.
2. In the Protect Sheet dialog box, enter a password in the Password to unprotect
sheet box.
3. Select the check boxes next to the actions you want to allow users to perform.
4. Click OK.
5. In the Confirm Password dialog box, re-enter the password.
6. Click OK.
To remove a worksheet password
1. In the Changes group, click Unprotect Sheet.
2. In the Unprotect Sheet dialog box, enter the worksheet’s password.
3. Click OK.
To lock a cell to prevent editing
1. Right-click the cell you want to lock, and then click Format Cells.
2. In the Format Cells dialog box, click the Protection tab.

Prevent cell editing and hide formulas when you protect a sheet
3. Select the Locked check box.
4. Click OK.
To hide cell formulas
1. Right-click the cell you want to lock, and then click Format Cells.
2. Click the Protection tab.
3. Select the Hidden check box.
4. Click OK.

Important
You must protect your worksheet for the Locked and Hidden settings to take
effect.

To restrict editing of a cell range by using a password


1. In the Changes group, click Allow Users to Edit Ranges.
2. In the Allow Users to Edit Ranges dialog box, click New.
3. In the New Range dialog box, in the Title box, enter a title for the range.
4. Click in the Refers to cells box and select the cell range you want to affect.
5. In the Range password box, enter the password for the range.
6. Click OK.
7. In the Confirm Password dialog box, re-enter the password.
8. Click OK.

Define cell ranges users are allowed to edit


9. Repeat steps 2 through 8 to protect another cell range.
10. Click OK.

Important
You must protect your worksheet for the range password settings to take
effect.

To remove a cell range password


1. Click Allow Users to Edit Ranges.
2. In the Allow Users to Edit Ranges dialog box, click the range you want to edit.
3. Click Delete.
4. Click OK.
Finalize workbooks
Distributing a workbook to other users carries many risks, not the least of which is the
possibility that the workbook might contain private information you don’t want to share
with users outside your organization. With Excel, you can inspect a workbook for
information you might not want to distribute to other people, and create a read-only final
version that prevents other people from making changes to the workbook content.
By using the Document Inspector, you can quickly locate comments and annotations,
document properties and personal information, custom XML data, headers and footers,
hidden rows and columns, hidden worksheets, and invisible content. You can then easily
remove any hidden or personal information that the Document Inspector finds.

Check for personally identifiable information by using the Document Inspector


The Document Inspector checks your document for every category of information that is
selected in the list. When the Document Inspector displays its results, you can select
which pieces of personally identifiable information you want to remove.
When you’re done making changes to a workbook, you can mark it as final. Marking a
workbook as final sets the status property to Final and turns off data entry and editing
commands. If you later decide that you want to make more changes, you can do so, save
your changes, and mark the worksheet final again.
To remove personally identifiable information from a workbook
1. Press Ctrl+S to save the workbook.
2. Display the Backstage view and, if necessary, click Info.
3. Click Check for Issues, and then click Inspect Document.
4. Select the check box next to each category of information you want the Document
Inspector to look for.
5. Click Inspect.
6. In the results list, click the Remove All button next to any category of information
you want to remove.
7. If necessary, click Reinspect and then click Inspect to ensure that no personal
information remains in the file.
8. Click Close.
To mark a workbook as final
1. Press Ctrl+S to save the workbook.
2. On the Info page of the Backstage view, click Protect Workbook, and then click
Mark as Final.
3. In the confirmation dialog box that appears, click OK.
4. In the informational dialog box that appears, click OK.

Tip
To edit a file that has been marked as final, open the file and then, on the
message bar, click Edit Anyway.

Authenticate workbooks
The unfortunate reality of exchanging files over networks, especially over the Internet, is
that you need to be sure you know the origin of the files you’re working with. One way an
organization can guard against files with viruses or substitute data is to authenticate every
workbook by using a digital signature. A digital signature is a character string created by
combining a user’s unique digital certificate mathematically with the contents of the
workbook, which apps such as Excel can recognize and use to verify the identity of the
user who signed the file. A good analogy for a digital signature is a wax seal, which was
used for thousands of years to verify the integrity and origin of a document.
The technical details of and procedure for managing digital certificates are beyond the
scope of this book, but your network administrator should be able to create or obtain a
digital certificate for you. You can also directly purchase a digital signature from a third
party; these signatures can usually be renewed annually for a small fee. For the purposes
of this book, you can use the selfcert.exe Microsoft Office accessory app to generate a
certificate with which to perform this topic’s practice task at the end of this chapter. This
type of certificate is useful for certifying a document as part of a demonstration, but other
users might not accept it as a valid certificate.
Tip
When you click Add A Digital Signature in the Protect Workbook list on the
Info page of the Backstage view, Excel checks your computer for usable
digital certificates. If it can’t find one, Excel displays a dialog box indicating
that you can buy digital signatures from third-party providers. You won’t be
able to add a digital signature to a file until you acquire a digital certificate,
either by generating a test certificate using the included selfcert.exe app or by
purchasing one through a third-party vendor.

If you have several certificates from which to choose, and the certificate you want doesn’t
appear when you attempt to sign your file, you can change the chosen certificate and start
the signing process again.

Important
Editing a workbook that has a digital signature invalidates the signature. To
verify the file, you must sign it again.

To display available third-party vendors of digital certificates


1. Display the Backstage view and, if necessary, click Info.
2. Click Protect Workbook.
3. Click Add a Digital Signature.
4. In the Get a Digital ID dialog box, click Yes.
Or
1. Go to https://support.office.com in your web browser.
2. Enter Digital ID in the search box.
3. Click the web resource with the title Get a digital ID.
To create a test certificate by using selfcert.exe
1. In File Explorer, open the C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Office\root\Office16
folder and double-click selfcert.exe.
2. In the Create Digital Signature dialog box, enter a name for your certificate.
3. Click OK.
4. In the confirmation dialog box that appears, click OK.
To authenticate a workbook by using a digital signature
1. Press Ctrl+S to save the workbook.
2. On the Info page of the Backstage view, click Protect Workbook, and then click
Add a Digital Signature.
3. In the Sign dialog box, click the Commitment Type arrow and select the role you
played in creating and approving the document.
4. In the Purpose for signing this document box, enter a reason for signing the file.

Authenticate a workbook by signing it with a digital certificate


5. If necessary, click Change and use the tools in the Windows Security dialog box to
select a digital certificate.
6. Click Sign.

Save workbooks for the web


You can use Excel to save your workbooks as web documents so that you and your
colleagues can view workbooks over the Internet or on an organization’s intranet. For a
document to be viewable on the web, it must be saved as an HTML file. HTML files,
which end with either the .htm or the .html extension, include tags that tell a web browser
such as Microsoft Edge how to display the contents of the file.
For example, you might want to set the data labels in a workbook apart from the rest of the
data by having the labels displayed with bold text. The coding in an HTML file that
indicates text to be displayed as bold text is <b>…</b>, where the ellipsis between the
tags is replaced by the text to be displayed. So the following HTML fragment would be
displayed as Excel in a webpage.
<b>Excel</b>

Tip
If the only sheet in your workbook that contains data is the one displayed
when you save the workbook as a webpage, Excel only saves that worksheet
as a webpage.

After you save an Excel workbook as a set of HTML documents, you can open it in your
web browser. It’s also possible to save a workbook as a web file that retains a link to the
original workbook. Whenever someone updates the workbook, Excel updates the web files
to reflect the new content.

Select which elements of a workbook to publish to the web


You can select which elements of your workbook to publish to the web in the Publish As
Web Page dialog box. Clicking the Choose arrow displays a list of publishable items,
including the option to publish the entire workbook, items on specific sheets, or a range of
cells. You can also specify which text appears on the webpage’s title bar.
To save a workbook as a web file
1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Save As.
2. Click Browse.
3. In the Save As dialog box, click the Save as type arrow, and then click Web Page.
4. If necessary, in the File name box, edit the name of the file.
5. Click Save.
6. If necessary, in the dialog box that appears, click Yes to acknowledge that some
features might be lost when you save the workbook as a webpage.
To publish a workbook to the web
1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Save As.
2. Click Browse.
3. In the Save As dialog box, click the Save as type arrow, and then click Web Page.
4. If necessary, in the File name box, edit the name of the file.
5. Select Entire Workbook to publish the entire workbook.
Or
Select Selection: Sheet to publish the active worksheet.
6. Click Publish.
7. In the Publish as Web Page dialog box, click the item you want to publish.
8. If necessary, select the AutoRepublish every time this workbook is saved check
box.
9. Click Publish.

Import and export XML data


HTML lets you determine how a document will be displayed in a web browser—for
example, by telling Internet Explorer to display certain text in bold type or to start a new
paragraph. However, HTML doesn’t tell you anything about the meaning of data in a
document. Internet Explorer might “know” it should display a set of data in a table, but it
wouldn’t “know” that the data represented an Excel worksheet.
You can add metadata, or data about data, to web documents by using Extensible Markup
Language (XML). Though a full discussion of XML is beyond the scope of this book, the
following bit of XML code shows how you might identify two sets of three values
(Month, Category, and Exceptions) by using XML.
Click here to view code image
<?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8” standalone=“yes”?>
<ns2:exceptions xmlns:ns2=“http://www.w3schools.com”>
<exception>
<Month>January</Month>
<Category>2Day</Category>
<Exceptions>14</Exceptions>
</exception>
<exception>
<Month>January</Month>
<Category>3Day</Category>
<Exceptions>3</Exceptions>
</exception>
</ns2:exceptions>

XML is meant to be a universal language, allowing data to move freely from one app to
another. Excel might display those two sets of exceptions data as rows of data in an Excel
worksheet.

Data imported from an XML file can be displayed in an Excel worksheet


Other apps could display or process the XML file’s contents in other ways, but you
wouldn’t have to change the underlying XML file. All of the work is done by the other
apps’ programmers. To work with XML data in Excel, you must use the controls on the
Developer ribbon tab, which you can display by using the ribbon customization
commands available in the Excel Options dialog box.
Display the Developer tab on the ribbon from the Excel Options dialog box
You can bring XML data into Excel, either by opening a workbook saved in a compatible
XML format or by importing the data from a text file. XML data is organized according to
a specified schema, or structure. If the schema file isn’t available, you can have Excel look
at the structure of the imported data and create one for you. If you export a worksheet to
an XML file, you can have Excel create a schema for that operation, too.

Tip
If you have imported an XML file but believe that the original XML data file
has changed, click the Refresh Data button in the XML group on the
Developer tab to update your worksheet.
Select an XML source file by using the Import XML dialog box
To save a workbook as an XML file
1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Save As.
2. Click Browse.
3. In the Save As dialog box, click the Save as type arrow, and then click one of the
following file types:
• XML Data
• XML Spreadsheet 2003
• Strict Open XML Spreadsheet
4. If necessary, in the File name box, edit the name of the file.
5. Click Save.
To import an XML data file into a workbook
1. If necessary, use the tools in the Excel Options dialog box to add the Developer tab
to the ribbon.
2. On the Developer tab of the ribbon, in the XML group, click Import.
3. In the Import XML dialog box, navigate to the folder that contains the file you
want to import, click the file, and then click Open.
4. If necessary, in the dialog box that indicates that the XML source file does not refer
to a schema, click OK to have Excel create a schema for you.
5. In the Import Data dialog box, do either of the following:
• Select XML table in existing worksheet and click the cell where you want the
XML table to start.
• Select XML table in new worksheet.
6. Click OK.
To export a cell range as an XML data file
1. Click a cell in an XML data range.
2. In the XML group, click Export.
3. In the Export XML dialog box, navigate to the folder where you want to export the
XML data.
4. In the File name box, enter a name for the file.
5. Click Export.

Work with OneDrive and Excel Online


As information workers become increasingly mobile, they need to access their data from
anywhere and have a single version of a file to which they can turn. Excel 2016 is
integrated with OneDrive, a Microsoft cloud service that stores your files remotely and
provides you with access to them over the Internet.
You can find OneDrive online at www.onedrive.com. You will need a Microsoft account to
use OneDrive.
Sign in to OneDrive at www.onedrive.com
When you sign in to OneDrive, you’ll see the main directory of your OneDrive account.
OneDrive manages files and folders like File Explorer
You can manage files by using the built-in interface, performing familiar tasks such as
opening, creating, uploading, downloading, and copying files. You can also navigate the
file structure, moving between folders and creating or deleting them as needed.
Create new folders and documents by using the OneDrive New menu
Clicking the New button also displays links to create a folder, Word document, Excel
workbook, PowerPoint presentation, OneNote notebook, Excel survey, or plain text
document. When you create a new Excel workbook from this menu, Excel Online starts
and you can begin adding data to the new workbook.
Create Excel workbooks in OneDrive by using Excel Online

Tip
Excel Online saves your workbook every time you edit a cell, so there’s no
Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar.

Excel Online provides a rich set of capabilities you can use to create new workbooks and
edit workbooks you created in the desktop edition of the app. If you find you need some
features that aren’t available in Excel Online, you can always open the file in the Excel
2016 desktop app.

Important
You might see a series of dialog boxes asking you to sign back in to your
Microsoft account and to provide other information. These queries are normal
and expected.

If you want to collaborate with colleagues who also have OneDrive accounts, you can
share your Excel workbook with them online. You can choose how to share your
workbook, either by allowing your colleagues to edit the file or just view it, or you can
require them to access the file from a Microsoft account or just over the web.
To sign in to OneDrive
1. In your web browser, go to www.onedrive.com.
2. Click Sign in.
3. Enter your account name (usually an email address), and then press the Enter key.
4. Enter your password, and then press Enter.
To upload a file or folder to OneDrive
1. In OneDrive, click the Upload button on the toolbar.
2. In the Open dialog box, select the files or folder you want to upload.
3. Click Open.
To download a file from OneDrive
1. Point to the icon representing the file you want to download, and select the round
check box that appears in the upper-right corner of the icon.
2. On the menu bar, click Download to download the file to your computer’s
Downloads folder.
To create a new Excel workbook in OneDrive
1. Open your OneDrive account in your web browser.
2. Click New, and then click Excel workbook.
To open an Excel workbook stored in OneDrive in the desktop edition of Excel
1. Open your OneDrive account in your web browser.
2. Click the file you want to work with to open it in Excel Online.

Tip
Depending on your computer’s settings, the order and appearance of dialog
boxes and messages might differ slightly from what is described here.

3. Click Open in Excel.


4. In the External Protocol Request dialog box, click Launch Application.
5. In the alert dialog box that appears, click Yes.
6. If necessary, in the Sign in dialog box, enter your email address.
7. If necessary, enter your password into the Password box, and click Sign in.
8. When you’re done working with the file in Excel, close Excel and any remaining
dialog boxes from Excel Online.
To collaborate with colleagues by using Excel Online
1. Open a workbook in Excel Online.

Share a workbook by using Excel Online


2. On the title bar of the workbook, click Share.
3. In the Share dialog box, in the To box, enter the email addresses of individuals with
whom you want to share the workbook. To add multiple addresses, enter the first
address and press the Tab key.
4. If you want to include a note, enter it into the Add a quick note box.
5. To change sharing characteristics, click Recipients can edit and then do any of the
following:
• Click the Recipients can edit box, and then click Recipients can only view.
• Click the Recipients don’t need a Microsoft account box, and then click
Recipients need to sign in with a Microsoft account.
6. Click Share.
7. In the confirmation dialog box that appears, click Close.

