Introduction
Definition of Soil
mineral particles formed by the weathering of rocks, the void space between the
particles containing water and/or
air.
The term “ Soil Mechanics” was coined by Late Dr. Karl Terzaghi, who is
recognized as the father of soil mechanics. Soil mechanics deals with the
As the civil engineering projects are either seated on soil (e.g. buildings
and
CHAPTER ONE
The nature of soils depends upon the type of destructive process in the formation
of
In the physical process the resultant soil particles retain the same composition as
that
Grain Structure”, each particle being in direct contact with adjoining particles,
colloidal size (<0.002mm) known as the clay minerals. Most clay mineral
particles
are of platelike form having a high specific surface (i.e., a high surface area to
mass
ratio).
The basic structural units of most clay minerals consist of a silica tetrahedron
and an
alumina octahedron. The basic units combine to form sheet structures (a silica
sheet
or an alumina sheet). The various clay minerals (i.e., Kaolinite, Illite and
result in cations (positive ions) present in the water in the void space being
attracted
to the particles. Also, layers of water molecules are held around a clay mineral
2 Attractive forces (Van Der Waals forces) due to electrical moments existing
within the units. The forces of attraction are responsible for the cohesive
nature
Figure (1.2) Clay minerals basic units
Figure (1.3) Clay minerals: (a) kaolinite, (b) illite and (c)
montmorillonite.
2
of soils containing a significant proportion of clay mineral particles. Net
Figure (1.4) Particle size ranges Particles sizes in soils can vary from over
100mm to less than 0.001mm. In British
Standards the size ranges as detailed below. According to this classification the
terms
“clay”, “silt”, etc. are used only to describe the sizes of particles between
specified
All clay size particles are not necessarily clay mineral particles. If clay mineral
The particle size analysis of a soil sample involves determining the percentage
by
Soils consisting of particles mostly in the gravel size are sand size ranges are
referred
the method of sieving. The soil is passed through a series of standard test sieves
Soils consisting of particles mostly in the silt size and clay size ranges are
referred to
as finegrained. The particle size distribution of such soils can be determined by
the
2
method of sedimentation using the hydrometer analysis. The method is based on
stockes’ law which governs the velocity at which spherical particles settle in a
suspension; the larger the particles the greater are the settling velocity and vice
versa.
The size of a particle is given as the diameter of a sphere which would settle at
the
same velocity as the particle.The particle size analysis is usually presented in the
form
of distribution curve, this curve is obtained by plotting particle diameter against
percent finer.
Figure (1.5) Particle size distribution curves (Example 1.1)
The size such that 10% of the particles are smaller than that size is denoted by
D10. Other
sizes such as D30 and D60 can be defined in a similar way. The general
slope and
shape of the distribution curve can be described by means of the
coefficient of
60
CU D10
= D ,
2
C Z = DDD 106030 1.3 Plasticity of FineGrained Soils
The term plasticity describes the ability of soil to undergo unrecoverable
deformation
at constant volume without cracking or crumbling. Plasticity is due to the
presence of
clay minerals or organic material.
Depending on its water content a soil may exist in the liquid, plastic, semisolid or
solid state. The water contents at which the transitions between states occur are
called
Atterberg limits.
2
Note: All plastics soils at liquid limits passes a constant value of shearing
resistance.
It has been found by means of direct shear tests of different types of clays that
the liquid limit corresponds to a shearing strength of about 27gm/cm2 (2.65kPa). It
is
noticed that the constant shear strength occurs at 25 blows, that way the 25
blows is
chosen.
The upper and lower limits of the range of water contents over which a soil exhibit
plastic behavior are defined as the liquid limit, wL, and the plastic limit, wP,
respectively. The water content range itself is defined as the plasticity index, IP,
wwI = 
P L P The natural water content, w, of a soil relative to the liquid and
plastic limits can be
I L =
ww  I
P P The degree of plasticity of the clay size fraction of soil is expressed by the
ratio of the
plasticity index to the percentage of clay size particles in the soil; this ratio is
called
the activity.
The transition between the semisolid and solid states occurs at the shrinkage
limit,
defined as the water content at which the volume of the soil reaches its lowest
value
as it dries out.
