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Reinforced Concrete Design

Prepared by: Ir.Raja Nurulhaiza


UiTM Seri Iskandar B.Civil.Eng (Hons), UITM
Msc.Civil,UTM
1.0 INTRODUCTION
• Reinforced Concrete (RC) is a versatile composite and one of the
most widely used materials in modern construction.

• Reinforced concrete is a composite material, consisting of steel


reinforcing bars embedded in concrete.

• Concrete has high compressive strength but low tensile


strength.

• Steel bars can resist high tensile stresses but will buckle when
subjected to comparatively low compressive stresses.

• By forming a strong bond together, the two materials are able to


resist a variety of applied forces, effectively acting as a
single structural element.
1.0 INTRODUCTION

• Reinforced concrete is an economical structural


material which is both strong in compression and in
tension.
• In addition, concrete provides corrosion protection and
fire resistance to the steel bars.
• Guidance on the use of concrete in building and civil
engineering structures is given in BS8110 ‘Structural
use of concrete’ Part 1,2,3.
1.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN
The objective of structural design
The objective of structural design is to achieve an acceptable
probability that structures being designed and it will perform
satisfactorily during their intended life.

These requirements may include any or all of the following:

• the structure shall not collapse.


• it shall not be so flexible that the appearance of the structure or the
motion of the structure causes alarm or discomfort to the users.
• it shall not require excessive repair due to accidental overload nor
because of the action of the weather.
• In the case of a building the structure shall be sufficiently fire
resistance to allow the occupants to escape in the case of fire.
1.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN

Through out the design process the designer should be conscious of


the costs involved. These include :

• the initial cost – site preparation, cost of materials, and construction.


• Maintenance costs – decoration, structural repair.
• Insurance – chiefly against fire damage.
• Cost of the eventual demolition of the structure.
1.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Basic of design
• Two limit states design for reinforced concrete in accordance to BS
8110.
a) Ultimate limit state (ULS) – considers the behaviour of the
element at failure due to bending, shear and compression or
tension. In ultimate limit state, bending is critical for moderately
loaded medium span beams. Shear is critical for heavily loaded
short span beams.

b) The Serviceability limit state (SLS) considers the behaviour


of the member at working loads and is concerned with
deflection and cracking.

• Therefore, every beam must be design against bending


moment resistance, shear resistance and deflection.
1.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN

Ultimate design load ( Clause 2.4.3.1)


The ultimate design load acting on a member will be the summation of the
relative characteristic load combination multiplied by their respective partial
safety factors.
Ultimate design load F, dead + imposed = f Gk + f Qk = 1.4 Gk + 1.6 Qk

Ultimate design strength of materials (Clause 2.4.4.1)


The ultimate design strength of a material is obtained by dividing its
characteristic strength by an appropriate partial safety factor.
Ultimate design strength of concrete = fcu /1.5 = 0.67 fcu
Ultimate design strength of reinforcement = fy /1.05 = 0.95 fy
1.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Material properties - concrete
• The most important property is the compressive strength.
The strength may vary due to operation such as
transportation, compaction and curing.
• Compressive strength is determined by conducting
compressive test on concrete specimens after 28 days of
casting.
• Two types of specimen: (1) 100 mm cube (BS standard),
and (2) 100 mm diameter by 200 mm long cylinder.
Characteristic compressive strength
of concrete (fcu)
Cylinder strength

Cube strength Chanakya Arya, 2009. Design of structural


elements 3rd edition, Spon Press.

• Concrete is graded according to the characteristic


compressive strength.
1.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Max. stress at starin; 0.002

Ultimate strain
1.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Material properties - steel
• The most important property of steel is the tensile strength.
• Tensile strength is determined by conducting tensile test.
• 3 types of steel:
-Y stands for high yield deformed steel type one (square
twisted bar) nowadays is obsolete (outdated).Its yield strength
is 410 N/mm2.
-T stands for high yield deformed steel type two (Ribbed bar)
nowadays is extensively used. Its yield strength is 460 N/mm2.
-R stands for round mild steel. Its yield strength is 250 N/mm2
1.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN
• Idealized stress-strain curve for steel.
1. An elastic region,
2. Perfectly plastic region (strain hardening of steel is ignored)
1.3 SHEAR & BENDING MOMENT IN BEAM

Shear diagram of cross section

Moment diagram of cross section


•It is clear from the above figure that for a beam subject
to shear loading and bending the maximum shear
stress is at the neutral axis and reduces to zero at the
the outer surfaces
1.3 BEAMS DESIGN (clause 3.4, BS8110)

Rectangular L-section T-section


section

Types of beam by cross section


Bar spacing and layer spacing

Link

• Whenever possible steel bars must be arranged in a single layer


• This simplifies analysis and design calculations, and optimizes the bending capacity
with a greater lever arm .
• It is frequent however that more than one steel layer is required
• Spacing between bars in any layer and spacing between various layers must be not less
than nominal maximum size of aggregate 20mm.
Concrete cover
• Reinforcing steel bars must be protected from the surrounding
environment, such as fire and corrosion.
• The reinforcing bar is located at a certain minimum distance from
the surface of concrete so that a protective layer of concrete,
called cover, is available.

