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Questions 1-3

A new atomic clock being developed for navigation satellites will perform better than previous devices.
The clock will use a new microwave cavity design to provide a compact and lightweight package and new
electronic techniques to maintain long-term stability. The clock can provide precise navigation information
because it is stable to one second in three million years. The differences in the time when signals from four
satellites arrive at one location can be used to calculate that position to within a few yards.

1. It can be inferred from the passage that 

A. the new clock will be long lasting  
B. harmful to humans 
C. produced in great numbers 
D. very attractive looking

2.  According to the passage, signals from how many satellites will be used to calculate a position? 
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

3. What is the primary purpose of the passage?

A. To teach a lesson
B. To sell a product
C. To support a theory
D. To provide information

Questions 4-5 
Joy and sadness are experienced by people in all cultures around the world, but how can we tell when other
people are happy or despondent? It turns out that the expression of many emotions may be universal.
Smiling is apparently a universal sign of friendliness and approval. Baring the teeth in a hostile way, as
noted by Charles Darwin in the nineteenth century may be a universal sign of anger. As the originator of
the theory of evolu tion, Darwin believed that the universal recognition of facial expressions would have
survival value. For example, facial expressions could signal the approach of enemies (or friends) in the
absence of language.

4. The word despondent in the passage is closest in meaning to 

A. Curious 
B. unhappy 
C. thoughtful 
D. uncertain 

5. .The author mentions "Baring the teeth in a hostile way" in order to 
A. differentiate one possible meaning of a particular facial expression from other meanings of
B. support Darwin's theory of evolution
C. Provide an example of a facial expression whose meaning is widely understood 
D. contrast a facial expression that is easily understood with other facial expressions.

Question 6-8
The Earth’s crust is thought to be divided into huge, movable segments, called plates, which float on a soft
plastic layer of rock Some mountains were formed as a result of these plates crashing into each other and
forcing up the rock at the plate margins In this process, sedimentary rocks that originally formed on the
seabed may be folded upwards to altitudes of more than 26,000 feet. Other mountains may be raised by
earthquakes, which fracture the Earth’s  crust and can displace enough rock to produce block mountains. A
third type of mountain may be formed as a result of volcanic activity which occurs in region of active fold
mountain belts, such as in the Cascade Range of western North America.The cascades are made up of
lavas and volcanic materials. Many of the peaks are extinct volcanoes.

6. According to paragraph 3, one cause of mountain formation is the 

    A.  effect of climatic change on sea level
    B.  slowing down of volcanic activity
    C.  force of Earth’s crustal plates hitting each other
    D.  replacement of sedimentary rock with volcanic rock

7. According to paragraph 3,one cause of mountain formation is the

     A. effect of climatic change on sea level
     B. Slowing down of volcanic activity
     C. Force of earth's crustal plates hitting each other
     D. Replacement of sedimentary rock with volcanic   rock

8. According to paragraph 3,one cause of mountain formation is the

     A. effect of climatic change on sea level 
     B. Slowing down of volcanic activity
     C. Force of earth's crustal plates hitting each other
     D. Replacement of sedimentary rock with volcanic   rock

Questions 9-11
The railroad was not the first institution to impose regularity  on society, or to draw attention to the
importance of precise timekeeping. For as long as merchants have set out their wares at daybreak and
communal festivities have been celebrated, people have been in rough agreement with their neighbors as to
the time of day. The value of this tradition is today more apparent than ever. Were it not for public
acceptance of a single yardstick of time, social life would be unbearably chaotic: the massive daily
transfers of goods, services, and information would proceed in fits and starts; the very fabric of modern
society would begin to unravel

9. What is the main idea of the passage?

A. In modern society we must make more time for our neighbors.
B. The traditions of society are timeless
C. An accepted way of measuring time is essential for the smooth functioning of society.
D. Society judges people by the times at which they conduct certain activities.

10. In line 5, the phrase "this tradition" refers to

A. The practice of starting the business day at dawn
B. Friendly relations between neighbors
C. The railroad's reliance on time schedules
D. People's agreement on the measurement of time.

11. In line 8, the word "very" is closest in meaning to 

A. Much 
B. Extreme
C. Clear
D. Actual
Questions 12-20
The Alaska pipeline starts at the frozen edge of the Arctic Ocean. It stretches southward across the largest
and northernmost state in the United States, ending at a remote ice-free seaport village nearly 800 miles
from where it begins. It is massive in size and extremely complicated to operate. 
The steel pipe crosses windswept plains and endless miles of delicate tundral that tops the frozen ground. It
weaves through crooked canyons, climbs sheer mountains, plunges over rocky crags, makes its way
through thick forests, and passes over or under hundreds of rivers and streams. The pipe is 4 feet in
diameter, and up to 2 million barrels (or 84 million gallons) of crude oil can be pumped through it daily. 
Resting on H-shaped steel racks called "bents," long sections of the pipeline follow a zigzag course high
above the frozen earth. Other long sections drop out of sight beneath spongy or rocky ground and return to
the surface lateri on. The pattern of the pipeline's up-and-down route is determined by the often harsh
demands of the arctic and subarctic climate, the tortuous lay of the land, and the varied compositions of
soil, rock, or permafrost (permanently frozen ground). A little more than half of the pipeline is elevated
above the ground. The remainder is buried anywhere from 3 to 12 feet. depending largely upon the type of
terrain and the properties of the soil. One of the largest in the world, the pipeline cost approximately S8
billion and is by far the biggest and most expensive construction project ever undertaken by private
industry. In fact, no single business could raise that much money, so eight maor oil companies formed a
consortium in order to share the costs. Each company controlled oil rights to particular shares of land in
the oil fields and paid into the pipeline-construction fund according to the size of itsi holdings. Today,
despite enormous problems of climate, supply shortages, equipment breakdowns, labor disagreements,
treacherous terrain, a certain amount of mismanagement. and even theft. the Alaska pipeline has been
completed and is operating.