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Share workbooks
Save workbooks for electronic distribution
Manage comments
Track and manage colleagues’ changes
Add protection to workbooks and worksheets
Finalize workbooks
Authenticate workbooks
Save workbooks for the web
Import and export XML data
Work with OneDrive and Excel Online

Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch14 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Share workbooks
Open the ShareWorkbooks workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Share the workbook and, if you’re on a network, invite a colleague to edit the file.
2. Set a password that prevents unauthorized users from turning off change tracking.
3. Unshare, save, and close the workbook, and then send it to yourself or a colleague
as an email attachment.

Save workbooks for electronic distribution


Open the DistributeFiles workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Display the Sheet1 worksheet of the workbook and export it as a PDF file.
2. Export the entire workbook as an XPS file.

Manage comments
Open the ManageComments workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Add comments to four or five cells with relatively high and low values.
2. Edit one of the comments to invite a colleague to provide input for that value.
3. Move through the comments, going forward and backward through the list.
4. Change the workbook so it displays all comments.
5. Delete a comment.

Track and manage colleagues’ changes


Open the TrackChanges workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Turn on change tracking, and then edit five values in the worksheet.
2. Review the changes, accepting a few and rejecting a few.
3. Turn change tracking off.

Add protection to workbooks and worksheets


Open the ProtectWorkbooks workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. By using the controls on the Info page of the Backstage view, encrypt the workbook
with a password.
2. On the Performance worksheet, click cell B8 and format the cell so its contents are
locked and hidden.
3. By using the controls on the Review tab, protect the active worksheet with a
password after clearing the Select locked cells and Select unlocked cells check
boxes in the dialog box.
4. On the Weights worksheet, select cells A3:B6 and define a protected range named
AllWeights.
5. Protect the Weights worksheet by requiring users to enter a password to edit it.

Finalize workbooks
Open the FinalizeWorkbooks workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Inspect the workbook by using the Document Inspector, and remove any personally
identifiable information from the file.
2. Use the tools on the Info page of the Backstage view to mark the file as final.
3. Close the workbook. Then reopen it and click the Edit Anyway button on the
message bar to work with the file.
4. Save any changes and close the workbook.

Authenticate workbooks
Open the AuthenticateWorkbooks workbook in Excel, and then perform the following
tasks:
1. Acquire or create a digital certificate.
2. Sign the workbook and give the reason for signing it as Testing procedure for later
use in business.

Save workbooks for the web


Open the SaveForWeb workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Display the Sheet1 worksheet in the workbook, and then save that worksheet as a
web file named ShipmentSummaryWeb.
2. Close the web file and, if necessary, reopen the SaveForWeb workbook.
3. Display Sheet2 of the workbook, and then publish the PivotTable on Sheet2 to the
web. Set the workbook to autorepublish the web file every time the original
workbook changes.
4. Select the Open published web page in browser check box, and then publish the
file.

Import and export XML data


Open the ImportXMLData workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Import data from the ExceptionTracking.xml file in the Excel2016SBS\Ch14
folder.
2. Export the data you just imported to a new file named ExportXML.xml.
3. Save your workbook in one of the XML-based formats available in the Save As
dialog box.

Work with OneDrive and Excel Online


Open the ManageOneDrive workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. If necessary, create a new OneDrive account.
2. Sign in to a OneDrive account.
3. Upload the ManageOneDrive workbook to your OneDrive account.
4. Open the ManageOneDrive file in Excel Online.
5. Open the file in the desktop edition of Excel.
6. Add a row of data showing April exceptions in the Ground category totaling 45
incidents.
7. Save your work, and then close your files.
Part 4: Perform advanced analysis
CHAPTER 15
Perform business intelligence analysis
CHAPTER 16
Create forecasts and visualizations
15. Perform business intelligence analysis

In this chapter
Enable the Data Analysis add-ins
Define relationships between tables
Analyze data by using Power Pivot
View data by using timelines
Bring in external data by using Power Query

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch15 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

Organizations of all kinds generate and collect data from operations, sales, and customers.
As the volume of data grows, so does the importance of generating useful insights into
your operations from that data. Excel supports business intelligence analysis, which is the
practice of examining data to improve business performance. Analytical tools such as
formulas, data tables, and PivotTables all provide valuable insights into your data, but
their applications can be limited in size and scope.
Excel 2016 includes many advanced data analysis capabilities that were previously
exclusive to enterprise customers. One technology underlying the new tools is the Excel
Data Model, which you can use to create relationships among Excel tables in your
workbooks. Add to this the ability to import and analyze large data sets by using Power
Query and Power Pivot, and Excel 2016 puts significant data analysis capabilities at your
fingertips.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to enabling the Data Analysis add-ins
and adding tables to the Data Model, defining relationships between tables, analyzing data
by using Power Pivot, viewing data by using timelines, and bringing in external data by
using Power Query.

Important
The tools and techniques described in this chapter will only be available to
you after you enable the Data Analysis add-ins.
Enable the Data Analysis add-ins
One of the great new additions to Excel 2016 is the collection of Data Analysis add-ins
you can use to perform advanced analysis on your data. These tools build on the Excel
Data Model, which manages Excel tables, Query tables, and other data sources, as part of
a coherent whole, rather than individual tables.
After you enable the Data Analysis add-ins, you can add data sources to the Data Model,
display the Data Model, and return to your main Excel workbook.
To enable the Data Analysis add-ins
1. Display the Backstage view, and then click Options.
2. In the Excel Options dialog box, click Advanced.

Scroll down to the Data group to enable the Data Analysis add-ins
3. In the Data group, select the Enable Data Analysis add-ins: Power Pivot, Power
View, and Power Map check box.
4. Click OK.
To add an Excel table to the Data Model
1. Enable the Data Analysis add-ins.
2. Click any cell in the Excel table.
3. On the Power Pivot tab, in the Tables group, click Add to Data Model to add the
Excel table and display it in the Power Pivot window.

View of the Data Model after an Excel table has been added
To set a preference to add data to the Data Model
1. Open the Excel Options dialog box, and then click Advanced.
2. In the Data group, select the Prefer the Data Model when creating PivotTables,
QueryTables, and Data Connections check box.
3. Click OK.
To display the Data Model
1. On the Data tab, in the Data Tools group, click Manage Data Model.
Or
On the Power Pivot tab, in the Data Model group, click Manage.
2. In the Power Pivot for Excel window, on the tab bar, click the sheet tab of the
worksheet you want to display.
To return to the Excel workbook
1. Perform either of these actions:
• In the Power Pivot for Excel window, click the Close button to close Power Pivot
and return to Excel.
• On the title bar of the Power Pivot for Excel window, click Switch to Workbook
to return to Excel without closing Power Pivot.

Define relationships between tables


One of the fundamental principles of good database design is to store data about specific
business objects, such as customers, products, or orders, in a table by itself, separate from
the other tables in the database. For example, you might store data about customers in one
table and data about shipments in another.

Display relationships between tables by using Diagram View


Each table has one column, or field, that contains a unique value for each row. This type
of column, called a key, makes it possible to distinguish a row from every other row. For
example, a table listing customers could have a CustomerID field as its key, with the same
field appearing in a table named Orders, which tracks the date, time, value, and identity of
the customer who placed each order.

Tip
The best keys are arbitrary numerical values. If you try to store information in
a key field, you will likely run into issues of duplication that make processing
your data harder, not easier.

You can create connections between tables by identifying fields they have in common. For
example, consider a Customers table that has two fields—CustomerID and CustomerName
—and an Orders table that has three fields—OrderID, CustomerID, and OrderPrice. The
CustomerID field appears in both tables, so it can be used to establish a link, or
relationship.
Important
You must add Excel tables to the Data Model to define relationships between
them.

In the Customers table, each CustomerID field value occurs exactly once, so that column
is called a primary key. The CustomerID field also occurs in the Orders table, but because
it’s possible for a customer to place more than one order, the CustomerID field’s values
can repeat. When a key field appears in another table in which it doesn’t distinguish each
row from every other row, it’s called a foreign key.
When you create a relationship, you link the primary key field from one table to the
corresponding foreign key field in another table. Although it’s easier to spot the fields if
they have the same name, such as CustomerID, they don’t have to have the same name—
they just need to contain the same data.

Diagram View of a Data Model with a relationship between two tables


After you define a relationship in the Data Model, you can create PivotTables that use data
from both Excel tables. You can also edit or delete relationships if necessary.
To display the Data Model in Diagram View
1. If necessary, on the Data tab, in the Data Tools group, click Manage Data Model.
2. In the Power Pivot for Excel window, on the Home tab, in the View group, click
Diagram View.
To display the Data Model in Data View
1. If necessary, click Manage Data Model.
2. In the Power Pivot for Excel window, in the View group, click Data View.
To define a relationship between tables
1. If necessary, click Manage Data Model.
2. In the Power Pivot for Excel window, in the View group, click Diagram View.
3. In the Diagram View window, drag the field from the source table to the
corresponding field in the table that includes the source field’s values.
4. When the pointer changes to a curved arrow, release the mouse button to create the
relationship.
Or
1. In Power Pivot, on the Design tab of the ribbon, in the Relationships group, click
Create Relationship.
2. In the Create Relationship dialog box, click the Table 1 arrow, and then click the
table in which the field you want to link is the table’s primary key field.
3. In the Columns list on the left, click the field you want to link to the other table.
4. Click the Table 2 arrow, and then click the table in which the field you want to link
is a foreign key field.
5. In the Columns list on the right, click the field that corresponds to the primary key
field from the source table.
6. Click OK.
To view the Excel table that provides data to a linked table in the Data Model
1. In Power Pivot, click Diagram View.
2. In the viewing pane, click the table you want to view.
3. On the Linked Table tab of the ribbon, click Go to Excel Table.
To edit an existing relationship
1. In Power Pivot, on the Design tab, click Manage Relationships.
2. In the Manage Relationships dialog box, click the relationship you want to edit.
3. Click Edit.
Edit relationships between tables in the Data Model
4. In the Edit Relationship dialog box, change the tables and fields that form the
relationship.
5. Click OK.
To delete an existing relationship
1. In Power Pivot, click Manage Relationships.
2. In the Manage Relationships dialog box, click the relationship you want to delete.
3. Click Delete.
4. In the confirmation dialog box that appears, click OK.
5. Click Close.

Analyze data by using Power Pivot


When the Excel product team changed the underlying file format of Excel 2007 from .xls
to .xlsx, they let users store much more data on each worksheet. Rather than limiting each
worksheet to 65,536 rows, you can now store up to 1,048,576 rows of data. In 2007, that
larger number of rows seemed more than adequate for most Excel users. It still is, but the
powerful business intelligence analysis tools built into Excel led users to import large data
sets and to find ways to combine data collections that spanned multiple worksheets.
Originally introduced as an add-in for Excel 2010, Power Pivot is a tool you can use to
work with any amount of data, as long as the total file size is less than 2 gigabytes (GB)
and takes up less than 4 GB of memory. For such large data collections, you’ll usually
work with summaries of your data, though you can focus on specific aspects of the data by
sorting and filtering.
See Also
For more information about creating filters, see “Limit data that appears on
your screen” in Chapter 5, “Manage worksheet data.”

When you bring a data collection into Power Pivot, Excel attempts to identify the data
type of each column. The app is usually accurate, but some data types can be confused.
For example, Excel will occasionally identify currency or accounting data columns as
containing regular numbers that include decimal values. If this type of mistake happens,
you can always change the column’s data type.

Power Pivot identifies some currency and accounting data as decimal numbers

Important
When you change the data type of a column, it might affect the column
values’ precision and the results of calculations that are performed using the
data.

Most large data sets contain raw data, such as sales amounts, and rely on the visualization
or summary software program to calculate values such as sales tax, commissions, or
profit. To add this type of summary to your Power Pivot data, you can define a calculated
column. The formula syntax for creating a calculated column is very similar to creating a
formula that refers to an Excel table column, so you already have the skills to create them.
As with columns in Excel tables, you can rename and delete Power Pivot columns, but the
real analytical power of Power Pivot comes from creating PivotTables from the large
Power Pivot data sets. Creating a PivotTable from 10,000 rows of data is useful, but
creating a PivotTable from 10,000,000 rows can provide incredible insight.
To sort values in a column in ascending or descending order
1. In Power Pivot, while viewing a table in Data View, click a cell in the column by
which you want to sort the table.
2. On the Home tab, in the Sort and Filter group, do either of the following:
• Click Sort Ascending to sort the column’s values in ascending order.
• Click Sort Descending to sort the column’s values in descending order.

Tip
The Sort Ascending and Sort Descending buttons will have different labels
depending on the values in the column. For example, a number field will have
the label Sort Smallest To Largest, whereas a text field will have the label
Sort A To Z.

To clear a sort from a sorted column


1. In Power Pivot, while viewing a table in Data View, click a cell in the column by
which you have sorted the table.
2. In the Sort and Filter group, click Clear Sort.
To filter values in a column
1. In Power Pivot, while viewing a table in Data View, click the filter arrow at the right
edge of the header for the column by which you want to filter the table.
Filter Power Pivot columns by creating rules or selecting specific values
2. In the filter list, perform either of the following actions:
• Click DataType Filters, click the type of filter rule you want to create, create the
rule, and click OK.
• Select and clear the check boxes to show or hide individual values.
3. Click OK.
To clear filters applied to a Power Pivot sheet
1. In Power Pivot, on the Home tab, in the Sort and Filter group, click Clear All
Filters.
Or
1. Click the filter arrow of the column from which you want to remove the filter.
2. In the filter list, click Clear Filter from “FieldName”.
3. Click OK.
To change the format of a column
1. If necessary, in Power Pivot, on the Home tab, in the View group, click Data View.
2. Click a cell in the column you want to format.
3. By using the controls in the Formatting group of the Home tab, perform any of the
following actions:
• Click Data Type, and then click a new data type in the list.
• Click Format, and then click a new data format in the list.
• Click Apply Currency Format, Apply Percentage Format, or Thousands
Separator to apply that format to the column.
• Click Increase Decimal or Decrease Decimal to increase or decrease the number
of digits shown to the right of the decimal point.
To add a calculated column
1. In Power Pivot, while viewing a table in Data View, click the top cell in the Add
Column column.
2. Enter =, followed by the formula you want to create. Add fields to the formula by
entering [ and then selecting the field that contains the values you want to use in
your formula.

Define a calculated column by using techniques similar to summarizing values in Excel


tables
3. Press the Enter key.
To rename a column
1. In Power Pivot, while viewing a table in Data View, double-click the header cell of
the column you want to rename.
2. Enter the new column name.
3. Press Enter.
To delete a column
1. In Power Pivot, while viewing a table in Data View, right-click the header cell of the
column you want to delete.
2. Click Delete Columns.
To create a PivotTable from Power Pivot data
1. In Power Pivot, on the Home tab, click PivotTable.
2. In the Create PivotTable dialog box, click New Worksheet.
3. Click OK.

Tip
Excel creates a PivotTable by using all available data in the Data Model, not
just the table that was displayed when you created the PivotTable.

View data by using timelines


Business data often records events at a specific point in time, whether a sale to an
individual customer on a specific day or net profit for a quarter or a year. If your data
contains a time-based value, such as the day of a sale, you can analyze that data by
creating a timeline.

Use timelines to filter PivotTable data based on time increments

Tip
Timelines and Slicers are built on the same design philosophy: providing a
visual indication of the elements included and excluded by a filter. What
Slicers do for category data, timelines do for chronological data.

