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Introduction to

Plant Disease and Control

Abdul Hafeez
Plant Pathologist
Department of Agriculture Azad Kashmir
microorganisms Environmental factors
WHAT IS
PLANT DISEASE ?
Series of responses
morphology
(shape)

abnormality
(function)
physio logy
Disease
quant ity

quality
loss
Symptoms

The external & internal alterations


of a plant as a result of a disease
Primary Symptoms
Direct changes of tissues infected by
pathogen

leaf spot
Secondary Symptoms
Indirect & subsequent changes of a distance
from the site of the pathogen

Sclerotium wilt
Localized symptoms

(in a particular part of the plant)

leaf spot

(death of cells in restricted areas)

bacterial canker
leaf blight (death of cells: not restricted)
Rots
(Death of cells and tissues)

anthracnose

soft rot: bacteria

dry rot: fungi


Hypertrophy & Hyperplasia
(overgrowth of tissue)

root knot (gall)


Systemic symptoms

(spreading throughout the plant body)


Transformation of tissues/organs

phyllody
Stunting/Dwarfing

(Reduced Growth)

Dwarf

Leaf roll / leaf curl


Changes in coloration

white leaf of sugarcane

mosaic

phosphorus deficiency
Symptoms with Signs

rust
Symptoms with
Signs

smut
Symptoms with Signs
powdery mildew

downy mildew
Naming of Disease
1. With symptom
papaya ringspot
Watermelon fruit rot

2. With sign
rust
smut
powdery mildew
Causal agents
1) Noninfectious/abiotic agents
- imbalance of nutrients
- extreme temperature/moisture
- Air & water pollutants, chemicals, etc.

2) Infectious / biotic agents

Fungi, bacteria, mollicutes,


viruses & viroids, nematodes,
protozoa
Shapes & sizes of plant pathogens
Fungi

bacteria

mollicutes

Parasitic
higher
plants

viruses viroids

nematodes

protozoa
Disease
Triangle

Ti
me
Host
Disease Cycle
(1)
Reproduction Dissemination

Polycyclic Disease

(5)

Symptom (2)
(4)
development inoculation

Infection
(3) Monocyclic Disease
Diagnostic Techniques
1. Visual inspection of symptoms
2. Microscopic examination
3. Isolation for pure culture of pathogen
and Identification of pure culture
4. Biochemical & physiological methods
5. Nucleic acid-based methods
(molecular methods)
Visual Inspection of
Symptoms
Determine : disease VS insect

insect
disease

insec
t
Visual Inspection of Symptoms

Determine : biotic agent VS abiotic agent

biotic abiotic
Visual Inspection of Symptoms
Determine : Nutrient Deficiency VS Virus

virus
nutrient deficiency
Visual Inspection of Symptoms

Fungal Diseases
Use hand-lens/microscope
- mycelium/fruiting body/
spores
Bacterial Diseases

cut stem

from xylem
bacterial ooze

mass of bacterial cells


from cut leafspot
Virus and Phytoplasma

virus

insect vector
phytoplama
Virus and Phytoplasma

• Transmission test
• Indicator plant
• Serology
• Electron microscope
• Nucleic Acid, DNA
Nematode Damage
Symptom, Population density in soil & root
poor growth

root knot
(gall)

Nematodes in
stained root
Principles of Plant Disease Control

1. Reducing Initial Inoculum

2. Reducing Rate of Development


Reducing Initial
Inoculum
Exclusion - no introduction of
pathogen
Eradication - eliminate pathogen
inoculum

Therapy - eliminate pathogen from living host


Reducing Rate of Development
(To Slow Rate of Increase)

• Host resistance - horizontal resistance


• Protection - protect the host from infection
• Avoidance - avoid contact of host and pathogen
under conditions favorable for
disease
Reducing Rate of Development
Avoidance
Avoid putting host & pathogen in contact with
one another under a favorable environment

A. Geographic Selection
B. Site Selection
C. Environmental Management
D. Cultural Practices
– Planting/Harvest dates
– Short season cultivars
– Cultivation practices, plant spacing
– Irrigation management, fertility management
Reducing Rate of Development
Protection
A. Biological control
– Antagonistic organisms (Streptomyces, Bacillus,
Trichoderma, Paecillomyces, Verticillium)
– Cross protection (inoculate mild strain to induce
resistance for virulent strain of pathogen)

B. Chemical control
– Protectant, Eradicant
– Contact, systemic pesticides
– Fungicides, bactericides, nematicides
Integrated Plant
Disease Management
1. Manage the pathogen
2. Manage the host
3. Manage the environment
Integrated Plant Disease
Management

1. Manage the pathogen


- Exclusion of inoculum
- Reduction of inoculum
- Eradication of inoculum
Integrated Plant Disease
Management

2. Manage the host


- Induced resistance
- Breeding for disease resistance
- Protection
Integrated Plant Disease
Management

3. Manage the environment


- Soil management
- Crop management

- Water management