1.4 Soil Classification
The object of soil classification is to divide soils into groups such that all the soils
in a
particular groups have similar characteristics, by which they may be identified,
and
exhibit similar behavior in giving engineering situations. Soil classification,
however,
should be regarded as the first step only in the evaluation of a soil.
Most soil classification systems divide soils into a number of groups each
denoted by
a group symbol. A soil is identified and allocated to the appropriate group on the
basis of particle size distribution and plasticity, these characteristics being
determined
either by standard tests in the laboratory or by simple, and less accurate, visual
and
manual procedures in the field. In addition, a general description of the soil and
its in
2
situ condition should be given depending on the experience of the site engineer.
For
example;
subangular particles’.
‘Darkgrey, firm, silty clay of low plasticity with small fissures and silt
inclusions’.
In the unified soil classification system (USCS) the group symbols consist of a
The results of particle size analyses of four soils A, B, C and D are shown in
Table
Liquid limit Cone penetration (mm) 15.5 18.0 19.4 22.2 24.9 Water content (%)
39.3 40.8 42.1 44.6 45.6 Plastic limit Water content (%) 23.9 24.3 The fine
fraction of soil C has a liquid limit of 26 and a plasticity index of 9. (a)
The particle size distribution curves are plotted in Figure below. For soils A, B
and C
the sizes D10, D30 and D60 are read from the curves and the values of Cu and Cz
are calculated:
2
For soil D the liquid limit is obtained from Figure below: The percentage water
is 42. The PL is the average of the two percentage eater contents, and is 24.
PI=LL
PL= 18.
1.5 Phase
Relationships
Soils can be either of two or threephase composition. In dry soil there are two
phases, namely the solid particles and pore air. A fully saturated soil is also two
phase, being composed of solid particles and pore water. A partially saturated
soil is
three phase, being composed of solid soil particles, pore water and pore air.The
below.
2
Figure (1.8) Phase diagrams
The water content, w or moisture content, m: ratio of the mass of water to the
mass of
solids in the soil
M
w= MwsThe water content is determined by weighing a sample of the soil
and then drying the sample in an oven at a temperature of 105o110oC and
reweighing. A drying period of
24hr is normally adequate for most soils.
Degree of saturation, Sr: ratio of the volume of water to the total volume of void
space.
w
S r = V
V vVoid ratio, e: ratio of the volume of voids to the volume of solids.
V
e = VvsPorosity, n: ratio of the volume of voids to the total volume of the soil.
V
n = Vv n =
e1
e, =
+e n1  n
Air content, A: ratio of the volume of air to the total volume of
the soil.
V
A = Va Bulk density, ρ: ratio of the total mass to the total volume.
2
M
Vρ = Specific gravity of the solid soil particles, Gs.
=
G s
VM ws
=
ρ s ρ s ρwρ w =
ρ of water
Assume the volume of solids is 1 unit, then the volume of voids would be e units.
M,GM = ρ = wG ρ V, = wG = wG
s ws w wws s S r es For fully saturated
A = wGe
 e1+s = S1n (  r ) ρ =
1
w1G s ( e
( ++ ) ) ρ w ρ = eSG
e1 rs
+ +ρ w
For a saturated soil: ρ s at = eG
e1 s
++ ρ w For
a dry soil:
ρ d =
s
G
e1 + ρ w
2
W Mg
Vγ = V=
e.g. γ
= w1G
s e1
( )
++ γ w = eSG
++ γ ww , γ = m/kN8.9 3 For a fully saturated soil, the buoyant uit
e1 rs
weight, γ′ i s,
γ ′
wws
=G
volume of 1.15×10 3m3. After being completely dried in an oven the mass of the
r = es = 68.2125.0
) wG
×=
52.0 × = %5.64or645.0
2
1.6 Soil Compaction
1. Rollers:
a. Smoothwheeled
d. Drum
The degree of compaction of a soil is measured in terms of dry density, i.e. the
mass
d=
ρ
of solids only per unit volume of soil. ρ w1 + The dry density after
comaction depends on the type of soil, the water content and the
1. Proctor test.
The curve shows that for a particular method of compaction (i.e., a particular
full saturation. The maximum possible value of dry density is referred to as the
‘zero
The calculated relationships between ρd and w for different air contents can be
obtained.