A timeline provides a graphical interface you can use to filter a PivotTable. For table
columns that contain individual date values, such as 8/2/2015, the timeline box will
recognize those dates and let you filter by year, quarter, month, or day.
Change the time increment by which you filter data by using a timeline
You can use the elements within a timeline to select individual increments, such as days or
months, or ranges of those same values. As with other objects, such as charts, you can
change the appearance of your timeline, resize it, change its appearance, hide or display
elements, and delete it when it’s no longer required.
To create a timeline
1. Click a cell in an Excel table that is based on a connection to an external data source
or that is part of the workbook’s Data Model.
2. On the Insert tab, in the Filters group, click Timeline.
3. In the Existing Connections dialog box, do either of the following:
• Use the tools on the Connections tab to identify the connection you want to filter
by using a timeline.
• Use the tools on the Data Model tab to identify the Excel table you want to filter
by using a timeline.
4. Click Open.
5. In the Insert Timelines dialog box, select the check box next to the field by which
you want to filter.
6. Click OK.
To filter a PivotTable by using a timeline
1. Create a timeline based on an Excel table that has been used to create a PivotTable.
2. Click Time Level in the upper-right area of the timeline, and then click the time
level you want to use (such as months, quarters, or days).
Select the increment by which you want to filter in your Timeline
3. In the scrolling time display, do any of the following:
• Click the increment you want to display.
• Select multiple increments by holding down the Ctrl key and clicking the
increments you want to display.
• Select a range of increments by clicking the first increment in the range and then,
while holding down the Shift key, clicking the last increment in the range of dates
you want to display.
To clear a timeline filter
1. In the timeline, click the Clear Filter button at the right end of the title bar.
To change the appearance of a timeline
1. Click the timeline.
2. On the Options tool tab of the ribbon, in the Timeline Styles gallery, click the style
you want to apply.
To resize a timeline
1. Click the timeline.
2. Drag any of the handles on the timeline to change its size, as follows:
• Drag a handle in the middle of the top or bottom edge to make the timeline shorter
or taller.
• Drag a handle in the middle of the left or right edge to make the timeline wider or
narrower.
• Drag a handle in the corner of the timeline to change its shape both horizontally
and vertically.
Or
1. Click the timeline.
2. On the Options tool tab, in the Size group, do either of the following:
• In the Height box, enter a new height for the timeline, and then press Enter.
• In the Width box, enter a new width for the timeline, and then press Enter.
To hide or display timeline elements
1. Click the timeline.
2. On the Options tool tab, in the Show group, select or clear any of these check
boxes:
• Header
• Selection Label
• Scrollbar
• Time Level
To change a timeline caption
1. Click the timeline.
2. On the Options tool tab, in the Timeline group, in the Timeline Caption box, enter
a new caption for the timeline.
3. Press Enter.
To delete a timeline
1. Right-click the timeline, and then click Remove Timeline.

Bring in external data by using Power Query


Excel includes a wide range of analytical tools you can use to generate useful insights
from your data. Excel 2016 includes Power Query, a versatile tool you can use to manage
external data sources effectively. Unlike in previous versions of Excel, in which you
needed to install Power Query as a separate add-in, Power Query is built into Excel 2016.

Tip
You don’t need to enable the Data Analysis add-ins to use Power Query, but
they work best together.

You can create data connections to many different sources:


Files These sources include Excel workbooks, CSV files, XML files, and text files.
Databases These sources include Microsoft SQL Server, Access, SQL Server
Analysis Services, Oracle, IBM DB2, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Sybase, and Teradata
databases.
Microsoft Azure These sources include Azure SQL Database, Azure Marketplace,
Azure HDInsight, Azure Blob Storage, and Azure Table Storage.
Other sources These sources include the web, Microsoft SharePoint lists, Hadoop
files (HDFS), Facebook, Salesforce, and other sources with available Open Database
Connectivity (ODBC) drivers.
Creating a query involves identifying the type of data source to which you want to
connect, selecting the software from among that type’s choices, and providing any
necessary credentials to access the data source. Some systems require you to log on to an
account to access your data, for example.
After you define your data connection, you can specify which elements of the data source
you want to bring in. Many Excel files and databases contain multiple tables, so you can
select which of them to bring in.

Select the file element you want to use as your query data source
After your query data appears in an Excel table, you can work with it as you would any
other data. You can unlock more powerful tools by turning on the Data Analysis add-ins
and adding the Excel table to the Data Model. When the Excel table is part of the Data
Model, you can define relationships between it and other tables to enhance your analysis.
Some data sources are poorly designed and don’t include an index field, which contains a
unique value for each row. If that’s the case, you can add an index, starting at the value of
your choice and increasing in the increment you want, to provide the tool you need to
create relationships between tables.
Add an index column so each row contains a unique value
As with other Excel workbook objects, you can edit your queries after you create them.
You can select which columns to include in or exclude from your results, change the
query’s name, edit or undo a change, and even delete your query to generate the result you
want.
To create a query
1. In the Excel workbook, on the Data tab of the ribbon, in the Get & Transform
group, click New Query, and then use the tools on the list to identify the data source
to which you want to connect.
2. In the Import Data dialog box, click the data source you want to query, and then
click Open.
3. In the Navigator, click the data source you want to query.
Or
Select the Select multiple items check box, and then click the data sources you want
to query.
4. Select the items you want to include in your query.
5. Click Load.
To add query data to the Data Model
1. In the Excel workbook, click any cell in the Excel table that contains the query data.
2. On the Power Pivot tab, in the Tables group, click Add to Data Model.
To add an index column to a query
1. In the Excel workbook, click any cell in the Excel table that contains the query data.
2. On the Query tool tab of the ribbon, in the Edit group, click Edit.
3. In the Query Editor, on the Add Column tab of the ribbon, in the General group,
click Add Index Column.
Or
Click the Add Index Column arrow (not the button itself), and then use the tools in
the list to define the starting point for your index.
4. In the Query Editor, on the Home tab of the ribbon, in the Close group, click
Close & Load.
To choose columns to include in your query results
1. In the Excel workbook, click any cell in the Excel table that contains the query data.
2. On the Query tool tab, click Edit.
3. In the Query Editor, on the Home tab, in the Manage Columns group, click
Choose Columns.
4. In the Choose Columns task pane, select the check boxes next to the columns you
want to keep in your query results.
5. Click OK.
To remove a column from your query results
1. Open the query in the Query Editor.
2. Click a cell in the column you want to remove.
3. In the Manage Columns group, click Remove Columns.
To change the data type of a column
1. Open the query in the Query Editor.
2. Click a cell in the column you want to edit.
3. On the Home tab, in the Transform group, click Data Type, and then click the new
data type for the column.
To change the name of a query
1. Display the query in the Query Editor.
2. If necessary, on the View tab of the ribbon, in the Show group, click Query
Settings to display the Query Settings task pane.
3. In the Query Settings task pane, in the Name box, enter a new name for the query.
To undo a change to a query
1. Display the query in the Query Editor.
2. If necessary, click Query Settings to display the Query Settings task pane.

Use the Query Settings task pane to rename and edit queries
3. In the Applied Steps list, point to the change you want to delete, and then click the
delete button that appears to the left of the change.
4. If necessary, in the Delete Step confirmation dialog box, click Delete to finish
deleting the change.
To edit a change to a query
1. Display the query in the Query Editor.
2. If necessary, click Query Settings to display the Query Settings task pane.
3. In the Applied Steps list, point to the change you want to edit, and then click the
action button (it looks like a gear or cog) that appears to the right of the change.
4. In the dialog box that appears, edit the properties of the change.
5. Click OK.
To close a query and return to Excel
1. In the Query Editor, on the Home tab, in the Close group, click Close & Load.
2. If necessary, in the dialog box that appears, click Keep to keep your changes.
To delete a query
1. In the Excel workbook, click any cell in the Excel table that contains the query data.
2. On the Query tool tab, in the Edit group, click Delete.
3. In the Delete Query dialog box that appears, click Delete.

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Enable the Data Analysis add-ins
Define relationships between tables
Analyze data by using Power Pivot
View data by using timelines
Bring in external data by using Power Query

Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch15 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Enable the Data Analysis add-ins


Open the EnableAddins workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. In the Excel Options dialog box, enable the Data Analysis add-ins.
2. Close the Excel Options dialog box.
3. Add the Customers and Shipments tables to the Data Model.

Define relationships between tables


Open the DefineRelationships workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. If necessary, add the two Excel tables in the workbook to the Data Model.
2. Display the Data Model in Diagram View.
3. Create relationships between the following pairs of tables:
• Customers and Shipments based on CustomerID
• Categories and Shipments based on CategoryID
4. Close the Data Model and return to the main workbook.

Analyze data by using Power Pivot


Open the AnalyzePowerPivotData workbook in Excel, and then perform the following
tasks:
1. Display the Data Model in Data View.
2. On the Home tab of the ribbon, click PivotTable.
3. Create a PivotTable that displays the customers’ names as the row headers and the
total value of their shipments in the Values area.
4. Change the data type of the Value field to Currency.
5. Add a calculated column that adds a 3-percent surcharge to each shipment to
account for increased fuel costs.

View data by using timelines


Open the ViewUsingTimelines workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Click any cell in the PivotTable in the Summary worksheet.
2. Create a timeline that lets you filter the PivotTable by using the values in the
OrderDate field.
3. Using the timeline, filter the PivotTable to display the Sum of OrderAmount for
November 2015, then for November and December 2015, and for the third quarter
of the year.
4. Change the timeline’s appearance so it has a yellow and black theme.
5. Clear the filter, and then delete the timeline.

Bring in external data by using Power Query


Open the CreateQuery workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Using the tools on the Data tab of the ribbon, use Power Query to import the table
named ShipmentInfo from the ManagePowerQueryData workbook.
2. Add the query’s results to the Data Model.
3. Remove the CustomerID and CategoryID fields from the query’s results.
4. Change the name of the query.
5. Save your work and return to the main Excel workbook.
16. Create forecasts and visualizations

In this chapter
Create Forecast Worksheets
Define and manage measures
Define and display Key Performance Indicators
Create 3D maps

Practice files
For this chapter, use the practice files from the Excel2016SBS\Ch16 folder. For
practice file download instructions, see the introduction.

The new business intelligence tools built into Excel 2016 greatly extend the app’s
analytical and visualization capabilities. For example, though you have always been able
to forecast future data based on current trends, you can now use an advanced technique
called exponential smoothing to give greater weight to recent values instead of
considering all historical data in the same light.
You can also use the Excel Data Model to create Forecast Worksheets, measures, Key
Performance Indicators (KPIs), and 3D maps to visualize your data. Forecast Worksheets
use exponential smoothing formulas to project future values in a visual display; measures
and KPIs summarize and evaluate business data against goals you set; and 3D maps
represent your data geographically, using maps to show static values and how your data
changes through time.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to creating Forecast Worksheets,
forecasting data by using formulas that define and manage measures, defining and
displaying Key Performance Indicators, and creating 3D maps.

Create Forecast Worksheets


Excel 2016 extends your ability to analyze business data by creating forecasts. Analyzing
trends in Excel isn’t new—you’ve been able to guess at future values based on historical
data for quite some time. For example, you can create a linear forecast by using the
FORECAST.LINEAR() function, which has the syntax FORECAST.LINEAR(x, known_ys,
known_xs). The known_xs argument contains a range of independent variables, such as
years, and the known_ys describe dependent variables, such as package volumes for a
specified year. The FORECAST.LINEAR() function takes those historical values and
projects the package volume for future year x if current trends continue.
A quick way to extend a data series is to select the cells that contain your historical data
and then drag the fill handle down to extend the series. Excel analyzes the pattern of the
available values and adds new values based on that analysis.
Important
The values used to create your Forecast Worksheet must be evenly spaced,
such as every day, every seven days, or the first day of each month or year.

The standard exponential smoothing function, FORECAST.ETS(), returns the forecasted


value for a specific future target date by using an exponential smoothing algorithm. This
function has the syntax FORECAST.ETS(target_date, values, timeline, [seasonality],
[data_completion], [aggregation]). The arguments used by this function are:
target_date (required) The date for which you want to predict a value, expressed as
either a date/time value or a number. The target_date value must come after the last
data point in the timeline.
values (required) Refers to the historical values Excel uses to create a forecast.
timeline (required) Refers to the dates or times Excel uses to establish the order of
the values data. The dates in the timeline range must have a consistent step between
them, which can’t be zero.
seasonality (optional) A number value indicating the presence, absence, or length of
a season in the data set. A value of 1 has Excel detect seasonality automatically, 0
indicates no seasonality, and positive whole numbers up to 8,760 (the number of
hours in a year) indicate to the algorithm to use patterns of this length as the
seasonality period.
data_completion (optional) FORECAST.ETS() allows, and can adjust for, up to 30
percent of missing data in a time series. A value of 0 directs the algorithm to account
for missing points as zeros, whereas the default value of 1 accounts for missing
points by computing them as the average of the neighboring points.
aggregation (optional) This argument tells FORECAST.ETS() how to aggregate
multiple points that have the same time stamp. The default value of 0 directs the
algorithm to use AVERAGE, whereas other options available in the AutoComplete
list are SUM, COUNT, COUNTA, MIN, MAX, and MEDIAN.
FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY() follows exactly the same syntax as FORECAST.ETS(),
but it returns the length of the seasonal period the algorithm detects. As with
FORECAST.ETS(), the maximum seasonal period is 8,760 units.
You will often use FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY() and FORECAST.ETS() together, or
FORECAST.ETS() by itself. The output of FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY() isn’t very
useful without a forecast.
The final function, FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT(), returns a confidence interval for the
forecast value at the specified target date. The confidence interval is the value that the
actual value will differ from the forecast, plus or minus a certain value that Excel
calculates, a specified percentage of the time. The function has the following syntax:
FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT(target_date, values, timeline, [confidence_level],
[seasonality], [data_completion], [aggregation]).
Tip
Smaller confidence_level values allow for smaller confidence intervals
because the actual result doesn’t have to be within the confidence interval as
often. Larger confidence_level values require a larger interval to account for
the greater probability of unlikely results.

The new argument, confidence_level, is an optional argument that lets you specify how
certain you want the estimate to be. For example, a confidence_level value of 80 percent
would require the actual value to be within the confidence interval (plus or minus a certain
value that Excel calculates) 80 percent of the time.

Tip
The default confidence_level value is 95 percent.

