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M.I.T. Academy talks about ...

... The Overtone Series!

by Thomas Chase Jones


& Frank Herrlinger

www.MusicIntervalTheory.Academy
Preface

This ebook was designed to be a reminder of our roots, a glimpse into and of the foundation
upon which M.I.T. was built and developed. Besides being an introduction to the world of
intervals, interval combinations and applied vertical and horizontal thinking, this ebook
should excite the reader's curiosity and desire for more knowledge of musical composition.

It was Frank Herrlinger's thought that the "Composers in Training" should be re-acquainted
with the basic physics of sound and how tone is structured. Indeed, Herrlinger has accomplished
this task beautifully. One immediately gains new understanding on the very first page.
It is M.I.T. Academy's goal for all "Composers in Training" to gain a complete understanding
of music interval theory.

Have some fun!

TC
Chapter I - Construction

4th oct.
bw nw w
3rd oct.

w w w #w w w
? 16 w & w w bw w
w ? 2
1 1
w 2nd oct.
1st oct.

The overtone series is a sequence of intervals that is found in nature. It is made up of


4 different octaves. Every octave has its own function and meaning.
A general observation is that we start with a very big interval (the octave). The higher
we go, the smaller the intervals are! This leads to a principle that you should keep in mind:

The overtone series shows the intervals according to their strength (with the
octave being the strongest)!

The higher the overtones get, the more complex the sound becomes. This is what we refer
to as tone richness. As we go through the different octaves, it becomes clearer:

1st oct. - This octave only contains the root or fundamental.


2nd oct. - Adds the perfect 5th to the fundamental.
3rd oct. - Now we are looking at chord tones from the 1st octave (triads & 7th chords).
4th oct. - This octave contains scale tones (more on that later).

The most energy is found in the very low register. This is important to know, whether you
are an orchestrator or a mixing engineer. To a certain degree, there are some obvious
similarities between both professions (like balancing and shaping the sound of a section
in order to create a very transparent and pleasant sounding result).

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3

Chapter II - Practical Ranges

If you look at the overtone series (on a C root), you can also derive practical ranges
to can use for composition. Let's start with the 1st octave.

2
?2 13
Bass range
1 w 1
w

In M.I.T. we describe this range as bass range. However, this does not mean that
you have to limit your writing for bass instruments to this register. It means, that
normally you wouldn't write harmonic structures in that register as it sounds muddy
and undefined. However, there's an exception to this guideline which is covered in
Chapter IV.

We also use this range to write out root cycles (RCs). Using RCs is a very quick
method to gather material for compositions or simply for inspiration. Another big
advantage of dealing with RCs is to gain familiarity with specific intervals (as opposed
to following a key which is made up of unequal intervals). The most commonly used
RC found in the Diatonic System is the "Circle of Fifths", but there are actually more
circles/cycles which don't get much attention in traditional theory. All of them evoke
different emotions which are important within composition. Have a quick listen to the
main title of "Cape Fear" written by Bernard Herrmann. This is a perfect example of
how to use RCs in the bass register! (You will find it on YouTube).

As previously mentioned, this range also carries most of the energy in a musical
recording. What does this mean in a practical sense? - The bass range attracts
attention!

Here are two examples to illustrate that statement:


1) Listen to any movie soundtrack. There is always a good reason found in the story
for the appearance (and departure) of very low instruments! This might be action,
tension or even just to give more weight and meaning to "the kiss" in a love scene.
The bottom line is, that in a fluent piece of music, you will recognize the
appearance and departure of bass instruments.

2) Listen to any Pop song played on the radio. Most of the time, the low register will
be heavily occupied because it carries most of the energy! Rock or EDM are also
perfect examples of this statement! Everything in public is literally screaming
for attention because this somehow became part of our culture (like it or not!).

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4

Below you see how to apply the bass range to a RC5 (in both directions). Whenever
we are reaching the bottom of the bass range, we simply use an octave position of
that note to bring it back into range.

3
? 13 w
RC5 descending
1 w w #w bw nw
w w w b w bw b w w
4
? 2
RC5 ascending
w 1
w w bw b w bw b w bw nw n w nw n w nw

Everything above the bass range can be described as harmonic range. This is the range
we want to use for vertical structures like chords (or also for harmonizing a line). Open
harmony or close harmony will sound great in that register. The bass range gives you
power and weight, while the harmonic range is used for the amount of complexity.

5 Harmonic range w
? 2 nw
1 &

The effect range is great when you want to project a line into the upper register. Think
of a piccolo flute. It can still be heard against a full brass section. However, be careful
with writing chord structures into that high register as they won't sound that great (unless
you are aiming for that sound or effect, of course). Furthermore, don't forget that you
can also use the bass range for creating musical effects like a growl or a hit.

“”
w w
Effect range
6
? 16
& 1

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5

Chapter III - Scales

4th oct.
bw nw w
3rd oct.
7
w w w #w w w
? 16 w 8
1 w & w w bw w & 1
w 2nd oct.
1st oct.

The overtone series gives some interesting information about scales. Let's organize this
information by going through the different octaves.

1st oct. - As every scale is based on a root, we could write any scale into the first octave.
M.I.T. uses a collection of 26 different scales but for now, let's focus on the
7 main scales only (they are also referred to as "church modes"). This is the
order and explanation of the 7 main scales you probably know already!

