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Gustav Klimt and the Portrait of Adele BlochBauer

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• Klimt 1918
• Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I
• Klimt University of Vienna Ceiling Paintings
• Danaë (Klimt painting)

Gustav Klimt

This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license. It uses material
retrieved from on 2010-12-18.


Life and work

Early life and education

Vienna secession years

Golden phase and critical success

Later life and posthumous success

Style and recurring themes


Selected works


The Painting Gold Coin

See also



External links

Gustav Klimt
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation , search
Gustav Klimt

Gustav Klimt, 1908. Photo by Dora Kallmus.

Birth name Gustav Klimt

July 14, 1862
Baumgarten, Austrian Empire
February 6, 1918(1918-02-06) (aged 55)
Vienna, Austria-Hungary
Nationality Imperial Austrian
Field Painter
Movement Symbolism, Art Nouveau
Works Judith and the Head of Holofernes, Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I, The Kiss, Danaë
Influenced Egon Schiele

Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 February 6, 1918) was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most
prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. His major works include paintings, murals,
sketches, and other art objects. Klimt's primary subject was the female body,[1] and his works are marked by a
frank eroticismnowhere is this more apparent than in his numerous drawings in pencil (see Mulher sentada,

Life and work

Early life and education

Gustav Klimt was born in Baumgarten, near Vienna, the second of seven children three boys and four girls.
All three sons displayed artistic talent early on. His father, Ernst Klimt, formerly from Bohemia, was a gold
engraver.[4] Ernst married Anna Klimt (née Finster), whose unrealized ambition was to be a musical
performer. Klimt lived in poverty for most of his childhood, as work was scarce and economic advancement
was difficult for immigrants.

In 1876, Klimt was awarded a scholarship to the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts (Kunstgewerbeschule),
where he studied until 1883, and received training as an architectural painter.[4] He revered the foremost
history painter of the time, Hans Makart. Klimt readily accepted the principles of a conservative training; his
early work may be classified as academic.[4] In 1877 his brother Ernst, who, like his father, would become an
engraver, also enrolled in the school. The two brothers and their friend Franz Matsch began working together;
by 1880 they had received numerous commissions as a team they called the "Company of Artists", and
helped their teacher in painting murals in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.[4] Klimt began his
professional career painting interior murals and ceilings in large public buildings on the Ringstraße including a
successful series of "Allegories and Emblems".

In 1888, Klimt received the Golden order of Merit from Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria for his contributions
to murals painted in the Burgtheater in Vienna.[4] He also became an honorary member of the University of
Munich and the University of Vienna. In 1892 both Klimt's father and brother Ernst died, and he had to
assume financial responsibility for his father's and brother's families. The tragedies affected his artistic vision
as well, and soon he would veer toward a new personal style. In the early 1890s, Klimt met Emilie Flöge,
who, notwithstanding the artist's relationships with other women, was to be his companion until the end of his
life. Whether his relationship with Flöge was sexual or not is debated, but during that period Klimt fathered at
least 14 children.[5]

Vienna secession years

A section of the Beethoven Frieze

Klimt became one of the founding members and president of the Wiener Sezession (Vienna Secession) in
1897 and of the group's periodical Ver Sacrum (Sacred Spring). He remained with the Secession until 1908.
The group's goals were to provide exhibitions for unconventional young artists, to bring the best foreign
artists' works to Vienna, and to publish its own magazine to showcase members' work.[6] The group declared
no manifesto and did not set out to encourage any particular style -- Naturalists, Realists, and Symbolists all
coexisted. The government supported their efforts and gave them a lease on public land to erect an exhibition
hall. The group's symbol was Pallas Athena, the Greek goddess of just causes, wisdom, and the artsand
Klimt painted his radical version in 1898.

In 1894, Klimt was commissioned to create three paintings to decorate the ceiling of the Great Hall in the
University of Vienna. Not completed until the turn of the century, his three paintings, Philosophy, Medicine
and Jurisprudence were criticized for their radical themes and material, which was called "pornographic".[7]
Klimt had transformed traditional allegory and symbolism into a new language which was more overtly
sexual, and hence more disturbing.[7] The public outcry came from all quarters political, aesthetic, and
religious. As a result, they were not displayed on the ceiling of the Great Hall. This would be the last public
commission accepted by the artist. All three paintings were destroyed by retreating SS forces in May 1945.
His Nuda Verita (1899) defined his bid to further shake up the establishment. The starkly naked red-headed
woman holds the mirror of truth, while above it is a quotation by Schiller in stylized lettering, "If you cannot
please everyone with your deeds and your art, please a few. To please many is bad."[8]

In 1902, Klimt finished the Beethoven Frieze for the 14th Vienna Secessionist exhibition, which was intended
to be a celebration of the composer and featured a monumental, polychromed sculpture by Max Klinger.
Meant for the exhibition only, the frieze was painted directly on the walls with light materials. After the
exhibition the painting was preserved, although it did not go on display until 1986.