Excel 2016 includes a new capability to create a Forecast Worksheet, which uses the
FORECAST.ETS() function to create a line or column chart showing a forecast when given
historical data. The Forecast Worksheet provides a striking visual summary of the
exponential smoothing forecast. In addition to creating the forecast, you can control the
start date, set seasonality, and determine how to handle missing or duplicate values.
Forecast Worksheets show projections for future values
To create a linear forecast by using a formula
1. Create a list of data that contains pairs of independent variables (known_xs) and
dependent variables (known_ys).
2. In a separate cell, enter a future value of x.
3. In another cell, create a formula that follows the syntax FORECAST.LINEAR(x,
known_ys, known_xs).
4. Press the Enter key.
To create a simple forecast by using the fill handle
1. Select the cells that contain the historical data.
2. Drag the fill handle down the number of cells that represents the number of periods
by which you want to extend the trend.
To create a Forecast Worksheet
1. Click any cell in an Excel table that contains a column with date or time data and
another column with numerical results.
2. On the Data tab of the ribbon, in the Forecast group, click the Forecast Sheet
button.
3. In the upper-right corner of the Create Forecast Worksheet dialog box, do one of
the following:
• Click the Create a line chart button to create a line chart.
• Click the Create a column chart button to create a column chart.
4. Click the Forecast End calendar to specify an end for the forecast.
5. Click Create.
To create a Forecast Worksheet with advanced options
1. Click any cell in an Excel table that contains a column with date or time data and
another column with numerical results.
2. Click Forecast Sheet.
3. Identify the chart type and forecast end, and then click Options.
Set advanced options and manage data used to create a Forecast Worksheet
4. Using the tools in the Options area of the Create Forecast Worksheet dialog box,
do any of the following:
• Identify the cell range that contains the timeline values.
• Identify the cell range that contains the numerical values.
• Set a new forecast start date.
• Change the confidence interval.
• Set seasonality manually or automatically.
• Include or exclude forecast statistics.
• Select a method for filling in missing values.
• Select a method for aggregating multiple values for the same time period.
5. Click Create.
To calculate a forecast value by using exponential smoothing
1. Create a list of data that contains pairs of independent variables (timeline) and
dependent variables (values).
2. In a separate cell, enter a future date (target_date).
3. In another cell, create a formula that follows the syntax
FORECAST.ETS(target_date, values, timeline, [seasonality], [data_completion],
[aggregation]).
4. Press Enter.
To calculate the confidence interval for a forecast by using exponential smoothing
1. Create a list of data that contains pairs of independent variables (timeline) and
dependent variables (values).
2. In a separate cell, enter a future date (target_date).
3. In another cell, create a formula that follows this syntax:
FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT(target_date, values, timeline, [confidence_level],
[seasonality], [data_completion], [aggregation])
4. Press Enter.
To calculate the length of a seasonally repetitive pattern in time series data
1. Create a list of data that contains pairs of independent variables (timeline) and
dependent variables (values).
2. In a separate cell, enter a future date (target_date).
3. In another cell, create a formula that follows this syntax:
FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY(target_date, values, timeline, [seasonality],
[data_completion], [aggregation])
4. Press Enter.

Define and manage measures


You can use Power Pivot to analyze huge data collections that include millions or even
hundreds of millions of rows of values. Although the details are important, it’s also
valuable to examine your data in aggregate. This type of aggregate summary, such as the
average of values in a column, is called a measure.
Measures summarize columns of data in Power Pivot

See Also
For more information about using Power Pivot to analyze data, see “Analyze
data by using Power Pivot” in Chapter 15, “Perform business intelligence
analysis.”

There are two main ways to define a measure in Power Pivot. The first is to use a version
of AutoSum, which calculates a sum, average, median, or other summary of a Power Pivot
column. The other method is to create a calculated column manually. Regardless of the
technique you use to create your measure, you can always edit it or delete it if necessary.
To create a measure by using AutoSum
1. Open a workbook in which you have added at least one Excel table to the Excel
Data Model.
2. On the Power Pivot tab of the ribbon, in the Data Model group, click Manage to
display the Power Pivot for Excel window.
3. If necessary, in Power Pivot, on the Home tab of the ribbon, in the View group,
click the Calculation Area button to display the Calculation Area of the grid.
4. In the Calculation Area, click the first cell below the column on which you want to
base your measure.
5. On the Home tab, in the Calculations group, do either of the following:
• Click the AutoSum button to create a measure by using the SUM function.
• Click the AutoSum arrow, and then click the function you want in the list.
To create a calculated column
1. In the Power Pivot for Excel window, display an Excel table that is part of the Data
Model.
2. Click the first blank cell in the Add Column column.
3. Enter =, followed by the formula.

Tip
To refer to fields in the Excel table, enclose the name in square brackets; for
example, [Exceptions].

To edit a measure
1. Open a workbook in which you have added at least one measure to the Data Model.
2. If necessary, in Power Pivot, click the Calculation Area button to display the
Calculation Area of the grid.
3. Click the cell that contains the measure, and then, in the formula bar, change the text
of the measure’s formula.
4. Press Enter.
To delete a measure
1. Open a workbook in which you have added at least one measure to the Data Model.
2. If necessary, in Power Pivot, click the Calculation Area button to display the
Calculation Area of the grid.
3. Click the cell that contains the measure, and then press Delete.
4. In the Confirm dialog box, click Delete from Model.

Define and display Key Performance Indicators


Businesses of all sizes can evaluate their results by using measures, which summarize
overall business performance by summarizing operations data. The next step in this
analysis is to compare results from a specific part of the business, whether for a
department or for the entire company’s overall performance for a month, to determine
whether the company is meeting its goals.
One popular way to measure business performance is by using Key Performance
Indicators (KPIs). A KPI is a measure that the company’s officials have determined
reflects the underlying health and efficiency of the organization. A shipping company
might set goals for maintaining a low level of package handling errors, or a charitable
organization could set a goal for returning as much of its donation income as possible to
their clients through service and direct support.
KPIs are most often implemented through a dashboard that summarizes organizational
performance. In Excel 2016, you add KPIs to your workbooks by creating PivotTables
based on data stored in the Data Model.

A PivotTable that includes a Key Performance Indicator created in Power Pivot


In some cases, high values are good, whereas in other cases low values are preferred. Both
reducing package handling errors and maximizing operating profit would represent
success for a shipping company, for example. A manufacturing firm might want to reduce
variance in the items they fabricate for their customers. In that case, variance from the
target value in either direction, high or low, would indicate a fault in the process.

Select the pattern used to evaluate data in a Key Performance Indicator


After you create a KPI, you can edit or delete it as required to meet your organization’s
needs.
To create a KPI
1. Open a workbook in which you have added at least one measure to the Data Model.
2. If necessary, in Power Pivot, on the Home tab, in the View group, click the
Calculation Area button to display the Calculation Area of the grid.
3. In the Calculation Area, right-click the cell that contains the measure you want to
use as the basis for your KPI, and then click Create KPI.
4. In the Key Performance Indicator (KPI) dialog box, click Measure and select the
measure to use as the comparison for the KPI.
Or
Click Absolute Value and enter the target value in the box to the right of the label.
5. In the Target group, click the pattern that represents the distribution of good,
neutral, and bad values in the data set.

Create Key Performance Indicators to summarize your organization’s performance


6. In the Define status thresholds area, drag the sliders to indicate where the bad,
neutral, and good zones start.
Or
Click in the box above a slider and enter a value that defines where the zone starts.
7. Click the icon set you want to apply to the KPI.
8. Click OK.
To use a KPI in a PivotTable
1. On the Data tab, in the Data Tools group, click Manage Data Model.
2. In the Power Pivot for Excel window, on the Home tab, click PivotTable.
3. In the Create PivotTable dialog box, click New Worksheet, and then click OK.
4. If necessary, in the PivotTable Fields task pane, click the name of the Excel table
that contains your data.
5. Add fields to the Rows and Columns areas to organize your data, and then add the
field that contains the data to the Values area.
6. At the bottom of the field list, expand the field name of the measure you used to
create your KPI.
7. Drag the Status field to the Values area.
To edit a KPI
1. Open a workbook in which you have added at least one KPI to the Data Model.
2. If necessary, in Power Pivot, on the Home tab, in the View group, click the
Calculation Area button to display the Calculation Area of the grid.
3. In the Calculation Area, right-click the cell that contains the measure you are using
as the basis for your KPI, and then click Edit KPI Settings.
4. Use the controls in the Key Performance Indicator (KPI) dialog box to change the
KPI’s settings.
5. Click OK.
To delete a KPI
1. Open a workbook in which you have added at least one KPI to the Data Model.
2. If necessary, display the Calculation Area of the grid.
3. In the Calculation Area, right-click the cell that contains the measure you are using
as the basis for your KPI, and then click Delete KPI.
4. In the Confirm dialog box, click Delete from Model.

Create 3D maps
Much of the business data you collect will refer to geographic entities such as
countries/regions, cities, or states. In Excel 2016, you can plot your data on 3D maps by
using the built-in Power Map facilities.
Summarize data by using a 3D map
After you add an Excel table to the Data Model, you can summarize its data
geographically. All you need to do is click a cell in the Excel table and indicate that you
want to create a 3D map. Excel examines your data source and, if it recognizes geographic
entities such as cities or countries/regions, it adds the field to the map’s layout.

Tip
If you haven’t clicked a cell in an Excel table that contains data you can use
to create a map, Excel doesn’t add a geographic data field to the Location
area of the Layers task pane.

With the 3D map in place, you can add data fields to its layout, supplement the display by
adding a 2D line or column chart of the data, or change the fields used in the visualization.
If you have multiple geographic data levels available, such as country/region, state, and
city, you can change the level of analysis before closing your map and returning to the
main Excel workbook.
Summarize data by geographical entity by using a 3D map

Tip
After you close the 3D Maps window, Excel adds a text box to the worksheet
from which the 3D map draws its data, indicating that the workbook has 3D
Maps tours available.

One real strength of 3D maps in Excel 2016 is the ability to create tours, which are
animations of the data summarized in your map. If your data has a date or time
component, such as years, months, and days (or specific dates), you can create an
animation that shows how the data changes over time.

Important
The field you add to the Time box must be formatted by using a Date or Time
data type.

After you create your map, you can copy an image of the screen to the Clipboard, save the
animation as a video, edit the map, or delete the map entirely.
To create a 3D map
1. Click a cell in the Excel table that contains the data you want to map.
2. On the Insert tab of the ribbon, in the Tours group, click 3D Map.
3. If necessary, in the 3D Maps window, on the Home tab of the ribbon, in the View
group, click Field List to display the Field List pane.
4. If necessary, drag the field that contains geographic information, such as states,
from the Field List to the Location box.
5. Drag the field that contains the summary data from the Field List to the Height
box.
6. If your data contains a third component, such as a company, drag the field that
contains this category data from the Field List to the Category box.
To return to the main Excel workbook
1. Perform either of these steps:
• In the 3D Maps window, display the Backstage view, and then click Close.
• On the title bar of the 3D Maps window, click the Close button.
To launch a 3D map
1. On the Insert tab of the ribbon, in the Tours group, click 3D Map.

Select an existing 3D map to launch


2. In the Launch 3D Maps dialog box, click the tour you want to launch.
To summarize mapped data by using a 2D chart
1. Launch the 3D map you want to summarize.
2. On the Home tab, in the Insert group, click 2D Chart.
3. If necessary, point to the chart, click the Change the chart type button in the upper-
right corner of the chart, and then click a new chart type.
To change the geographical type of a visualization
1. Launch the 3D map you want to edit.
2. If necessary, in the View group, click Layer Pane to display the Layer task pane.
3. Also, if necessary, click Field List to display the Field List pane.
4. In the Location box, click the geographical type.
5. In the list that appears, click the new level at which you want to summarize the data.
To animate your data over time
1. Create a 3D map that includes summary and location data.
2. If necessary, click Layer Pane to display the Layer task pane.
3. If necessary, click Field List to display the Field List pane.
4. Drag a field containing time data from the Field List pane to the Time box of the
Layer task pane.
Animate data by using a time series from your data set
5. On the Home tab, in the Tour group, click Play Tour.
To filter 3D map data
1. Launch the 3D map you want to edit.
2. If necessary, click Layer Pane to display the Layer task pane.
3. In the Layer task pane, click Filters, click Add Filter, and then click the field by
which you want to filter your map.
Apply a filter to focus on specific data in your map
4. Use the controls in the Filters area of the Layer task pane to create your filter.
5. Click Apply Filter.
To remove a 3D map filter
1. Display the 3D map from which you want to remove the filter.
2. In the Layer task pane, display the available filters.
3. Point to the filter you want to remove, and then click Delete.
To capture a screenshot of a 3D map
1. Display the 3D map whose image you want to capture.
2. On the Home tab, in the Tour group, click Capture Screen to copy an image of the
map to the Clipboard.
3. Open the document in which you want to paste the image of the map.
4. Press Ctrl+V (or use the appropriate paste command for the app you opened) to
paste the map image into the open document.
To play a 3D map tour as a video
1. Display a 3D map tour that has a time component.
2. On the Home tab, in the Tour group, click Play Tour.
3. When the tour has finished running, point to the bottom of the screen to display the
control bar, and then click the Click to go back to Edit View button.
To save a 3D map video
1. Display a 3D map tour that has a time component.
2. In the Tour group, click Create Video.
3. In the Create Video dialog box, click the button that represents the video quality
and resolution you want.
4. Click Create.
5. In the Save Movie dialog box, navigate to the folder where you want to save the
video.
6. In the File name box, enter a name for the video.
7. Click Save.
To delete a 3D map
1. In an Excel workbook that contains 3D maps, on the Insert tab, click 3D Map.
2. In the Launch 3D Maps dialog box, point to the 3D map tour you want to delete,
and click the Delete button in the upper-right corner of the tour.
3. In the Delete Tour dialog box, click Yes to confirm that you want to delete the tour.
4. Close the Launch 3D Maps dialog box.

Skills review
In this chapter, you learned how to:
Create Forecast Worksheets
Define and manage measures
Define and display Key Performance Indicators
Create 3D maps

Practice tasks

The practice files for these tasks are located in the Excel2016SBS\Ch16 folder. You can
save the results of the tasks in the same folder.

Create Forecast Worksheets


Open the CreateForecastSheets workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. In cell I5, create a formula that uses exponential smoothing to forecast the value for
January 2016 (found in cell I3) based on the values in the MonthYear and Volume
columns in the Excel table.
2. Using the same inputs, calculate the 95 percent confidence interval (the default
value) for your forecast.
3. In cell I9, calculate the length of the season implied by the data used in the previous
two formulas.
4. Create a Forecast Worksheet by using the data in the MonthlyVolume table.
5. If necessary, edit the Forecast Worksheet so its Timeline Range is cells D1:D37
and the Values Range is cells E1:E37.
6. Change the Forecast Worksheet’s Confidence Interval to 90 percent.

Define and manage measures


Open the DefineMeasures workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Display the Data Model.
2. Create a measure for the Exceptions field that finds the sum of the Exceptions
values.
3. Create a measure for the SuccessRate field that finds the sum of the SuccessRate
values.
4. Delete the measure that finds the sum of the Exceptions values.
5. Edit the measure that finds the sum of the SuccessRate values so that it finds the
average of those values.

Define and display Key Performance Indicators


Open the CreateKPIs workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Display the Data Model.
2. Create a KPI based on the Average of SuccessRate measure with the following
characteristics:
• An absolute value of 9925
• A green lower limit of 9900
• A yellow lower limit of 9825
• The black-bordered traffic-light icon set
3. While still within Power Pivot, create a PivotTable on a new worksheet.
4. In the PivotTable Fields task pane, add the Year and Month columns to the Rows
area, and then the Success Rate and Status fields to the Values area.

Create 3D maps
Open the CreateMaps workbook in Excel, and then perform the following tasks:
1. Create a 3D map based on the data in the VisitorData Excel table. Show the visitors
by state.
2. Add the Year field to the Time area, and then play the tour.
3. Create and save a video based on the tour you created.
4. Add a 2D chart that summarizes your data in a clustered column chart.
Appendix: Keyboard shortcuts

This list of shortcuts is a comprehensive list derived from Excel 2016 Help. Some of the
shortcuts might not be available in every edition of Excel 2016.