8
8 w
Ionian scale (on C root)
&1 w w nw w w nw
w
9
w w
Dorian scale (on D root)
& w w w w w
w

w
10
w w
Phrygian scale (on E root)
& w w w w w

w w
11
w w
Lydian scale (on F root)
& w w w w

w w w
12
w w
Mixolydian scale (on G root)
& w w w

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6

13
w w w w
w w
Aeolian scale (on A root)
& w w

w w w w
w
14

& w w w 9
Locrian scale (on B root)
1

2nd oct. - By adding the perfect 5th in the second octave, we can't use the Locrian scale
anymore as it contains a flattened fifth scale step. This already tells us that you
can't write "perfect authentic cadences" in the Locrian mode. Hence, this scale
might not be very usable as a key when you aim to write music for a mainstream
audience. However, this scale is really great for creating tonal centers temporarily.

Remember: The second octave eliminates any scale that contains a flattened fifth
scale step! But keep in mind, that it still can be a major or a minor scale!

3rd oct. - We already know that the third octave introduces chord tones. As chord structures
pertain to a scale, all minor scales are being eliminated by now because of the
natural third scale tone (E over C). Furthermore, we are dealing with a dominant
seventh scale tone. That all means, that our choice of scales is limited to the
Mixolydian scale. (Side note: Actually, it could be the Mixolydian scale with a
raised 4th step as well.)

At this point you might ask: "Why do I have to know all this!?" ...
... because this is important for orchestration!

Example: Write a minor triad and start from middle C (like C - Eb - G). Now put
a strong root in the bass register in order to give it some strength and weight ...
It will sound like a mistake, but why? - Because you created a harsh interval (a
minor second) between the Eb from the triad against the natural E from the
overtone series! There are several ways to solve this problem, but that's another
subject.

Advice: If you are hearing 'wrong notes' in your performance but you can't find
any in your writing, look at your bass instruments and the notes from the overtone
series that they project into the upper register.

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7

4th oct. - The 4th octave of the overtone series is constructed on scale tones. As you can
see below, we actually could use two scales depending on what we choose for
the seventh scale step.

2 choices for
15 scale tone 7
9 7
4th oct. of Overtone series (on C root)

&1 w #w w w bw nw w 1
w w

If we pick the -7, it will lead us to the Mixolydian scale with a raised fourth step!
If we pick a natural 7, it will give us the Lydian scale!

When you consider these two scales with what we know already from the third
octave, we gain valuable information about how to combine scales in your writing.
And there are no 'wrong' combinations, only those which are more or less practical.
In M.I.T. we teach concepts that help you to find 'the good ones'.

From the seven main scales, it's only the Lydian scale that appears fully and
clearly in the overtone series. Often, the Ionian scale is referred to as being the
"mother" of the seven main scales and this statement is totally valid. However,
there is another connection between the seven scales, and the Lydian becomes
the most important one! But before we continue, let's have a look at why the
Lydian scale is different from the others: The Lydian scale is the only one
that is constructed by just one interval, that is the diatonic perfect fifth!

“”
#w
perfect 5th

nw
w
16
7 w 8
perfect 5th perfect 5th

&1 w w w 1
perfect 5th
perfect 5th
perfect 5th

17
8
Bring the notes into order and you get the Lydian scale!

&1 w w w w w
w w #w

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8

You may have noticed already that another term of stacking perfect 5ths on top of each
other is the "RC5 descending" (see page 4). This shows that the Lydian scale actually is
the RC5 descending to a certain degree.

Now, if we start on the Lydian scale and use a RC5 descending to determine the root of
each next scale, the connection between the scales are quite obvious. In addition to that,
we only have to alter one scale tone at a time in order to get to an "adjacent" scale!

w nw
18
w
Lydian scale (on F root)

& nw w w w w

19 Ionian scale (on C root)

& w w w w w
w w w

w w w
20
w
Mixolydian scale (on G root)

& w w w w

21
w
Dorian scale (on D root)

& w w w w w w
w
22 Aeolian scale (on A root)

& w w w w
w w w w

w
23
w
Phrygian scale (on E root)

& w w w w w
w
24 Locrian scale (on B root)

& w w w w
w w w w

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9

It's not very easy to see that only one tone changed from one scale to an adjacent
one when we are switching roots all the time. Therefore, let's use the same root
throughout all scales but in the order that derived from using the RC5 descending.
The note that we changed in order to get to the new scale is marked in blue. This
color coding shows that the notes that we have to alter are also a perfect fifth apart
from each other! This relationship is a great hint to the concept of how to change
scales horizontally in a very smooth way (as there are 6 common scale tones between
any two adjacent scales)!

25 Lydian scale (all on C root)

& w w w w w
w w #w
26 Ionian scale

& w w w w w
w w nw
27 Mixolydian scale

& w w w bw w
w w w
28 Dorian scale

& w w w w bw w
w bw
29 Aeolian scale

& w w bw bw w
w bw w
30 Phrygian scale

& w w bw bw w
bw bw w

31
4
Locrian scale

& w bw bw bw w ?
4
bw bw w

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10

Chapter IV - Voicings

The overtone series also provides information about where close and open harmony
are able to function most effectively. Remember that chord tones don't show up until
we get to the third octave? And that they are organized in close harmony (CH).
A general observation is that open harmony (OH) works well in the lower register.