2
Figure (1.12) Dry densitywater content curves for different compactive
efforts
provide only a rough guide to the water content at which the maximum dry
density
will be obtained in the field. The main value of laboratory tests is in the
classification
2
Relative compaction: percentage of the field dry density after compaction
relative to
the maximum dry density in a particular laboratory test.
A number of methods for measuring bulk density in the field are recommended
elsewhere. The required standard of field compaction may be specified in terms
of
relative compaction; for example a specification may state that the dry density
should
not be less than 95% of the maximum dry density in the BS 2.5kg rammer test.
Example 1.3 Natural water content of a soil in the borrow areas is 8% and its
bulk density is 1.6 gm/cm3. This soil is to be used in construction of an
embankment. The specification
for embankment compaction require its water content to be 10% and dry density
of 1.65 gm/cm3. Compute the quantity of soil to be excavated per 100m3of the
s
embankment. The value of Gs is 2.7. solution:
ρ = w1G
e1 ( +
+ ) ρ w 6.1
=
08.017.2 e1 ( ++ b
)
e
=
V V
V Vv sV, s =
e v but V is constant (
s
= e1G
s
+ ρ w 65.1, =
e1 7.2
+ ρ
w ⇒ 6363.0e e = e )V(
ev = v b , )V(
(V
bv v
) e =
8225.0 6363.0 = 2932.1
n
=
e1
n, e
+e
= 6363.1
V
6363.0 = 3888.0 = ( Vv ) e =
8225.1
V
= 4513.0 = (
V
Vb ) for 100m3 of embankment ( v) e = m88.38 3 ∴
× = m28.50 3
( 2932.188.38V
v ) b 4513.0 =
28.50 V
b∴ V b =
m41.111 3 e
n
b
8225.0 v b
2
CHAPTER TWO
SEEPAGE
2.1 Phase Relationships
The pressure of the pore water is measured relative to atmospheric pressure, and
the
surface within the ground at which the water is at atmospheric pressure is called
the
water table or more generally the phreatic surface. Artesian conditions may exist
sometimes.
Above the water table, water can be held at negative pressure by capillary
tension and
the zone affected by it is called the capillary zone. The soil between the ground
surface and the capillary zone forms the zone forms the zone of aeration. In this
zone
the soil is also able to retain small droplets of water, surrounded on all sides by
air.
This water known as contact moisture. The negative pressure of water in the
capillary
zone results in attractive forces between particles; this attraction is referred to as
soil
suction.
Bernoulli’s theorem applies to the pore water seeping through soil:
h
V
= g22 + γ
p
w
The velocity head can be neglected, thus
+Z
h
u = +
Z w γ h=total head, u=pore water pressure, γ w=9.8 kN/m3, Z=elevation
head above a
chosen datum.
2
2.2 Permeability
Darcy’s empirical law assuming a fully saturated soil and in one dimension.
Aki q
vq
=
Aki == q=volume of water per unit time, A=cross sectional area of soil ,
k=coefficient of
permeability, i=hydraulic gradient, v= discharge velocity.
k depends primarily on the average size of pores and for a given soil k is a
function of
void ratio.
k varies with temperature upon which the velocity of the water depends.
γ
k = ηwK η=viscosity of water, K= absolute coefficient depending only on the
soil skeleton.
Table (2.1) Coefficient of permeability (m/s) (BS 8004; 1986).
k values for different soils are within expected ranges for sands approximately.
mminD),s/m(D10k = 2
10 2 10 The
average velocity at which the water flows
the soil pores is obtained by dividing
the volume of water flowing per unit time by the average area of voids. Av, on a
cross
section normal to the macroscopic direction of flow, this velocity is the seepage
velocity, V′:
v
q v
nA
ki
Av
nnv q
V A
An, v V′ ==≈ v ′ = = = Determination of the coefficient of permeability:
2
1. Laboratory methods:
wire mesh.
ql
k h lkq, =
Ahi = h lA =
b) Falling head permeability test for finegrained
soils:
• Undisturbed specimens are normally tested and the containing cylinder in
the
test may be the sampling tube
itself.
• The standpipe is filled with water and a measurement is made of the time (t1)
for the water level (relative to the water level in the reservoir) to fall from ho to
h1.