Ctrl-combination shortcut keys


Tip
The Ctrl combinations Ctrl+E, Ctrl+J, and Ctrl+M are currently unassigned to
any shortcuts.

Function keys
Other useful shortcut keys
Glossary

3-D reference A pattern for referring to the workbook, worksheet, and cell from which
a value should be read.
absolute reference A cell reference, such as =$B$3, that doesn’t change when you copy
a formula containing the reference to another cell. See also relative reference.
active cell The cell that is currently selected and open for editing.
add-in A supplemental app that can be used to extend Excel.
alignment The manner in which a cell’s contents are arranged within that cell (for
example, centered).
arguments The specific data a function requires to calculate a value.
aspect ratio The relationship between a graphic’s height and its width.
auditing The process of examining a worksheet for errors.
AutoCalculate The Excel functionality that displays summary calculations on the
status bar for a selected cell range.
AutoComplete The Excel functionality that completes data entry for a cell based on
similar values in other cells in the same column.
AutoFill The Excel functionality that extends a series of values based on the contents of
a single cell.
AutoFilter An Excel tool you can use to create filters.
AutoRepublish An Excel technology that maintains a link between a web document
and the worksheet on which the web document is based, and updates the web document
whenever the original worksheet is saved.
Backstage view A view introduced in Excel 2010, accessed by clicking the File tab,
that gathers workbook management tasks into a single location.
bin A value range used to summarize frequencies in a histogram chart. See also
histogram.
box-and-whisker A chart type that visualizes average, median, minimum, and
maximum values for one or more data series.
browser An app with which users view web documents.
button A worksheet control that can be configured to run a macro when clicked.
cell The box at the intersection of a row and a column.
cell range A group of cells.
cell reference The letter and number combination, such as C16, that identifies the row
and column intersection of a cell.
cell style A built-in format that can be applied to a cell.
chart A visual summary of worksheet data, also called a graph.
check box A worksheet control, depicted as a square, that can be selected or cleared to
turn an option on or off.
circular reference A formula that contains a reference either to itself or to a cell that
uses the formula’s result.
color scale A type of conditional format that changes the color of a cell’s fill to reflect
the value in the cell. See also conditional format.
column Cells that are on the same vertical line in a worksheet.
combo box A worksheet control that lets users enter or select a value from a defined
list.
conditional format A format that is applied only when cell contents meet certain
criteria.
conditional formula A formula that calculates a value by using one of two different
expressions, depending on whether a third expression is true or false. See also color
scale.
confidence interval The range of values within which future values will fall a specified
percentage of the time (for example, “plus or minus 3 percent with 95-percent
confidence”).
control group A set of either check boxes or option buttons within which only one
control can be selected at a time.
data bar A horizontal line within a cell that indicates the relative magnitude of the
cell’s value.
data consolidation Summarizing data from a set of similar cell ranges.
data table A defined cell range that applies a set of alternative input values to a single
formula.
delimiter A character in a text file that separates values from each other.
dependent A cell with a formula that uses the value from a particular cell. See also
precedent.
digital certificate A file that contains a unique string of characters that can be
combined with another file, such as an Excel workbook, to create a verifiable signature
for that file.
digital signature A mathematical construct, created by combining a file and a digital
certificate, that verifies the authorship and contents of a file.
distribute To share a file with other users.
Document Inspector A utility with which you can inspect an Excel workbook for
personal information, tracked changes, and other sensitive data.
dual-axis chart A chart that combines two visualization styles into a single graphic.
embed To save a file as part of another file, as opposed to linking one file to another.
See also link.
error code A brief message that appears in a worksheet cell, describing a problem with
a formula or a function.
Excel table An Excel object with which you can store and refer to data based on the
name of the table and the names of its columns and rows.
exponential smoothing The process of creating a forecast by giving recent values in a
data series more weight than older values.
field A column of data used to create a PivotTable.
fill handle The square at the lower-right corner of a cell that can be dragged to indicate
other cells that should hold values in the series defined by the active cell.
FillSeries The Excel functionality that allows you to create a data series by defining the
starting value, the rule for calculating the next value, and the length of the series.
filter A rule that Excel uses to determine which worksheet rows to display.
footer An area of the worksheet that appears below the contents of the worksheet grid
when you print the worksheet or view it in Layout view.
foreign key A value in a data list or Excel table that uniquely identifies a row in another
table. See also primary key.
format A predefined set of characteristics that can be applied to cell contents.
formula An expression used to calculate a value.
Formula AutoComplete The Excel functionality with which you can enter a formula
quickly by selecting functions, named ranges, and table references that appear when
you begin to type the formula into a cell.
formula bar The area just above the worksheet grid that displays the active cell’s
formula and within which you can edit the formula.
function A predefined formula.
Goal Seek An analysis tool that finds the value for a selected cell that would produce a
specified result from a calculation.
graph A visual summary of worksheet data, also called a chart.
header An area of the worksheet that appears above the contents of the worksheet grid
when you print the worksheet or view it in Layout view.
histogram A chart type that represents the distribution of values by counting the
number of occurrences within specified ranges. See also bin; Pareto.
HTML A document-formatting system that tells a web browser such as Microsoft Edge
how to display the contents of a file.
hyperlink A reference to a file on the web.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) See HTML.
icon set A conditional format that uses distinct visual indicators to designate how a
value compares to a set of criteria.
Key Performance Indicator (KPI) A metric by which an organization is deemed to be
meeting, exceeding, or falling short of its goals. See also measure.
landscape mode A display and printing mode whereby columns run parallel to the short
edge of a sheet of paper.
link 1) A formula that has a cell show the value from another cell. 2) A connection to an
external data source. See also embed.
list box A worksheet control in which you select a value from a specified set of values.
live preview A feature of Excel that displays the result of an operation, such as pasting
data or applying a cell style, without implementing the change until you complete the
operation.
locked cell A cell that cannot be modified if its worksheet is protected.
macro A series of recorded automated actions that can be replayed.
mailto hyperlink A special type of hyperlink with which a user creates an email
message to a particular email address.
map A correspondence between an XML schema and an Excel worksheet.
measure A summary of data, such as an average or sum, stored in a PowerPivot
worksheet column. See also Key Performance Indicator (KPI).
Merge And Center An operation that combines a contiguous group of cells into a
single cell. Selecting a merged cell and clicking the Merge And Center button splits the
merged cells into the original group of separate cells.
named range A group of related cells defined by a single name.
OneDrive An online service, accessed through a Microsoft Account, with which a user
can store data in the cloud.
option button A worksheet control, depicted as a circle, that can be selected or cleared
to turn an option on or off.
Pareto A type of chart that combines a histogram with a line chart to show the
progressive contribution of categories to a whole. See also histogram.
Paste Options A button that appears after you paste an item from the Clipboard into
your workbook, and that provides options for how the item appears in the workbook.
Pick from List The Excel functionality that you can use to enter a value into a cell by
choosing the value from the set of values already entered into cells in the same column.
pivot To reorganize the contents of a PivotTable.
PivotChart A chart, which can be linked to a PivotTable, that can be reorganized
dynamically to emphasize different aspects of the underlying data.
PivotTable A dynamic worksheet that can be reorganized by a user.
portrait mode A display and printing mode whereby columns run parallel to the long
edge of a sheet of paper.
precedent A cell that is used in a formula. See also dependent.
primary key A field or group of fields with values that distinguish a row of data from
all other rows. See also foreign key.
property A file detail, such as an author name or project code, that helps identify the
file.
Quick Access Toolbar A customizable toolbar that contains a set of commands that are
independent of the tab on the ribbon that is currently displayed.
Quick Analysis Lens A selection of tools with which a user can summarize data
quickly by using formulas and charts.
range A group of related cells.
recommended chart A chart, designed by the Excel app, that summarizes a selected
data range.
recommended PivotTable A PivotTable, designed by the Excel app, that summarizes a
selected data range.
refresh To update the contents of one document when the contents of another document
are changed.
relationship A link between two tables, based on a common field, that allows the
contents of the tables to be combined.
relative reference A cell reference in a formula, such as =B3, that refers to a cell that is
a specific distance away from the cell that contains the formula. For example, if the
formula =B3 were in cell C3, copying the formula to cell C4 would cause the formula to
change to =B4. See also absolute reference.
ribbon The tab-based user interface introduced in Microsoft Office 2007.
row Cells that are on the same horizontal line in a worksheet.
scale The percentage of actual size at which a worksheet is printed or displayed.
scenario An alternative data set with which you view the impact of specific changes on
your worksheet.
schema A defined structure an app can use to interpret the contents of an XML file.
search filter A filter in which you enter a string of characters and have Excel display
every value within an Excel table, data set, or PivotTable that contains that character
string.
selection filter A mechanism for selecting the specific values to be displayed in a data
list, Excel table, or PivotTable.
sharing Making a workbook available for more than one user to open and modify
simultaneously.
sheet tab The indicator for selecting a worksheet, located at the bottom of the
workbook window.
Slicer An Excel tool with which you can filter an Excel table, data list, or PivotTable
while indicating which items are displayed and which are hidden.
Solver An Excel add-in that finds the optimal value for one cell by varying the results
of other cells.
sort To reorder the contents of a worksheet based on a criterion.
sparkline A compact chart that summarizes data visually within a single worksheet cell.
spin button A worksheet control that lets users increase or decrease a value by clicking
up or down arrows on the control, respectively.
subtotal A partial total for related data in a worksheet.
sunburst A chart, shaped as a circle, that depicts the magnitude of values within a data
set by using a combination of color, size, and position.
template A workbook used as a pattern for creating other workbooks.
theme A predefined format that can be applied to a worksheet.
timeline A worksheet control that lets users filter the contents of a PivotTable based on
time increments.
Top 10 filter A filter by which a user can specify the top or bottom number of items, or
top or bottom percentage of items, to display in a worksheet.
tracer arrow An arrow that indicates the formulas to which a cell contributes its value
(a dependent arrow) or the cells from which a formula derives its value (a precedent
arrow).
treemap A chart, shaped as a square, that depicts the magnitude of values within a data
set by using a combination of color, size, and position.
trendline A projection of future data (such as sales) based on past performance.
validation rule A test that data must pass to be entered into a cell without generating a
warning message.
watch Display of a cell’s contents in a separate window even when the cell is not
visible in the Excel workbook.
waterfall A chart that uses columns to depict increases and decreases of a value over
time based on transactional data.
what-if analysis Analysis of the contents of a worksheet to determine the impact that
specific changes have on your calculations.
workbook The basic Excel document, consisting of one or more worksheets.
worksheet A page in an Excel workbook.
x-axis The horizontal axis of a chart, which usually depicts category or time data.
XML The Extensible Markup Language, through which users can identify the structure,
elements, and semantic meaning of data in a text file.
y-axis The vertical axis of a chart, which usually depicts value data.
Index

Numbers and symbols


2D charts 471
3D maps
animating data 472
capturing screenshots of 474
changing geographical types 471, 472
creating 470
creating tours 470
definition 468
deleting 474
filtering data 473
launching 471
playing tours as videos 474
removing filters 473
returning to workbooks 470
saving videos 474
summarizing data 469
summarizing data using 2D charts 471
3-D references 198, 489
+ (addition) operator 88
& (concatenation) operator 88
#DIV/0! error code 101
/ (division) operator 88
##### error code 101
^ (exponentiation) operator 88
* (multiplication) operator 88
#NAME? error code 101
- (negation) operator 88
% (percentage) operator 88
#REF! error code 101
– (subtraction) operator 88
#VALUE! error code 101

A
absolute references
changing from relative 85
creating 90
definition 489
active cell 489
add-ins 489
addition (+) operator 88
AGGREGATE function 153, 155, 158–160
aggregation argument 457
alignment 489
Analysis ToolPak 229, 230
animations
3D map summaries 470
3D maps 472
annotations, locating 408
arguments
aggregation 457
array 161
col_index_num 185
confidence_level 458
data_completion 457
definition 79, 489
forecasts 456, 457
function_num 156, 160, 161
fv 79
inserting names/parentheses 480
k 161
known_xs 456
lookup_value 185
nper 79
options 159–161
pv 79
range_lookup 185
rate 79
ref 160, 161
seasonality 457
table_array 185
target_date 456
timeline 456
type 79
values 456
VLOOKUP function 184
array formulas 98–100
arrays 161
ascending order 439
aspect ratios 489
auditing 100, 489
AutoCalculate
definition 489
summarizing filtered data lists 155
summarizing values 160
AutoComplete 45, 47, 489
AutoCorrect Options 66
AutoFill 44–46, 48, 489
AutoFilter 489
AutoFormat As You Type 66
automatic calculations 97
AutoRepublish 489
AutoSum 462, 463
AVERAGE function 78, 155, 156, 158
AVERAGEIF function 91, 92
AVERAGEIFS function 91
axis labels 242

B
background color of cells, changing 116
backgrounds
removing from images 138, 141
repeating images 139, 141
Backstage view
adding buttons to Quick Access Toolbar 31
closing workbooks 13
creating custom properties 12
creating new workbooks 10
defining property values 11
definition 489
displaying Print page 481
displaying Print Preview 482
displaying ribbon tabs 35
finding files 481
opening existing workbooks 11
opening files 8, 481
setting property values 9
banded rows, applying to PivotTables 309
banners 271
Bing Image Search 140
bins 249, 489
bold formatting, applying/removing 480
borders
applying to cells 113, 116, 479
removing from cells 479
box-and-whisker charts 249, 489
browsers 489
built-in styles 118
business intelligence tools 455
button form controls 364, 368
buttons
adding to Quick Access Toolbar 30, 31
adding to ribbon 36, 37
changing order on Quick Access Toolbar 31, 32
clicking/tapping xix
definition 490
deleting from Quick Access Toolbar 32