32
?4
not good (especially in bass range) great sound

4 nn w w
w w
w CH w OH

Rule of thumb: Do not write chord structures in CH into the bass range unless
you want to create a musical effect. In case you are looking for
transparent and strong chord structures that reach down into
the bass range, make sure that the perfect 5th is the bottom interval
of your structure!

The overtone series also suggests how to treat the voicing of more complex chord
structures that use chord tones from the second octave; like 9ths, 11ths and 13ths.
If you analyze the overtone series in terms of chord tones, the concept it follows is
quite obvious: Start very simple in the low register and increase complexity in the
higher register. The simplest structures we can write are triads (major or minor)
or three-part dominant 7th chords (for when a dominant flavor to the chord is
preferred). These chord structures are all found in the first octave (as opposed to
second-octave structures, like 9ths, 11ths and 13ths).

Let's examine the voicing and the range limits of these very simple structures. You
already know the range limit of the bass, so we simply build upon that knowledge.
Below you see the range limits for the bass (scale tone 1), scale tone 5 and scale
tone 3 (or scale tone 10 as we are in OH).

Major triad Minor triad Dominant 7th


˙ b˙ n ˙˙
˙˙ ˙˙ nb˙˙
34
? ˙ b˙ ˙
˙˙ ˙˙
˙

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11

Try to stay in these ranges for each scale tone and your voicing will sound transparent and
powerful at the same time.

Now, let's imagine you are writing for a whole orchestral section, like the brass section.
Here are some examples of different voicings of several chord structures (from simple
to complex). Regard every three-part (3p) structure as an instrumental section on its own
(like horns against trombones or trumpets against trombones).
Keep in mind that all of these voicings also work in different positions!

{
bwbw ##w
37
w
Cmaj Dmaj6 Emin(-7/9) Fmin(-7/9) Gmaj(-7/11+) Amaj(-7/13)

& w
w #w
w #w
w w n#w
w
w
w
w
w w
w bw w #w
? w #w w w w
w w w w w
w w w w

In order to balance each scale tone individually, take into account that you can use octave
positions of each note (e.g. in the woodwinds) to help them project into the higher register.
You can cetainly use OH structures in the harmonic range as well, especially when you want
to create some space for a line to move through your chord structures, but this thinking is
not necessarily derived from the overtone series.

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12

Chapter V - Additional Notes

This chapter is a collection of interesting concepts and inspirational ideas related to


the overtone series.

1) You don't find a "13" above the root you base the overtone series on. Hence, this is
not a natural interval. Yes, it does appear in chord structures (like a b9-chord) and
it is the context that makes its usage legitimate. Bear in mind that this interval will
stick out. Therefore in M.I.T. we call this interval also the "producer's interval"
because film producers identify the sound of a 13 although often they don't know
anything about music.
43

& bw
16
w 1
13

2) If you invert the overtone series, you will get the "Undertone series" (sometimes
also described as "Subharmonic series"). Although this series does not occur in
nature, there are quite some theories and practical approaches about it found in
literature. For example, Hugo Riemann and Vincent d'Indy used this series to
explain minor chord structures because this was not possible with the overtone
series.

But all theories aside, a sequence of intervals like the undertone series can be a
great source of inspiration when gathering material for a composition. In M.I.T.
we have many different approaches on how to find inspiration, and this is a good
example.

1st oct.
w
? bw
44
16 w w w nw w bw 4
2nd oct.
&1 bw bw w w n w b w & 4
w w
3rd oct. 4th oct.

The relationship between the overtone and the undertone series shows a very simple
yet effective device we all use very often, Position Change (PC). In a very simple
sense it just means 'go to the complement interval' but there is really much more to it!

Another great technique that can be derived by the comparison of both sequences
is Expansion and Contraction which is also explained in detail in the M.I.T. course.

Copyright © MUSIC INTERVAL THEORY ACADEMY PUBLISHING


13

3) "Limitation is the source of creativity and inspiration!" Everybody will agree to this
statement because it makes total sense. Yet it is worthless if you are not able to
put it into action. Here are some ideas on how you could use the overtone series
as limitation:

- limit your choice of notes to every second note that appears in the series
- use the overtone series (or a portion of it) to harmonize a melody by going
through it step-wise
- use the notes in the series (or a portion of it) to write a root progression (RP)
- write out the overtone series on two different root tones; limit your choice of
notes to the third octave from your first root and to the fourth octave from the
second root

4) Introduction to the "TNO" series. TNO stands for "the nature of" and is a
sequence of lessons from the M.I.T. course that explains the nature of intervals
as well as interval combinations (ICs). This is a very big subject that can't be
covered in this e-book. However, here's a light introduction to the world of
"equivalents".

Equivalents are vertical structures that consists of the same interval, as


demonstrated below.

45
4
1+1 2+2 3+3 4+4 5+5 6+6

& 4 bn ww w
ww bbw
w
w n#w
w
w
bw
w
w #w
w
w

Here is a very quick explanation of the equivalents and how we use them in M.I.T.!

1+1: Leading tones: 1s are found and used in the Diatonic system, also as leading
tones. As a "1+1"-structure does not appear on any of our (western) scales,
we call this structure a cluster. The nature of that cluster is that it wants to
expand, so it naturally leads to a bigger structure.

2+2: Dominant character; see following page


3+3: Used as connecter
4+4: Portal to other tonal centers
5+5: Used for harmony in perfect 4ths and 5ths, also OH /w substitute tones
6+6: Entry into the world of bitonality and polytonality

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14

Here is a question for you: "When you play a 2 (a major second), what note is the root
tone and why?" (Look at bar 51 below.)

