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Nama : Muh.

Sulthan Nazhim

NIM : H071191047

Prodi : Ilmu Komputer

Exercise 4

1. The Netherlands, in Europe, is more than 60 percent near or below sea level. Flooding has always
been a major worry because its major cities, factories, and greenhouse farms are built on floodplains.
The greatest risk of flooding comes from the North Sea itself with its severe winter storms and
massive tides. However, flooding can also occur along the Rhine, Maas, and Scheldt Rivers, which
are swollen every spring with snowmelt from the Alps. And when these major rivers meet the North
Sea, they form a delta region that consists of additional floodplains.
Topic : Great country examples threatened with flood
Main Idea : C) The Netherlands, in Europe, is more than 60 percent near or below sea level

2. As the Dutch built their cities, farms, and factories on the floodplains, they also built a system of
barriers' to keep the floodwaters back. The Dutch barriers are the strongest in the world, designed to
protect the country from the usual high tides and heavy rainfall, as well as possible "monster" storms
that occur only rarely. The first line of defense is the dikes, 2 dams,' and storm barriers, which over
the centuries have become ever longer and higher. Today they stretch for about 2,200 miles (3,500
km) along the sea and the major rivers. They are aided by secondary defenses, such as canal dikes and
holding ponds, as well as by thousands of water pumps and pumping stations.

Topic : flood prevention methods

Main Idea : C) The Dutch system of barriers is the strongest in the world

3. A recent government study on the effects of climate change has led the Dutch government to change
its traditional water protection strategies. The study concluded that the combination of higher rainfall
in Northern Europe and rising sea levels would lead to an increased risk of flooding. At the same
time, hotter summers could lead to cracking and weakening in the traditional earthen dikes. Thus, in
the future, it might no longer be possible to hold back the water. Though it will continue to maintain
the barriers, the government is shifting to a "softer," more environmentally friendly approach. The
aim is to rely more on the natural protection of flood plains, sand dunes, salt marshes, and mud flats.
The government has begun buying land along major waterways, where water could be directed when
floods threaten.

Topic : the Netherlands changed its traditional strategy

Main Idea : A) The Dutch government has been studying the effects of climate change

Exercise 7
1. Main Idea : In 1927, the company bought land in Brazil and started a rubber plantation
2. Main Idea : The new plantation, named Fordlandia, was situated in the jungle and covered about
3,600 square miles (5,800 square km)
3. Main Idea : Fordlandia is now viewed as a historical lesson for companies about the mistake of
trying to control all phases of production