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Concrete cover

Why is cover needed ?


a) Bonds reinforcement to concrete
b) Protects reinforcement against
corrosion
c) Protects reinforcement from fire
(over heating causes major steel
strength loss)
d) Larger cover values are used in
foundations, garages, factories,
etc. to account for abrasion, wear
and chemical attacks.

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Concrete cover
Minimum cover dimensions

• Concrete not exposed to earth or weather :


 Suspanded Slabs, walls, joists : 20 mm
 Beams, Columns : 40 mm

• Concrete cast against / exposed to earth : 75 mm

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Types of beam by reinforcement position

Singly reinforced Doubly reinforced

• Singly reinforced – reinforcement to resist tensile stress.


• Doubly reinforced – reinforcement to resist both tensile
and compressive stress.
• Compressive reinforcement increases the moment
capacity of the beam and can be used to reduce the
depth of beams.
Notation for beam (clause 3.4.4.3, BS 8110)
b
A’S
d’

d h

AS
1.4 SINGLY REINFORCED BEAM
Simply supported rectangular beams are designed so that concrete above the
Neutral Axis is capable of resisting the induced compression, and tensile
reinforcement capable of resisting the induced tension is introduced below the
Neutral Axis.
The formula (clause 3.4.4.4 ) for simply supported singly reinforced
beam are as follows:

where for singly reinforced beams K  K’ = 0.156

z = d [ 0.5 +  (0.25 – K/0.9) ] ≯ 0.95d , x = and As =

where

As = area of tension reinforcement


b = compression width of section
d = effective depth of tension reinforcement
fcu = characteristic strength of concrete
fy = characteristic strength of steel
M = design ultimate moment
x = depth to neutral axis
z = lever arm
1.5 DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAM
If M > Mu or the value limit of 0.156 then beam proportions would have
to be increased in size particularly its overall depth. If this is not possible due to
limitations on the headroom in the structure then compressive reinforcement
would have to be introduced above the NA i.e. doubly reinforced
],

The formula for doubly supported double reinforced beam are as follows:

M > Mu or K > K’ = 0.156

where;

As ’ = As = + As ’

z = d [ 0.5 +  (0.25 – K’/0.9) ] ≯ 0.95d , < 0.37 where x =

where

As = area of tension reinforcement = characteristic strength of steel


b = compression width of section As’ = area of compression reinforcement
d = effective depth of tension reinforcement M = design ultimate moment
d’ = depth of compression reinforcement Mu = design ultimate resistance moment
fcu = characteristic strength of concrete x = depth to neutral axis
z = lever arm
Example 1. Singly reinforced beam (Chanakya Arya, 2009)

• A simply supported rectangular beam of 7 m span carries


characteristic dead (including self-weight of beam), gk and
imposed, qk, loads of 12 kN/m and 8 kN/m respectively. Assuming
the following material strengths, calculate the area of reinforcement
required.
Compression reinforcement is not required

987
0.95 0.95

Refer to Table 3.10; Provide 4H20, (As = 1260 mm2)


Cross section area for steel bars (mm2)
Example 2. Singly reinforced beam
Example 3. Double reinforced beam (Chanakya Arya, 2009)

• The reinforced concrete beam has an effective span of 9m and


carries uniformly distributed dead load (including self weight of
beam) and imposed loads as shown in figure below. Design the
bending reinforcement.

20 mm
Assume diameter of link= 10mm
- Diameter of link
20 -- 10 = 327.5mm
0.186
327.52

Compression reinforcement is required

+ Diameter of link = 20 + (16/2) + 10 = 38mm


254mm
327.5 - 254 327.5
162mm

38
0.23 < 0.37
162

115 )
165
0.95 0.95 (327.5 -38)
115
+ 165 = 953
0.95 0.95 254

2H25 982

38

327.5

2H25
FAILURE MODE OF BEAM IN BEAM

• The failure mode of beam in bending depends on the


amount of reinforcement.
• under reinforced – the steel yields and failure will
occur due to crushing of concrete. The beam will
show considerable deflection and severe cracking
thus provide warning sign before failure.
• over-reinforced – the steel does not yield and failure is
due to crushing of concrete. There is no warning sign
and cause sudden, catastrophic collapse.
Shear (clause 3.4.5, BS8110)
• Failure of a beam may arise is due to its shear capacity
being exceeded.Two principal shear failure mode:
(a) diagonal tension – inclined crack develops and splits the
beam into two pieces. Shear link should be provide to prevent
this failure.
(b) diagonal compression – crushing of concrete. The shear
stress is limited to 5 N/mm2 or 0.8(fcu)0.5
Shear (clause 3.4.5, BS8110)
• The shear stress is determined by:

• In order to determine whether shear reinforcement is required, it is


necessary to calculate the shear resistance or the design concrete
shear stress, vs, at critical sections along the beam.
• Generally, where the design shear stress exceeds the design
concrete shear stress , shear reinforcement is needed. This is normally
done by providing :
1. vertical shear reinforcement commonly referred to as ‘links’ and /or
2. inclined (or bent-up) bars.
Deflection

• For rectangular beam,


1. The final deflection should not exceed span/250
2. Deflection after construction of finishes and partitions
should not exceed span/500 or 20mm, whichever is
the lesser, for spans up to 10 m.
3. BS 8110 uses an approximate method based on
permissible ratios of the span/effective depth.
Table 1 Cross-section areas of bars (mm2)
Bar Number of bars
size 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
(mm)
6 28.3 56.6 84.9 113 142 170 198 226 255 283
8 50.3 101 151 201 252 302 352 402 453 503
10 78.5 157 236 314 393 471 550 628 707 785
12 113 226 339 452 566 679 792 905 1020 1130
16 201 402 603 804 1010 1210 1410 1610 1810 2010
20 314 628 943 1260 1570 1890 2200 2510 2830 3140
25 491 982 1470 1960 2450 2950 3440 3930 4420 4910
32 804 1610 2410 3220 4020 4830 5630 6430 7240 8040
40 1260 2510 3770 5030 6280 7540 8800 10100 11300 12600

Table 3.7 Form, area and spacing of links


Values of v (N/mm2) Area of shear reinforcement to be provided
v < 0.5vc throughout the beam No links required but normal practice to provide n
ominal links in members of structural importance

0.5vc < v <( vc + 0.4 ) Nominal (or minimum) links for whole length of be
am
Asv 
( vc + 0.4 )<v<0.8fcu Design links
Or 5 N/mm2 Asv 
Table3.8 Value of design concrete shear stress, Vc (N/mm2)
100As Effective depth (d) mm
bd 125 150 175 200 225 250 300  400
0.15 0.45 0.43 0.41 0.40 0.39 0.38 0.36 0.34
0.25 0.53 0.51 0.49 0.47 0.46 0.45 0.43 0.40
0.50 0.67 0.64 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.54 0.50
0.75 0.77 0.73 0.71 0.68 0.66 0.65 0.62 0.57
1.00 0.84 0.81 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.68 0.63
1.50 0.97 0.92 0.89 0.86 0.83 0.81 0.78 0.72
2.00 1.06 1.02 0.98 0.95 0.92 0.89 0.86 0.80
3.00 1.22 1.16 1.12 1.08 1.05 1.02 0.98 0.91

Table 3.9 Span/effective depth ratios for initial design


Support condition Span/depth
Cantilever 7
Simply supported 20
Continous 26
3.9
3.10
Continuous beams

BS8110 ; Part 1, clause 3.4.3, gives moments and shears in continuous


beams with uniform loading. The design ultimate moments and shear
forces are given in Table 3.6 in the code in the code and reproduced
below. The use of the table is subject to the following conditions :

•The characteristic imposed load Qk may not exceed the characteristic


dead load Gk ;
•The loads should be substantially distributed over three or more spans ;
•Variations in span length should not exceed 15% of the longest span.
The code also states that no redistribution of moments calculated using
this table should be made.
Clause 3.4.3 of BS 8110: Uniformly-loaded continuous beams with
approximately equal spans: moments and
shears
Ex. Calculate the design load given the dead load is 6.6 kN/m2 and the imposed load
is 3 kN/m2 Analyse using BS8110: Part 1, Table 3.5

42.12 kN/m

A P B Q C R D

8m 8m 8m

Figure

The characteristic dead load Gk = 3 x 6.6 = 19.8 kN/m


The characteristic imposed load Qk = 3 x 3 = 9 kN/m
The maximum design ultimate load = (1.4 x 19.8) + (1.6 X 9) = 42.12 kN/m
F = total design ultimate load per span = 42.12 x 8 = 336.96 kN
Design ultimate shears and Position Factors from Table 3.5
moments
Shear Forces (kN) A 0.45 x 336.96 =151.63
BA 0.6 x 336.96 = 202.18
BC 0.55 x 336.96 = 185.33

Bending moments (kNm) P 0.09 x 336.96 x 8 = 242.61


B - 0.11 x 336.96 x 8 = - 296.52
Q 0.07 x 336.96 x 8 = 188.69