Since we are just playing two notes (not related to any scale), the root could only be
a 'Bb' or a 'C'. But how do we determine the root? - In Chapter I we pointed out
that the intervals in the overtone series are organized by their strength (strongest first).
Now, what happens when we apply PC to the structure? See bar 52.
51

& bww bw 16
2
w 10 1

We are still playing a 2 but in another position, it has become the complementary
interval. The root is defined by the bottom note of the strongest interval! This reduces
the problem to the question: Which structure is stronger, a 2 or a 10? The answer is
found in the sequence of intervals in the overtone series. The 10 appears first, then
comes the 2! Therefore, 'C' is the root. Or in general words: Whenever you hit a 2,
the root is the top note! This explains why a 2+2 carries a dominant flavor!

We won't go deeper into the world of equivalents at this point but hopefully this
was inspiring enough to create some great new music!

Personal note: We are going to end this ebook with a demonstration of how to use
the overtone series to compose a fully developed piece of music for
full orchestra! Please note that this ebook is not meant to be an
encompassing paper about the overtone series but a short example of
how M.I.T. teaches you to think musically.

If you are curious and wish to learn more about the M.I.T. course,
how it works and what to expect from it, please don't hesitate to get
in contact with us! More information can be found on our website:

www.MusicIntervalTheory.Academy

But for now, enjoy the piece called "A Magical Story". We have
included audio examples of all materials that you will find on the
following pages.

Copyright © MUSIC INTERVAL THEORY ACADEMY PUBLISHING


15

Demonstration/Example of how to compose


with the Overtone Series
In M.I.T. we teach a method that coordinates your workflow. We split up the process
into 3 main sections. The time and effort you put into each section depends totally
on the composer.

1) Gathering material
This is the inspiration for what you are going to do musically. In our case, we
will take a sequence of notes from the overtone series and use this sequence as
starting point for our composition.

2) Sketch
The sketch is derived by fooling around with our gathered material. It can be a
rough piano sketch or even a developed section. The important rule of thumb
to determine the amount of time you should put into your sketch is quite easy:
Put your sketch away right now and don't look at it for the next 2-4 days, is it
complete and developed enough? Do you remember what your original idea was?
If not, keep on working and add information to the sketch. This should not be a
developed piece of music, it is just a roadmap to help you structure your ideas.

3) Development
This is the moment where we take our sketch and develop it for orchestral sections
(or any ensemble). The sketch will help you to not get lost in the middle of the piece.
Though, you don't have to stick to your sketch per se! Always remember that it is
YOUR NAME on the page, you are the author and you are allowed to change
everything in your piece!

Gathering material ...

53
w w w #w w w bw nw w
? 16 w w 5
& w w bw
w ?
1 4
w
These 5 notes will be our inspiration to gather some musical material!

Copyright © MUSIC INTERVAL THEORY ACADEMY PUBLISHING


16

{
Now we are going to analyze the distance
Again, this is our starting point! from one note to another in chromatic steps.
54
5
&4 œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ 4
œ œ œ 4

?5 4
3 3 2 2

4 ∑ ∑ 4
Whenever we deal with a musical line, we also deal with what we call a "horizontal
formula (HF), which is the distance from one note to the next one in chromatic steps.
In our case, we have the following formula => HF: (3, 3, 2, 2).

This formula can be used to develop more musical ideas. As a result, everything will

{
be connected through this formula.

56 1) Let's use this HF for our bass line.


4
&4 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Remember: We want to stay in our bass range;

?4
therefore we are using the octave position of "C"

4w w bw
w w

{
3 3 2
2

#w bw
61 2) Now let us reverse the HF to create a free top line in the treble clef.

& w bw bw
-3 -3 -2 -2
?
w bw
w w w

{
3) Let us harmonize the top line with our HF. If you read the vertical structures

#ww
from bottom to top, it gives you a spacing of 3, 3, 2. We call this a 3+3+2.
bbbww
66

& w
## w w
w ww
nb w
w bbww
w
w bbbww
w
w
? 3+3+2 3+3+2 3+3+2 3+3+2 3+3+2

w bw
w w w
Noticed the 13? (Eb in the
treble against the D root).
If this sound doesn't bother
Copyright © MUSIC INTERVAL THEORY ACADEMY PUBLISHING you, you don't have to fix it!
17

{
3) Use voice-leading to smooth out the parts. We haven't changed any notes from
the previous step, but used PC (position change) on some of the structures.
71

& #n #w bw bbbww
#ww
w bbbw
ww
w ww
bn w
w bw
w
w w
w
?
w w bw
w w
This is going to be our gathered material which we will be using for writing the sketch.
In order to keep things easy to follow, we used color coding to show where the structures
appear in the sketch.

