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Topicality Negative

Varsity
Topicality Generic – Varsity
T - RESOLVED – NOT THE REAL BUSINESS......................................................................................................5

T - THE – SPECIFIC MEANING...............................................................................................................................6

T - SHOULD – VARYING DEFINITIONS...............................................................................................................7

TOPICALITY – SUBSTANTIALLY INCREASE = 50% 1NC...............................................................................8


T - SUBSTANTIALLY 50% - 2NC – LIMITS..........................................................................................................9
T - SUBSTANTIALLY 50% - 2NC – GROUND.....................................................................................................10
T - SUBSTANTIALLY 50% - A2: PERCENTAGES ARBITRARY....................................................................11
T - SUBSTANTIALLY 50% - 2NC – INTERPRETATION..................................................................................12
TOPICALITY - SUBSTANTIALITY = 50 BILLION – 1NC SHELL..................................................................13
T - SUBSTANTIALLY – MUST BE MEASURED IN CONTEXT.......................................................................14
T - SUBSTANTIALLY – SPECIFIC AMOUNTS (1)......................................................................................15 - 16
T - SUBSTANTIALLY – SPECIFIC PERCENTAGES.........................................................................................17
T - SUBSTANTIALLY INCREASE - REQUIRES BASELINE............................................................................18
T - SUBSTANTIALLY - CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT........................................................................................19
T - SUBSTANTIAL – LIST.......................................................................................................................................20
T - SUBSTANTIAL FOR SPACE = CAPABILITY FOR PARITY......................................................................21

TOPICALITY - INCREASE NOT REMOVE A BARRIER – 1NC.....................................................................22


TOPICALITY - INCREASE =/= CREATE – 1NC.................................................................................................23
T- INCREASE =/= CREATE 2NC............................................................................................................................24
TOPICALITY – INCREASE = NOT MODIFYING EXISTING – 1NC..............................................................25
T – INCREASE (1)..............................................................................................................................................26 - 27

TOPICALITY – ITS =/= PRIVATIZATION – 1NC...............................................................................................28


T - ITS NOT PRIVATE - 2NC OVERVIEW...........................................................................................................29
T – ITS NOT PRIVATE – 2NC LIMITS EXT........................................................................................................30
T – ITS NOT PRIVATE – 2NC GROUND EXT.....................................................................................................31
T – ITS NOT PRIVATE – AT: GOVERNMENT DEFINITIONS BETTER.......................................................32
T – ITS NOT PRIVATE –AT: NORMAL MEANS................................................................................................33
T – ITS NOT PRIVATE – 2NC EFFECTS VIOLATION......................................................................................34
T – ITS - NASA = PART OF USFG..........................................................................................................................35
T- ITS = USFG............................................................................................................................................................36
T - ITS = POSSESSIVE..............................................................................................................................................37

1
Topicality Negative
Varsity

TOPICALITY - EXPLORATION = COLONIZATION – 1NC............................................................................38


T- EXPLORATION = COLONIZATION – 2NC....................................................................................................39
TOPICALITY - EXPLORATION = HUMAN - 1NC.............................................................................................40
T – EXPLORATION = HUMAN – 2NC LIMITS...................................................................................................41
T – EXPLORATION = HUMAN – 2NC PRECISION...........................................................................................42
TOPICALITY - SPACE EXPLORATION = PHYSICAL PRESENCE – 1NC...................................................43
TOPICALITY - EXPLORATION = SEARCH FOR UNEXPLORED MINERALS WITHIN US – 1NC.......44
T - EXPLORATION – GENERIC (1)...............................................................................................................45 - 46
T - EXPLORATION – HUMANS ONLY................................................................................................................47
T - EXPLORATION – HUMANS AND ROBOTS (1).....................................................................................48 - 50
TOPICALITY – EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT – LIMITS CARDS................................................51

TOPICALITY - AND/OR = BOTH – 1NC..............................................................................................................52


T - AND/OR = ONE OR OTHER OR BOTH (1).............................................................................................53 - 54

TOPICALITY - DEVELOPMENT = COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY – 1NC........................................................55


T – DEVELOPMENT = COMMERCIAL - 2NC – INTERPRETATION............................................................56
T – DEVELOPMENT = COMMERCIAL - 2NC – AT: COUNTER-INTERPRETATION.............................57
T – DEVELOPMENT = COMMERCIAL - 2NC – GROUND..............................................................................58
T – DEVELOPMENT = COMMERCIAL - 2NC – LIMITS..................................................................................59
TOPICALITY – DEVELOPMENT NOT MILITARIZATION – 1NC................................................................60
T – DEV’T NOT MILITARY – 2NC CARDS.........................................................................................................61
TOPICALITY - DEVELOPMENT ≠ SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH - 1NC.............................................................62
TOPICALITY - DEVELOPMENT = LIST – 1NC.................................................................................................63
TOPICALITY - DEVELOPMENT = R&D – 1NC.................................................................................................64
T - DEVELOPMENT = LIST – AFF ANSWERS...................................................................................................65
T - DEVELOPMENT - GENERIC (1)..............................................................................................................66 - 68
T – DEVELOPMENT – SAC CARD........................................................................................................................69
T - DEVELOPMENT NOT EXPLORATION.........................................................................................................72

TOPICALITY - “OF”................................................................................................................................................73

T – “SPACE” – GENERIC DEFINITIONS (1)................................................................................................74 - 75


T - SPACE – DEFINITIONS KEY...........................................................................................................................76
T – SPACE = SPACE BETWEEN............................................................................................................................77
T - AT: SPACE IS THE AREA BETWEEN BODIES............................................................................................78

2
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - DEFINITION OF “CELESTIAL BODIES”......................................................................................................79
T - SPACE ≠ CELESTIAL BODIES........................................................................................................................80
T - NEED TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN SPACE ACTIVITIES AND PARTIAL EARTH ACTIVITIES...81
T - DEFINITION OF COMMERCIAL SPACE SECTOR....................................................................................82

TOPICALITY - BETM 1NC [1/2].....................................................................................................................83 - 84


T - BETM – EXTENSIONS (1)..........................................................................................................................85 - 87
TOPICALITY - BETM = DIRECTED AT SPACE – 1NC (VERSION 2)...........................................................88
TOPICALITY - BEYOND = NOT IN ROOM – 1NC.............................................................................................89
T – BETM NOT IN ROOM - 2NC OVERVIEW....................................................................................................90
T – BETM NOT IN ROOM – 2NC LIMITS EXT...................................................................................................91

T - BEYOND – PAST, OUTSIDE, FURTHER (1)..................................................................................................92


T - BEYOND – PAST, OUTSIDE, FURTHER (2)..................................................................................................93
T - BEYOND – IT’S A PREPOSITION...................................................................................................................94

T - MESOSPHERE – SCIENTIFIC DEFINITIONS (1).................................................................................95 - 97


T - MESOSPHERE – ONLY ACCESSIBLE BY ROCKETS................................................................................98
T - MESOSPHERE - LIMITS EVIDENCE.............................................................................................................99
T - MESOSPHERE LIMIT - KARMAN LINE (1)......................................................................................100 - 101
T - MESOSPHERE IS NOT EARTH’S CRUST...................................................................................................102

TOPICALITY - COOPERATION NOT T – 1NC.................................................................................................103


T - COOPERATION 2NC OVERVIEW................................................................................................................104
T - COOPERATION 2NC A2: WE MEET............................................................................................................105
T - COOPERATION 2NC A2: COUNTER INTERPRETATION......................................................................106
T - COOPERATION 2NC A2: NSP EVIDENCE..................................................................................................107
T - COOPERATION 2NC A2 SOLVENCY ADVOCATES CHECK.................................................................108
T - COOPERATION 2NC A2: COOPERATION INEVITABLE.......................................................................109
T - COOPERATION 2NC A2: OVERLIMITS.....................................................................................................110
T - COOPERATION 2NC A2: SUBSTANTIAL CHECKS.................................................................................111
T - COOPERATION 2NC A2: REASONABILITY..............................................................................................112
T - COOPERATION 2NC EXTRA VIOLATION-- “ITS”..................................................................................113

TOPICALITY CARDS - COOPERATION – AFF (1)...............................................................................114 - 115


TOPICALITY CARDS - ASTEROIDS..................................................................................................................116
TOPICALITY CARDS - MICROSATELLITES..................................................................................................117

3
Topicality Negative
Varsity
TOPICALITY CARDS – SPACE DEBRIS (1)......................................................................................................118
TOPICALITY CARDS – SPACE DEBRIS (2)......................................................................................................119
TOPICALITY CARDS - LEGAL DEVELOPMENT – AFF (1)................................................................120 - 122
TOPICALITY CARDS - LEGAL DEVELOPMENT – NEG..............................................................................123
TOPICALITY CARDS – HARDENING SATELLITES......................................................................................124
TOPICALITY CARDS - MARS COLONIZATION............................................................................................125
TOPICALITY CARDS - ITAR...............................................................................................................................126
TOPICALITY CARDS – PRIVATIZATION........................................................................................................127
TOPICALITY CARDS – ISS (1).............................................................................................................................128
TOPICALITY CARDS – ISS (2).............................................................................................................................129
TOPICALITY CARDS - MOON BASE.................................................................................................................130
TOPICALITY CARDS – ALIENS – NEG (1)..............................................................................................131 - 132
TOPICALITY CARDS – ALIENS – AFF (1)...............................................................................................133 - 134
TOPICALITY CARDS – SPS (1)..................................................................................................................135 - 136
TOPICALITY CARDS - OBSERVATION SATELLITES (1)...................................................................137 - 138
TOPICALITY CARDS - DEMONSTRATIONS...................................................................................................139
TOPICALITY CARDS - MILITARIZATION– AFF (1)............................................................................140 - 141
TOPICALITY CARDS - MILITARIZATION – NEG (1)...................................................................................142
TOPICALITY CARDS - MINING.........................................................................................................................144
TOPICALITY CARDS – SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS – NOT SUBSTANTIALLY.........................................145
Topicality Cards - Solar Sails..................................................................................................................................146

4
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Resolved – Not the real business
The word Resolved is inconsequential in the resolution

Capital Community College English grammar guide


Guide to colon use
If the introductory phrase preceding the colon is very brief and the clause following the colon represents
the real business of the sentence, begin the clause after the colon with a capital letter:
Remember: Many of the prominent families of this New England state were slaveholders prior to 1850.

5
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - The – Specific meaning
The means specific:
Google Dictionary, 2011
Used to refer to a person, place, or thing that is unique

The United Stated federal government means the sovereign powers of the government.
Google Dictionary, 2011
The United States Federal Government is established by the US Constitution. The Federal Government
shares sovereignty over the United Sates with the individual governments of the States of US. The
Federal government has three branches: i) the legislature, which is the US Congress, ii) Executive,
comprised of the President and Vice president of the US and iii) Judiciary. The US Constitution
prescribes a system of separation of powers and ‘checks and balances’ for the smooth functioning of all
the three branches of the Federal Government. The US Constitution limits the powers of the Federal
Government to the powers assigned to it; all powers not expressly assigned to the Federal Government
are reserved to the States or to the people.

6
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Should – varying definitions
Should expresses obligation
Google Dictionary, 2011
Used to indicate obligation, duty, or correctness, typically when criticizing someone's actions

Should implies desirability


Google Dictionary, 2011
Indicating a desirable or expected state

Should means advice is given


Google Dictionary, 2011
Used to give advice

Should implies probability


Google Dictionary, 2011
Used to indicate what is probable

Should means to express what is expected


Merriam Webster Dictionary, 2011
used in auxiliary function to express what is probable or expected

7
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality – Substantially Increase = 50% 1NC
A. Interpretation:
Substantially increase, in the context of space, is 50%
Carole Shifrin, writes for Aviation Week & Space Technology, staff writer at the Washington Post, 19 87,
“Soviets Consider Possible Mars Rover, Sample Return Missions”
Allen cited the space station science program and Earth and ocean sciences as areas in which there are
sound programs that are not adequately budgeted. "It is clear that to do the sound plan that NASA already
has, at a reasonable pace, would require a very substantial increase in the NASA budget, perhaps as much
as 50%," he said. "But that seems somewhat unlikely, under the kind of budget pressures that existed in
the past."