• At any intermediate time t the water level in the standpipe is given by h and
its
rate of change by (dh/dt).
• At time t the difference in total head between the top and bottom of the
specimen is h. Then applying Darcy’s
law:
2
l
h
dh
a dt = Ak 
a
h∫ 1∫ 1 dt h
o
lt0
k
Atal 1
o
h
ln h
h o
13.2 At al
1 l
og h 1
2
rh2A, i
r
= dh drr = π rhk2q
= π dh
drq r ∫ 2r 1
dr r=hdhk2 π h2∫ h
1
lnq
=
r r12
lnq
r r12
∴
= hhHk2 π 12 
k
=
r/rlogq3.2 hhH2 π 12  b) Bore hole tests
• The general principle is that water is either introduced into or pumped out of a
borehole which terminates within the stratum, the procedures being referred to as
inflow and out flow tests respectively.
• A hydraulic gradient is thus established causing seepage either into or out of the
soil
mass surrounding the borehole and the rate of flow is measured.
• In a constant head test (Fig, a), the water level is maintained throughout at a
given
level.
• In a variable head test (Fig, b) the water level is allowed to fall or rise from its
initial
position and the time taken for the level to change between two values is
recorded.
2
• The tests indicate that the permeability of the soil within a radius of only 12m
from
the center of the borehole.
• A problem in such tests is that clogging of the soil face at the bottom of the
borehole
tends to occur due to the deposition of sediment from the water. And to alleviate
the
problem, the borehole may be extended below the bottom of the casing (Fig, c),
increasing the area through which seepage takes place. The extension may be
uncased or supported by perforated casing depending on the type of soil. Another
solution is to install within the casing a central tube perforated at its lower end
and
set within a pocket of coarser material.
• Expressions for k depend on whether the stratum is unconfined or confined, the
position of the bottom of the casing within the stratum and details of the drainage
face in the soil.
• If the soil is anisotropic with respect to permeability and if the borehole extends
below the bottom of the casing (Fig, c), then the horizontal k tends to be
measured.
• If the casing penetrates below soil level in the bottom of the borehole (Fig, d)
then
vertical k tends to be measured.
• For constanthead test
Fhq
k= c F=intake factor with values published by Hvorslev
h
2.
• k for a coarse soil can also be obtained from insitu measurements of seepage
velocity. The method involves excavation uncased boreholes or trial pits at two
points A and B (Fig, e). Seepage taking place from A towards B. (i) is given by
the
difference in the steadystate water level in the boreholes divided by the distance
AB. Dye or any other suitable traced is inserted in to A and the time taken for the
Dye to appear in B is measured. The seepage velocity is then the distance AB
divide
nv ′
by the time. k = i, n=porosity from density tests.
2
2.3 Seepage theory
Assume soil is homogeneous and isotropic and the seepage is in two dimension
(XZ
h h
plane). x k kiv x x ∂∂  = = z k kiv z z ∂∂  = =
dV Assume a volume change in the element per unit time= dt : ⎛ │⎝dV dt
v ∂
∂ x ∂x+ ∂v zz ⎞ │⎠dxdydz = Consider a function φ (x,z) called the
∂∂φ x
∂h
= kv x =  ∂x∂ φ∂z
∂h
= kv z=  ∂z....(2) ∂∂ zx 2
φ 2+ ∂ ∂2 φ 2= 0 Upon integration of equation (2): φ )z,x(kh)z,x( = 
+constant
If the )z,x(φ i s given a constant value it will represent a curve on the xz plane
along which the value of total head is constant. If )z,x(φ i s given a series of

ψ
∂ ∂ x
∂h
= kv z =  ∂z
∂h
∂ ∂ψz =
kv x=  ∂xd ψ=
∂ ∂ψ x dx
+ ∂ ∂ψ z dzvdxvdz
=  z + x If ψ ( )z,x is given a constant
dz v
0 ∴
value ψ 1, then dψ = dx = v
z
x ...(3)
2
=
ψ
∫ 2ψ 1
dx ∂ dz
⎛ │⎝∂ ∂ψ x + ∂ψ z =
ψ
∂ =
ψ =
12  constant dzvdxv
⎞ │ d ∂ φ
⎠ φ = ∂ x dx + ∂ φ dz
z
I f
+
)z,x(φ x is z constant then φd = 0
dz v
dx= 
vxz...(4) from equations (3) and (4) the flow
lines and the equipotentials interest
each other at right angles.