During this period Klimt did not confine himself to public commissions. Beginning in the late 1890s he took
annual summer holidays with the Flöge family on the shores of Attersee and painted many of his landscapes
there. Klimt was largely interested in painting figures; these works constitute the only genre aside from
figure-painting which seriously interested Klimt.[9] Klimt's Attersee paintings are of a number and quality so as
to merit a separate appreciation. Formally, the landscapes are characterized by the same refinement of
design and emphatic patterning as the figural pieces. Deep space in the Attersee works is so efficiently
flattened to a single plane, it is believed that Klimt painted them while looking through a telescope.[10]

Golden phase and critical success

The Kiss 19071908. Oil on canvas. Österreichische Galerie Belvedere.

Klimt's 'Golden Phase' was marked by positive critical reaction and success. Many of his paintings from this
period used gold leaf; the prominent use of gold can first be traced back to Pallas Athene (1898) and Judith I
(1901), although the works most popularly associated with this period are the Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I
(1907) and The Kiss (19071908). Klimt travelled little but trips to Venice and Ravenna, both famous for their
beautiful mosaics, most likely inspired his gold technique and his Byzantine imagery. In 1904, he collaborated
with other artists on the lavish Palais Stoclet, the home of a wealthy Belgian industrialist, which was one of
the grandest monuments of the Art Nouveau age. Klimt's contributions to the dining room, including both
Fulfillment and Expectation, were some of his finest decorative work, and as he publicly stated, "probably the
ultimate stage of my development of ornament."[11] Between 1907 and 1909, Klimt painted five canvases of
society women wrapped in fur. His apparent love of costume is expressed in the many photographs of Flöge
modeling clothing he designed.

As he worked and relaxed in his home, Klimt normally wore sandals and a long robe with no undergarments.
His simple life was somewhat cloistered, devoted to his art and family and little else except the Secessionist
Movement, and he avoided café society and other artists socially. Klimt's fame usually brought patrons to his
door, and he could afford to be highly selective. His painting method was very deliberate and painstaking at
times and he required lengthy sittings by his subjects. Though very active sexually, he kept his affairs
discreet and he avoided personal scandal.

Klimt wrote little about his vision or his methods. He wrote mostly postcards to Flöge and kept no diary. In a
rare writing called "Commentary on a non-existent self-portrait", he states "I have never painted a
self-portrait. I am less interested in myself as a subject for a painting than I am in other people, above all
women...There is nothing special about me. I am a painter who paints day after day from morning to
night...Who ever wants to know something about me... ought to look carefully at my pictures."[12]

Later life and posthumous success

Adele Bloch-Bauer I , which sold for a record $135 million in 2006. Neue Galerie, New York.

In 1911 his painting Death and Life received first prize in the world exhibitions in Rome. In 1915 his mother
Anna died. Klimt died three years later in Vienna on February 6, 1918, having suffered a stroke and

pneumonia due to the influenza epidemic of 1918. [13][14][15] He was buried at the Hietzing Cemetery in Vienna.
Numerous paintings were left unfinished.

Klimt's paintings have brought some of the highest prices recorded for individual works of art. In November
2003, Klimt's Landhaus am Attersee sold for $29,128,000,[16] but that was soon eclipsed by prices paid for
other Klimts.

In 2006, the 1907 portrait, Adele Bloch-Bauer I, was purchased for the Neue Galerie in New York by Ronald
Lauder for a reported US $135 million, surpassing Picasso's 1905 Boy With a Pipe (sold May 5, 2004 for
$104 million), as the highest reported price ever paid for a painting. On August 7, 2006, Christie's auction
house announced it was handling the sale of the remaining four works by Klimt that were recovered by Maria
Altmann and her co-heirs after their long legal battle against Austria (see Republic of Austria v. Altmann).
Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer II was sold at auction in November 2006 for $88 million, the third-highest priced
piece of art at auction at the time.[17] 'The Apple Tree I' (ca. 1912) sold for $33 million, 'Birch Forest' (1903)
sold for $40.3 million,[18] and 'Houses in Unterach on Lake Atter' (1916) sold for $31 million. Collectively, the
five restituted paintings netted over $327 million.[19]

Style and recurring themes

Klimt's work is often distinguished by elegant gold or coloured decoration, spirals and swirls, and phallic
shapes used to conceal the more erotic positions of the drawings upon which many of his paintings are
based. This can be seen in Judith I (1901), and in The Kiss (19071908), and especially in Danaë (1907).
One of the most common themes Klimt used was that of the dominant woman, the femme fatale.

Art historians note an eclectic range of influences contributing to Klimt's distinct style, including Egyptian,
Minoan, Classical Greek, and Byzantine inspirations. Klimt was also inspired by the engravings of Albrecht
Dürer, late medieval European painting, and Japanese Rimpa school. His mature works are characterized by
a rejection of earlier naturalistic styles, and make use of symbols or symbolic elements to convey
psychological ideas and emphasize the "freedom" of art from traditional culture.

Judith and the Portrait of
Head of Holofernes, 1901. Hermine Gallia, 1904. National
Belvedere, Vienna Gallery, London The Three Ages of Woman,
1905, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte
Moderna, Rome

Primavesi. 1912. Oil on
Danaë by Gustav Klimt, painted Hope, 1907-1908, Museum of canvas. 150 × 110 cm.
1907. Private Collection, Vienna Modern Art Metropolitan Museum of Art,
New York.

Avenue in Schloss Kammer Mulher sentada, (1916) The Friends, 1916-17.