"A Magical Story"

{
(Sketch)
FRANK HERRLINGER
derived from HF Main motif is based on

j œ œ#œj œ̇ œ
4 = 2+2

Œ Œ #œj nœ #œ#œ
3 3
nœ ˙ ˙ Ó
HF: 3, 2, 2

b œ
76 6 = 3+3 3

& n ˙˙ b˙ n b w ˙

n##ww
#w
w
˙˙˙˙ n ˙˙ bbbww w ˙˙˙ bbb˙˙˙˙
4 6

? #˙ n˙ w ˙ #˙ w ˙ ˙
going down chromatically all chromatic LT

{
into first root tone Leading Tones (LTs)

repetition of

j
side-line to transition

j
bar 77

œ œ œ # œ #œ j
3

Œ Œ #œj nœ #œ #œ
into next section
3
n b˙
3
bœ œ œ œ bœ
81 3

& n##ww b ẇ
#w
w ww
w
w bb w
b ww bbbww
w
w

? w ˙
#˙ w bw
LT

Copyright © MUSIC INTERVAL THEORY ACADEMY PUBLISHING


{
18

œj œ œ œ b œj œ œ
3
œ
3
œ
3
j ˙
85
Œ Œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ b œ œ ˙
& n w
w bw
w œ œ œ ˙ ˙˙˙ b b˙Ó˙˙
b ww w "13" used for creating b ww
bw b w ˙ b ˙
dissonance which gets

? bw
resolved in next bar


w bw ˙

{
LT

j j ˙
œ œj nœ #œj œ
chromatic alteration (CA)
3
œ
3 3
œ œ œ œ
3
Œ Œ
LTs
89

& # #w w œ œ ˙ œ #œ
w w #w ˙
n ww # w
w ww
w ˙˙˙
fill in middle
repetition of previous 4 bars parts later ...

? #œ nœ
but shifted down by 1 ...

w w
w ˙

{
going down
chromatically

œ ˙ œ #œ w
HF: 3, 5

œ ˙ #œ œ #œ œ œJ œ œœœ
HF: 3, 5

Ó™
93

œ œ œ œ bn œ
& J
3 3

Ó™
? w œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ ˙ bœ
˙ J Ó
3

{
going down chromatically

˙˙ œ #œ w ˙˙˙ ™™
˙™ œ b bww n#ẇ
˙ ™™
b œœœ b w
& <b>˙˙
˙ w ˙˙˙ nn˙˙˙˙
Ó™
98

bœ w n˙ ˙
Ó Œ

˙™
? <b>˙
w
Ó™
œ w
Resolution from 9th
to 6th chord

Ó Œ
w

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"A Magical Story" 19

(Development)
FRANK HERRLINGER
q = 120

° 4
3+3+2 PC

œ
(vertical)

œ œ œ J
Introduction

Piccolo &4 ∑ ∑ Œ ‰ Œ ∑
3

œ b œ b œ n œJ
mf

Flute
4
&4 ∑ ∑ Œ ‰ Œ ∑
3
mf

4 ∑ ∑ Œ œ bœ œ œJ ‰ Œ ∑
Flute &4
3 and going backwards
mf with harmonization
bœ bœ bœ œ. œ. bœ.
HF: 3, 3, 2 HF: 3, 3, 2, 2
4 bœ bœ œ J bœ bœ œ
underneath

English Horn &4 ∑ Ó Œ ‰ Œ Œ bœ


mf 3 3 3

4 ∑ ∑ Œ bœ bœ œ œJ ‰ Œ bœ nœ œ. nœ. bœ.
Clarinet in Bb &4 bœ
3 3
mf

4
&4 ∑ ∑ ∑ Ó œ. bœ. bœ.
Clarinet in Bb œ
3
HF: 3, 3, 2

4
¢& 4
3
∑ Œ bœ ‰ Œ ∑ Ó bœ. bœ œ
3
Bassoon
œ œ bœ J . . œ
mf

°? 4 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
3 Horns in F 4

3 Trumpets in Bb
4
&4 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

?4 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
3 Trombones 4

?4
Tuba
¢ 4 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
b ˙˙
doubling of the strings
˙
b˙˙˙˙ ˙˙
to make an accent
4
&4 ∑ Ó Ó ∑

?4
Harp mf

4 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

interval contraction interval expansion

° 4
q = 120 (6+4 to 4+2) (4+4 to 6+4)
j3
4+2 going upwards chromatically pizz. arco
Violin 1 & 4 b˙ n˙ œ. Œ Œ œ œ bœ Œ Œ œ nœ Œ Ó
p

4
arco
j Œ
pizz.
Œ Œ Œ Œ Ó
3
& 4 b˙ n˙ bœ. bœ nœ œ œ
œ
Violin 2

B 44 ˙ j3 pizz. arco
Viola b˙ nœ. Œ Œ œ #œ œ Œ Œ nœ #œ Œ Ó
p

?4 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Violoncello 4

?4
Double Bass
¢ 4 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

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20

Section A

°
4 rit. q = 118

Picc. & ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

“”
˙™
side line, HF: -2, -3
bœ œ bw bœ bœ ˙™
Fl. & Ó Œ J
3
mf

˙™
bœ bœ ˙™
œ bw œ J
Fl. & Ó Œ
3
mf

Eng. Hn. & <b>˙ ™ Œ ∑ ∑ ∑

bœ.
>œ. bœ. b >œ
& <b>˙ ™
Solo
Cl. Œ ∑ ∑ Œ Œ J ‰ J
3 3 3
f

Cl. & ˙™ Œ ∑ ∑ ∑

Bsn.
¢ & b˙ ™ Œ ∑ ∑ ∑

°? ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Hn.

Tpt. & ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

Tbn.
? ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

?
Tba.
¢ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
Scale #7/4+ on Gb

bœ bœ bœ œ
3 3 (Mixolydian with raised 4th step)
bw
& Œ ∑ ∑
3

œ bœ œ œ b œœ œ œ gliss
.