∂ x ∂
sinvv,cosvv x = α =
s z s α ∂ φ
∂
x s= ∂ φ
∂ ∂ zs+ ∂φ ( )()
s
z ∂
∂s=
=
cosv
xα + sinv z α =
cosv
s
=
2 α sinv s 2 α
+
v
∂ψ
s ∂
∂ x ∂ ∂ z
xn= ∂ψ ∂ ∂ zn+ ∂ψ ∂ n =
 sinv
z
 α + cosv x α =
 sinv s
α  sin α = cosv s 2 α v
2
∂
sn ∴ ∂ ∂ψ = ∂φ or approximately ∆
∆ψ sn = ∆
∆φ 2.4 Flow Nets
A flow net is a family of flow lines and a family of equipotentials. The flow net is
used to solve seepage problems.
In construction of a flow net:
1. Every intersection between a flow line and an equipotential must be at right
angles.
2. It is convenient that ψ∆ =
constant, φ∆ = constant
3. It is also convenient that:
∆ ns = ∆ (curvilinear square formed by flow lines and equipotentials).
h
Since ∆ ∆ ∆∴ ψ = ∆ φ s∆ ψ = ∆ ∆ φ = ∆ ∆∴ = ∆
∆ψ sn = ∆ φ i
h=difference in total head between the first and last equipotentials.
Nd=number of equipotentials drops, each representing the same total head loss
h∆ ,
Nh
Nf=number of flow channels, each carrying the same flow q∆ , ∆
h= d,q
∆
hkqhk = ∆and
h f
kNhkNqNq = f ∆ = f ∆ = Nd ∴
N f
khq = Nd
2
Example (1.2)
The figure shows a line of sheet piling driven 6m in to a stratum of soil 8.6m thick,
underlain by an impermeable stratum. On one side of the piling the depth of water
is
4.5m; on the other side the depth of water (reduced by pumping) is 0.5m. Draw
the
flow net and calculate the seepage
rate (q).
solution:
∆
h
h
= N d
N f Nd= 36.04k × × 3
γ
( ( ) ) =
γppw
( zh
+
) impervious boundary
upstream downstream
=
k44.1
m
sstream
h
p
=
d
N dh =
n 10 12× 4 = m33.3 u
pwp
=
h   z p 1st trial
after several trials
not squares but the length to breadth ratio should be constant within the flow channel
2
Example 2.2
The section through a sheet pile wall along a tidal estuary is given in figure below.
At
low tide the depth of water in front of the wall is 4m; the water table behind the
wall
lags 2.5m behind tidal level. Plot the net distribution of water pressure on the
piling.
solution:
At level 4:

9.155.521.08.95.583.18.9uu fb
= ( + )  ( + ) = kN
m2
2
Example 3.2
A river bed consists of a layer of sand 8.25m thick overlaying impermeable rock;
the
depth of water is 2.5m. Along cofferdam 5.5m wide is formed by driving two lines
of
sheet piling to a depth of 6m below the level of the river bed and excavation to a
depth of 2m below bed level is carried out within the cofferdam. The water level
within the cofferdam is kept at excavation level by pumping the flow of water into
the cofferdam is 0.25m3 /hr per unit length. Find k of sand and I below excavated
surface.
solution:
df
N/Nh ( q
25.0 k =
) = 6010/65.4
s/m106.2
×× =
2 ×  5
5.4 × =
5.0
2
Example 4.2
The section through a dam is shown in figure below. Determine the quantity of
seepage under the dam and plot the distribution of uplift pressure on the base of
the
dam. The coefficient of permeability of the foundation soil is s/m105.2 .