B. Violation: The aff is not a substantial increase

C. vote neg—

1. Limits:
Setting substantial at 50% limits out affs that make small changes to space programs like
putting up one satellite—that destroys predictability and creates an infinite research
burden on the negative
And no brightline—there’s no way to quantify how substantial the aff is without a number

2. Ground: Anything less than our interpretation steals neg ground because affs can spike
out of links to politics and spending DAs which are at the core of the topic—kills topic
education

8
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Substantially 50% - 2NC – Limits
Prefer our limits:
Our interpretation quantifies substantial as 50%--Only assigning a quantifiable value to
the word avoids vagueness on the question of limits. And we don’t overlimit—they can run
affs to colonize Mars or revitalize the space program. We limit out abusive affs like the
deployment of one space telescope or one ASAT.
And we preserve predictable limits—allowing the aff to make a small increase makes it
impossible for the neg to predict what the aff is because it could be any small action

9
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Substantially 50% - 2NC – Ground
Evaluate ground comparatively—the aff hardly loses any ground except small, abusive affs
whereas the neg loses all links to spending and politics because the literature is in the
context of programs that spend a lot of money—and that’s uniquely true in this instance—
NASA’s budget cuts mean that politics links and trade-off DA’s are based on unpopular
increases in cut programs.
That also proves that the aff doesn’t lose ground—plenty of affs that increase funding by
50% exist because of the low NASA budget

10
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Substantially 50% - A2: Percentages arbitrary
1) This might be true in the abstract but our evidence is specific to NASA programs and
funding

2) And the aff’s interpretation is more arbitrary—[explain]

3) Accepting a substantial increase without linking it to a specific percentage is meaningless


Dube, 02 (Steve, Western Mail, “EARTH SUMMIT RHETORIC BLASTED BY OBSERVERS DESPERATE
FOR CHANGE,” 9/4, lexis)

There were also scathing words from Simon Thomas, the Ceredigion MP who attended the summit as a
member of the House of Commons environment committee. Mr Thomas blasted British and European
statesmen, including Rhodri Morgan and Tony Blair, for failing to stand up to the United States by
insisting on raising the proportion of renewable energy produced to 15pc, and accepting instead a
meaningless reference in the final agreement that renewable energy should be substantially increased.

11
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Substantially 50% - 2NC – Interpretation
Extend our interpretation—a substantially increase means to increase the NASA budget by
50%.
Prefer it:
1) It’s contextual to the NASA budget and an increase in a space program.

2) Definitions need to be contextual – reduces ambiguity


Devinksy 02 (Paul, Paul Devinsky is a partner in the law firm of McDermott Will & Emery LLP and is based in
the Firm’s Washington, D.C., office, “Is Claim ‘Substantially’ Definite? Ask Person of Skill in Art,” McDermontt
News Letters Vol. 5, No.11 Novermber 2002
http://www.mwe.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/publications.nldetail/object_id/c2c73bdb-9b1a-42bf-a2b7-
075812dc0e2d.cfm)

In reversing a summary judgment of invalidity, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit found
that the district court, by failing to look beyond the intrinsic claim construction evidence to consider what
a person of skill in the art would understand in a "technologic context," erroneously concluded the term
"substantially" made a claim fatally indefinite. Verve, LLC v. Crane Cams, Inc., Case No. 01-1417 (Fed.
Cir. November 14, 2002). The patent in suit related to an improved push rod for an internal combustion
engine. The patent claims a hollow push rod whose overall diameter is larger at the middle than at the
ends and has "substantially constant wall thickness" throughout the rod and rounded seats at the tips. The
district court found that the expression "substantially constant wall thickness" was not supported in the
specification and prosecution history by a sufficiently clear definition of "substantially" and was,
therefore, indefinite. The district court recognized that the use of the term "substantially" may be definite
in some cases but ruled that in this case it was indefinite because it was not further defined. The Federal
Circuit reversed, concluding that the district court erred in requiring that the meaning of the term
"substantially" in a particular "technologic context" be found solely in intrinsic evidence: "While
reference to intrinsic evidence is primary in interpreting claims, the criterion is the meaning of words as
they would be understood by persons in the field of the invention." Thus, the Federal Circuit instructed
that "resolution of any ambiguity arising from the claims and specification may be aided by extrinsic
evidence of usage and meaning of a term in the context of the invention." The Federal Circuit remanded
the case to the district court with instruction that "[t]he question is not whether the word 'substantially' has
a fixed meaning as applied to 'constant wall thickness,' but how the phrase would be understood by
persons experienced in this field of mechanics, upon reading the patent documents."

3) DOD defines substantial as 50%


DOD, Department of Defense, 4/2/02, "MANDATORY PROCEDURES FOR MAJOR DEFENSE
ACQUISITION PROGRAMS (MDAPS) AND MAJOR AUTOMATED INFORMATION SYSTEM (MAIS)
ACQUISITION PROGRAMS", http://www.whs.mil/library/mildoc/DOD%205000.2-R,%205%20April
%202002.pdf

C7.10.3.12. The DoD Components shall not terminate or substantially reduce participation in joint-ACAT
ID programs without Requirements Authority review and USD(AT&L) approval; or in joint-ACAT IA
programs without Requirements Authority review and ASD(C3I) approval. The USD(AT&L) or
ASD(C3I) may require a DoD Component to continue some or all funding, as necessary, to sustain the
joint program in an efiicient manner, despite approving their request to terminate or reduce participation.
Substantial reduction is defined as a funding or quantity decrease of 50 percent or more in the total
funding or quantities in the latest President's Budget for that portion of the joint program funded by the
DoD Component seeking the termination or reduced participation.

12
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - Substantiality = 50 Billion – 1NC Shell
1. Interpretation: Substantial = $50 Billion
Allen Li, Director of Acquisition and Sourcing Management at GAO, 6-12-2003, NASA-Major Management
Challenges and Program Risks

In our earlier identification of costs to build the International Space Station, we identified space shuttle
launch costs as being a substantial cost component—almost $50 billion. NASA recognized the need to
reduce such costs as it considered alternatives to the space shuttle. Indeed, a key goal of the agency’s
earlier effort to develop a reusable launch vehicle was to reduce launch costs from $10,000 per pound on
the Space Shuttle to $1,000 through the use of such a vehicle. As we testified in June 2001, NASA’s X-
33 program—an attempt to develop and demonstrate advanced technologies needed for future reusable
launch vehicles—ended when the agency chose not to fund continued development of the demonstrator
vehicle in February 2001.

2. Violation: They require less than $50 Billion.

3. Standards:

Bright Line: This substantial amount sets a bright line as to what is topical and what is not.

Limits: Sets a fair limit on the topic because taking into account the funds needed for any
space activity, $50 billion is a good common ground.

Precision: Our interpretation comes from the Government Accountability Office, meaning
that they have the credibility to determine substantiality in terms of funding.

Ground: Allowing the aff to use small amounts of money lets them link out of DAs such as
spending, which is core neg ground. This will create uneven ground advantage for the aff.

4. Voters: On fairness and education


Fairness: Only by allowing the aff to have substantial amount of funding can we
improve debate in the manner that it gives equal footing for both teams.

Education: A non-topical aff hurts debate because it allows the aff to have
insubstantial funds, allowing the aff to be research less and not prep for certain arguments
that the neg could otherwise make.

13
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Substantially – Must be measured in context
Definitions need to be contextual – reduces ambiguity
Devinksy 02 (Paul, Paul Devinsky is a partner in the law firm of McDermott Will & Emery LLP and is based in
the Firm’s Washington, D.C., office, “Is Claim ‘Substantially’ Definite? Ask Person of Skill in Art,” McDermontt
News Letters Vol. 5, No.11 Novermber 2002
http://www.mwe.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/publications.nldetail/object_id/c2c73bdb-9b1a-42bf-a2b7-
075812dc0e2d.cfm)

In reversing a summary judgment of invalidity, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit found
that the district court, by failing to look beyond the intrinsic claim construction evidence to consider what
a person of skill in the art would understand in a "technologic context," erroneously concluded the term
"substantially" made a claim fatally indefinite. Verve, LLC v. Crane Cams, Inc., Case No. 01-
1417 (Fed. Cir. November 14, 2002). The patent in suit related to an improved push rod
for an internal combustion engine. The patent claims a hollow push rod whose overall
diameter is larger at the middle than at the ends and has "substantially constant wall
thickness" throughout the rod and rounded seats at the tips. The district court found that the
expression "substantially constant wall thickness" was not supported in the specification and prosecution
history by a sufficiently clear definition of "substantially" and was, therefore, indefinite. The district
court recognized that the use of the term "substantially" may be definite in some cases but ruled that in
this case it was indefinite because it was not further defined. The Federal Circuit reversed, concluding
that the district court erred in requiring that the meaning of the term "substantially" in a particular
"technologic context" be found solely in intrinsic evidence: "While reference to intrinsic evidence is
primary in interpreting claims, the criterion is the meaning of words as they would be understood by
persons in the field of the invention." Thus, the Federal Circuit instructed that "resolution of any
ambiguity arising from the claims and specification may be aided by extrinsic evidence of usage and
meaning of a term in the context of the invention." The Federal Circuit remanded the case to the district
court with instruction that "[t]he question is not whether the word 'substantially' has a fixed meaning as
applied to 'constant wall thickness,' but how the phrase would be understood by persons experienced in
this field of mechanics, upon reading the patent documents."

14
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Substantially – Specific amounts (1)
A substantial increase is 96 million
AWST 79 (“NASA Budget Provides No Real Growrth,” 1/22/79 Lexis)
Total space transportation systems budget request for Fiscal 1980 is $1.9 billion compared with $2 billion
in Fiscal 1979, if the supplemental is included. NASA's space science budget shows a substantial increase
from $505 million approved in Fiscal 1979 to $601 million requested in Fiscal 1980. The increase results
from the peaking of several previously approved programs. Significant areas in the space science budget
request are: * Solar maximum mission development -- Drop from $16.2 million to $600,000 in the Fiscal
1980 request reflects a normal program tailoff as launch approaches. * Space telescope -- Program is
reaching its peak with $112 million requested, as compared with $79.2 million in Fiscal 1979. * Solar
polar out-of-ecliptic mission -- This mission also is reaching a funding peak with $50 million requested as
compared to $13 million in Fiscal 1979.

Policies prove – substantial is 500 million


Chase 03 (Brian E., NASA Associate Administrator for Legislative Affairs, March-april 2003
http://www.nss.org/adastra/volume15/v15n2/contents/v15n2f1.pdf)

The Columbia was lost just two days before NASA was slated to deliver its FY2004 budget to Capitol
Hill, so that proposal has gotten very little attention during the course of the accident investigation.
Howeverm that budget contains significant shifts in focus for NASA. Importantly, it also represents the
first substantial increase in NASA’s funding in several years, going from $15 billion in FY03 to nearly
$15.5 billion in FY04.

Substantial is 2.6 Billion

Amir Alexander, Professor of History UCLA, 10-16-2008, Projects: Space Advocacy – President Signs NASA
Authorization Bill

On Wednesday, October 15, 2008, President Bush signed into law the NASA Authorization Bill passed
by Congress last month. By authorizing NASA to spend $20.21 billion in fiscal year 2009, the bill
represents a substantial increase of $2.6 billion over the administration's budget request for NASA earlier
this year. $4.9 billion of the bill's total is directed towards science operations, and another $4.9 billion is
authorized for exploration. An authorization bill, unlike an appropriations bill, does not actually fund
programs, and the spending levels it cites are not binding on NASA. Nevertheless it does provide the
agency with spending guidelines and indicates Congress's priorities.