? bw
Hp.
∑ bw bw ∑

going from close harmony to

°
rit. open harmony in the next bar q = 118

Vln. 1 & bw ˙ b˙ n˙ ™ Œ bw
p mf mf
3+3 equivalent and also
chromatic alteration

b˙ ™
& w Œ
Vln. 2
b˙ ˙ bw
p mf mf

Vla. B bw b˙ ˙ b˙ ™ Œ bw
p mf mf

? bw bw b˙ ™ Œ w
Vc.

p mf mf

?
¢
w
pizz.
Db. ∑ ∑ ∑
mf

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21

°
8

Picc. & ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
:“; “”
<b>˙ bœ œ œ. bœ bœ ˙ ™ b˙™
Fl. & Ó ∑ Ó J J
3 3

<b> ˙ bœ b ˙ ™ ˙™
mf

Ó ∑ Ó bœ œ œ. bœ
J
Fl. & J
3 3
mf

& ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ Œ bœ ˙
Eng. Hn.
J
3

<b> œ bœ. b >œJ


p
œ. bœ. >œ. >œ.
b>œ. n>œ œ >
bœ. œ.
Cl. & J Œ ∑ Œ Œ J ‰
3 3 3 3
f

∑ ∑ ∑ Œ Œ
3
j
Cl. & bœ ˙
p

Bsn.
¢& ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

°? ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Hn.

Tpt. & ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

Tbn.
? ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

?
Tba.
¢ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
œ
bœ bœ bœ bœ bœ
3 3 3

& bœ bœ Ó bœ bœ Ó Ó
bœ bœ bœ Ó
bœ nœ bœ
?
Hp.
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

°
chromatic LTs

b>œ. Œ
all the same structure, but using PC (Position Change) ... PC
> > 3
& <b>œ
(Leading Tones)

Œ bœ. Œ Œ bœ œ Œ bœ œ bœ. œj Œ >œ bœ œ j


3
Vln. 1 ˙ J J J J J >. bœ ˙
3 3 3 3
3

j > j
& <b>œ j bœ. Œ j j
3 3
Œ bœ. Œ Œ Œ bœ. œ. Œ j
3 3 3 3
œ œ œ œ
˙ J >œ nœ œ bœ ˙
Vln. 2
> 3
> >
>œ.
B <b>œ b>œ. Œ bœ œ bœ œ b>œ. bœj Œ b>œ j
3
Œ ˙ Œ J J Œ Œ J bœ œ bœ ˙
Vla.
J 3
J >.
3 3 3 3 3

>œ. bœ œ b >œ. bœ œ >œ. >. >œ


? œ Œ #˙ J Œ Œ J J Œ Œ J J œJ Œ #œ œ œ ˙
Vc.
3 3 3 3 3
J
3 3

? ˙ w ˙
¢
Db. Ó Ó w

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22

°
12 Section B

Picc. & ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

“”
side line to bridge into the next section ...

bœ œ œ œ bœ ˙™
Fl. & ∑ ∑ J Œ
3
mf

∑ ∑ bœ œ œ œ bœ ˙™ Œ
Fl. & J
3
mf

Eng. Hn. & <b>˙ Ó ∑ ∑ ∑

<b> œ œ. b >œ. b >œ. >œ


b>œ ˙
Œ J Œ ∑ ∑
Cl. & J
3 3

Cl. & <b>˙ Ó ∑ ∑ ∑

j
¢& ˙™
3
∑ ∑ œ œ Œ
Bsn.
bœ œ bœ
mf

°?
LTs from below

∑ ∑ Ó Œ j j3 3
j j3
œœ Œ Œ œœ Œ
3
& #œœ bœœ œœ œœ
. >.
Hn.

mf
. . > .
>. > >.
& ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ Œ œ œ œ Œ
Tpt.
J J
f 3 3

? ∑ ∑ Ó Œ j j Œ Œ j j
œœ Œ
3 3 3 3
Tbn. & œœ bbœœ bn œœ. œœ œœ
mf . >. . > .

? j . bœ.
¢ bœ bœ
3
Tba. ∑ ∑ Œ Œ œ. Œ œ. Œ

{
p mf
Scale #7/4+ on C
œ
Ó™
(Mixolydian with raised 4th step)
bœ bœ
œ œ
3 3

& ∑ bœ bœ ∑
œ bœ g lis
s.

?
Hp.
∑ ∑ Œ œ Ó ∑

counter melody to brass section, written

° œ-
going from open to

œ. b>œ. œ. b>œ. #-œ


CH with PCs ... LTs from above
> n-œ
after the brass section was completed

& <b>˙- nœ. bœ.


close harmony in strings back to open harmony (OH)
bw Œ
3

˙- œ J J J
>.
Vln. 1
3 3
f

& <b>w
j >
œ. bœ. œ. b>œ.
3
Œ
3

bw bœ. bœ. œ J J nœ- #œ- œ-


>.
Vln. 2
> 3
f

œ. b>œ. bœ. >œ. œ. b >œ.