Park, 1912. Belvedere, Vienna

Selected works

University of Vienna Philosophy (18991907) Farm Garden (Flower Portrait of Adele
Ceiling Paintings Palais Nuda Veritas (1899) Garden) (19051906) Bloch-Bauer II (1912) The
Stoclet mosaic in Brussels Portrait of Serena Lederer Farm Garden with Virgins (Die Jungfrau)
Fable (1883) Idylle (1884) (1899) Medicine (Hygieia) Sunflowers (19051906) (1913) Semi-nude
The Theatre in Taormina (19001907) Music The Stoclet Frieze seated, reclining (1913)
(18861888) Auditorium in (Lithograph) (1901) Judith (19051909) Portrait of Semi-nude seated, with
the Old Burgtheater, I (1901) Buchenwald Fritsa Reidler (1906) closed eyes (1913)
Vienna (1888) Portrait of (Birkenwald) (1901) Gold Sunflower (19061907) Portrait of Eugenia
Joseph Pembauer, the Fish (To my critics) Hope II (19071908) Primavesi (19131914)
Pianist and Piano (19011902) Portrait of Danaë (1907) Portrait of Lovers, drawn from the
Teacher (1890) Ancient Gertha Felsovanyi (1902) Adele Bloch-Bauer I right (1914) Portrait of
Greece II (Girl from Portrait of Emilie Flöge (1907) Poppy Field (1907) Elisabeth Bachofen-Echt
Tanagra) (18901891) (1902) Beech Forest Schloss Kammer on the (1914) Semi-nude lying,
Portrait of a Lady (Frau (1902) Beech Forest I Attersee I (1908) The Kiss drawn from the right
Heymann?) (1894) Music (1902) Beethoven Frieze (19071908) Lady with (19141915) Portrait of
I (1895) Love (1895) (1902)[21][22] Beech woods Hat and Feather Boa Friederike Maria Beer
Sculpture (1896) Tragedy (1903) Hope (1903) Pear (1909) The Tree of Life (1916) Houses in
(1897) Music II (1898) Tree (1903) Life is a (1909) Judith II (Salomé) Unterach on the Attersee
Pallas Athene (1898) struggle(1903) (1909) Black Feather Hat (1916) Death and Life
Flowing water (1898) Jurisprudence (Lady with Feather Hat) (1916) Garden Path with
Portrait of Sonja Knips (19031907) [23] Water (1910) Schloss Kammer Chickens (1916) The
(1898) Fish Blood (1898) Serpents I (19041907) on the Attersee III (1910) Girl-Friends (19161917)
Schubert at the Piano Water Serpents II The Park (1910) Death Woman seated with
(1899) After the Rain (19041907) The Three and Life (1911) Farm thighs apart, drawing
(Garden with Chickens in Ages of Woman (1905) Garden with Crucifix (19161917) The Dancer
St Agatha) (1899) Portrait of Margaret (19111912) Apple Tree (19161918) Leda
Nymphs (Silver Fish) Stonborough-Wittgenstein (1912) Forester's House, (destroyed) (1917)
(1899) Mermaids (1899) (1905) Weissenbach on Lake Portrait of a Lady, en face
Attersee (1912) Portrait of (19171918) The Bride
Mada Primavesi (1912) (unfinished) (19171918)
Adam and Eve
(unfinished) (19171918)
Portrait of Johanna
Staude (unfinished)


According to the writer Frank Whitford : " Klimt of course, is an important artist - he's a very popular artist -
but in terms of the history of art, he's a very unimportant artist. Although he sums up so much in his work,
about the society in which he found himself - in art historical terms his effect was negligible. So he's an artist
really in a cul-de-sac." [24]

• Klimt's work had a strong influence on the paintings of Egon Schiele, whom he would collaborate with to
found the Kunsthalle (Hall of Art) in 1917, to try and keep local artists from going abroad.
• National Public Radio reported on January 17, 2006 that "The Austrian National Gallery is being

compelled by a national arbitration board to return five paintings by Gustav Klimt to a Los Angeles
woman, the heir of a Jewish family that had its art stolen by the Nazis. The paintings are estimated to
be worth at least $150 million."[25]
• Klimt's work has spawned many reinterpretations, including the works of Slovak artist Rudolf Fila.
• Couturier John Galliano found inspiration for the Christian Dior Spring-Summer 2008 haute couture
collection in Klimt's work.
• Romanian poet Sebastian Reichmann has published in 2008 a book called Mocheta lui Klimt (Klimt's
Carpet). As the author says in an interview[26] and even in one of the poems from the book, the title was
inspired by a carpet from a train he often attended, carpet that reminded him of Klimt's paintings. Also,
the front cover depicts an Art Nouveau-styled passage from Bucharest.
• South Korean novelist Kim Young-ha frequently refers to Klimt, particularly Judith, in his first novel I
Have The Right To Destroy Myself. One of the main characters in this novel is referred to by the other
characters as Judith because of her resemblance to Klimt's painting and is thus also known primarily as
Judith to the reader.
• Several of Klimt's most famous works from his golden period inspired a Japanese animation title
sequence for the series "Elfen Lied". The works are recreated to fit with the series' own characters and
are arranged as a montage with the song "Lilium".