C
calculations
See also formulas; iterative calculations
automatic 97
dependents 102
error codes 101
finding errors 100
linear 225
manual 97
setting options 97, 98
stepping through 104, 105
cell colors, sorting data by 175
cell formats
and VLOOKUP 186
finding/replacing 60
cell ranges
active cell in 51
consolidating from multiple workbooks 204, 205
converting tables to 69
copying 55
creating tables from 66
cutting 55
data tables 490
defining value sets 163–165
definition 490, 493
exporting as XML data files 418
moving 54
named 74
password-protecting 403
pasting 55, 56
previewing paste operations 56
range shape/size requirements 203
removing passwords 407
restricting editing using passwords 406, 407
selecting 51, 53
watching values in 105
with numbers, counting 93
cell references
absolute 90
circular 96
definition 490
in formulas 82–85
relative 90
cell styles
applying 119
built-in 118
creating 120
definition 490
deleting custom 121
duplicating 121
merging from workbooks 121
modifying 120, 121
cell ranges
filling with current entry 486
moving to the edge of 484
cells
See also data; tables
active 51, 489
active, opening for editing 482
adding borders to 116, 479
adding comments 396
aligning content 489
applying most recent format 113
as labels 23, 25
assigning colors to 113
background colors 116
blank, counting 93, 94
canceling entries 486
changing character sizes 115
changing display of comments 397, 398
clearing content 485
combining values 48
comment flags 395
completing entries 486
copying 480
copying contents 46
copying formatting 46
cutting selected 482
definition 490
deleting comments 397
deleting selection 480
delimiters 309
dependents 102, 104, 490
displaying comments 396
displaying formulas 57
editing 482
editing comments 396
editing contents 58
entering values 47
error codes 101, 491
error indicators 104
excluding from tables 66
expanding selection of 81
extending selection 484–486
fill handles 45, 47, 491
filling 44–47
finding formats 60
finding values 58, 59
fonts 115, 117
formatting 112–118
hiding formulas 406
hiding/showing comments 396
inserting 23
inserting blank 480
insertion options 19
linking 197–202
locking/unlocking 403, 405, 406
meeting conditions 94
merging 24–26
merging across rows 26
merging and centering 26
moving 23, 484
moving data in 20
moving one cell to the right 487
moving to next 485
moving to previous 487
named ranges 74
numbers, formatting 127–130
precedents 101, 104, 493
readability of data 127
references 82–85, 197, 198, 490
removing borders 479
removing content from 112
removing contents from selection 485
replacing formats 60
selecting 51, 53
selecting all commented 481
selecting in formulas 81
setting watches 103
splitting merged 26
starting new line in same cell 486
styles 118–121
validation rules 163, 164
viewing comments 395
change tracking See tracking changes
character sizes in cells, changing 115
charts
See also diagrams
adding to worksheets 239
applying built-in layouts 257
applying built-in styles 256
applying templates 259, 260
axis labels 242
box-and-whisker 249, 252, 489
business data types 261
changing axis 240
changing color schemes 253, 257
changing elements 254
changing locations 243
changing plotting 246
changing sizes 243
changing styles 252, 253
combo charts 263
creating 244–250, 484
creating embedded 482
creating recommended 244, 245
creating using Quick Analysis Lens 238, 244
customizing appearance 252–260
data distribution types 261
data filters 256, 258
default color scheme 240
default layout 240
definition 490
displaying/hiding elements 258
dual-axis 263, 491
finding data trends 260–263
formatting 256, 257
formatting elements 255, 258
histograms 248, 252
legends 254
moving to chart sheets 247
moving to different worksheets 247
new in 2016 248–252
Pareto 249, 252, 263
pasting into documents 384, 385
previewing 238
printing 343, 344
recommended 493
repositioning in worksheets 247
resizing 246, 247
saving as templates 259
scientific data types 261
selecting elements 258
sparklines 264–266
styles 256
sunburst 251, 252, 494
switching row and column values 246
treemap 250, 252, 494
trendlines 262, 263
troubleshooting 240
2D 471
types 239
waterfall 248, 251, 494
x-axis 241, 494
y-axis 241, 494
check box form controls 365, 368
check boxes 486, 490
circular references 96, 490
Clear Formatting insertion option 19
Clipboard 481
col_index_num argument 185
collaborating
requiring passwords 392
sharing via email 391
sharing via networks 391
sharing workbooks 390, 391
tracking/managing colleagues’ changes 398–401
using Excel Online 422–424
color scales 132, 134, 137, 490
color schemes 253, 257
colors
applying to cells 113
changing for fonts 115
standard 123
themes 123
tracking changes using 399
column input cell 220
columns
adding calculated, in Power Pivot 441
adding to tables 66, 68
as sort criteria 172–174
changing data types in queries 450
changing formatting in Power Pivot 441
changing widths 21
clearing sorts 439
creating calculated 463
definition 490
deleting 20, 22
deleting in Power Pivot 442
filtering values 440
formatting 114
hiding/unhiding 19, 22, 480
hiding/unhiding headings 39
including in query results 449
inserting 18, 21
inserting multiple 21
insertion options 19
moving 51
removing from query results 449
renaming in Power Pivot 442
repeating on printed pages 340, 342
replicating changes 18
selecting 54
selecting entire 487
sorting values using Power Pivot 439
sort order 439
combo box form controls 362, 367
combo boxes 490
combo charts 263
command button form controls 364
comma-separated value files 309
comments
adding to cells 396, 482
adding to scenarios 213
changing display of 397, 398
editing 396
hiding/showing 396, 398
locating 408
managing 395–397
moving through in worksheets 398
opening existing 482
searching on 58
selecting all cells with 481
concatenation (&) operator 88
conditional formats
color scales 132, 134, 137, 490
data bars 132, 133, 136
definition 490
deleting 137
icon sets 132, 134, 137, 492
managing 131
rules 131, 132, 135–137
conditional formulas
averages that meet conditions 95
counting cells 93–95
creating 90
definition 490
summarizing data 93
sums that meet conditions 94
conditional functions 91
confidence interval 457, 490
confidence_level argument 458
consolidating data 203–205
control group form control options 366
control groups 490
Control menu, displaying 487
Copy Cells fill operation 46
copying
cell contents 46
cell formatting 46
cell ranges 55
formatting 117
formulas 82, 85, 88, 89
values 178
worksheets 14
COUNTA function 91, 156, 158
COUNTBLANK function 91
COUNT function 78, 91, 156, 158
COUNTIF function 91
COUNTIFS function 91
Create Table dialog box 481
.csv extensions 309
Ctrl-combination keyboard shortcuts 479–482
Currency number format 479
custom groups in subtotals 183
custom lists, sorting data using 176–178
Cycle diagrams 267

D
data
See also cells; tables
adding to Data Model 433
analyzing using data tables 218–221
analyzing using descriptive statistics 229, 230
analyzing using Power Pivot 438–442
analyzing using Quick Analysis Lens 210–212
capturing in PivotTables 290
circling invalid data 165
combining into single worksheet 202
combining values 48
conditional formats 130–138
Data Analysis add-in 432
data tables 218–221
defining connections 447
entering 44, 45
extending series 456
external data source types 446
filtering in worksheets 170–176
finding and replacing 56–60
finding trends 260–263
fixing errors 49, 50
importing from text files 312, 313
linking in workbooks/worksheets 197–202
managing with Flash Fill 48–51
organizing into levels 179–183
Paste Live Preview 51
pasting 51
previewing pasted 52, 56
readability 127–130
reorganizing using PivotTables 283
sorting in worksheets 170–176
sorting using custom lists 176–178
spelling checker 60
summarizing 155–161
summarizing in tables 66
summarizing using sparklines 264
summarizing using 2D charts 471
summarizing with AutoCalculate 160
using a thesaurus 61
using tables 65–69
validation rules 163
viewing using timelines 442–446
word translations 62
Data Analysis add-ins
adding to ribbon 230
enabling 432
using with Power Query 446
data bars
creating conditional formats 136
definition 490
gradient fill 133
negative values 133
solid fill 133
types 132, 133
data_completion argument 457
data consolidation 490
data entries
adding 44–48
AutoComplete 45, 47
AutoFill 44–48
canceling 44
extending a series of values 44, 45, 47
fill operations 46
FillSeries 44, 45
fixing errors 49, 50
Flash Fill 50
into multiple cells at once 47
Pick From Drop-Down List 45
picking from data lists 47
selecting ranges 45
using fill handles 45, 47
data files
delimited 311
fixed-width 311
XML 418
data labels, formatting 112
data lists, removing subtotals 183
Data Model 432
adding query data 449
adding tables to 433
displaying 433
displaying in Data View 436
displaying in Diagram View 436
setting preferences 433
viewing linked tables 436
data ranges
adding 204
adding total columns/rows 211
header cells in 148, 158
data sets
See also scenarios
adding tables 212
adding totals 211
analysis tools 229, 230
consolidating into workbooks 202–204
defining alternative values 212, 215
defining multiple alternative values 216, 217
deleting 216
displaying 215
editing 215, 216
finding target values 222, 223
finding unique values 161, 162
formatting summaries 211
Quick Analysis Lens 210–212
scenarios 213–218
Solver 223–229
using descriptive statistics 230
varying for specific results 221–223
data tables
changing variables 219
column input cell 220
definition 490
location in cell ranges 218
one-variable 219, 220
row input cell 220
two-variable 219–221
data types, idiosyncratic 127
Data View, displaying Data Model in 436
date and time, displaying current 86
Date format 479
defining relationships 434
deleting last entry 482
delimited data files 311
delimiters 309, 311, 490
dependents 102, 104, 490
descending order 439
details, hiding/showing in lists 182
Developer tab, displaying on ribbon 366
Diagram View, displaying Data Model in 436
diagrams
See also charts; SmartArt
adding shapes 268, 269
adding to worksheets 267
categories 267
deleting 271
deleting shapes 269
downloadable 267
formatting shapes 271
formatting shape text 269
dialog boxes, switching to next/previous pages 487
dictionary
adding words using spelling checker 64
changing 64
saving words to 60
digital certificates
creating test 411
definition 410, 490
displaying third-party vendors of 411
digital signatures
authenticating workbooks using 411
definition 410, 490
distribute 490
division (/) operator 88
Document Inspector 408, 490
documents
creating in OneDrive 420
properties 408
downloading files from OneDrive 422
drop-down lists, opening 485
dual-axis charts 263, 491
dynamic charts See PivotCharts

E
ebook xx
electronic distribution of workbooks 394, 395
email, sending workbooks as attachments 393
embedding
charts 482
files 377–379, 491
Enable AutoComplete 45
Enable Live Preview 52
encrypting workbooks 402
End mode, turning on 485
equations
adding common 273
adding preset 276
adding to worksheets 273, 277
building 273
deleting 277
drawing in worksheets 274, 277
editing 277
handwritten 277
Error Checking tool 103
error codes 100, 101
##### 101
definition 491
#DIV/0! 101
in cells 101
#NAME? 101
#REF! 101
#VALUE! 101
errors
as text 102
broken links 198, 199, 201
changing display options 105
circular references 96
displaying error-checking button menu 484
displaying error-checking button messages 484
displaying information about 104
Error Checking tool 103
finding/fixing in calculations 100–103
fixing in data 49, 51
spelling 60
tracing precedents 101
even page headers/footers 325, 329
Evolutionary solver method 225
Excel 2016
customizing the app window 26
customizing the ribbon 33–39
new Data Analysis add-ins 432
new features 6, 455
Excel 2016 desktop version 4
Excel add-ins 489
Excel Data Model See Data Model
Excel Help 482
Excel mobile apps 5
Excel Online 4, 5
collaborating with colleagues 423, 424
creating workbooks in 421
Excel tables 491
exponential smoothing 455, 456
calculating confidence intervals 461
calculating forecast values 461
definition 491
exponentiation operator (^) 88
exporting
workbooks as PDF files 394, 395
workbooks as XPS files 394, 395
XML data 414
extend mode, turning on/off 483
Extensible Markup Language (XML) 414, 415
extensions
.csv 309
.htm 412
.html 412
.xlsm 350
.xlsx 350
.xltm 350
.xltx 350

F
fields
adding to PivotTables 289
definition 491
filtering by 294
filtering PivotTables using 299
filtering using Slicers 300
PivotTables, filtering by 299
referring to 463
removing from PivotTables 289
files, uploading to OneDrive 422
Fill Days 46
Fill Formatting Only 46
fill handles 45, 47, 459, 491
fill patterns in data bars 133
Fill Without Formatting 46
Fill Down command 480
filling cells 44–47, 486
Fill Right command 481
FillSeries 44–46, 491
filter arrows
columns, changing appearance 151
default state 148
turning off 153
turning on 152
filtered data lists, summarizing visible cells 155
filtering
by fields 294
column values in Power Pivot 440
data 170–176
defining criteria 149
fields using Slicers 300
PivotTables 292, 293
PivotTables using field values 299
PivotTables using timelines 443, 444
summarizing data 155–161
3D map data 473
filters
AutoFilter 489
clearing 153
clearing from Power Pivot sheets 440
clearing from timelines 444
creating rules 152
definition 491
PivotTables 297
search 150, 153, 493
selection 152, 493
Top 10 150, 152, 153, 494
finalizing workbooks 408, 409
Find All button 57
Find and Replace 56–60
Find Format 60
Find Next button 57
Find What field 57
Find And Replace dialog box 481
finding
cell formats 60
cell values 58, 59
data trends 260–263
errors in calculations 100
Goal Seek 223
target values 222, 223
unique values 161, 162
values in formulas 58
fixed-width data files 311
Flash Fill
manage data using 48–51
values based on patterns 46
flowchart symbols 271
folders
creating in OneDrive 420
uploading to OneDrive 422
fonts
cells, changing 115
colors, changing 113, 115
default, changing 114, 118
footers
adding text 327
automatic 327
changing vertical size of 329
custom 325
definition 324, 491
editing 326
graphics in 325, 327, 328
odd/even pages 329
switching to headers 326
FORECAST.ETS() function 456
FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT() function 457
FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY() function 457
FORECAST.LINEAR() function 456
Forecast Worksheets 455
See also forecasts
creating 459
creating column charts 458
creating line charts 458
creating with advanced options 459, 460
spacing values 456
forecasts
See also Forecast Worksheets
arguments 456, 457
calculating confidence intervals 461
calculating seasonally repetitive patterns 461
calculating values using exponential smoothing 461
creating linear, using formulas 458
creating using fill handles 459
seasonal periods 457
foreign key 491
format 491
Format button 57
Format Cells dialog box 481
Format Painter 117
Format Same As Above insertion option 19
Format Same As Below insertion option 19
Format Same As Left insertion option 19
Format Same As Right insertion option 19
formatting
applying most recent 113
applying/removing bold 480
applying/removing italics 480, 481
applying/removing strikethrough 480
applying/removing underlining 480, 481
cells 112–118
changing column formatting in Power Pivot 441
charts 256, 257
chart trendlines 262
copying between cells 117
data based on value 130–138
data labels 112
deleting from cells 112, 117, 118
live preview 272
numbers 127–130
phone numbers 127
PivotTables 305–309
form controls
adding buttons 368
adding combo boxes 367
adding list boxes 366
adding option buttons 368
buttons 364
check boxes 365, 368
combo boxes 362
command buttons 364
control groups 366
creating groups 369
inserting into worksheets 362
list boxes 362
option buttons 365
resizing 369
setting parameters for 362
Signature required option button 365
Signature waived option button 365
spin buttons 363, 364, 367
Formula AutoComplete 79–81, 491
formula bar
definition 491
hiding/unhiding 39
formula bars
canceling entries 486
deleting character to the left in 485
expanding/collapsing 481
moving to end of text 485
formulas
See also calculations; functions
absolute references 85
arrays 98–100
averages that meet conditions 95
breaking links 201
calculating payments 86
calculating values 77
cell references 88, 89, 198
circular references 490
conditional 90–95, 490
copying 82, 85, 88, 89, 480
counting cells 93–95
creating 86
creating AGGREGATE 161
creating linear forecasts 458
creating links 199, 200
creating subtotals 160
definition 491
displaying 57
displaying date and time 86
displaying errors 95, 102, 104, 105
duplicate results 99
entering by touch 6
Error Checking tool 103
error codes 100, 491
finding values in 58
fixing broken links 201
Formula AutoComplete 79–81
generating specific results 221, 223
hiding 406
identifying dependents 104
identifying precedents 104
incomplete results 99
inserting argument names/parentheses 480
inserting functions 93
interative calculations 96
linking data 197–202
moving 89
NOW(), updating 86
operator precedence 88
operators 88
predefined 77
recalculating workbooks 97
rechecking dependent 484
referring to named ranges 87
referring to table columns 87
relative references 82–84, 493
selecting cells 81, 82
stepping through 103–105
summarizing data 93
sums that meet conditions 94
tracer arrows 102
using PivotTable data 305
values from named ranges 79
VLOOKUP 186
full-screen mode, closing 486
function keys
adding cell comments 482
adding cells to selections 483
adding ranges to selections 483
calculating active worksheets 483
calculating all worksheets in all open workbooks 483, 484
closing Excel 483
closing workbook windows 483
creating charts in separate chart sheets 484
creating embedded charts 482
displaying error-checking menu 484
displaying error-checking messages 484
displaying Print Preview 482
displaying shortcut menu 484
hiding/unhiding ribbon 482
inserting new worksheets 482, 484
list of 482–484
maximizing selected workbook window 484
minimizing worksheet windows to icons 483
moving workbook windows 483
opening active cells for editing 482
opening Excel Help 482
opening existing comments 482
opening Go To dialog box 483
opening Insert Function dialog box 482
opening Macro dialog box 483
opening Paste Name dialog box 482
opening Save As dialog box 484
opening Spelling dialog box 483
opening Visual Basic Editor 484
recalculating all cells in all open workbooks 484
rechecking dependent formulas 484
repeating last actions 483
repeating last command 483
restoring selected workbook window 484
restoring workbook window size 483
sizing workbooks 483
switching between controls 483
switching between open workbooks 483
switching between panes 483
switching between worksheets, Zoom, task pane, and ribbon 483
turning extended mode on/off 483
turning key tips on/off 484
function_num argument 156, 160, 161
functions
See also formulas
AGGREGATE 153, 155, 158–160
AVERAGE 78, 155, 156, 158
AVERAGEIF 91, 92
AVERAGEIFS 91
conditional 91
COUNT 78, 91, 156, 158
COUNTA 91, 156, 158
COUNTBLANK 91
COUNTIF 91
COUNTIFS 91
definition 491
FORECAST.ETS() 456
FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT() 457
FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY() 457
FORECAST.LINEAR() 456
HLOOKUP 186
IF 93
IFERROR 91
inserting in formulas 93
LARGE 159
MAX 78, 156, 158
MEDIAN 159
MIN 78, 157, 158
MODE.SNGL 159
NOW 78
PERCENTILE.EXC 159
PERCENTILE.INC 159
PMT 78, 79
PRODUCT 157, 158
QUARTILE.EXC 159
QUARTILE.INC 159
RAND 153, 154
RANDBETWEEN 153, 154
SMALL 159
STDEV.P 157, 159
STDEV.S 157, 159
SUBTOTAL 153, 155, 156, 158
SUM 78, 155, 157, 159
SUMIF 91
SUMIFS 91
VAR.P 157, 159
VAR.S 157, 159
VLOOKUP 91, 184–187
fv argument 79
G
General number format 479
geometric shapes 271
GETPIVOTDATA formula 303
Goal Seek 221–223, 491
Go To dialog box 481, 483
gradient fill data bars 133
graphics
aspect ratio 489
headers/footers 325, 327, 328
graphs See charts
GRG Nonlinear solver method 225
gridlines, hiding/unhiding 39