Vla. B <b>w bw b>œ. J J J Œ œ nœ.
J ‰ Œ
3 3 3
mf

? -˙ #-˙ w j j
3
j Œ ‰ Œ
3 3
& œ. bœ. bœ. œ nœ j
Vc.
b œ. œ. bœ. > >. œ.
> >
bœ œ b bœ
mf

? ˙ w ˙ ˙
¢
Db. Ó bœ œ J
3

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23

° >œ #>œ.
harmonized with PC
œ
bœ œ bœ J
16

Picc. & ∑ Ó ‰ J ‰ J Œ Ó ∑

“”
3 3
f
3+3 equivalent
œ >œ >. ˙
bœ œ bœ J J ‰ #œJ Œ #w
connector

Fl. & ∑ Ó ‰

“”
f 3 3
mf

bœ b>œ ‰ >œ. Œ n˙ #w
3

Fl. & ∑ Ó œ bœ œ J ‰ J J
f 3
mf

Eng. Hn. & ∑ ∑ Ó #˙ w


f mf

œ >œ >œ.
∑ Ó bœ œ b œ J ‰ J ‰ J Œ Ó ∑
Cl. &
f 3 3

bœ b >œ >œ.
Cl. & ∑ Ó œ bœ œ J ‰ J ‰ J Œ Ó ∑
3 3
f

Bsn.
¢& ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

°
3+3 equivalent
j 3 j3
3
j 3
& bœœ ‰ œj œ j Œ bœœ bœœ bœj ˙ j
connector
œ Œ Œ #œ. œ Œ
3 3

b>œœ n˙˙ w
. bœ œ œ. b œœ. >. >. >œ ˙ #w
Hn.
> p
sfz
>. > >œ. > >œ œ. j > >
& œJ ‰ bœJ œ J Œ bœ. Œ bœœ œœ. Œ b˙˙
#nw
3

J œ ˙ J w
>
Tpt.
3 3 3 3 p

œ. b >œ
sfz
œ. b>œ œ.
j
& œj ‰ bœœ œœ j3 j3 j #œ. >œ J J >
#w
3

œ Œ œ Œ Œ Œ
?
3 3
Tbn.
b œ. b œ. œ. bœœ b œœ œj ˙ J J
>. >. >œ ˙ 3 3 3 3

sfz
?
Tba.
¢ œ.
Œ œ. Œ
b œ.
Œ Œ
b œ.
Œ Ó ∑
b œ.

{
bw Scale #7/4+ on Eb b˙
& ∑ ∑ g lis
s. ss.
Ó
g li

?
Hp.
∑ ∑ Ó b˙ ∑

>œ- >œ b œ. œ
° b -œ b -œ œ bœ nœ bœ >œ. >œ. >œ.
˙
Vln. 1 & Œ J Ó Œ Œ J
3 3 3
mf

b-œ
>œ- >œ bœ. œ
3

Vln. 2 & bœ- Œ J œ bœ nœ bœ ˙ Ó ∑


3

B Œ
bœ œ. ‰ Œ Œ œ b˙
pizz.
∑ Œ bbœœJ Œ
div.
Œ bnœœ
Vla. J
3
mf


LT

& Œ j ‰ Œ Œ Ó
pizz.
?
œ œ. bœ b˙ ˙

Vc.

mf

? ˙ ˙
¢
Db.
b˙ b˙ b˙ Ó ∑

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24

° œ
20 HF: 3, 5

& ∑ ∑ Ó œ #œ œ œ œ œ
Picc. J
mf 3

˙™
LTs

w #œ ˙ Ó ∑
Fl. &

Fl. & #w ˙™ #œ ˙ Ó ∑

j
#˙ ™
3

Eng. Hn. & w nœ #˙ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ


mf

œ œ œ
Cl. & ∑ ∑ Ó œ #œ œ œ J
mf 3

∑ ∑ Ó
3
& bœ bœ nœ œ j œ
œ œ
Cl.
mf

bœ œ
¢&
Bsn. ∑ ∑ ? Ó w
mf going down chromatically

°
Hn. & w
w #˙˙ ™™ bnœœ n#˙˙
Ó ∑

Tpt. & ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

Tbn.
? ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

?
Tba.
¢ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
˙
œ #œ nœ
3
˙
& Œ #œ n œ œ
˙ ∑ #˙˙˙ Ó ∑
∏∏∏∏

?
Hp.
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
3


° œ
>. œ >œ >œ. >œ.
J Œ J #>œ œ >œ. >.
œ Ó ∑
& J ˙
>
Vln. 1
3 3 3

& ∑ Ó Œ œ #>˙ Ó Ó™ œ
>.
Vln. 2
mf p

B Œ nœœ Œ Œ #œœ Œ #œœ Œ Œ bbœœ nn˙˙ Ó


arco
Vla. J J w
3 3 p

? ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ Ó ∑
Vc. ˙

?
¢
Db. ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

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25

° ˙
24 q = 90

Picc. & Ó ∑ ∑ ∑

Fl. & ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

Fl. & ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

Eng. Hn. & #œ œ Ó ∑ ∑ ∑

˙
Cl. & Ó ∑ ∑ ∑

Cl. & ˙ Ó ∑ ∑ ∑

? ˙
Bsn.
¢ Ó ∑ ∑ ∑
going down chromatically into

° Ó
F root, first in horns, then the line

.
continues in the trombones
j Ó ∑
3
& bœ ˙
b œœ œ
bœ n œœ œœ #>œœ œœ >œ ˙
Hn.
>
mf
. sfz
3
j >œ ˙
& Ó œ bœ. bœ HF: 3, 5
œ œ œ
>
Ó ∑
>
Tpt.
mf sfz
>
>œ >
? ∑ œ #œœ #œœ nbœœ ˙˙
Ó ∑
J
>
Tbn.
3
mf sfz