The Painting Gold Coin

The painting coin, featuring Gustav Klimt

Gustav Klimt and his work have been the subjects of many collector coins and medals. The most recent and
prominent one is the famous 100 euro Painting Gold Coin, issued on November 5, 2003. The obverse depicts
Klimt in his studio with two unfinished paintings on easels.

See also

• Bride of the Wind (biopic)

• Maria Altmann
• Republic of Austria v. Altmann (Bloch-Bauer court case)


1. ^ " The most important element of his fame is his reputation as a master of eroticism". Fleidel, Gottfried:
"Gustav Klimt 1862-1918 The World in Female Form.", p. 14. Benedikt Taschen, 1994.

2. ^ Sabarsky, Serge, et al., Gustav Klimt: Drawings, p. 18. Moyer Bell Limited, 1983. ISBN 0-918825-19-9

3. ^ Fliedl, Gottfried, page 230, 1994.

4. ^ a b c d e Sabarsky, p. 7.

5. ^ John Collins, Klimt: Modernism In The Making, Harry N. Abrams, 2001, p.99, ISBN 978-0-8109-3524-2

6. ^ Frank Whitford, Klimt, Thames and Hudson, 1990. p.69.

7. ^ a b Sabarsky, p. 9.

8. ^ Frank Whitford Klimt, Thames and Hudson, 1990, p.52.

9. ^ In recognition of his intensity, the locals called him "Waldschrat", Forest Demon. Koja, Stephan, et al.:
Gustav Klimt Landscapes, page 27. Prestel, 2002.

10. ^ Anselm Wagner: "Klimt's Landscapes and the Telescope", Gustav Klimt Landscapes, pages 161-171.
Prestel, 2002.

11. ^ Frank Whitford Klimt, Thames and Hudson, 1990, p.103

12. ^ Frank Whitford Klimt, Thames and Hudson, 1990, p.18

13. ^ see timeline and life historyRetrieved December 12, 2010

14. ^ Gilles Neret, Gustav Klimt: 1862-1918, Taschen, 1999, p.84. ISBN 3-8228-5980-X

15. ^ Alessandra Comini, Gustav Klimt, George Braziller, 2001, p.5. ISBN 0-8076-0806-8

16. ^ Nina Siegal,, Retrieved February 4, 2007.

17. ^ Christopher Michaud, Christie's stages record art sale, Reuter's, November 9, 2006. Retrieved
November 9, 2006.

18. ^ Kinsella, Eileen: "Gold Rush", Artnews, page 111. January 2007.

19. ^ Kinsella, Eileen, page 112, January 2007.

20. ^

21. ^

22. ^

23. ^[dead link]

24. ^ Whitford, speaking on The Kiss: The Private Life of a Masterpiece, BBC TV

25. ^ Burbank, Luke Austria to return paintings to Jewish heir, National Public Radio, 17 January 2006.

26. ^ "cartea romaneasca / catalog / carte". Retrieved 2010-02-28.


• Hubertus Czernin Die Fälschung: Der Fall Bloch-Bauer und das Werk Gustav Klimts. Czernin Verlag,
Vienna 2006. ISBN 3-7076-0000-9
• Carl E. Schorske "Gustav Klimt: Painting and the Crisis of the Liberal Ego" in Fin-de-Siècle Vienna:
Politics and Culture. Vintage Books, 1981. ISBN 0-394-74478-0
• Jane Kallir, Alfred Weidinger: Gustav Klimt. In Search of the Total Artwork. Prestel, New York 2009,
ISBN 978-3-7913-4232-0
• Julio Vives Chillida. El Beso (Los Enamorados) de Gustav Klimt. Un Ensayo de Iconografía,,
junio de 2008, ISBN 978-1-4092-0530-2.
• Gilles Neret. Gustav Klimt: 1862-1918. Taschen, 1993, 2005. ISBN 978-3-8228-5980-3
• Alfred Weidinger. Klimt. Catalogue Raisonné, Prestel, New York, 2007, ISBN 978-3-7913-3764-7

External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Gustav Klimt

• "Adele's Wish" Documentary film on the Bloch-Bauer court case (Republic of Austria v. Altmann)
• Gallery of works by Gustav Klimt at (German)
• Biography of Gustav Klimt Biography of Gustav Klimt
• The Bloch-Bauer court case
• Web Museum Klimt page
• Klimt Film IMDB page
• High resolution Klimt gallery

Name Klimt, Gustav
Alternative names Klimt, Gustav
Short description Austrian Symbolist painter
Date of birth July 14, 1862
Place of birth Baumgarten, Austria
Date of death February 6, 1918
Place of death Vienna, Austria

The Kiss (Klimt painting)

This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license. It uses material
retrieved from on 2010-12-18.

The Kiss (Klimt painting)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation , search

Artist Gustav Klimt

Year 1907-1908
Type Oil and gold leaf on canvas
Dimensions 180 cm × 180 cm (70.9 in × 70.9 in)
Location Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna, Austria

The painting coin featuring "The Kiss"

The Kiss (original Der Kuss) was painted by Gustav Klimt, and is probably his most famous work. He began
work on it in 1907 and it is the highpoint of his so-called 'Golden Period'. It depicts a couple, in various
shades of gold and symbols, sharing a kiss against a bronze background.