H
headers 324
adding text 327
automatic 327
changing vertical size of 329
custom 325
definition 491
different first page 329
editing 326
graphics in 325, 327, 328
odd/even pages 329
switching to footers 326
help 482
hidden columns/rows, removing 408
hidden worksheets, removing 408
hiding/unhiding
chart elements 258
column headings 39
columns 19, 22, 480
comments 396
details in lists 182
formula bars 39
formulas 406
grand totals in PivotTables 304
gridlines 39
objects 480
outline symbols 480
PivotTable details 297
ribbon 38, 482
ribbon tabs 35
row headings 39
rows 22, 480
rows in selections 479, 480
subtotals in PivotTables 303
timeline elements 445
values in PivotTables 297
worksheets 17
Hierarchy diagrams 267
histogram charts
bins 489
creating 252
definition 248, 491
history, retaining for workbooks 391
HLOOKUP function 186
horizontal axis 241
.htm extension 412
HTML 412, 491
.html extension 412
hyperlinks
creating 379–384
definition 491
deleting 384
destination types 380
displaying targets 383
editing 384
mailto 383, 492
opening Insert Hyperlink 481
to existing files 381
to new files 382
to webpages 381
within current file 381, 382
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) See HTML

I
icon sets 132, 134, 137, 492
idiosyncratic data types 127
IF function 93
IFERROR function 91
images
See also pictures
adding to worksheets 139
Bing Image Search 140
deleting 141
editing 141
online, locating 140
removing backgrounds 138, 141
resizing 140
importing
custom lists 177
XML data 414
index columns, adding to queries 449
Insert Function dialog box 482
Insert Hyperlink dialog box 481
Insights for Office 6
inspecting workbooks 408, 490
integer programming 225
italic formatting, applying/removing 480, 481
iterative calculations 96–98
See also calculations

K
k argument 161
key column 434
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) See KPIs (Key Performance Indicators)
keyboard shortcuts
applying Currency format 479
applying Date format 479
applying General number format 479
applying outline borders to selected cells 479
applying Percentage format 479
applying/removing bold formatting 480
applying/removing italic formatting 480, 481
applying/removing strikethrough 480
applying/removing underlining 480, 481
applying Scientific number format 479
applying Time format 479
closing workbooks 9
closing workbook windows 482
copying cell range formatting 481
copying cell values 480
copying contents/format of ranges 480
copying formulas 480
copying selected cells 480
creating charts 244
creating new, blank workbooks 481
creating tables 66
cutting selected cells 482
deleting last entry 482
deleting selected cells 480
displaying Open page of Backstage view 481
displaying Print page of Backstage view 481
displaying Quick Analysis Lens 481
entering current date 480
entering current time 479
expanding/collapsing formula bar 481
expanding selections 82
finding files 481
hiding selected columns 480
hiding selected rows 480
hiding/unhiding objects 480
hiding/unhiding outline symbols 480
hiding/unhiding rows in selections 479
inserting argument names/parentheses 480
inserting blank cells 480
inserting contents of Clipboard 481
list of 479–486
opening Create Table dialog box 481
opening files 481
opening Find And Replace dialog box 481
opening Format Cells dialog box 480, 481
opening Go To dialog box 481
opening Insert Hyperlink dialog box 481
opening Paste Special dialog box 482
removing borders from cells 479
repeating last action 482
reversing last command 482
saving active files 481
saving workbooks 7
selecting cells with comments 481
selecting entire worksheet 480
selecting PivotTable reports 479
selecting region around active cell 479
spelling checker 60
switching between cell values and formulas 480
using Fill Right command 481
using undo 482
keys xix
key tips, turning on/off 484
known_xs argument 456
known_ys variable 456
KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) 464
creating 465, 466
definition 492
deleting 467
editing 467
using in PivotTables 466, 467

L
labels
axis 242
cells as 23, 25
data, formatting 112
shapes as 272
landscape mode 330, 333, 492
languages
selecting 62
translating words 62, 65
LARGE function 159
legends 254
level buttons 181
levels
organizing data into 182
worksheet organization 181
limiting access to workbooks/worksheets 401–407
linear calculations 225
linking
See also embedding
data 197–202
Office documents 374–377
links
breaking 201
definition 492
fixing broken 199
list box form controls 362, 366
list boxes 492
List diagrams 267
lists
creating custom groups in 183
hiding/showing details in 182
removing custom groups 183
removing subtotals from 183
live preview 272, 492
localization 62, 65
locked cells 492
locking/unlocking cells 403, 405
Look In box 58
lookup_value argument 185

M
Macro dialog box 483
macros
adding buttons to the Quick Access Toolbar 358–360
assigning to shapes 360
changing security settings 352, 353
creating 483
default security level 352
definition 492
deleting 357, 483
disabling 352
editing 357, 483
editing appearance of buttons on the Quick Access Toolbar 360
editing in Visual Basic Editor 353
editing shapes to which macros are applied 360
examining 353, 355
naming 361
opening in Visual Basic Editor 353
planning processes 356
recording 356, 357
running 483
running when clicking buttons 357–360
running when clicking shapes 358, 360
running when opening workbooks 361
security settings 350
stepping through 354, 355
viewing in Visual Basic Editor 353
mailto hyperlinks 383, 492
main menu, switching to submenu 485
manual calculations 97
maps 492
See also 3D maps
margins 331
Match Case check box 58
Match Entire Cell Contents check box 58
mathematical equations See equations
mathematical operators
controlling order of 89
list of 88
Matrix diagrams 267
MAX function 78, 156, 158
measures
creating using AutoSum 462, 463
defining in Power Pivot 462
definition 461, 492
deleting 463
editing 463
MEDIAN function 159
menus
closing 486
selecting commands 485
selecting first command 486
Merge And Center 492
merging/unmerging cells 23–26
metadata 414
Microsoft Edge 5
Microsoft Office 2016 suite 4
Microsoft OneDrive 4
MIN function 78, 157, 158
mini toolbars 114
MODE.SNGL function 159
Move command 483
moving
cell ranges 54
cells 23
cells within worksheets 23
charts to chart sheets 247
charts to different worksheets 247
charts to other worksheets 247
columns 51
data in cells 20
data within workbooks 51–56
formulas 89
rows 51
shapes 272, 274
worksheets to different workbooks 15
worksheets within workbooks 15
multiple scenarios 216
multiplication (*) operator 88

N
named ranges
creating 76
creating from data with headings 76
defining cells as 74
definition 492
deleting 77
editing 76, 77
managing 75
referring to in formulas 87
supplying formula values 79
naming tables 67
negation (-) operator 88
negative values in data bars 133
NOW() formulas, updating 86
NOW function 78
nper argument 79
Number Filters 148
numbers
adding text to formats 129
applying Currency format 479
applying formatting 129
applying General format 479
applying Percentage format 479
applying Scientific format 479
built-in formats 127
custom formats 129
readability 127–130

O
objects
hiding/unhiding 480
selecting all 487
odd page headers/footers 325, 329
Office documents
embedding in workbooks 374, 377–379
linking workbooks to 374–377
pasting charts into 384, 385
Office Online 4, 5
Office themes See themes
Office 365 4
OneDrive 418, 492
creating folders and documents 420
creating new workbooks 422
downloading files 422
finding 418
opening workbooks 422, 423
sharing workbooks 422
signing in 419, 422
uploading files/folders 422
one-variable data tables 219, 220
operators
+ (addition) 88
& (concatentation) 88
controlling order of 89
/ (division) 88
^ (exponentiation) 88
* (multiplication) 88
- (negation) 88
% (percentage) 88
– (subtraction) 88
option button form controls 365, 368
option buttons 492
options
column/row formatting 19
turning on Paste Live Preview 52
workbook display 29
worksheet calculations 97
options argument 159–161
Options button 57
organization levels in worksheets 181
orientation
landscape/portrait 330
selecting 333
outline area 181
outlines
applying to selected cells 479
hiding/unhiding symbols 480
removing from selected cells 479

P
Page Break Preview 334
page breaks 334, 335
Page Layout view 324
page orientation 330, 331
page printing order 335, 336
parentheses, controlling operator order with 89
Pareto charts
creating 252
definition 249, 492
passwords
See also protecting
guidelines for creating 402
protecting cell ranges 403
protecting specific worksheet elements 403
protecting worksheets 405
removing from cell ranges 407
removing from workbooks 404
removing from worksheets 402, 405
requiring for changing workbook structure 405
requiring for opening workbooks 404
requiring for tracking changes 392, 393
restricting editing of cell ranges 406, 407
setting for workbooks 402
unprotecting workbook structure 405
Paste Live Preview 51, 52
Paste Name dialog box 482
Paste Options dialog box 492
Paste Special dialog box 482
pasting
cell ranges 55, 56
charts into documents 384, 385
data 51–53, 56
PDF files, exporting workbooks as 394, 395
Percentage format 479
percentage (%) operator 88
PERCENTILE.EXC function 159
PERCENTILE.INC function 159
personal information, removing 408, 409
phone number formatting 127
Pick From Drop-Down List 45
Pick from List 492
Picture diagrams 267
pictures, adding to worksheets 138
See also images
pivot 492
PivotCharts
changing chart types 316
creating at same time as PivotTables 314
creating from existing PivotTables 316
definition 492
pivoting data 288, 289
PivotTables
adding fields 289
and Excel tables 284
applying banded rows 309
applying conditional formats 308
applying existing styles 308
applying number formats 307
capturing data in 290
changing summary operations 304
collapsing detail levels 294
conditional formats 306
creating at same time as PivotCharts 315
creating from data lists 284
creating from data sources 289
creating from Excel tables 284
creating from imported data 313
creating from Power Pivot data 442
creating from recommended layouts 289
creating new styles 308
deferring updates 290
defining custom styles 307
definition 492
delimiters 311
displaying data 304
displaying field values 297
displaying tables 305
editing 301–305
fields 286
filtering 292, 293
filtering using fields 299
filtering using timelines 443, 444
filters 297
hiding/showing detail levels 294, 300
hiding/showing Fields pane 299
hiding/showing field values 297
hiding/showing grand totals 304
hiding/showing subtotals 303, 304
importing data from text files 309–313
layout recommendations 283
naming 302
organizing data for 288
pivoting 289
placement of 285
previewing 283
recommended 493
removing fields 289
renaming 303
reorganizing 289
search filters 295
selecting 479
Slicers 296–301
sorting options 291
summarizing values 302
using data in formulas 305
using KPIs 466, 467
plotting charts 246
PMT function 78, 79
portrait mode 330, 333, 493
Power Map 468
Power Pivot 439
adding calculated columns 441
changing column formatting 441
clearing filters from sheets 440
clearing sorts from columns 439
creating calculated columns 463
creating measures using AutoSum 462
creating PivotTables 442
defining measures 462
definition 438
deleting columns 442
filtering column values 440
renaming columns 442
sorting values in columns 439
Power Query
adding data to Data Model 449
adding index columns 449
changing column data types 450
choosing columns to include 449
closing and returning to Excel 451
creating queries 447, 448
deleting queries 451
editing changes 451
external data source types 446
removing columns from results 449
renaming queries 450
specifying data source elements 447
undoing changes 450, 451
using with Data Analysis add-in 446
practice files
downloading xiv
list of xiv–xvii
precedence of operators 88, 89
precedents
definition 493
identifying 104
tracing 101
previewing
charts 238
formatting 272
page breaks 334
pasted data 56
PivotTables 283, 311
shape formatting 272
worksheets 330
worksheets for printing 330
primary key 184, 493
primary key column 184
primary key field 435
print jobs, controlling 337
Print Preview 324, 482
printed pages
See also worksheets
centering items on 340
first page header 329
fitting worksheet content to 331–333
groups of cells 339
headers/footers 324–329
margins 331
order of 335
orientation 330, 331
positioning material 341
print area 341
repeating columns/rows 340, 342, 343
scaling worksheets 333
printing
charts 343, 344
defining area 341
landscape/portrait 330
multiple copies of worksheets 338
multiple worksheets 338
multi-region areas 341
preparing worksheets for 330–336
previewing worksheets for 330
specific pages 340
worksheet errors 338
worksheets 337–339
worksheets, parts of 339–343
Process diagrams 267
PRODUCT function 157, 158
properties
creating custom 12
defining values 11
definition 493
locating 408
setting values 9
trendlines, editing 263
protecting
See also passwords
cell ranges 403
cells 403
workbooks 392, 401
workbook structure 405
worksheets 402, 405
publishing
AutoRepublish 489
workbook elements 413
workbooks 394, 412
workbooks to the web 414
pv argument 79
Pyramid diagrams 267