?
Tba.
¢ ∑ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ ˙
Ó ∑

{
mf sfz

œ ˙
Scale #3 on F

Ó™
(Dorian)
ss.
& ∑ g lis
s. g li
œ Ó ∑
Œ œ
?
Hp.
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

q = 90

° Ó œ™ œ œ #œ œ w ˙ œ #œ
#œ œ #˙
Vln. 1 &
3
mf mf

nœ bœ ˙
run on Scale #3 on F, Dorian Scale
3
œ œ bœ œ
œ nœ bœ bœ Ó ∑
3
Vln. 2 & ˙ œ bœ bœ œ
3 3

œ ˙
mf sfz

j œ bœ b œ œ œ bœ
B #œ œ ‰
3
œ œ bœ œ Ó ∑
Vla. œ bœ bœ
3 3 3
mf sfz

? ∑ œ Ó ∑
arco
Vc. œ œ œ œ bœ œ ˙
sfz

?
¢
∑ œ Ó ∑
arco
Db. œ œ œ œ bœ œ ˙
sfz

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26

°
28

∑ 6 ∑ 4 ∑ ∑
Picc. & 4 4
3+3+3

˙™
connector

œ œ bœ bœ
3+3+3

∑ 6 ∑ 4Œ
Fl. & 4 4
mf

6 4Œ œ œ œ ˙™ œ
Fl. & ∑ 4 ∑ 4
mf

∑ 6 ∑ 4Œ bœ bœ nœ ˙™ œ
Eng. Hn. & 4 4
mf

Cl. & ∑ 6
4 ∑ 4Œ
4 bœ bœ œ ˙™ nœ
mf

∑ 6 ∑ 4 bœ w
Cl. & 4 4œ œ œ œ
mf LTs HF: 3, 3, 4 ...
the 4 was originally 2+2, but I

? 6 4
¢ ∑ ∑ ∑
˙™
didn't want to double the note Bb
Bsn. 4 4 &
œ

° ∑ 6 Ó™ 4 ∑ ∑
b˙™
Hn. & 4 4
p

∑ 6 ∑ 4 ∑ ∑
Tpt. & 4 4

? ∑ 6 ∑ 4 ∑ ∑
Tbn. 4 4

? 6 4
Tba.
¢ ∑ 4 ∑ 4 ∑ ∑

{
using the same notes from Vln.2 and Vlas

Ó™
but in PCs
6 œ 4
3

& Œ œœ bœœ bœœ 4 Œ œ bœ œ 4 ∑ ∑


b œœ œœ œ
6 bœ œ Ó™
Hp.
? Œ œœ 4
Œ Œ ∑ ∑
mp
4 4
3

°
w w œ #œ w ˙™ œ
6 4
Vln. 1 & 4 4
LTs from above

œ-œ -œœ b -œœ w bœ


æ
œ
æ æ 6 w 4
pizz.
œ
æ
div. arco
Vln. 2 & Œ 4 Ó 4 ∑ Œ Œ
mp mf

#-œœ bn-œœ n -œœ


æ 4 æ
w
6 bw Ó™

æ æ 4 œ
div. pizz.
Vla. B Œ Ó 4 ∑
mp mf

4 æ
? ∑ 6 bw Ó 4 ∑ ∑
Vc. 4 &

? 6 4 w
¢
pizz.
Db. ∑ 4 ∑ 4 ∑
mf

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27

° œ #œ œ œ #œ œ œ
32

Picc. & ∑ Œ œ ˙ w

“”n œ
3
f

bw #œ œ œ #œ
Œ œ œ œ ˙ w
Fl. &

“” œ
3
f

bw #œ œ œ #œ œ œ
Fl. & Œ œ ˙ w
3
f

bw Œ œ
3
& œ #œ œ #œ nœ œ #œ ˙ w
Eng. Hn.
f

œ #œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ
Cl. & w Œ ˙ w
3
f

Cl. & w b˙ œ œ
˙ n˙ w

¢& w
3
Bsn.
˙™ œ œ œ w w

° ∑
& b>˙ ˙ n˙ w
>œ >œ > >
Hn.

˙ ™™
voicing according to the overtone series!

& Ó™
. nœ. # œ. nw w
b#œœœ n œœ#n œœ
3+3

#˙˙ ™
œ w
w w
w
Tpt. #œœ
p ff 3
6+3 (PC of 3+3) 3+3 moving up chromatically
œ ˙˙ w w
? Œ bœœ ww
until the notes become LTs
˙ w w w
Tbn.
w w
p ff

? Ó
Tba.
¢ ˙ w w w

{
p ff

œ ˙
Ó™
Scale #1/4+ on G
Π(Lydian)
∑ ∑
gliss.
& gliss
. œ
?
Hp. ff
∑ ∑ œ Ó ∑
Œ

runs in the strings based on Lydian Scale on a G root,


w
°
w w œ œ #œ ˙ w
according to the overtone series

Vln. 1 & #œ œ œ #œ œ #œ œ
f 6

bw bw bœ #œ nœ œ ˙ w
Vln. 2 &
œ ˙ #˙ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ
6
f

˙ b˙ œ œ #œ ˙ w
œ œ ˙ ˙ #œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ
arco
Vla. B œ Œ
6
f

& bœ bœ b˙ Œ bœ nœ
Vc.
œ œ œ w w
f
mf

? Ó ˙ œ
¢
Œ
arco
Db.
˙ w w
f

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