When he painted The Kiss Klimt was 45 and still lived at home with his mother and two unmarried sisters -
but behind the respectable facade he was a man with a ferocious sexual appetite. Klimt fathered at least
three illegitimate children and probably many more. He was obsessed by women and he had a fixation with
redheads. It is no surprise that the woman in The Kiss has red hair. According to writer Frank Whitford:
"Together the man and the woman form the shape of an erect penis and I think that is intentional - it's about
sex and about the fulfillment of sex between a man and a woman." [1]

Two figures are situated at the edge of a flowered escarpment. The man is wearing neutral colored
rectangles and a crown of vines; the woman wears brightly colored tangent circles and flowers in her hair.
The couples embrace is enveloped by triangular vining and a veil of concentric circles.
Similarly juxtaposed couples appear in both Klimts Beethoven Frieze and Stoclet Frieze.

In The Kiss, Klimt depicted a couple locked in an embrace. The rest of the painting dissolves into
shimmering, extravagant flat patterning. This patterning has clear ties to Art Nouveau and to the Arts and
Crafts movement and also evokes the conflict between two- and three-dimensionality intrinsic to the work of
Degas and other modernists. Paintings such as The Kiss were visual manifestations of fin-de-siecle spirit
because they capture a decadence conveyed by opulent and sensuous images.

Some think[2] that Klimt and his beloved companion Emilie Flöge modeled for the masterpiece. Another
suggestion has been that she was a model called 'Red Hilda.' There is strong visual evidence that she is the
model for 'Woman with feather boa' , 'Goldfish' and 'Danaë'. She told her nephew that she was the woman in
'The Kiss'. Nothing is certain.

Klimt's use of gold had been hugely influenced by a trip he had made to Italy in 1903. He went to Ravenna
where he saw the Byzantine mosaics in the Church of San Vitale. For Klimt the flatness of the mosaics and
their lack of perspective and depth only enhanced their golden brilliance and he started to make
unprecedented use of gold and silver leaf in his own work. [3]

The Kiss is a discreet expression of Klimts emphasis on eroticism and the liberation therein. The Kiss falls in
line with Klimts exploration of fulfillment and the redeeming, transformative power of love and art. [citation needed]
The Kiss deviates from Klimts frequent portrayal of woman as the lascivious femme fatale.

The piece is currently at the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere museum, which is housed in the Belvedere
palace, in Vienna, Austria.

Gustav Klimt and "The Kiss" were selected as the main motif for a collectors' coin, the 100 euro gold The
Painting coin issued on 5 November 2003. The obverse depicts Klimt in his studio with two unfinished
masterpieces on easels, while the reverse shows "Der Kuss" (The Kiss).

1. ^ Private Life of a Masterpiece, Klimt's The Kiss BBCTV

2. ^ Klimt by Gilles Neret, p. 57

3. ^ Private Life of a Masterpiece, BBC TV

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: The Kiss

• Gustav Klimt at the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere

• Der Kuss
• The Kiss at 100
• Google books search
• The Kiss Klimt Blog Broad collection of articles around The Kiss painting

Klimt 1918

This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license. It uses material
retrieved from on 2010-12-18.






Former members




External links

Klimt 1918
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation , search
Klimt 1918
Rome, Italy

Gothic metal (early material)

Genres Alternative rock
Indie rock
Years active 1999 present
Labels Prophecy Productions, My Kingdom Music
Marco Soellner
Davide Pesola
Paolo Soellner
Francesco Conte

Klimt 1918 is an indie/alternative rock band from Rome, Italy.


Klimt 1918 was started in 1999 by brothers Marco and Paolo Soellner, after the split of their former band,
Another Day (a death metal act). Marco's newly discovered love for bands like The Cure, Bauhaus and Joy
Division, led him to incorporate new influences in his songwriting. The next year, after completing the line-up
with bass player Davide Pesola and lead guitarist Francesco Tumbarello, the band released its first effort,
Secession Makes Post-Modern Music, which was recorded by Novembre's drummer, Giuseppe Orlando, a
close friend of the band. The demo received good reviews from specialized press and caught the attention of
My Kingdom Music, a newborn Italian independent label, with which the band signed a deal for two releases.
Their debut full-length, Undressed Momento, came out in 2003; during the recording sessions, guitar player
Francesco Tumbarello left the band, being replaced by Alessandro Pace, a well-known name in Rome's
underground metal scene and a long time friend of the band. Undressed Momento marked an evolution in
Klimt 1918's sound, which became more melodic and emotional, losing part of its metal heritage; the album
received critical praise from reviewers all over Europe, and reached the first place in Orkus' Top Chart. One
year later, the band signed a new contract with German cult label, Prophecy Productions, and began working
on a new full-length. Dopoguerra was released in 2005 and featured a more mature and personal sound; the
album was once again praised by both critics and press, and was supported by a European tour, the first for
the band. The band said the album "was recorded during the hot summer 2004, with sound man/producer

Giuseppe Orlando. The one-month session was long and difficult, but worked out better than anyone could
have hoped."[1]

Between September and October 2006, guitarist Alessandro Pace left the band and was replaced by
Francesco Conte, who made his live debut with the band on October 21, at Prophecy Productions' 10 years

The long-delayed follow-up to Dopoguerra, called Just In Case We'll Never Meet Again (Soundtrack For The
Cassette Generation), was first released in Germany on June 20, 2008, being subsequently released
worldwide on June 23 and in the U.S.A. on June 24.