× 5
solution:
)mper(s/m101.3 khq
=
the direction (z) normal to that of stratification k x=kmax and kz=kmin
h
ikv x = xx =  k x ∂ ∂h xkikv, z = zz =  ∂ z ∂z
in a direction s inclined at
angle α t o the x direction
h h ∂ h
kv s =  ∂ s ∂s∂ ∂ s= ∂
x∂
x ∂ h
∂ s+ ∂
∂
z
z v s
∂s ks=
kv
x z
xcos α
+ k zsin α sinvv,cosvv x =
v z =
s α ∴
s α
1
k s = cos
2α
+ x2
α k s 2
z∴ k
x 2
s= k x
z
+ k
2
v
zthe directional variation of permeability represent an ellipse ∂
x
∂x+ ∂ ∂v
equation of continuity
zz = 0
k kx zsin k
2
2
2 2xassume:
z
xx t = k kx∂ 2
h 2
∂x2t+ ∂ ∂z
h 2= 0 equation of continuity for an isotropic soil in the xt, z
2
This equation provides a scale factor in the xdirection which transforms a given
anisotropic flow region into a fictitious isotropic flow region.
A flow net may be drawn for the transformed section and then obtained for the
natural
section by applying the inverse of the scaling factor if the latter is necessarily
required.
Consider an elemental flow net field through the xdirection drawn to the
transformed
and natural scales.
kv
x
∂h h
=  ′ ∂∂ xh t =
 k x ∂x∂ ∂xt
= ∂ h
k z kx∂
k
∂=
z kx=
xk kk zx k/k
′
x
= ∂ x/h ∂
∂
z
/h k ∂ x x/h = kk
k
x zx k′is the equivalent isotropic coefficient which is the
value of the permeability
coefficient applying to the transformed section.
2.6 Nonhomogeneous soil conditions
Assume that the two layers to be a single homogeneous anisotropic layer of
thickness
(H1+H2) in which the coefficients in the directions parallel and normal to that of
k
x
∂ ∂ x/h
2
1) Horizontal seepage
the equipotentials in each layer is vertical on the boundary H1=H2, then the
vertical line
through the two layers should be a common potential, thus ix is also
common. ikHkHikHHq
x =
( 1 +
xx2 ) (
= 11 + x22 ) k x = kHkH
11 HH
HiHi)HH(i + = +
losses in H1 and H2 1z 2 2211 =
ik
⎛ │ H ⎞ │
zz │⎝ k11 + H k22 │⎠∴
/HHk
H 1
1 2 ) ⎛ │
2
z (
= + k2 ⎞ ││⎠Similar procedure may be applied for
│⎝ k1 + H
any number of layers. Note that k xmust
z =
φ 2
1
2differentiating along the boundary, s sk1 ∂ ∂φ 1
1
= sk 2
∂ ∂ v v
φ 2 ∴ ks1 1=
1v
ks2 2for continuity of flow across the boundary ; vv
n1 =
n2
s1
k1 vn1=
1
k
vv
2
s2
n2
∴ tan
tan αα
1 k
2= k
1
2∆ = ∆
ψ ∆n
n hk
s ∆ φ
, ∆∴ = ∆ s ∆ If on both sides of the boundary each of q∆ and
q ∆
h∆ are equal.
∆
⎛ │⎝1 1
∆
n ∆s2 2 ⎞ │⎠k = ⎛ │⎝ n ∆s⎞ │⎠k curvilinear squares ⎛
∆
│⎝ ∆n
⎞ │ =
s ⎠ are possible in only one soil ∴ ⎛
1 1
∆n kk
│⎝ ∆s⎞ │ ⎠
2 =
1
+ = o  xxx4x4zx
22
+ = o 2  o +
2 zx4xx4
o
= o 22
∴
xx
= o
z 2
 x4 o
2
The known point of this parabola is at C because of the boundary condition. At C:
2
x1 ( )lhl lx2lh,lxandhz
= =  22
+ = o + ∴
o= 2 +
2  with x oknown, the various points on the basic parabola may be
calculated and the
flow net then drawn.
kx2q =
Using the complex variable theory: o It is recommended to take the initial
) ( D15
D
) s 15 f 〉 5to4
(
) ( D50
) s 25
to ensure a sufficiently high k 50 f 〈
for drainage purposes
Filters comprising two or more layers with different grading can also be used:
such
arrangement is called a graded filter.
2.10 Frost heave
• Increase in volume of water due to freezing is 9% ⇒ V vincrease 9%, the
overall increase in volume of soil is 2.5%5% depending on e.