15
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Substantially – Specific amounts (2)
Substantial is 15.7 billion dollars per year

Marcia S. Smith, Director of the Space Studies Board and of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board at
the U.S. National Research Council, Former employee of Library of Congress, 4-22-2003, Issue Brief for Congress-
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

The Department of Defense (DOD) has a less visible but equally substantial space program. Tracking the
DOD space budget is extremely difficult since space is not identified as a separate line item in the budget.
DOD sometimes releases only partial information (omitting funding for classified programs) or will
suddenly release without explanation new figures for prior years that are quite different from what was
previously reported. The most recent figures from DOD show a total (classified and unclassified) space
budget of $15.7 billion for FY2002, $18.4 billion for FY2003, and a FY2004 request of $20.4 billion.
DOD space issues include management of programs to develop new early warning and missile tracking
satellites, and management of military and intelligence space activities generally.

1.2 Billion
Planetary Society 07
(“NASA Mars Program Threatened by Senate Funding Bill,” July 3, 2007
http://planetary.org/news/2007/0703_NASA_Mars_Program_Threatened_by_Senate.html)

The Senate bill proposes these severe cuts to the Mars program despite the fact that overall it provides for
a substantial increase in NASA funding. If approved, the bill will allocate NASA a total of $17.46 billion,
$1.2 billion more than the agency’s 2007 budget, and $150 million more than the administration’s request
for 2008. The proposal was crafted by the Senate Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, and Science, and
cleared the Senate Appropriations Committee on June 28, 2007.

1.3 Billion
Office of Science and Technology 06
(“NASA’s Budget Outlook – Having too much to do with too little,” Bridges Vol. 10 June 2006,
http://www.ostina.org/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=1184)

In December of last year, Congress passed the NASA Authorization Act of 2005, which provided the
policy direction and outlined the general goals of the agency for the future. With the clear endorsement
of the Vision for Space Exploration, the bill directed NASA to develop a sustained human presence on
the Moon as a stepping-stone to future exploration of Mars and other destinations. In order for there to be
as small a gap as possible in human space flight capabilities, NASA was given the charge of launching
the Crew Exploration Vehicle, or CEV, as close to 2010 as possible. Congress also directed NASA to
pursue a vigorous program of Earth and space sciences, as well as research in aeronautics. In addition,
the bill told NASA to continue to fly the Space Shuttle in order to complete the assembly of the
International Space Station, and also to partially restore funding for the fundamental biological and
physical science experiments that are to be conducted on the Station after its completion. Knowing that
this broad set of goals would require a significant increase in funding for the agency, Congress
authorized NASA to receive $17.9 billion in fiscal year 2007 as part of the legislation, or about $1.3
billion over the amount the agency received in 2006. One of the reasons for this substantial increase was
that over $3 billion more would be needed to continue the Shuttle program through 2010 than had been
projected a year earlier. In addition, the Space Station program needed an extra $1.5 billion over the
next few years in order to prepare for operating the Station past 2010 without the use of the Shuttle's
large carrying capacity for repair and re-supply missions.

16
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Substantially – Specific Percentages
2.7% is substantial
AAAS 02 (American Association for the Advancement of Science, “House Boosts NASA Request Adds Ear
Marks and Outer Planet Missions,” AAAS R&D Funding Update, http://www.aaas.org/spp/rd/nasa03h.htm)

On October 9, already nine days into fiscal year (FY) 2003, the House Appropriations Committee finally
drafted an FY 2003 VA-HUD appropriations bill that would provide a substantial increase for R&D in
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Senate drafted its version of the bill in
July, but the full Senate has not approved it yet. The House would provide NASA with a total budget of
$15.3 billion in FY 2003, $398 million or 2.7 percent more than FY 2002. This would exceed the
Administration’s request of $15.0 billion and the Senate’s appropriation of $15.2 billion. In the House
plan, NASA’s R&D funding would rise 6.9 percent for a total of $10.9 billion, including a 13.6 percent
boost in the key Science, Aeronautics and Technology (SAT) account to $9.1 billion (see Table). Both the
House and the Senate would go along with NASA’s request to shift money from the International Space
Station project to NASA’s other R&D programs, and the House would add $117 million in
congressionally designated projects, $105 million for a Pluto mission, and $40 million for a Europa
mission. Until the NASA budget becomes final, the agency is operating at FY 2002 funding levels under
a series of continuing resolutions (temporary appropriations bills).

Substantial budget increase – greater that 100%


Heiss 03
(Klaus P., Principal Investigator, High Frontier, “Columbia a Permanent Lunar Base,” Final Report to NASA office
of Space Flight http://www.highfrontier.org/Archive/Jt/Columbia-LunarBase%20Summary.pdf)

Require no substantial increase in NASA budget – a major challenge will lead to major reorientation, but
should not more than double the NASA budget.

Substantial budget increase – 150%


Space Politics 08
(“How Strong is Public Support for Space Exploration,” June 18, 2008
http://www.spacepolitics.com/2008/06/18/how-strong-is-public-support-for-space-exploration/)

However, there are also some concerns. While 71 percent believe that the US is doing a good or very
good job in space exploration, there has been a shift from “very good” to simply “good” in the latest poll,
compared to the previous one performed by Gallup in August 2006: the number of people in the “very
good” category dropped from 17 to 11 percent, while the “good” category rose from 52 to 60 percent.
Does that indicate that public support for space is getting a little weaker? Also, while 52 percent
supported a budget increase for NASA, 45 percent opposed or strongly opposed such an increase: not a
lot of neutral ground. (In addition, the text of that question claimed that since 2004, “the budget for
NASA has been held at one-sixth of one percent of the total federal budget, lower than the 1% NASA
originally requested in 2006.” I can’t recall NASA requesting one percent of the federal budget, which
would amount to a substantial increase, in 2006 or any other recent year.)

17
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Substantially Increase - Requires baseline
Something must pass a certain point to be a substantial increase

Markely 09 (P.J., Judge for the Michigan Court of Appeals, “People of the Sate of Michgan Plaintiff-Appellee V.
Robert Alan McReynolds Defendant-Apellant, “June 30, 2009
http://coa.courts.mi.gov/documents/OPINIONS/FINAL/COA/20090630_C282582_51_282582.OPN.PDF)

In MCL 777.37(1)(a), “sadism” is grouped with “torture,” “excessive brutality,” and “conduct designed to
substantially increase the fear and anxiety a victim suffered during the offense.” The inclusion of the
adjective “excessive” in “excessive brutality” is noteworthy. “Excessive” means going beyond the usual,
necessary, or proper limit or degree; characterized by excess.” Random House Webster’s College
Dictionary (1997). Thus, “excessive brutality” -3- implies that there may be brutality in the commission
of a crime, but the variable is scored for brutality that is “beyond the usual” occurring in the commission
of the crime. Similarly, in the phrase, “conduct designed to substantially increase the fear and anxiety a
victim suffered during the offense,” the inclusion of the words “substantially increase” is noteworthy. The
phrasing implicitly recognizes that there is a baseline level of fear and anxiety a victim suffers during an
offense, and the scoring of the variable is appropriate for conduct that is designed to substantially increase
that level. This phrasing also suggests that the Legislature intended the scoring to be based on conduct
beyond that necessary to commit the offense. The context of the term “sadism” with other terms that
contemplate conduct beyond that necessary to commit the offense suggests that the conduct that forms the
basis of sadism is conduct that is in addition to that necessary to commit the offense. Thus, “sadism”
denotes conduct that exceeds that which is inherent in the commission of the offense.

18
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Substantially - Considerable amount
Substantially means a considerable amount – supreme court supports this definition
Arkush 02 (David, J.D. Candidate Harvard Law School, “Preserving "Catalyst" Attorneys' Fees Under the
Freedom of Information Act in the Wake of Buckhannon Board and Care Home v. West Virginia Department of
Health and Human Resources,” Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review Vol. 37
http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/crcl/vol37_1/arkush.pdf)

Plaintiffs should argue that the term "substantially prevail" is not a term of art because if considered a
term of art, resort to Black's 7th produces a definition of "prevail" that could be interpreted adversely to
plaintiffs. 99 It is commonly accepted that words that are not legal terms of art should be accorded their
ordinary, not their legal, meaning, 100 and ordinary-usage dictionaries provide FOIA fee claimants with
helpful arguments. The Supreme Court has already found favorable, temporally relevant definitions of the
word "substantially" in ordinary dictionaries: "Substantially" suggests "considerable" or "specified to a
large degree." See Webster's Third New International Dictionary 2280 (1976) (defining "substantially" as
"in a substantial manner" and "substantial" as "considerable in amount, value, or worth" and "being that
specified to a large degree or in the main"); see also 17 Oxford English Dictionary 66-67 (2d ed. 1989)
("substantial": "relating to or proceeding from the essence of a thing; essential"; "of ample or
considerable amount, quantity or dimensions"). 101

19
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Substantial – List
Substantial – 3 fold budget increase
National Commission on Space No Date (“Pioneering the Space Frontier,” NCOS Report
http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/383341main_60%20-%2020090814.5.The%20Report%20of%20the%20National
%20Commission%20on%20Space.pdf)

The United States must substantially increase its investment in its space technology base. We
recommend: A threefold growth in NASA’s base technology budget to increase this item from two
percent to six percent of NASA’s total budget. This growth will permit the necessary acceleration of work
in many critical technical fields from space propulsion and robotic construction to high-performance
materials, artificial intelligence, and the processing of non-terrestrial materials. We also recommend:
Special emphasis on intelligent autonomous systems. Cargo trips beyond lunar distance will be made by
unpiloted vehicles; the earliest roving vehicles on the Martian surface will be unpiloted; and processing
plants for propellants from the materials on asteroids, Phobos, or Mars will run unattended. To support
these complex, automated, remote operations, a new generation of robust, fault-tolerant, pattern-
recognizing automata is needed. They must employ new computers, sensors, and diagnostic and
maintenance equipment that can avoid accidents and repair failures. 12 These systems must be capable of
taking the same common-sense corrective actions that a human operator would take. These developments
by NASA should also have broad application to 21st-century U.S. industry. We recommend
demonstration projects in seven critical technologies: • Flight research on aerospace plane propulsion and
aerodynamics
• Advanced rocket vehicles
• Aerobraking for orbital transfer
• Long-duration closed-ecosystems (including water, air, and food)
• Electric launch and propulsion systems
• Nuclear-electric space power, and
• Space tethers and artificial gravity

20
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Substantial for Space = Capability for Parity
Substantial means you need to provide a capability
Satellite Industry Association 11
(“Comments of the Satellite Industry Association to the Bureau of Industry and Security Regarding Revisions to the
Commerce Control List, February 27, 2011
http://www.sia.org/PDF/SIA_Comments_to_BIS_on_its_Notice_of_Inquiry-CCL_FINAL2011.pdf pg. 2)

“Substantial” is defined as providing a capability with respect to which the United States must maintain
parity and that would pose a serious threat to U.S. national security if not controlled.

21
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - Increase Not Remove a Barrier – 1NC
A. Interpretation – increase means a net increase

Rogers, New York Judge, 05 (Judge, STATE OF NEW YORK, ET AL., PETITIONERS v. U.S.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, RESPONDENT, NSR MANUFACTURERS ROUNDTABLE,
ET AL., INTERVENORS, 2005 U.S. App. LEXIS 12378, **; 60 ERC (BNA) 1791, 6/24, lexis)

 [**48]  Statutory Interpretation. HN16While the CAA defines a "modification" as any physical or
operational change that "increases" emissions, it is silent on how to calculate such "increases" in
emissions. 42 U.S.C. § 7411(a)(4). According to government petitioners, the lack of a statutory definition
does not render the term "increases" ambiguous, but merely compels the court to give the term its
"ordinary meaning." See Engine Mfrs.Ass'nv.S.Coast AirQualityMgmt.Dist., 541 U.S. 246, 124 S. Ct.
1756, 1761, 158 L. Ed. 2d 529(2004); Bluewater Network, 370 F.3d at 13; Am. Fed'n of Gov't Employees
v. Glickman, 342 U.S. App. D.C. 7, 215 F.3d 7, 10 [*23]  (D.C. Cir. 2000). Relying on two "real world"
analogies, government petitioners contend that the ordinary meaning of "increases" requires the baseline
to be calculated from a period immediately preceding the change. They maintain, for example, that in
determining whether a high-pressure weather system "increases" the local temperature, the relevant
baseline is the temperature immediately preceding the arrival of the weather system, not the temperature
five or ten years ago. Similarly,  [**49]  in determining whether a new engine "increases" the value of a
car, the relevant baseline is the value of the car immediately preceding the replacement of the engine, not
the value of the car five or ten years ago when the engine was in perfect condition.