In April 2009 the band released its first videoclip Ghost Of A Tape Listener, followed by a vinyl release of Just
In Case We'll Never Meet Again (Soundtrack For The Cassette Generation) and a Ghost Of A Tape Listener
EP featuring a previously unreleased track, "Blackeberg 1981".


Klimt 1918's sound can be described as alternative rock with roots in avant-garde metal, featuring consistent
darkwave and post-rock influences. The resulting blend is a melodic and melancholic guitar-based rock,
combining thick shoegaze-like rhythm-guitar riffs with post-rock-esque atmospheres. Their recent output has
consistently shifted towards indie rock, featuring more emphasis on shoegaze and post-rock traits while
abandoning entirely their former metal influences.


The name "Klimt 1918" is a reference to Gustav Klimt and his year of death, 1918, which also saw the end of
the First World War. According to Marco Soellner, Klimt 1918's music features the same qualities of
de-contextualization, secession and post-modernism found in Klimt's art. Year 1918 itself, in Marco's words,
represents the definitive collapse of "belle epoque" values and a full transition to 20th century.

The name may also be a tribute to Bauhaus, which was originally named "Bauhaus 1919".


Marco Soellner - vocals, guitar

Francesco Conte - guitar
Davide Pesola - bass
Paolo Soellner - drums

Former members

• Francesco Tumbarello - guitar (20002002)

• Alessandro Pace - guitar (20022006) - Alessandro Pace (born May 20, 1977), better known as Alex
Vega, is an Italian musician and former member of the industrial rock group Dope Stars Inc. and the
alternative rock band Klimt 1918. A member of Klimt 1918 from 20022006 under his birth name, Pace
assumed the name Alex Vega when he joined Dope Stars Inc. in 2005 as a replacement guitarist. He
left the band in 2007. He founded the band, The Foreshadowing, which signed to Candlelight Records
in 2007. Alex is also a DJ.


• Secession Makes Post-Modern Music (self-produced demo, 2000)

• Undressed Momento (My Kingdom Music, 2003)
• Dopoguerra (Prophecy, 2005)[2][3]
• Just in case we'll never meet again (soundtrack for the cassette generation) (Prophecy, June 2008)[4]


1. ^ Klimt 1918 Myspace

• 2. ^ Dopoguerra at Allmusic

3. ^ Ian Duncan-Brown. "Dopoguerra review". Retrieved 4 April 2009. [dead link]

• 4. ^ Dr. Pete (2008-06-18). "Just in Case We'll Never Meet Again review". Retrieved 4 April 2009.


• Marco Soellner's interview for Ver Sacrum webzine (Italian)

• Klimt 1918 at

External links

• Klimt 1918 Official Website (English)

• Klimt 1918 Fansite (Italian)
• MySpace Page

Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I

This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license. It uses material
retrieved from on 2010-12-18.


The painting

Ownership of the painting


See also


External links

Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation , search

Artist Gustav Klimt
Year 1907
Type Oil, silver, and gold on canvas
Dimensions 138 cm × 138 cm (54 in × 54 in)
Location Neue Galerie

Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I is a painting by Gustav Klimt completed in 1907. According to press reports
it was sold for US$135 million to Ronald Lauder for his Neue Galerie in New York City in June 2006, which
made it at that time the most expensive painting ever sold.[1] It has been on display at the gallery since July

The painting

Klimt took three years to complete the painting. It measures 138 x 138 cm and is made of oil and gold on
canvas, showing elaborate and complex ornamentation as seen in the Jugendstil style. Klimt was a member
of the Vienna Secession, a group of artists that broke away from the traditional way of painting. The picture
was painted in Vienna and commissioned by Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer.[2] As a wealthy industrialist who had
made his fortune in the sugar industry, he sponsored the arts and favored and supported Gustav Klimt. Adele
Bloch-Bauer became the only model who was painted twice by Klimt when he completed a second picture of
her, Adele Bloch-Bauer II, in 1912.

Ownership of the painting

Public poster about the ownership change

Adele Bloch-Bauer, in her will, asked her husband to donate the Klimt paintings to the Austrian State Gallery
upon his death.[3] She died in 1925 from meningitis. When the Nazis took over Austria, her widowed husband
had to flee to Switzerland. His property, including the Klimt paintings, was confiscated. In his 1945 testament,
Bloch-Bauer designated his nephew and nieces, including Maria Altmann, as the inheritors of his estate.[4]

As Bloch-Bauer's pictures had remained in Austria, the government took the position that the testament of
Adele Bloch-Bauer had determined that these pictures were to stay there. After a protracted court battle in
the United States and in Austria (see Republic of Austria v. Altmann), binding arbitration by the Austrian court
established in 2006 that Maria Altmann was the rightful owner of this and four other paintings by Klimt.[5] After
the pictures were sent to America, they were on display in Los Angeles in 2006 before the portrait of Adele
Bloch-Bauer I was sold to Lauder in June 2006. New York's Neue Galerie is reported to have paid $135
million for the fifth looted Klimt portrait, Adele Bloch-Bauer I. Originally, the four additional works by Klimt
were included in the exhibition.