• A greater increase in V may occur due to the formation of ice lenses.
• Water freezes initially in large pores, higher soil suction develops and water
migrates towards the ice in the larger voids where it freezes and adds to the
volume of ice causing the formation of ice lenses. The process continuous only
if the bottom of zone of freezing is within the zone of capillary rise.
• After thawing the soil contains an excess of water making it soft with a
reduced strength.
• The worst conditions for water migration occur in soils having a high
percentage of siltsize particles.
2
2.11 Grouting
• Grouting is the process used for reducing the permeability of coarsegrained
soils.
• The process consists of injecting suitable fluids, known as grouts, into the pore
space of the soil; the grout subsequently solidifies, preventing or reducing the
seepage of water.
• Grouting also results in an increase in the strength of the soil.
• Fluids used for grouting include mixes of cement and water, clay suspensions,
chemical solutions, such as sodium silicate or synthetic resins, and bitumen
emulsion.
• Injection is usually effected through a pipe which is either driven into the soil
or placed in a borehole and held with a packer.
• The particle size distribution of the soil governs the type of grout that can be
used.
Example 5.2
A homogeneous anisotropic embankment dam section is detailed in figure below,
k in
the x and z directions being
=  = + ∴ x8.40
xx =
2
o
 x4z ox 1.9 0 5.0 10.0 20.0 30.0
hkq =
′ N f Nd= 107.2 × 
8 × 18 ×

8.3 18= s/m100.1 × 37
s/m100.19.1107.22xk2qor = ′ o = × ×  8 × = ×  37 Level AD is selected
as datum. An equipotentials RS is drawn through P. By
inspection the total head at P is 15.6m. At P the elevation head is 5.5m, so the
pressure head is 10.1m and the pore water pressure , uP is
m/kN991.108.9u P =
× = 2
2
CHAPTER THREE
EFFECTIVE STRESS
3.1 Introduction
• Shear stresses are resisted only by solid particles through forces developed
at
• Normal stresses are resisted by solid particles and also by water in fully
saturated soil.
The principle which applies only to fully saturated soils relates the following three
stresses: 1) the total normal stress (σ ) on a plane within the soil mass, being
the force per unit
between
2
plane over the entire area A (the total contact area is normally 13% of A)
∴ ,uANP
P ′
= ∑+′ A= ∑ AN + u It σ s hould =
be u
σ +′
understood that σ′does not represent the true contact stress between two
here a
particles, which would be the random but very much higher stress a/N′ w
is
the actual contact area between the particles.
Effective vertical stress due to selfweight of soil: σ v =
γ sat z
u will be
hydrostatic since the void space between the solid particles is continuous, zu
=
γ
w
σ
GS WT ∴ v
σ
′= v  u
=
( γsat
 γ w ) zz
= γ ′ z
where γ′is the buoyant unit weight of soil
3.3 Response of effective stress to a change in total stress
lateral confinement
increment of an increase in total vertical stress
immediate equal increment of increase in pore water pressure (excess u)
(no arrangement of particles due to lateral confinement) (undrained
condition)
transient flow (drainage) of pore water towarissipation of u)ds a
freedraining boundary until reaching a steadystate pore water pressure
rearrangement of particles with a resulting increase in the inter particle
forces (increasing σ′)
ill be carried entirely by the soil skeleton (equal
increament of σ w
incremental increase in σ′) (drained condition)
2
• Particle rearrangement is largely irreversible upon a reduction in σ ( small
3.4 Consolidation
analogy
cylinder the pore water, the bore diameter of valve the permeability of the
soil.
• The cylinder itself simulates the condition of no lateral strain in the soil.
Assuming water to be
incompressible.
• If load applied on the piston with the valve closed, the load will be carried by
the water. The situation with the valve closed corresponds to the
undrained
• If the valve is now opened, water will be forced out through the valve at a
rate
depends on bore diameter. The piston will move and the spring will
• Eventually all the load will be carried by the spring and the piston will come
to
• At any time, the load carried by the spring is the effective stress in the soil,
the
pressure of water in the cylinder the pore water pressure and the load on
the
• The movement of the piston represents the change in volume of the soil and
is
2
3.5 Partially saturated soils
• In the case of partially saturated soils part of the void space is occupied by
• The pore water pressure (uw) must always be less than the pore air pressure
• Unless the degree of saturation is close to unity the pore air will form
continuous channels through the soil and the pore water will be
concentrated in
soil. ( ) wa uu
 =a measure of the suction in
the soil.