12. The passage primarily discusses the pipeline's.

A. operating costs 
B. employees 
C. consumers
D. construction

13. The word "it" in line 3 refers to

A. Pipeline
B. Ocean
C. State
D. Village

14. According to the passage, 84 million gallons of oil can travel through the pipeline each
A. Day
B. Week
C. Mounth
D. Year 

15. The phrase "Resting on" in line 11 is closest in meaning to

A. Consisting of
B. Supported by
C. Passing under
D. Protected with

16. The author mentions all of the following as important in determining the pipeline's route EXCEPT the
A. Climate
B. Lay of the land itself
C. Local vegetation
D. Kind of soil and rock

17. The word "undertaken" in line 20 is closest in meaning to

A. Removed
B. Selected
C. Transported
D. Attempted

18. How many companies shared the costs of constructing the pipeline?
A. Three
B. Four
C. Eight
D. Twelve

19. The word "particular" in line 33 is closest in meaning to

A. Peculiar
B. Spesific
C. Exceptional
D. Equal

20. Which of the following determined what percentage of the construction costs each member of the
consortium would pay?
A. How much oil field land each company owned
B. How long each company had owned land in the oil fields
C. How many people worked for each company
D. How many oil wells were located on the company's land

Question 21-22
Archeology delivers traces of dance from prehistoric times such as the 9.000 year old Bhimbetka rock
shelters paintings in India and Egyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures from 3300 BC. One of
the earliest structured uses of dances may have been in the performance and in the telling of myths. Before
the production of written languages, dance was one of the methods of passing these stories down from
generation to generation. Another early use of dance may have been as a precursor to ecstatic trance states
in healing rituals. Dance is still used for this purpose by many cultures from the Brazilian rain forest to the
Kalahari Desert. Some European tribes also used loud group singing and dancing in order to prepare
themselves for the dangerous combat with other tribes.

21. According to paragraph one, why was dance used to pass stories down between generations?
A. Because it was more expressive than writing
B. Because writing had not been developed
C. It was a good way of depicting stories from myth
D. Dances could be shared between tribes

22. Which of the following is not listed as a historic use of dance in paragraph 1?
A. The telling of myths
B. Healing rituals 
C. As a prayer for good weather
D. To prepare for combat

Question 23-24
By the 18th century ballet had migrated from the royal court to the paris opera. During this century the
ballet spread through Europe and developed from a courtly arrangement of moving images used as part of
a larger spectacle, to a performance art in its own right, the ballet d'action. This new form swept away
much of the artificiality of the court dance and strove towards the concept that art should aspire to imitate
nature. This ultimately resulted in costumes that allowed the dancer much more freedom of movement than
before and were conducive to a fuller use of the expressive capacity of the body. It also opened the door to
pointework, for this acceptance of more naturalistic costuming allowed the development of the heel-less
shoe, which led to the dancer being able to make more use of the rise onto demi-pointe. 

23. What does the author imply about ballet costumes? 

A. Costumes used in the 17th century often restricted the movements of ballet dancers
B. Early ballet costumes were modeled after the appearances of animals in nature
C. dancers performed barefoot on stage
D. Early ballet costumes differed between European countries

24. In line 3,the word "courtly" is closest in meaning to

A. Process
B. Creative
C. very polite
D. Partly

Question 25-26
A brief exception to the new ideas and designs used on the twentieth Century occurred in the 1960's,which
Saw the growth of postmodernism.Postmodernism veered towards simplicity,the beauty of small things,the
beauty of untrained body,and unsophisticated movement. The famous 'No' manifesto rejecting all costumes
stories and outer trappings in favor of raw and unpolished movement was perhaps the extreme of this wave
of thinking Unfortunately lack costumes , stories and outer trappings do not make a good dance show,and
by the end of the 1960s,sets,decor and shock value re-entered the vocabulary of modern choreographers

25. Why does the author mention the "No" Manifesto?

A. To explain the cause of minimalistic dance performances in 1960s dance 
B. To show the effect that new ideas had one dance performances in the 1960s 
C. To illustrate the extreme ideas that some dancers and choreographers had in the 1960s
D. To explain why dance performances after the 1960s once again used sets,decor,and shock value

26.Why does the author mention that performance s without costumes and stories don't result in good
A. To explain why dance performances after the.1960s once again used sets,decor,and shock    
B. To criticize dance performances of the 1960s
C. To compare dance performances of the 1960s to those after the 1960s
D. To account for trends in 1970s ballet