The painting is the centerpiece of Ronald Lauders collection, Neue Galerie in New York. This collection has
for years been in the process of recovering Jewish-owned art, mostly from Germany and Austria, that had
been confiscated or looted by the Nazi government. Lauder worked towards this goal while he was the U.S.
ambassador to Austria, as a member of the World Jewish Restitution Organization", and as a member of a
Clinton commission to examine cases of Nazi looting. Lauders comment on the acquisition for his Neue
Gallerie collection: This is our Mona Lisa. [6]

However, in November 2006, Adele Bloch-Bauer II (1912) was sold at auction at Christie's in New York
fetching almost $88m. In total the four remaining paintings sold for $192.7 million and the proceeds were
divided up among several heirs. The buyers of those paintings remain anonymous. The wish of Maria
Altmann that the these remaining four paintings should be accessible to the general public in a museum has
not be fulfilled.

Some factions of the art world called Ms. Altmann's decision to sell all of the restituted paintings greedy. New
York Times chief art critic Michael Kimmelman accused her of "cashing in," and thus transforming a "story
about justice and redemption after the Holocaust" into "yet another tale of the crazy, intoxicating art market."
Kimmelman argued that the family should give the works away, perhaps giving them to public institutions.[7]


Maria Altmann's story has been recounted in three documentary films. Adele's Wish by filmmaker Terrence
Turner, who is the husband of Altmann's great-niece, was released in 2008. Adele's Wish featured interviews
with Altmann, her lawyer, E. Randol Schoenberg and leading experts from around the world. Altmann's story
was also the subject of the documentary Stealing Klimt, which was released in 2007. That movie also
featured interviews with Altmann, Schoenberg, and others who were closely involved with the story.

The piece was also featured in the 2006 documentary The Rape of Europa, which dealt with the massive
theft of art in Europe by the Nazi Government during World War II.

See also

• List of most expensive paintings


• Hubertus Czernin. Die Fälschung: Der Fall Bloch-Bauer und das Werk Gustav Klimts. Czernin Verlag,
Vienna 2006. ISBN 3-7076-0000-9
• The Fight for the Klimt Paintings

1. ^ NY Times report from June 19, 2006

2. ^ Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer was born Ferdinand Bloch, the son of David Bloch (also known as Abraham
Bloch), a banker and sugar factory owner, and his wife Marie, née Straschnow. Ferdinand married Adele
Bauer, the daughter of Moritz Bauer (director of the Vienna bank Wiener Bankverein) and his wife Jeanette,
née Honig. When Ferdinand married Adele, both adopted the surname Bloch-Bauer.

3. ^ Last Will 1923

4. ^ Bloch-Bauer 1945 testament

5. ^ List and Pictures of Klimt Paintings ("Amalie" not part of the five pictures), Photo of Adele Bloch-Bauer,
Photo of Klimt

6. ^ Quote

7. ^ [1]

External links

• Adele's Wish
• Stealing Klimt at the Internet Movie Database
•, Life and Work of Gustav Klimt
• Fortune article by Tyler Green about Ronald Lauder and the Neue Galerie's acquisition of the painting.
• Documentation of the Legal Fight
• Slate article (06/2006)
• Los Angeles County Museum of Art: Klimt

Klimt University of Vienna Ceiling Paintings

This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license. It uses material
retrieved from on 2010-12-18.






Outcome and destruction



External links

Klimt University of Vienna Ceiling Paintings

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation , search

The bottom portion of the Medicine , showing Hygieia

The Klimt University of Vienna Ceiling Paintings, also known as the Faculty Paintings, were a series of
paintings made by Gustav Klimt for the ceiling of the University of Vienna's Great Hall between the years of
1900-1907. In 1894, Klimt was commissioned to paint the ceiling. Upon presenting his paintings, Philosophy,
Medicine and Jurisprudence, Klimt came under attack for 'pornography' and 'perverted excess' in the
paintings. None of the paintings would go on display in the university. In May 1945 all three paintings were
destroyed by retreating SS forces.


Philosophy [1][dead link] was the first of the three pictures presented to the Austrian Government at the seventh
Vienna Secession exhibition in March 1900. It had been awarded a gold medal at the World Exhibition in
Paris, but was attacked by those in his own country. Klimt described the painting as follows: "On the left a
group of figures, the beginning of life, fruition, decay. On the right, the globe as mystery. Emerging below, a
figure of light: knowledge." Critics were disturbed by its depiction of men and women drifting in an aimless
trance. The original proposal for the theme of the painting was "The Victory of Light over Darkness", but what
Klimt presented instead was a dreamlike mass of humanity, referring neither to optimism nor rationalism, but
to a "viscous void".[2] A rough study of the painting can be found here.[3]