B. The aff just removes a barrier to space - doesn’t actually increase development or
exploration

C. Voting issue –

1. limits – there are hundreds of barriers to exploration- the aff justifies signing space
treaties, determining property rights on the moon, or removing export controls, this kills
predictability

2. negative ground – the only generic ground on the topic stems from “increase” – we lose
spending disads, coercion, free market based counterplans, and tradeoff arguments

22
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - Increase =/= Create – 1NC
A. Interpretation: Increasing requires a pre existing premium to determine the exact
increase

Jeremiah Buckley et all, (attorney Amicus Curiae Brief, Safeco Ins. Co. of America et al v. Charles Burr et al)
2006.
http://supreme.lp.findlaw.com/supreme_court/briefs/06-84/06-84.mer.ami.mica.pdf)

First, the court said that the ordinary meaning of the word “increase” is “to make something greater,”
which it believed should not “be limited to cases in which a company raises the rate that an individual has
previously been charged.” 435 F.3d at 1091. Yet the definition offered by the Ninth Circuit compels the
opposite conclusion. Because “increase” means “to make something greater,” there must necessarily
have been an existing premium, to which Edo’s actual premium may be compared, to determine whether
an “increase” occurred. Congress could have provided that “ad-verse action” in the insurance context
means charging an amount greater than the optimal premium, but instead chose to define adverse action
in terms of an “increase.” That def-initional choice must be respected, not ignored. See Colautti v.
Franklin, 439 U.S. 379, 392-93 n.10 (1979) (“[a] defin-ition which declares what a term ‘means’ . . .
excludes any meaning that is not stated”). Next, the Ninth Circuit reasoned that because the Insurance
Prong includes the words “existing or applied for,” Congress intended that an “increase in any charge” for
insurance must “apply to all insurance transactions – from an initial policy of insurance to a renewal of a
long-held policy.” 435 F.3d at 1091. This interpretation reads the words “exist-ing or applied for” in
isolation. Other types of adverse action described in the Insurance Prong apply only to situations where a
consumer had an existing policy of insurance, such as a “cancellation,” “reduction,” or “change” in
insurance. Each of these forms of adverse action presupposes an already-existing policy, and
under usual canons of statutory construction the term “increase” also should be construed to apply to
increases of an already-existing policy. See Hibbs v. Winn, 542 U.S. 88, 101 (2004) (“a phrase gathers
meaning from the words around it”) (citation omitted).

B. Violation: the aff creates a new program instead of increasing a pre existing one

C. Vote neg-
Predictability: letting the aff create new programs explodes limits on the topic by allowing
for hundreds of unpredictable programs to be implemented
Education: implementation of new programs results in a lack of real world education
because the programs don’t have to exist in the squo

Topicality is a voting issue for predictability and education

23
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T- Increase =/= Create 2NC
A. extend interpretation: the Buckley et all 6 card cites that a pre existing premium is
required in order to determine if an increase occurred- our interp is the most fair because
our definition encompasses all degrees of increase except from the starting point of zero

Increase requires pre-existence


Brown (US Federal Judge for the US district court for the district of Oregon) 20 03. (Elena Mark and Paul
Gustafson, Plaintiffs vs. Valley Insurance Company and Valley Property and Casualty, defendants)

FCRA does not define the term "increase." The plain and ordinary meaning of the verb "to increase" is to
make something greater or larger. 4 Merriam-Webster's [**22] Collegiate Dictionary 589 (10th ed.
1998). The "something" that is increased in the statute is the "charge for any insurance." The plain and
common meaning of the noun "charge" is "the price demanded for something." Id. at 192. Thus, the
statute plainly means an insurer takes adverse action if the insurer makes greater (i.e., larger) the price
demanded for insurance. An insurer cannot "make greater" something that did not exist previously. The
statutory definition of adverse action, therefore, clearly anticipates an insurer must have made an initial
charge or demand for payment before the insurer can increase that charge. In other words, an insurer
cannot increase the charge for insurance unless the insurer previously set and demanded payment of the
premium for that insured's insurance [**23] coverage at a lower price.

Prefer the brown evidence over their counter interpretation- he is a US federal judge and is
qualified to make such assessments

B. extend violation: the aff creates a new program instead of increasing a pre existing one

C. Predictability: hundreds of programs could be implemented by the aff- infinitely


regressive- the neg has no way to prepare for all of them; that’s bad for fairness because
explosion of aff limits means the neg can never be prepared
Education: real world education is the best internal link into education- using squo
programs means we learn about how the space industry operates – this results in the best
topic specific education- we learn about actual programs not hypotheticals

Case list of topical affs under our interpretation are: Advances Composition Explorer
(ACE), Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM), Aqua, Brilliant Pebbles

Potential abuse is a voting issue – we shouldn’t be forced to research and debate


unpredictable affirmatives

24
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality – Increase = Not modifying existing – 1NC
1. Interpretation: The aff must create something new in space

2. Violation: They build on a preexisting program.

3. Standards:

a. Limits: Allowing the aff to increase a preexisting program explodes the topic and
creates an unnecessary research burden to research every existing program.

b. Ground: Allowing them to run a great amount of small affs that cause an increase in
a preexisting program causes the aff to research hundreds of affs. Restricting the
number of affs that can be run fairly gives both sides good ground.

4. Jurisdiction: Presume neg because the aff is non-topical.

5. Voters: Voting issue on fairness and education

Fairness: Only when we limit the topic to creating programs does it make debate possible
without a great research burden for the aff.

Education: Allowing the aff to build on a preexisting program fosters research inequality,
leading to debates where neither side effectively learns about the topic.

25
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – Increase (1)
Increase = No new Programs; Funding increases require a predetermined baseline
Rogers 5
(judge, state of new york, et al., petitioners v. U.s. environmental protection agency, respondent, nsr manufacturers
roundtable, et al., intervenors, 6/24/05 u.s. app. Lexis 12378)

[**48] Statutory Interpretation. HN16While the CAA defines a "modification" as any physical or
operational change that "increases" emissions, it is silent on how to calculate such "increases" in
emissions. 42 U.S.C. § 7411(a)(4). According to government petitioners, the lack of a statutory definition
does not render the term "increases" ambiguous, but merely compels the court to give the term its
"ordinary meaning." See Engine Mfrs.Ass'nv.S.Coast AirQualityMgmt.Dist., 541 U.S. 246, 124 S. Ct.
1756, 1761, 158 L. Ed. 2d 529(2004); Bluewater Network, 370 F.3d at 13; Am. Fed'n of Gov't Employees
v. Glickman, 342 U.S. App. D.C. 7, 215 F.3d 7, 10 [*23] (D.C. Cir. 2000). Relying on two "real world"
analogies, government petitioners contend that the ordinary meaning of "increases" requires the baseline
to be calculated from a period immediately preceding the change. They maintain, for example, that in
determining whether a high-pressure weather system "increases" the local temperature, the relevant
baseline is the temperature immediately preceding the arrival of the weather system, not the temperature
five or ten years ago. Similarly, [**49] in determining whether a new engine "increases" the value of a
car, the relevant baseline is the value of the car immediately preceding the replacement of the engine, not
the value of the car five or ten years ago when the engine was in perfect condition

Increase means increasing pre-existing


Buckley et al 06
(Jeremiah Buckley et al, Attorney, Amicus Curiae Brief, Safeco Ins. Co. of America et al v. Charles Burr et al,06
http://supreme.lp.findlaw.com/supreme_court/briefs/06-84/06-84.mer.ami.mica.pdf)

First, the court said that the ordinary meaning of the word “increase” is “to make something greater,”
which it believed should not “be limited to cases in which a company raises the rate that an individual has
previously been charged.” 435 F.3d at 1091. Yet the definition offered by the Ninth Circuit compels the
opposite conclusion. Because “increase” means “to make something greater,” there must necessarily
have been an existing premium, to which Edo’s actual premium may be compared, to determine whether
an “increase” occurred. Congress could have provided that “adverse action” in the insurance context
means charging an amount greater than the optimal premium, but instead chose to define adverse action
in terms of an “increase.” That definitional choice must be respected, not ignored. See Colautti v.
Franklin, 439 U.S. 379, 392-93 n.10 (1979) (“[a] definition which declares what a term ‘means’ . . .
excludes any meaning that is not stated”). Next, the Ninth Circuit reasoned that because the Insurance
Prong includes the words “existing or applied for,” Congress intended that an “increase in any charge” for
insurance must “apply to all insurance transactions – from an initial policy of insurance to a renewal of a
long-held policy.” 435 F.3d at 1091. This interpretation reads the words “existing or applied for” in
isolation. Other types of adverse action described in the Insurance Prong apply only to situations where a
consumer had an existing policy of insurance, such as a “cancellation,” “reduction,” or “change” in
insurance. Each of these forms of adverse action presupposes an already-existing policy, and under
usual canons of statutory construction the term “increase” also should be construed to apply to increases
of an already-existing policy. See Hibbs v. Winn, 542 U.S. 88, 101 (2004) (“a phrase gathers meaning
from the words around it”) (citation omitted).

26
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – Increase (2)
An increase requires a preexisting program
Brown, 03 US Federal Judge for the United States District Court For The District Of Oregon (Elena Mark And
Paul Gustafson, Plaintiffs, v. Valley Insurance Company And Valley Property And Casualty, Defendants, 7/17/03,
lexis)

FCRA does not define the term "increase." The plain and ordinary meaning of the verb "to increase" is to
make something greater or larger. 4 Merriam-Webster's [**22] Collegiate Dictionary 589 (10th ed.
1998). The "something" that is increased in the statute is the "charge for any insurance." The plain and
common meaning of the noun "charge" is "the price demanded for something." Id. at 192. Thus, the
statute plainly means an insurer takes adverse action if the insurer makes greater (i.e., larger) the price
demanded for insurance.
An insurer cannot "make greater" something that did not exist previously. The statutory definition of
adverse action, therefore, clearly anticipates an insurer must have made an initial charge or demand for
payment before the insurer can increase that charge. In other words, an insurer cannot increase the charge
for insurance unless the insurer previously set and demanded payment of the premium for that insured's
insurance [**23] coverage at a lower price.