• For a fully saturated soil( )1Sr = , χ =1; and for a completely dry soil, χ =0, (
)0Sr = . Example 1.3
A layer of saturated clay 4m thick is overlain by sand 5m deep, the water table
being
3m below the surface. ( ) sat γ of the clay and sand are 19 and 20 3 m/kN ,
respectively; above the water table ( ) γ of the sand is 17 3 m/kN . Find the
values of
total vertical stress and effective vertical stress against depth. If sand to a height
of
1m above the water table is saturated with capillary water, how are the above
stresses
affected.
solution:
3
γ γ ′ = buoyant of
sand = m/kN2.108.920 = 
2
3
γ γ ′ = buoyant of
clay = m/kN2.98.919 = 
= × + × = ′σ
At 5m depth: ( ) ( ) 2 v m/kN4.712.102173
At
9m depth: ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 v m/kN2.1082.942.102173
=×+×+
× = ′σ
3
f sand between 2 and 3m depth from 17 to 20
the tγ o m/kN , an increase of 3
2
m/kN0.313 = × , u b eing unchanged.
u u
h z z ,h hh A wA B wB A B ∆
+ = + ∆
= γ γ
│ ⎞ │ ⎛ u
│ ⎠ │ ⎝ ∆  + = hzz u BA
 ( )h
+ = γ θ sinbzz BA =
sinb uu wA B ∆
+ = ∴ θ γ
cosb2 θ
the resultant
γ
w
242sinb
( θ + cos 2 θ ) = γ w b 2 ∴seepage
γ
resultant body force. VVi wc = γ ′ ∴ i c = γγ
′
w = 1G e1

s +
2
if i cis reached the soil would be in the quick condition and the sand surface will
appear to be boiling, the effective normal stress on any plane will be zero.
Conditions adjacent to sheet piling:
i
m
=
hh DC  d AB = 0h
=h i i
DC d  i m dm F = i c
m exit ii ∆h s)AEFG( F =
= eie = ∆
icePractically no significant difference between
the two factors of safety (average h along the
( ABCD =
2(
1 2γ sat d 2  d ) dh m + ( ) γ w )
1 2d 1
2dh=
1 2γ
+′ γ w d 2  1 2ddh m + 2 γ w =
γ
′ 2  wm γ or
γ= γ
′dh
i
wm
γ= i
e
m
Example 2.3 The flow net for seepage under a sheet pile wall is shown in figure
below, the
3
saturated unit weight of the soil being 20 m/kN . Determine the values of σ′ vat
A
and B. Determine also F against failure by heaving adjacent to the downstream
face
γ = m/kN20 3 of the soil.
of the piling. sat
2
solution:
2 A m/kN137
= ′σ
or
2 w sat A m/kN259
39 220 4 11 = + = + = γ
γσ
2 A m/kN122
u = 2 AA A m/kN137
122 259 u =
 =  = ′ σ σ 2 wat sat B m/kN1308.9120
16=
 = + = γ γ σ m7 hB  = ( ) ( ) 2 BBwB
m/kN8476.18.9zh u = + =  =γ
2 BB B m/kN4684
130 u =  =  = ′ σ σ
2 considering the combination of effective weight and seepage
force.
=×=
Average value of vertical component of seepage pressure between D and A,
acting in
3
the same direction as gravity m/kN3.28.9 115.2 =
×=
γ′of soil, ′γ = m/kN2.108.920  = 3 for column AD, of unit area, resultant body
force = ) = ′σ A = m/kN137 2 for point B:
kN1373.22.1011 ( +
m/kN466.22.106  = 2
( ) Now the stability of the soil mass EFGH is
analyzed
c
3.2 6= 39.0 i = γγ
5.3 12× m3.28 = im =
hm =
′= =
w 2.10 8.9 04.1 F
=
i
i mc = 04.1 39.0
= 7.2
2
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