Medicine [4] was the second painting, presented in March 1901 at the tenth Secession Exhibition. It featured a
column of nude figures on the right hand side of the painting, representing the river of life. Beside it was a
young nude female who floated in space, with a newborn infant at her feet, representing life. A skeleton
represented death in the river of life . The only link between the floating woman and the river of bodies is two
arms, the woman's and a man's as seen from behind. At the bottom of the painting Hygieia stood with the
Aesculapian snake around her arm and the cup of Lethe in her hand, turning her back to mankind. Klimt
conveyed an ambiguous unity of life and death, with nothing to celebrate the role of medicine or the science
of healing.[5] Upon display of the painting in 1901, he was attacked by critics who could have noted that
Vienna was leading the world in medical research under such figures as Theodor Billroth (1829-94), Frantisek
Chvostek (1835-84), and Ludwig Türck (1810-68). An editorial in the Medizinische Wochenschrift complained
that the painter had ignored doctors' two main achievements, prevention and cure. For a rough composition
draft of the painting see here.[6]


Jurisprudence [7][dead link]was the third of the paintings presented at the eighteenth Secession Exhibition in
November 1903. As in the other murals, the central theme is man's conflicted existence.[8] It, too, is laden with
anxiety: A condemned man is depicted surrounded by the three female furies: Truth, Justice and Law. They

are shown as the Eumenides, punishing the condemned man with an octopus's deadly embrace. It is not
surprising that the conflict in Jurisprudence has been seen as "psycho-sexual".[9]


The paintings were attacked by critics when they were presented, as each painting broke different cultural
taboos, contradicting the trend of the era to 'sublimate reality and to only present its more favourable
aspects.'(Neret) The paintings also drew the standard charges of obscenity which Klimt often faced.
Eighty-seven faculty members protested against the murals,[10] and in 1901 a public prosecutor was called in
and the issue even reached the Parliament of Austria, the first time that a cultural debate had ever been
raised there, but in the end no action was taken. Only the education minister defended Klimt, and when Klimt
was elected to be a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in 1901 the government refused to ratify the
action. He was never offered another teaching position. This would also be the last time Klimt would accept
commissions from the state, remarking: "I've had enough of censorship...I reject all state support, I don't want
any of it."[11]

A later painting of his entitled Goldfish (to my critics) (1901-1902) [12] which showed a smiling, beautiful
woman projecting her bottom at the viewer, an obvious response to all those who attacked the 'pornography'
and perverted excess' of the University paintings.

Outcome and destruction

The paintings were requested for an exhibition in St Louis in 1904, but the ministry declined, nervous of what
the reaction might be. Klimt then resigned his commission, wishing to keep his work, but the ministry insisted
they were already property of the state. Only when Klimt threatened the removal staff with a shotgun was he
able to keep his painting. Klimt repaid his advance of 30,000 crowns with the support of August Lederer, one
of his major patrons, who in return received Philosophy. In 1911 Medicine and Jurisprudence were bought by
Klimt's friend and fellow artist, Koloman Moser. Medicine eventually came into the possession of a Jewish
family, and in 1938 the painting was seized by Germany. In 1943, after a final exhibition, they were moved to
Schloss Immendorf, a castle in Lower Austria, for protection. In May 1945 the paintings were destroyed as
retreating German SS forces set fire to the castle to prevent it falling into enemy hands. All that remains now
are preparatory sketches and a few photographs, most notably that of one focusing solely on Hygieia. Only
one photograph remains of the complete painting of Medicine, taken just before it was destroyed. [4]


1. ^ "University of Wales Trinity Saint David".

Retrieved 2010-12-15.

2. ^ Fleidl, Gottfried: "Gustav Klimt 1862-1918 The World in Female Form", p. 77, Benedikt Taschen, 1994.

3. ^

4. ^ a b "PubMed Central, Figure: BMJ. 2002 December 21; 325(7378): 15061508" .
. Retrieved 2010-12-15.

5. ^ Fliedl, p. 81, 1994.

6. ^

7. ^ [1][dead link]

8. ^ Fleidl, p. 86, 1994.

9. ^ Fleidl, p. 86, 1994.

10. ^ Fleidl, p. 81, 1994.

11. ^ Fleidl, p. 88, 1994.

12. ^


• Gilles Neret. "Klimt". Taschen, 1993. ISBN 978-3-8228-5980-3

External links

•, Life and Work of Gustav Klimt

• Composition Draft for Medicine

Danaë (Klimt painting)

This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license. It uses material

retrieved from on 2010-12-18.

Danaë (Klimt painting)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation , search


Danaë is an oil painting by Gustav Klimt, created in 1907. The canvas measures 77 x 83 cm, is cataloged as
Symbolism, and is currently housed within the Galerie Würthle in Vienna, Austria. Danaë was a popular
subject in the early 1900s for many artists; she was used as the quintessential symbol of divine love, and

While imprisoned by her father, King of Argos, in a tower of bronze, Danaë was visited by Zeus, symbolized
here as the golden rain flowing between her legs. It is apparent from the subject's face that she is aroused by
the golden stream.

In this work, she is curled in a sumptuous royal purple veil which refers to her imperial lineage. Sometime
after her celestial visitation she gave birth to a son, Perseus, who is cited later in Greek mythology for slaying
the Gorgon Medusa and rescuing Andromeda.

Many other early portrayals of Danaë were often erotic; other paintings completed in similar style are Klimts
Hygeia (1900- 1907), and Water Snakes (1904 1907). [1]

• Danaë (Correggio)
• Danaë (Rembrandt painting)

• Danaë (Titian series)

1. ^ Payne, Laura. Klimt. Bath, UK: Parragon Publishing, 2004.

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