Increase – addition, gain


Wordnet 06 ( http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=increase)
Increase: Addition, gain, a quantity that is added

27
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality – Its =/= Privatization – 1NC
Interpretation – Its is possessive
Committee on Expository Writing: William Cronon, Linda Peterson, Daniel Koditschek, Jules Prown,
David Mayhew, Jon Rieder, Stuart Moulthrop, and Thomas Whitaker. 2001, Yale University, Page 35
http://www.schepartzlab.yale.edu/Coollinkspdfs/yale-writingprose.pdf

An apostrophe (’) indicates that one or more letters have been omitted from a word in a contraction (“do
not” becomes “don’t”; “he is” becomes “he’s”). Apostrophes also occur in possessives (“” becomes “”).
Generally you need worry only about possessives, since contractions are not acceptable in formal prose;
but if you do have occasion to use the contraction “it’s” (for “it is”), do not confuse it with the possessive
form of the pronoun, “its” (no apostrophe). Never leave out the apostrophe in a possessive noun (not
“Herbs dog” but “Herb’s dog”). In making plural nouns possessive, use the apostrophe alone

Violation – The aff contracts private companies to develop instead of the USFG

Standards
1. Limits – the aff explodes limits, allows for a huge number of combinations of private
space actors
That collapses education – we learn about operations of specific companies instead
of actual space policy questions which are the core of the topic

2. Ground – Solving through private companies means they can get out of politics,
spending, or k links, in addition to taking away agent counterplans, destroying
negative strategy and competitive equality

3. Private companies make aff solvency contidional – destroys fairness allows them to
spike out of any strategy in the 2AR

4. Grammar – We are prepared to debate the language of the resolution, changing it


kills predictability and neg strategic side bias

T is a voter for fairness and education

28
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Its not private - 2NC Overview
Our interpretation is that its refers to the USFG, and makes it the actor of the plan. The
aff mandates private actor solvency.
Their interpretation destroys topic specific education – privileges breadth discussion where
you could have companies DIRECTV or Boostmobile as the actor of a plan to harden
satellites, that allows for no education in space policy, instead we have unpredictable
debates that skirt around the core of the topic.
Reason to err neg – the topic is broad enough, favor the team that has the best mix, we
allow a large case list, but much more political education

29
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – Its not private – 2NC Limits Ext.
Our interp allows for the same cases, with a net benefit of fairness – you can still access
privatization or tech spillover advantages, but it’s more predictable for the neg

Multiply their case list by 6,027 for all the companies that could be actors
MANTA 11 (Company database, http://www.manta.com/mb_33_G0_000/aerospace 3/3/11)
6,027 Aerospace Companies in the U.S. Aircraft (2,140) Guided Missile Space Vehicle Parts and
Auxiliary Equipment, NEC (90) Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Propulsion Units and Propulsion
Unit Parts (112) Guided Missiles and Space Vehicles (156) Search, Detection, Navigation,
Guidance, Aeronautical, and Nautical Systems and Instruments (3,187) Space Research and
Technology (134) Tanks and Tank Components (208)

No neg strategy – underlimiting means every debate is hit or miss, and neg can get no
offence on aff solvency, means the aff always wins

Supercharges aff side bias – not only do they get infinite prep but they get assured
solvency, makes them immune to advantage CPs and CPs with solvency deficit net benefits

And – we subsume their internal to education, our interp allows for advantaged based on
private companies building technology commissioned by nasa which means
a. No net groud loss, you can still get the same advantages, but the aff is more
predictable
b. Depth over breadth, the neg’s interpretation has the same education potential, but
there is more of it.

30
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – Its not private – 2NC Ground ext.
The neg has the best internal into fairness. Strategic flexability is the only way to check
back aff side bias, in a world where we can’t get links to major disads an couterplans, and
any we do will get spiked out of, makes the aff always win.
Disincentives research – no reason for negatives to do research if they can’t win, turns any
aff education claims, that means the aff can’t even access breadth education because we’ll
only learn about one or two companies each round, and there aren’t 6027 rounds to debate
in a season.

31
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – Its not private – AT: Government definitions better
Default to grammatical authority – they are consulted when making government policy, so
the actual text of the plan would be based off of sources like the Committee on
expeditionary writing.
And government definitions aren’t credible – they rarely have intent to define, and when
they do it is specific to one piece of legislation.

32
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – Its not private –AT: Normal means
NASA develops the ideas, normal means is for companies to build the technology, not
actually develop it for themselves.
Grammar outweighs – you default to the resolution as the way to judge plan action, best
for predictability and competitive equality.

33
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – Its not private – 2NC Effects Violation
Conditional aff solvency means the aff is in a double bind, if they win that they solve
they’re effectually topical, if they lose it, vote neg on presumption

1. Destroys substantiality – there’s no brightline for aff action, justifes taking a few
small steps for implementation
2. Allows the aff to spike out of any links they want, small actions circumvent politics
spending, and ks.
3. Jurisdiction - you force the judge to decide how topical the aff is, destroys the point
of topicality for the neg.
4. Voter for fairness and potential abuse

34
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – Its - NASA = part of USFG
NASA is a part of the United States federal government.

NASA, Page Last Updated: May 12, 2008, Glenn Research Center, Visiting Our Center, Page Editor: Kathleen
Zona, NASA Official: Brian Dunbar.  http://www.nasa.gov/centers/glenn/events/grc_ohouse_security.html

NASA is committed to maintaining the security not only of our personnel, property and information, but
our visitors as well. The following policies have been established for your protection. NASA is a part of
the Federal Government and both Lewis Field and Plum Brook Station are federal reservations subject to
unique rules and regulations that may supersede those of the State of Ohio and local municipalities.

Its indicates a holonymy or a part of relationship with the USFG, therefore NASA must be
the actor of the plan
Maria Ruiz-Casado, Enrique Alfonseca and Pablo Castells, Computer Science Department at the Universidad
Autonoma de Madrid, Spain. 2006, From Wikipedia to Semantic Relationships: aSemi-automated Annotation
Approach, Collecting contextual patterns from the web Pages 4-5, Section 2.1.
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.84.899&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Given a pair of related terms appearing in a text, the context of this pair is the text fragment that encloses
them. The context boundaries are sometimes expressed as a window of N words to the left and to the
right of those two terms, or as a syntactic constituent (e.g. a sentence) containing them both. For the task
that we address in this paper, extracting semantic relationships between words, the context can be very
useful. For example, in (1) it can be seen that tail is a part of dog, because of the possessive pronoun its.
In the context, the possessive pronoun indicates the existence of a holonymy (part-of) relationship. Also,
the verb in Sentence (2) indicates a relationship composer-song between John Lennon and Imagine. (1)
The happy dog wagged its tail. (2) The piano on which John Lennon composed “Imagine” is on its way
back to the Beatles Story in Liverpool. In some fields, such as Word-Sense Disambiguation and
Information Retrieval, these contexts are usually characterised using a approach, where all the words in
the context are put together regardless of their relative ordering or syntactic dependencies. In our
approach, as we are interested in finding patterns of words that model a relationship, we keep the relative
ordering of the words. A relationship is formed by a triple: the two concepts related and the relationship
itself. When the relation is modelled as a pattern, the two concepts participating are usually called and
[12]. So, in the previous example, the relation can be modelled with the pattern (3). (3) The piano on
which composed is on its way back to the Beatles Story in
Liverpool.

35
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T- Its = USFG
“Its” must have an antecedent to show possession to – USFG is only noun preceding “its”
in the resolution
Ngan L.T. Nguyen, graduate from the University of Natural Sciences, Vietnam and pursuing Masters in Computer
Sciences at the University of Tokyo, and Jin-Dong Kim, Senior research Associate at University of Manchester,
Project Lecturer at University of Tokyo, PhD and Masters in Computer Seicnce at Korea University, Department of
Computer Science, University of Tokyo. 2008, Licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution-Noncommercial-
Share Alike 3.0 Unported, Exploring Domain Differences for the Design of Pronoun Resolution Systems for
Biomedical Text, page 631.
http://www.nltg.brighton.ac.uk/home/Roger.Evans/private/coling2008/cdrom/PAPERS/pdf/PAPERS079.pdf

The combination of C netype and P semw features exploits the co-ocurrence of the semantic type of the
candidate antecedent and the context word, which appears in some relationship with the pronoun. This
combination feature uses the information similar to the semantic compatibility features proposed by Yang
(Yang et al., 2005) and Bergsma (Bergsma and Lin, 2006). Depending on the pronoun type, the feature
extractor decides which relationship is used. For example, the resolver successfully recognizes the
antecedent of the pronoun its in this discourse: “HSF3 is constitutively expressed in the erythroblast cell
line HD6 , the lymphoblast cell line MSB , and embryo fibroblasts , and yet its DNA-binding activity is
induced only upon exposure of HD6 cells to heat shock ,” because HSF3 was detected as a Protein entity,
which has a strong association with the governing head noun activity of the pronoun. Another example is
the correct anaphora link between “it” and “the viral protein” in the following sentence, which the other
features failed to detect. “Tax , the viral protein , is thought to be crucial in the development of the
disease , since it transforms healthy T cells in vitro and induces tumors in transgenic animals.” The
correct antecedent was recognized due to the bias given to the association of the Protein entity type, and
the governing verb, “transform” of the pronoun. The experimental results show the contribution of the
domain knowledge to the pronoun resolution, and the potential combination use of such knowledge with
the syntactic features. Parse features (parg) The combinations of the primitive features of grammatical
roles significantly improved the performance of our resolver. The following examples show the correct
anaphora links resulting from using the parse features: “By comparison, PMA is a very inefficient inducer
of the jun gene family in Jurkat cells. Similar to its effect on the induction of AP1 by okadaic acid, PMA
inhibits the induction of c-jun mRNA by okadaic acid.” In this example, the possessive pronoun “its” in
the second sentence corefers to “PMA”, the subject of the preceding sentence. Among the combination
features in this group, one noticeable feature is the combination of C parg, Sdist, and P type which
contains the association of the grammatical role of the candidate, the sentence-based distance, and the
pronoun type. The idea of adding this combination is based on the Centering theory (Walker et al., 1998),
a theory of discourse successfully used in pronoun resolution. This simple feature shows the potential of
encoding centering theory in the machine learning features, based on the parse information.

36
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Its = Possessive
“Its” is a possessive pronoun used to specify the USFG
Shlomo Argamon, Dept. of Computer Science, Illinois Institute of Technology, Moshe Koppel, Dept. of
Mathematics and Computer Science, Bar-Ilan University Ramat Gan, Jonathan Fine, Dept. of English, Bar-Ilan
University Ramat Gan, and Anat Rachel Shimoni. 8/2003, Gender, Genre, and Writing Style in Formal Written
Texts, Page 10, http://lingcog.iit.edu/doc/gendertext04.pdf

In both fiction and non-fiction, we find male authors using more post-head noun modification with an
phrase (“garden of roses”). In fiction, male authors quantify things more often by using cardinal numbers
in a noun phrase. This phenomenon is neutralized in non-fiction possibly due to the greater quantification
inherent to most non-fiction genres. Similarly, the greater use of attributive adjectives by male authors in
non-fiction writing is attenuated in fiction writing, likely due to conventions of the genre. Finally, as
noted earlier, the pronoun its, which serves to specify the identity or properties of a thing, occurs with far
greater frequency in male-authored texts, both fiction and non-fiction.

“Its” is possessive
Committee on Expository Writing: William Cronon, Linda Peterson, Daniel Koditschek, Jules Prown,
David Mayhew, Jon Rieder, Stuart Moulthrop, and Thomas Whitaker. 2001, Yale University, Page 35
http://www.schepartzlab.yale.edu/Coollinkspdfs/yale-writingprose.pdf

An apostrophe (’) indicates that one or more letters have been omitted from a word in a contraction (“do
not” becomes “don’t”; “he is” becomes “he’s”). Apostrophes also occur in possessives (“ the wrath of
Guido” becomes “Guido’s wrath”). Generally you need worry only about possessives, since
contractions are not acceptable in formal prose; but if you do have occasion to use the contraction “it’s”
(for “it is”), do not confuse it with the possessive form of the pronoun, “its” (no apostrophe). Never leave
out the apostrophe in a possessive noun (not “Herbs dog” but “Herb’s dog”). In making plural nouns
possessive, use the apostrophe alone:

37
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - Exploration = Colonization – 1NC
A. Interpretation: Space exploration requires the intent to colonize

UK Space Agency. 2011. http://www.bis.gov.uk/ukspaceagency/what-we-do/exploring-the-universe


Space exploration is defined as the exploration using both robotic and human means of planetary
destinations upon which humans could one day live and work. At present, most experts think that the
feasible destinations for space exploration are restricted to the Moon, Mars and certain asteroids. It is at
present hard to conceive of human missions to Jupiter, Saturn or beyond owing to the formidable
challenges of providing power, food and water, long term protection from the radiation environment of
deep space, and propulsion to make the missions possible within a reasonable time. The European Mars
exploration programme has now been expanded to become a long-term collaboration with NASA.