Q
QUARTILE.EXC function 159
QUARTILE.INC function 159
queries
adding data to Data Model 449
adding index columns 449
choosing columns to include 449
closing 451
creating using Power Query 447, 448
deleting 451
editing changes 451
removing columns from results 449
renaming 450
undoing changes 450
Quick Access Toolbar
adding buttons 30, 31, 358, 359
changing button order 31, 32
definition 493
deleting buttons 32
exporting settings 32
resetting 33
Quick Analysis Lens
adding tables 212
adding totals 211
creating charts 238, 244
definition 493
displaying 481
formatting cells 211

R
RAND function 153, 154
RANDBETWEEN function 153, 154
range_lookup argument 185
ranges See named ranges
consolidating 203
consolidating from multiple workbooks 204
definition 493
rate argument 79
recommended charts 238, 493
recommended PivotTables 493
recording macros 357
redo 63
ref argument 160, 161
reference tools 43
references
absolute 90, 489
cells 197, 198, 490
circular 96, 490
relative 90, 493
3-D 489
refresh 493
Relationship diagrams 267
relationships
creating 435
defining 434, 436
definition 493
deleting existing 437
editing existing 437
relative references
changing to absolute 85
creating 90
definition 493
in formulas 82–84
Replace All button 57
Replace button 57
Replace With field 57
repositioning charts 247
research tools 62
resize handles 66
resizing
charts 246
tables 66
reversing last entry 482
ribbon
adding buttons 36, 37
creating custom groups 36
creating custom tabs 36
customizing 33, 34
definition 493
displaying Developer tab 366
displaying tabs 35
exporting customizations 37
hiding tabs 35
hiding/unhiding 38, 482
hiding/unhiding formula bar 39
importing customizations 38
navigating 485
removing elements 37
renaming elements 37
reordering elements 36
resetting 38
selecting tabs 485
tool tabs 36
row input cell 220
rows
adding to tables 66, 68
changing heights 20
definition 493
deleting 20, 22
formatting 114
grouping 183
hiding/unhiding 19, 22, 181, 480
hiding/unhiding headings 39
inserting 21
inserting multiple 21
insertion options 19
moving 51
moving to the beginning 486
random, selecting from lists 154
repeating on printed pages 340, 343
replicating changes 18
restoring 181
selecting 54
selecting entire 487
sorting in worksheets 172

S
Save As 484
scale 493
scaling worksheets 333
Scenario Manager 215–218
scenarios
See also data sets
adding comments 213
applying multiple 216, 217
creating 213, 215
creating from Solver 225
creating summary worksheets 218
defining values 214
definition 493
displaying 215
editing 215, 216
Normal 217
removing 214
size limitations 217
summarizing 217
schemas 416, 493
Scientific number format 479
screen magnification 27
screen resolution 119
Search box 57
search filters
applying 150, 151
creating 153
definition 493
PivotTables 295
seasonality argument 457
security See passwords
selection filters 148, 152, 493
shading, applying to cells 113
shapes
adding 269, 274
adding text 272, 275
aligning 276
arranging on worksheets 273
as headers in worksheets 272
as labels in worksheets 272
assigning macros to 360
changing format 275
changing levels 269
changing position 269
changing proportions 271
creating 271
deleting 269, 276
distributing 276
editing text 268, 275
formatting 271
formatting text 269, 275
geometric 271
moving 274
moving in worksheets 272
previewing format 272
reordering 276
resizing 271, 272, 274
rotating 275
sharing 493
sharing workbooks 391, 392
adding protection 401–407
and Excel tables 390
end sharing 393
options for 390
protecting with passwords 392
sharing via email 391, 393
sharing via networks 391
unprotecting 393
sheet tabs 493
shortcut menus 484
shortcuts See keyboard shortcuts
showing timeline elements 445
Signature required option button 365
Signature waived option button 365
Simplex LP solver method 225
Slicers 6, 295–297
adding to workbooks 300
adding values to 298
changing appearance of 301
clearing 299, 300
creating 296
definition 494
filtering fields 300
hiding/showing field values 297
removing 301
selecting multiple values 300
SMALL function 159
Smart Lookup 61, 64
SmartArt
See also diagrams
adding shapes 269
applying SmartArt Styles 270
changing color scheme 270
changing layout 269, 270
changing shape levels 269
changing shape positions 269
creating 268
deleting shapes 269
editing text 268
formatting text 269
solid fill data bars 133
Solver
adding constraints 227, 228
adding to ribbon 226
creating scenarios 225
definition 494
deleting constraints 229
editing constraints 228, 229
Evolutionary method 225
GRG Nonlinear method 225
identifying objective cell 226
identifying values to change 226
installing 224
integer programming 225
limiting values 225
opening 226
requiring binary number values 228
requiring integer values 228
requiring non-negative values 229
resetting model 229
saving results 225
selecting methods 229
Simplex LP method 225
solving methods 225
specifying result types 226
Sort & Filter 170–176
sort criteria, columns 172–174
sorting
by cell colors 172
criteria 172–174
default setting 176
definition 494
levels 175
rows in worksheets 172
rules 172, 176
Sort & Filter 170–176
using custom lists 176–178
sorting rules 176
sparklines
creating 265, 266
definition 494
deleting 266
formatting 265, 266
types 264
Spelling dialog box 483
spelling checker 60, 63
spin button form controls 363, 364, 367, 494
STDEV.P function 157, 159
STDEV.S function 157, 159
strikethrough, applying/removing 480
styles
built-in 118
cells 490
creating 119
defining for cells 118–121
deleting from cells 121
duplicating 121
merging collections 119
tables 123–126
submenus
closing 486
selecting first command 486
selecting previous/next commands 485
switching to main menu 485
SUBTOTAL function 153, 155, 156, 158
subtotal summaries
creating custom groups 183
hiding/showing details 183
subtotals
defining 179
definition 494
groups 180, 181
hiding/showing details 182
removing 182
removing from data lists 183
subtraction (–) operator 88
SUM function 78, 155, 157, 159
SUMIF function 91
SUMIFS function 91
summary function, changing 67
summary worksheets 217, 218
sunburst charts 251, 252, 494

T
table_array argument 185
tables
See also cells; data
adding columns 66, 68
adding rows 66, 68
adding to Data Model 433
adding with Quick Analysis Lens 212
converting to cell ranges 69
creating 68
creating using keyboard shortcut 66
creating with default formatting 68
defining 65–69
defining relationships 435, 436
entering values 66
excluding cells 66
expanding automatically 66
in shared workbooks 390
linking to cells in 200
naming 67
overwriting format 66, 125
renaming 69
resize handles 66
resizing manually 66, 68
summarizing data 66
summary function 67
total row 67–69
table styles
appying to workbooks 121–124
built-in 119, 126
creating 125
deleting 126
modifying 125
target_date argument 456
Tell Me app 6
templates
applying to charts 259, 260
definition 494
location 192
macro-enabled 196
saving charts as 259
workbooks 192, 195, 196
worksheets 194, 195
text files, importing data into PivotTables 312, 313
Text Import wizard 310
texture 139
themes
changing 123, 126
creating 126
definition 494
deleting custom 126
selecting colors 123
workbooks, applying 121–123, 126
thesaurus 61, 64
3D maps 468
animating data 472
capturing screenshots of 474
changing geographical types 471, 472
creating 470
creating tours 470
deleting 474
filtering data 473
launching 471
playing tours as videos 474
removing filters 473
returning to workbooks 470
saving videos 474
summarizing data 469
summarizing data using 2D charts 471
3-D references 198, 489
tiled patterns 139
Time format 479
timeline argument 456
timelines 442
changing captions 446
clearing filters 444
creating 443, 444
definition 494
deleting 446
displaying/hiding elements 445
filtering PivotTables using 444
resizing 445
tool tabs 36
toolbars, displaying 210
Top 10 filter 494
totals, adding with Quick Analysis Lens 211
tours
creating 470
playing as videos 474
tracer arrows 102, 104, 494
tracking changes
accepting 400, 401
for each user 398
in workbooks 391
managing colleagues’ changes 398–401
rejecting 400, 401
requiring passwords 392, 393
reviewing changes 399
setting options 399
turning off 400
turning on 398, 400
viewing change summaries 399
translating words 62, 65
treemap charts 250, 252, 494
trendlines
adding to charts 262
changing characteristics 262
definition 494
deleting 263
editing appearance 263
editing properties 263
trends, finding in data 260–263
troubleshooting charts 240
2D charts 471
two-variable data tables 219–221
type argument 79

U
underlining, applying/removing 480, 481
undo 63, 66, 400, 450, 482
ungrouping 183
unhiding/hiding
chart elements 258
column headings 39
columns 19, 22, 480
comments 396
details in lists 182
formula bars 39
formulas 406
grand totals in PivotTables 304
gridlines 39
objects 480
outline symbols 480
PivotTable details 297
ribbon 38, 482
ribbon tabs 35
row headings 39
rows 22, 480
rows in selections 479
subtotals in PivotTables 303
timeline elements 445
values in PivotTables 297
worksheets 17
unique values 184
unprotecting workbooks 393, 402
uploading files/folders to OneDrive 422

V
validation circles 163–165
validation rules
adding to cells 164
creating 163
definition 494
editing 164
values
defining for cell ranges 163–165
finding 57
finding all instances 59
finding in data sets 161, 162
finding next occurrence 58
hiding/showing in PivotTables 297
replacing 57, 59
watching in ranges 105
values argument 456
variables
changing 219
known_ys 456
VAR.P function 157, 159
VAR.S function 157, 159
vertical axis 241
vertical size of headers/footers 329
videos, 3D map tours 474
Visual Basic Editor
changing macros 356
editing macros 353
examining macros 355
opening 484
opening/closing 354
opening macro code in 353
stepping through macros 355
viewing macros 353
VLOOKUP formula 186
VLOOKUP function 91, 184–187

W
Watch Window 103, 104
watches 103
adding 105
definition 494
deleting 105
waterfall charts 248, 251, 494
watermarks 139
web browsers, displaying documents in 414–416
webpages, hyperlinks to 381
what-if analysis 212, 215, 494
windows
arranging multiple workbooks 28
switching between workbooks 483
Within box 57
workbooks
See also worksheets
adding KPIs 464
adding Slicers 300
arranging in multiple windows 28
authenticating using digital signatures 410, 411
built-in templates 7
closing 13
closing selected windows 482, 483
consolidating sets of data 202–204
controlling macros with file types 350
copying worksheets within 14
creating 7–10
creating custom properties 12
creating from Backstage view 10
creating in Excel Online 421
creating in OneDrive 422
creating new, blank 481
default font 114, 118
defining properties 8, 11
definition 494
displaying headers/footers 324
displaying multiple copies 29
display options 29
Document Inspector 490
editing finalized 409
elements, formatting 123
embedding Office documents 374, 377–379
encrypting 402
ending sharing 393
exporting as PDF files 395
exporting as XPS files 394, 395
finalizing 408, 409
finding values 57
importing XML data files 418
inserting new worksheets 484
inspecting 408
linking Office documents 374–377
macro security in Excel 2016 350
macro settings 350
managing comments 395–398
marking as final 409
maximizing selected window 484
merging cell styles 119, 121
modifying 13–18
moving data 51–56
moving to previous sheets 486
moving to the next sheet 486
moving worksheets within 15
opening existing 11
opening from OneDrive 422, 423
protecting 401–407
protecting individual worksheets 402
protecting with passwords 392
publishing 394, 414
recalculating 97
removing passwords 402, 404, 405
removing personal information 408, 409
replacing values 57
requiring digital certificates 410
requiring passwords to change structure 405
requiring passwords to open 404
restoring selected window 484
restoring window size 483
reviewing changes 399
running macros when opening 361
saving as macro-enabled templates 196
saving as templates 196
saving as web files 412, 413
saving as XML files 417
saving for electronic distribution 394, 395
saving in different formats 8, 11
saving in new location 10
saving using keyboard shortcut 7
saving with new names 10, 11
selecting current sheets 486
selecting next sheets 486
selecting previous sheets 486
sending as email attachments 393
setting history options 391
setting passwords 402
sharing 390, 391
sharing via email 393
sheet tabs 493
signing with digital certificates 412
sizing 483
switching among open 29
switching between windows 483
themes 121–123, 126, 254
turning on change tracking 398
unprotecting 393, 402
unprotecting structure 405
using as templates 192–196
worksheets
See also printed pages; workbooks
adding button form controls 368
adding charts 239
adding check box form controls 368
adding combo box form controls 367
adding diagrams 267
adding images 138–142
adding list box form controls 366
adding mathematical equations 273, 277
adding option button form controls 368
adding preset equations 276
adding shapes 274
adding spin button form controls 367
adding validation rules 163
arranging shapes 273
auditing 100–102, 489
background images, removing 139
calculating active 483
calculating in all open workbooks 483
changing column widths 21
changing row heights 20
changing tab colors 17
combining data into single 202
combo boxes 490
copying to different workbooks 16, 17
copying within workbooks 13, 14, 16
creating form control groups 369
creating labels 23
creating new 15
definition 494
deleting 13, 18
deleting columns 22
deleting conditional formats 137
deleting rows 22
displaying 15
drawing equations 274, 277
error codes 491
errors, printing 338
filtering data in 148–151
finding information in 184–187
finding values 57
formatting columns 114
formatting rows 114
hiding/unhiding 17
hiding/unhiding columns 22
hiding/unhiding rows 22
images, adding 138–142
inserting cells 23
inserting columns 18, 21
inserting form controls 362
inserting new 482, 484
inserting rows 21
insertion options 19
list boxes 492
merging cells 24–26
minimizing 483
modifying 18–20
moving between unlocked cells 487
moving cell data 20
moving cells 23
moving charts among 247
moving columns 51
moving one cell to the right 487
moving one screen down 486
moving one screen to the left 486
moving one screen to the right 486
moving one screen up 486
moving shapes 272, 274
moving through comments 398
moving to beginning 486
moving to different workbooks 15
moving to last cell 485
moving to previous cell 487
option buttons 492
organization levels 181, 182
page breaks 334, 335
preparing for printing 330–336
printing 337–339
print preview 330
protecting 401–407
protecting specific elements 403
protecting with passwords 405
readability 18
recalculating 97
removing passwords 405
renaming 15
replacing values 57
repositioning charts 247
resizing shapes 274
scaling for print 333
selecting all objects 487
selecting entire 480, 487
selecting entire columns 487
selecting entire rows 487
selecting random rows 154
selecting regions 487
setting calculation options 97
sorting data 170–178
spell checking 63
spelling checker 483
spin buttons 494
static 282
summarizing data 155–161
switching between cell values and formulas 480
themes 494
using as templates 194, 195
using labels 23
using VLOOKUP 187
zooming 26–28

X
x-axis 241, 494
.xlt extension 192
.xltm extension 192
.xltx extension 193
XML (Extensible Markup Language) 414, 415
definition 494
exporting cell ranges as 418
importing into workbooks 416, 418
saving workbooks as 417
schemas 493
XPS files, exporting workbooks as 394, 395

Y
y-axis 241, 494

Z
zooming worksheets 26–28
About the author

Curtis Frye is the author of more than 30 books, including Microsoft Excel 2013 Step by
Step for Microsoft Press and Brilliant Excel VBA Programming for Pearson, UK. He has
also created and recorded more than three dozen courses for lynda.com, including Excel
for Mac 2016 Essential Training and Excel 2013: PivotTables in Depth. In addition to his
work as a writer, Curt is a popular conference speaker and performer, both as a solo
presenter and as part of the Portland, Oregon ComedySportz improvisational comedy
troupe. He lives in Portland with his wife and three cats.
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