B. Violation: the aff explores space with the intent of ______________________

C. Vote neg-
Limits: the aff explodes the topic- there are dozens of space technologies which could be
deployed with many unpredictable intents such as spying, climate and environmental
observation, GPS tracking, genocide monitoring, disaster monitoring, etc.
Predictability: the infinite number of technologies used to do something other than colonize
becomes unpredictable and a research burden for the negative

Topicality is a voting issue for predictability and limits

38
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T- Exploration = Colonization – 2NC
A. extend interpretation: the UK space agency 11 evidence cites that exploration through
the means of humans and robotic technology must result in eventual colonization for the
benefit of humanity- our interp is the most educational because debating about the intent
of colonization spurs action and results in an increase of research which is needed for
humanity

B. extend violation: the aff explores space with the intent of ______________________

C. Limits: infinitely regressive- so many different technologies exist to be deployed into


space- each with its own intent and repercussions- this becomes unpredictable for the neg
resulting in lack of fairness

Caselist of topical affs under our interpretation are: SETI, lunar mining, space debris, and
solar sails

Potential abuse is a voting issue – we shouldn’t be forced to research and debate


unpredictable affirmatives

39
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - Exploration = Human - 1NC
A) Space exploration requires human presence
John M. Logsdon, Professor of political Science and International affairs at George Washington University, 2009,
NASA, “50 Years of Human Spaceflight: Why Is There Still a Controversy?”,
http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20100025875_2010028362.pdf

Many believe that the only sustainable rationale for a government-funded program of human spaceflight
is to take the lead in exploring the solar system beyond low-Earth orbit.20 The MIT white paper provides
an insightful definition of exploration: Exploration is a human activity, undertaken by certain cultures at
certain times for particular reasons. It has components of national interest, scientific research, and
technical innovation, but is defined by none of them. We define exploration as an expansion of the realm
of human experience, bringing people into new places, situations, and environments, expanding and
redefining what it means to be human. What is the role of Earth in human life? Is human life
fundamentally tied to the earth, or could it survive without the planet? Human presence, and its attendant
risk, turns a spaceflight into a story that is compelling to large numbers of people. Exploration also has a
moral dimension because it is in effect a cultural conversation on the nature and meaning of human life.
Exploration by this definition can only be accomplished by direct human presence and may be deemed
worthy of the risk of human life.21 In the wake of the 2003 Columbia accident that took the lives of
seven astronauts and the report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board that criticized the absence
of a compelling mission for human spaceflight as “a failure of national leadership,”22 the United States,
in January 2004, adopted a new policy to guide its human spaceflight activities. The policy directed
NASA to “implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system
and beyond” and to “extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the
Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations.”23 This
policy seems totally consistent with the definition of exploration provided in the MIT white paper.

B) Vote Neg:

1. Limits – fair research burdens require a logical check on possible cases – non-human
missions explode the topic by allowing nearly any affirmative so long as it enhances our
knowledge of space. That leads to stale debates over Heidegger and Consult.

2. Precision – anyone looking up into space could arguably be beneficial for exploration –
only our definition has clear mandates for exploration – actual human presence in space

3. T’s an a priori voter for fairness and jurisdiction – evaluate with competing
interpretations – that’s least arbitrary

40
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – Exploration = Human – 2NC Limits
Extend limits – they justify any case that increases our knowledge of outer space as being
exploration – that could range from a telescope on Earth to examining Jupiter’s 37th moon
– that’d be “Kale” – with a probe. That’s a research burden we shouldn’t be expected to
have.

AND, it’s impossible to cover - there are countless probes, satellites, and telescopes

Neil MacIntosh, 7/18/09, University of North Carolina – Charlotte, “The Modern Space Race: Who’s really in
the lead?”, http://coedpages.uncc.edu/cstem/summer%20ventures/2010%20World%20View%20of%20Math%20and
%20Data%20Analysis/Neil%20MacIntosh.pdf
The advancements for which NASA is responsible include landing the first man on the moon, placing the
first man into orbit, and creating a reusable spacecraft (the space shuttle). They have also launched
countless satellites, telescopes, and space probes to explore both our own planet and the far reaches of
the galaxy.

AND, that leads to bad, uneducational debates. Lack of specific research on cases will force
negative teams to rely on generic arguments like Condition CP’s, Technology Critiques,
and Politics. Even if those arguments have some merits, a world with both generics and
substantive topic-specific debate is far preferable because that’s the only thing unique to
this year.

AND, we preserve the core of the topic


Mathew Faulk, writes for SpaceDaily, 10/13/03, “The Problems in Thinking about Humans and Space”,
http://www.spacedaily.com/news/oped-03zzk.html

Given the recent shuttle tragedy and other space mishaps, perhaps the initial and primary focus should
only be on simply being able to successfully transport humans within the space environment safely,
reliably, and successfully, before any cargo, scientific, or economic concerns should even enter the
picture. After all, space exploration is a human activity, without humans it would not exist. Humans and
the human person should therefore be the central focus when considering any topic related to this
endeavor.

AND, Prefer overlimiting to underlimiting – even if we constrain them to a fewer number


of affs, they can innovate with different advantage ground, leading to diversity of
arguments while maintaining core neg ground, whereas too many affs will force the
negative to abandon specific research and force debates over generic questions of
implementation every round.

AND, “Exploration” especially demands a limited meaning


Lester and Robinson 09 Daniel F. Lester, Michael Robinson, Department of Astronomy C1400, University of
Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA b Hillyer College, University of Hartford, Visiions of Exploration, Space Policy 25
(2009), p. 239

That Americans have broadly embraced exploration as a part of their national identity seems clear. Yet,
as the above examples show, this embrace provides little insight into the meanings of exploration, the
effect of such meanings on the planning of missions, or the value of such missions to the nation. Why
does such an important term as ‘‘exploration’’ retain such ambiguity? One finds many answers, but
perhaps comedian Gary Owen explains it best. Certain words, Owen states, are ‘‘freedom words’’, terms
with meanings broad enough to label things that would be hard to categorize. Like Owen’s made-up word
‘‘insegrevious’’, exploration has come to mean whatever its users want it to mean.

41
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – Exploration = Human – 2NC Precision
Extend Precision – only our interpretation can consistently be decided objectively, as it
relies upon human presence within space. Their interpretation depends on subjective
language that can be interpreted on a broad scale round-to-round.

AND, that invites judge intervention to determine whether the case is topical based on
opinion, destroying the purpose of debate as it eliminates the actual arguments made
within the round.

AND, an ambiguous counter-interpretation short-circuits the internal links to their


standards – even if their interpretation is theoretically better it doesn’t matter because it
can’t be consistently implemented in round.

AND, Their counter-interpretation is a corruption of the language – that kills predictability


Edward Wright, 6/28/06, Space Politics, http://www.spacepolitics.com/2006/06/28/a-move-against-mars-mission-
funding/
Unmanned missions are not exploration, they are merely reconnaissance. The dictionary defines
exploration as “travel for purposes of discovery.” Sitting in a control room looking at pictures of Mars on
a TV set is not exploration because it does not involve travel. Calling unmanned space “exploration” and
unmanned probes “spaceships” is just an attempt to co-opt the language.

42
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - Space Exploration = Physical Presence – 1NC
A. Interpretation - Physical presence in space through either robots or humans is an
essential minimum for a precise definition of space exploration
Ryan G. Faith, adjunct fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS).8/31/09, The Space
Review - essays and commentary about the final frontier, Giving NASA a clear Mission, Can we get anywhere from
here? http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1456/1

If neither technology-oriented nor destination-oriented objectives seem able to provide a sense of


direction to guide the nation’s efforts in space, then what can? To approach this question, it is useful to
ask why President Kennedy’s challenge to go to the Moon was so effective in providing NASA with
leadership. The critical element of this challenge that, although never explicit, was so important to
NASA’s health and growth during this period was the transformation—at least in fact, if not in law—into
an exploration agency. If we wish to see NASA act effectively as a space exploration agency, then the
most direct way to do this is to amend the Space Act to explicitly task the agency with the job of space
exploration. However, before we do so, we must define what space exploration actually is. Space
exploration is the expansion of human influence in space. This definition of exploration is inherently one
of capacity building. Human influence in space is a measure of our ability to do useful things beyond the
Earth’s surface. In order to do something useful, there has to be some sort of human presence, either
humans themselves or their robotic proxies. Once some measure of human influence has been established
at some destination in space, there are two ways a space exploration agency can expand that influence.
One, the agency can decrease the costs and increase the benefits of human influence at a given location
until such influence becomes sufficiently useful that it is economically self-sustaining, at which point
continued use of agency resources is unnecessary. Alternately, human influence can be extended to some
new place that may in future become home to some form of self-supporting human influence. The key
element is that such a mandate compels each step to build on past accomplishments and lay the
groundwork for future missions.

B. Violation – the aff doesn’t physically explore space

C. Standards –

1.) Limits – allowing the aff to explore space from earth destroys essential limits on
the topic. The aff could justify plans that involve watching a movie about space or looking
through a telescope at space, which makes it impossible for the neg to prepare for the
unlimited amount of affs.
2.) Ground –if the neg cannot predict what space exploration means in debates and
whether plans physically leave Earth then we lose significant ground. We lose DA’s, K’s,
and CP’s with links that rely on the aff plan actually touching space

D. Voting Issue –

Education - unlimiting the topic and stealing neg ground disables negative teams
from being able to prepare for the aff plan, this results in no clash within the debate.
No clash means debaters aren’t obtaining the educational benefits in debate of
learning about the topic, how to make good decisions and process information

Fairness – with an unlimited topic negs will be unable to prepare for affs therefore
losing every debate.

43
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - Exploration = Search for unexplored minerals within US – 1NC
1. Interpretation: Exploration means the search for unexplored deposits of minerals within
US territory
GPO 2008, US Government Printing Office, United States Code, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2008-
title30/html/USCODE-2008-title30-chap17-sec643.htm

As used in this chapter, the term “exploration” means the search for new or unexplored deposits of
minerals, including related development work, within the United States, its Territories and possessions,
whether conducted from the surface or underground, using recognized and sound procedures including
standard geophysical and geochemical methods for obtaining mineralogical and geological information.
(Pub. L. 85–701, §3, Aug. 21, 1958, 72 Stat. 701.)

2. Violation: They don’t search for unexplored deposits within US territory.

3. Standards:
1. Ground: Allowing the aff to search for unexplored deposits outside of US
territory allows them to gain more ground than the neg.
2. Limits: Allowing the aff search outside of US territory explodes the topic and
allows them to run vague and horrible plans.

4. Voter: On fairness and education


1. Fairness: By allowing the aff to run un-topical affs limits the ground the neg has,
creating an advantage for the aff, and giving an unfair research burden to the neg.
2. Education: Allowing the aff to run vague plans hurts debate because it advocates
little research for the aff.

44
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Exploration – Generic (1)
Space exploration includes development of new applications to go beyond Earth
NASA. 11/4/10. http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/541222main_10-05-17%20FSB%20Sci%20Plan-Signed_508.pdf “The
NASA Fundamental Space Biology Science Plan 2010-2020”

The only life we have yet encountered in the universe is life on Earth. Every known living thing evolved
under the common influence of Earth’s gravity, atmosphere, and radiation. Space exploration, defined as
missions conducted to pursue new discoveries, new development and new applications beyond Earth, can
be accomplished in different ways by people traveling on spacecraft, or by robot surrogates monitored by
people. FSB conducts research to optimize the value of the human exploration component by all practical
means.

Space exploration is defined as going to new places and learning new things
The Space Review. (By: Dwayne A. Day, an American space historian, policy analyst, and investigator for the
Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Day works for the Space Studies Board of the National Research
Council/National Academy of Sciences, where he has served as a study director on studies concerning NASA's
planetary exploration program, the threat of asteroids striking Earth, NASA workforce skills, radiation hazards to
astronauts on long duration spaceflights, and other projects. 7/26/4. http://www.thespacereview.com/article/192/1.
“Where Have You Gone, Joe DiMaggio?”

Space exploration, true space exploration, defined as going new places and learning new things, has been
on a spectacular roll lately. The two Mars rovers are creaky but still crawling across the surface of the
Red Planet. Cassini is dodging the rings and moons of Saturn. A spacecraft with the inventive acronym of
MESSENGER is getting ready to fly off to Mercury. And that’s not to mention the several orbiters,
American and European, currently circling Mars. Unfortunately, the human projects are in worse shape.
The shuttle is still grounded, the International Space Station is still years away from completion, and the
bold new space exploration “Vision” is mired in the drudgery of budget politics. But wondrous things are
happening way out there in the deep cold black of outer space and we do not have anybody to turn the
science into poetry.

Exploration is defined as traveling to a new territory


Merriam Webster Dictionary. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/exploring?
show=0&t=1311089307 “Definition of Explore”
2: to travel over (new territory) for adventure or discovery

Space exploration means investigation of physical conditions in space


The Free Dictionary, 2011, http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Space+Exploration
space exploration, the investigation of physical conditions in space and on stars, planets, and other
celestial bodies through the use of artificial satellites (spacecraft that orbit the earth), space probes
(spacecraft that pass through the solar system and that may or may not orbit another celestial body), and
spacecraft with human crews.

Space exploration is investigation through spacecraft


Encyclopedia Britannica, 1995, http://www.uv.es/EBRIT/macro/macro_5002_27_23.html
Space exploration may be defined as the investigation, by means of spacecraft, of all the reaches of the
universe beyond the atmosphere of the Earth. Spacecraft, vehicles that operate above the Earth's
atmosphere, include sounding rockets, Earth satellites, and lunar, planetary, and deep space probes.

45
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Exploration – Generic (2)

Exploration includes: list..


Jeremy Curtis et al., Coordinator of Space Exploration Working Group at the British National Space Centre,
December 2009, “Space Exploration Review”, p. 21-2,
http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/strategies/UKSpaceExporationReview2009.pdf

2.4 What is space exploration? In the context of this report space exploration encompasses the region of
the solar system that is accessible to human beings using currently feasible technology (or to reiterate the
Global Exploration Strategy, 'Solar System destinations where humans may one day live and work'). This
includes the Moon, Mars, certain Near Earth Objects (asteroids) and particular regions of space from Low
Earth Orbit (LEO) through to the various libration points in the Earth-Moon and Earth-Sun systems.
These latter locations have special properties and uses (see box on p22). Excluded from this definition of
space exploration is the purely scientific exploration of the outer Solar System (since we cannot yet build
space vehicles able to carry and protect astronauts on such voyages), as well as space-based observatories
used to study the stars and universe beyond. Likewise unmanned satellites in Earth orbit are excluded –
for example those providing Earth observation, communications and navigation services). Both robotic
and human activities are included – exploration per se does not favour one over the other, though in
many cases a combination of both is the best approach. Space exploration within this definition
encompasses projects which may combine in varying degrees scientific, technological, cultural and
economic goals. Example goals include science objectives such as the study of lunar geology to
understand the history of the Earth; technology demonstrations, such as testing new communication
techniques; and commercial projects such as the search for usable mineral resources on the Moon or Near
Earth Objects.

46
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Exploration – Humans only
Space exploration includes human presence—most predictable and sets best limits to the
topic
Mathew Faulk, writes for SpaceDaily, 10/13/03, “The Problems in Thinking about Humans and Space”,
http://www.spacedaily.com/news/oped-03zzk.html

Given the recent shuttle tragedy and other space mishaps, perhaps the initial and primary focus should
only be on simply being able to successfully transport humans within the space environment safely,
reliably, and successfully, before any cargo, scientific, or economic concerns should even enter the
picture. After all, space exploration is a human activity, without humans it would not exist. Humans and
the human person should therefore be the central focus when considering any topic related to this
endeavor.

Space exploration requires human presence


David A. Mindell et al., Scott A. Uebelhart, Slava Gerovitch, Jeff Hoffman, Ephraim Lanford, John Logsdon,
Teasel Muir-Harmony, Dava Newman, Sherrica Newsome, Lawrence McGlynn, Rebecca Perry, Asif Siddiqi,
Zakiya A. Tomlinson, John Tylko, Annalisa L. Weigel, Laurence R. Young, December 2008, “The Future of
Human Spacefl ight”, from the MIT white papers, http://web.mit.edu/mitsps/MITFutureofHumanSpaceflight.pdf

Moreover, if exploration were simply a matter of finding out what lies beyond our immediate vicinity,
then satisfying that curiosity would not require direct human presence. If we are primarily concerned with
finding what’s out there, then robotic spacecraft and other technologies can help us find out at a fraction
of the cost and risk. In fact, many such machines are returning wondrous data every day. If an innate
human curiosity is used as a justification for space exploration in general, it fails as a justification for
human space exploration. Exploration is a human activity, undertaken by certain cultures at certain times
for particular reasons. It has components of national interest, scientific research, and technical innovation,
but is defined by none of them. We define exploration as an expansion of the realm of human experience,
bringing people into new places, situations, and environments, expanding and redefining what it means to
be human. What is the role of Earth in human life? Is human life fundamentally tied to the earth, or could
it survive without the planet? Human presence, and its attendant risk, turns a spacefl ight into a story that
is compelling to large numbers of people. Exploration also has a moral dimension because it is in effect a
cultural conversation on the nature and meaning of human life. Exploration by this definition can only be
accomplished by direct human presence and may be deemed worthy of the risk of human life.

Space exploration requires the act of enabling human presence in space


ESA, 7/7-8/08, “SPACE EXPLORATION ARCHITECTURE REVIEW HIGH-LEVEL FINDINGS”, p. 5,
http://esamultimedia.esa.int/docs/exploration/IntlExplorationArchitectures/IntegratedArchReview/HighLevelFindin
gsFinal.pdf

A broad consensus on motivations and interests in space exploration exists at international level, as
demonstrated by the publication in spring 2007 of the "Global Space Exploration Strategy – The
Framework for Coordination", a document agreed by 14 space agencies. Space exploration is considered
to be a global, societal project which is driven by the goals of extending access to space and enabling a
sustainable presence of humans in Earth-Moon-Mars space.

Exploration is defined as extending human presence


ESA, 11/8-9/07, “European Objectives and Interests in Space Exploration”,
http://esamultimedia.esa.int/docs/exploration/EuropeanThemes/European_Objectives_in_Space_Exploration.pdf

“Space exploration”: Extend access and a sustainable presence for humans in Earth-Moon-Mars space,
including the Lagrangian Points and near-Earth objects.

47
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Exploration – Humans and Robots (1)
Space exploration implies deep space exploration
Harrison Schmitt, Chairman Of Interlune-Intermars Initiative, Inc. and Apollo 17 Astronaut before the Senate
Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee's Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space,
11/06/03,“Testimony on the Commercial Development of Lunar Resources”,
http://www.chicagospace.org/schmitttestimony.html

The term "space exploration" implies the exploration of the Moon, planets and asteroids, that is, "deep
space," in contrast to continuing human activities in Earth orbit. Human activities in Earth orbit have less
to do with exploration and more to do with international commitments, as in the case of the Space
Station, and prestige and technological development, as in the case of China and Russia. There are also
research opportunities, not fully recognized even after 40 years, that exploit the opportunities presented
by being in Earth orbit. Deep space exploration has been and should always be conducted with the best
combination of human and robotic techniques. Many here will argue the value of robotics. I will just say
that any data collection that can be successfully automated at reasonable cost should be. In general,
human being's should not waste their time with activities such as surveying, systematic photography, and
routine data collection. Robotic precursors into situations of undefined or uncertain risk also are clearly
appropriate.

Space exploration is defined as robotic and human missions to extra terrestrial


environments
The Technopolitan. 2/11. http://www.technopolis-group.com/resources/downloads/Technopolitan6.pdf
Technopolis has recently completed a study for the European Commission on the impact of space
exploration defined as robotic and human missions to extra-terrestrial environments (such as the Moon
and Mars) on innovation in the wider European economy, and the resulting economic, social and
environmental impact of such innovation. Two perspectives on the relationship between space
exploration and innovation were considered:

48
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Exploration – Humans and Robots (2)

Space exploration must include presence by both robots and humans


Wolfgang Seboldt, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Space Simulation, 20 04, “PROPOSAL FOR
AN INTEGRATED EUROPEAN SPACE EXPLORATION STRATEGY”, p. 2,
http://www.spacesailing.net/paper/200410_Vancouver_SeboldtBlomeDachwald+.pdf

Space exploration aims at expanding the present frontiers for human access to the solar system and
beyond (both via robots and humans), relying on human experience and involvement and creating
emotions and exceptional public interest (Fig. 1). The objective is to look for unknown and fascinating
phenomena (incl. landscapes not previously encountered, search for life, etc.), raising new scientific
questions, or opening up new fields of applications and commercial utilization (e.g. in-situ resources,
tourism). Exploration of space is particularly demanding, since it involves hostile environments and
requires sophisticated and thus expensive technologies. Therefore, it should be achieved stepwise:
initially by robots, substituting humans and transmitting their findings to Earth (with all the resulting
limitations), and later by human presence. This approach seems reasonable in order to prepare and
validate the necessary technologies, and to find out the landing sites most interesting for detailed studies
by humans. In fact, it has been chosen in the frame of the Apollo Moon landings and is currently pursued
in NASA’s Mars exploration program.

Space exploration must include human or robotic presence


Senior Associate in the Technology and Public Policy Program at Center for Strategic and International Studies,
Ryan Faith, Ashley Bander, 6/20/09, “The Role of NASA 40 Years after the Lunar Landing”,
http://csis.org/publication/role-nasa-40-years-after-lunar-landing

Space exploration is the expansion of human influence in space. This definition of exploration is
inherently one of capacity building. Human influence in space is a measure of our ability to do useful
things beyond the Earth’s surface. In order to do something useful, there has to be some sort of human
presence—either humans themselves or their robotic proxies. Once some measure of human influence has
been established at some destination in space, there are two ways a space exploration agency can expand
that influence. First, the agency can decrease the costs and increase the benefits of human influence at a
given location until such influence becomes sufficiently useful that it is economically self-sustaining, at
which point continued use of agency resources is unnecessary. Alternately, human influence can be
extended to some new place that may in the future become home to some form of self-supporting human
influence. The key element is that such a mandate compels each step to build on past accomplishments
and lay the groundwork for future missions.

Space exploration is robotic technology


Tudor Vieru (a science editor, Tudor focuses mostly on issues such as climate change, history, medicine, behavior
and health, with the occasional scy-pry article. Even though he possesses a biology, physics and chemistry
background, Tudor admits that writing for the science category at Softpedia can be challenging at times. Still, seeing
our users read more and more motivates him to keep writing better articles.) 2/3/ 11.
http://news.softpedia.com/news/Robots-Are-the-Future-of-Space-Exploration-182316.shtml. “Robots Are the Future
of Space Exploration”
What experts are saying is that the direct, hands-on experiences will not be lived by humans, but rather by
robotic explorers. In a new book called The Eerie Silence, author Paul Davies explains that, if we ever
meet alien explorers, they will most likely turn out to be automated as well. The expert believes that (a
potential) first contact will be made with artificial intelligence (AI)-empowered machines. Any alien race
capable of space travel, he argues, would have figured out that robots are the best way to go about
learning more about space. Machines can endure freezing temperatures, can survive with lower
demands, do not need extra space to move and can be remotely-controlled if AI technologies fail.

49
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Exploration - Humans and Robots (3)
Space exploration includes robotic technology
Stephen J. Dubner, an American journalist who has written four books and numerous articles. Dubner is best
known as co-author (with economist Steven Levitt) of the pop-economics book Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist
Explores the Hidden Side of Everything and its 2009 sequel, SuperFreakonomics. 1/11/8.
http://www.freakonomics.com/2008/01/11/is-space-exploration-worth-the-cost-a-freakonomics-quorum/ (Excerpt is
by Joan Vernikos, a member of the Space Studies Board of the National Academy and former director of NASA’s
Life Sciences Division) “Is Space Exploration Worth the Cost? A Freakonomics Quorum”
Without risking human lives, robotic technology such as unmanned missions, probes, observatories, and
landers enables space exploration. It lays the groundwork, and does the scouting. But as I heard former
astronaut Thomas Jones often say, “only a human can experience what being in space feels like, and only
a human can communicate this to others.” It is humans who repair the Hubble telescope. It is humans
who service the International Space Station (ISS). Mercury astronauts were the first to photograph Earth
from space with hand-held cameras. Earth scientists in orbit on the ISS may view aspects of global
change that only a trained eye can see. In addition, studying astronauts in the microgravity of space has
been the only means of understanding how gravity affects human development and health here on Earth.
It is highly probable that, in this century, humans will settle on other planets. Our ability to explore and
sustain human presence there will not only expand Earth’s access to mineral resources but, should the
need arise, provide alternative habitats for humanity’s survival.

Prefer reasonability—defining exploration as requiring human presence is obsolete


Daniel F. Lester, Research scientist at Department of Astronomy at the University of Texas, B.A. at University of
Oregon, Ph.D at University of California-Santa Cruz, 8/8/09, “Visions of Exploration”, Space Policy Volume 25,
Issue 4, November 2009, Pages 236-243
First, we should accept that “exploration” is a multivalent term, with many meanings, some of which are
contradictory, and all of which have historical precedent. For too long we have looked at the history of
exploration selectively, seeking to find the antecedents which justify our own vision of exploration: as
science, as human adventure, as geopolitical statement. This is a definitional fight which cannot be won.
Space policy must acknowledge the multiple visions for space exploration, developing a clear-eyed
metric of value which avoids the vagaries of lofty “exploration-speak”. If the merits of human exploration
of the Moon and Mars are primarily symbolic and geopolitical, what are these goals worth in terms of
federal funding? What are costs and benefits of missions developed to express “soft power” vs. science?
Finally, which goals or combination of goals offers the best chance of long-term buy-in by the taxpayer?
While historical precedent defines exploration in terms of human explorers who travel to new
destinations, that definition is woefully obsolete with regard to discovery in an era in which teleoperation
offers virtual presence for explorers who remain on the surface of the Earth. As has been pointed out by
many authors, “robots” have come to be less personal assistants who follow us dutifully, and more
expendable extensions of our senses. In this respect, science can be viewed as arguably the most
important frontier for humankind, and whether it is done by humans in situ or by humans remotely is no
longer a particularly relevant distinction.

Exploration as human presence is an absurd, outdated, and land-biased definitional model


Daniel F. Lester, Research scientist at Department of Astronomy at the University of Texas, B.A. at University of
Oregon, Ph.D at University of California-Santa Cruz, 8/8/09, “Visions of Exploration”, Space Policy Volume 25,
Issue 4, November 2009, Pages 236-243
The word “exploration” threads its way through every discussion of human space flight and often
headlines national policy statements about the US space agency. Yet this concept, so rooted in our
culture, remains remarkably ill-defined. In this paper, we examine various presumptions implicit in the
term and its ramifications for federally supported space endeavors. We argue that historical examples of
exploration, widely used by policy makers, often make poor models for contemporary space travel. In
particular, historical precedents of exploration set up a land-biased view of discovery, a restriction which
impedes full expression of the Vision for Space Exploration and its possible scientific returns. These
same precedents also set up a view of discovery that is biased toward in situ human presence, a view that
modern technology is rendering increasingly absurd.

50
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality – Exploration and Development – Limits Cards
Nasa does tons of missions – limits are especially important on this topic
NASA 10
[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, “About NASA”
http://www.nasa.gov/about/highlights/what_does_nasa_do.html, 2/1/10, Caplan]

NASA Today NASA conducts its work in four principal organizations, called mission directorates:
Aeronautics: pioneers and proves new flight technologies that improve our ability to explore and which
have practical applications on Earth. Exploration Systems: creates capabilities for sustainable human and
robotic exploration. Science: explores the Earth, solar system and universe beyond; charts the best route of
discovery; and reaps the benefits of Earth and space exploration for society. Space Operations: provides
critical enabling technologies for much of the rest of NASA through the space shuttle, the International
Space Station and flight support. In the early 21st century, NASA's reach spans the universe. Spirit and
Opportunity, the Mars Exploration Rovers, are still studying Mars after arriving in 2004. Cassini is in orbit around Saturn. The
restored Hubble Space Telescope continues to explore the deepest reaches of the cosmos. Closer to home, the latest crew of
the International Space Station is extending the permanent human presence in space. Earth Science satellites are
sending back unprecedented data on Earth's oceans, climate and other features. NASA's aeronautics team
is working with other government organizations, universities, and industry to fundamentally improve the
air transportation experience and retain our nation's leadership in global aviation. The Future NASA is making
significant and sustained investments in: Transformative technology development and demonstrations to pursue
new approaches to space exploration, including heavy-lift technologies; Robotic precursor missions to
multiple destinations in the solar system; U.S. commercial spaceflight capabilities; Extensions and
increased utilization of the International Space Station; Cross-cutting technology development in a new
Space Technology Program; Climate change research and observations; NextGen and green aviation; and
Education, including focus on Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM).

“Exploration” must be given a limited meaning – the alternative is an unlimited number of


arbitrary shenanigans
Lester and Robinson 9 Daniel F. Lester, Michael Robinson, Department of Astronomy C1400, University of
Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA b Hillyer College, University of Hartford, Visiions of Exploration, Space Policy 25
(2009), p. 239

That Americans have broadly embraced exploration as a part of their national identity seems clear. Yet,
as the above examples show, this embrace provides little insight into the meanings of exploration, the
effect of such meanings on the planning of missions, or the value of such missions to the nation. Why
does such an important term as ‘‘exploration’’ retain such ambiguity? One finds many answers, but
perhaps comedian Gary Owen explains it best. Certain words, Owen states, are ‘‘freedom words’’, terms
with meanings broad enough to label things that would be hard to categorize. Like Owen’s made-up word
‘‘insegrevious’’, exploration has come to mean whatever its users want it to mean.

51
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - And/Or = Both – 1NC
A: AND / OR means AND
WOOD 01
Diane P. Wood, Circuit Judge – United States Court of Appeals, “Susan E. Hess, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Hartford Life
& Accident Insurance Company”, 12-13-2001, http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?
court=7th&navby=case&no=002043
Having determined that Hess's 1996 employment contract is properly a part of the administrative record the district court was
entitled to consider, we must next decide whether Hartford could reasonably have determined that Hess's benefits as of April 19,
1996, should have been based only on her 1995 draw amount. Like the district court, we cannot read the contract that way. Hess's
1996 contract clearly states that the draw system was to be phased out as of April 5. The contract also specifies that her
benefits, including long-term disability benefits, would be calculated based on her "base salary and/or draw." (We
note in passing that the phrase "and/or" has its critics. Bryan A. Garner reports in A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage 56 (2d ed.
1995), that "and/or has been vilified for most of its life-- and rightly so." He goes on to say, however, that the expression,
while "undeniably clumsy, does have a specific meaning (x and/or y = x or y or both)." Id.) Here, this would mean
that Hess could have her benefits calculated on the basis of her base salary, or her draw, or both. In the context of Fleet's transition
away from a draw system, the only reasonable interpretation of this provision was that the benefits would be
based on the draw while it was in effect and on the base salary thereafter. As of April 5, Hess was thus
contractually entitled to a benefits package based on her base salary--that is, based on the average of her previous two years'
commissions. The fact that Fleet may have breached the contract (or been slow in implementing its details) by failing to move from
the draw system to the base salary system until June 1 does not change the package of compensation and benefits to which Hess was
contractually entitled. Nor could the fact that Fleet failed to inform Hartford about the date the change-over was to have occurred
affect Hess's benefit amount. The Hartford policy states that "[i]f [Fleet] gives The Hartford any incorrect information, the relevant
facts will be determined" to establish the correct benefit amount. Once informed by Hess's attorney that Hess believed the
information Fleet provided Hartford was incorrect, it was incumbent on the examiner to refer to Hess's employment contract to
determine her actual regular monthly pay. Had he done so, he would have seen that Hess became entitled to the higher level of
benefits on April 5, two weeks before her disability. The district court therefore did not err when it concluded that Hartford's failure
to consider the contract was arbitrary and capricious.

B: The affirmative only defends [exploration or development]

C: Precision
The negative interpretation is preferable because it comes from the legal system, so
it is how the USfg interprets the word. Further, there is a clear intent to define the term,
rather than asserting that something fits within it.
Precision is linked to critical thinking and decision-making education because it is
not only predictable, but forces the debater to consider the word from the point of view of
the actor rather than their own view.

Limits
To limit the debate to a certain interpretation is good because if the resolution is
limited, clash and predictability are promoted. This isn’t to say the affirmative
can only run one position, but must defend both options offered by the resolution.
Clash is necessary to education because it allows for deeper thinking into an issue.
This is because a) a predictable debate can be researched much more effectively
and b) a resolution that promotes clash promotes critical thinking to see what
objections could possibly be made to a position.
D: Voting Issues
Vote off of education because debate is considered “intellectual competition.” The
point of debate is to become educated on topics as well as to promote critical
thinking and decision making. If debate wasn’t educational, it would also promote
bad debate practice like taking positions meant to be hard to predict, avoiding an
actual debate rather than engaging in one.

52
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - And/Or = One or Other or Both (1)
A: And/or means one or the other or both
Pullum 08
[Geoffrey K., Professor of General Linguistics – University of Edinburgh, “And/or: "and AND or", or "and OR
or"?”, Language Log, 4-14, http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=35, Caplan]

Does and/or mean "and and or", or "and or or"? That is, if I say I am interested in A and/or B, do I mean
I'm interested in A and B and I'm interested in A or B, or do I mean that I'm interested in A and B or I'm
interested in A or B? (You may want to say that it means I'm interested in A and B and/or I'm interested in
A or B; but in that case I repeat my question.) Having reflected on it for a little while, I am convinced that
the answer has to be that A and/or B must mean "A and B or A or B". That is, if an entity A is claimed to
have the property of being F and/or G, the claim amounts to saying that either (i) A has the property of
being both F and G or (ii) A has the property of being either F or G. And to claim that F is a property of
entities A and/or B is to claim that either (i) F holds for A and B or (ii) F holds for A or B. However, in
that case and/or is effectively identical in meaning with or, so it is at first rather hard to see why and/or exists at all.
But I do have a guess. The right theory of what or means in English is that it is in general inclusive but that sometimes the exclusive
special case is conveyed as a conversational implicature. I'm going to study linguistics at either York or Edinburgh would often be
taken to have the exclusive sense: since you typically go to a single university to take a single degree, and during the degree course
you have no time to study elsewhere, a decision to choose York would normally exclude choosing Edinburgh as well. The exclusive
sense is thus conveyed: one or the other of York and Edinburgh will be chosen, and if it is York it will not be Edinburgh, and if it is
Edinburgh it will not be York. But of course if you think about it, someone who says she is choosing between those two universities
does not commit herself for life to never studying at the other. When the two alternatives exclude each other, then the exclusive
meaning is the only one that makes sense. If you are asked whether you want to sit in the stalls or in the balcony, it's one or the other
but not both, because you can only be in one place at one time. When they don't exclude each other, it's always
understood that or allows for both: obviously someone whose ambition is to win either an Oscar or an
Olympic medal wouldn't feel a failure if they won both. Winning both would satisfy the ambition in spades. So my
guess would be that and/or is a way of underlining the point that the or is to be understood in its inclusive sense rather than its
exclusive sense. Sometimes you want to explicitly indicate "or more than one of the above", and and/or does that. Take the first
example of and/or in the Wall Street Journal corpus of 1987-1989 (a 44-million-word collection of random articles that linguists
often use as a source for real-life examples because the Linguistic Data Consortium — the host for the giant Language Log servers
— made it available in 1993 nice and cheap). The example (which actually happens to be a quotation from the Washington Post) is
this: Too many of his attitudes, claims and complaints are careless, conflicting, dubious, inaccurate, mean, petty, simplistic,
superficial, uninformed and/or pointlessly biased. I take it as obvious that if one hundred percent of the hapless man's attitudes,
claims and complaints had all ten properties — every single one was careless and conflicting and dubious and inaccurate and mean
and petty and simplistic and superficial and uninformed and pointlessly biased — then the quoted claim would be regarded as true,
not false. An or would have done the job here, but the and/or injects a (logically redundant) reminder that it
may well be the case that more than one of the list of ten properties applies to the miserable individual in
question.

B: Precision:
First, a professor of linguistics would be the best source for questions of English grammar
and words, so the author credentials are greater. Second, the point of the whole article is to
define the word, so there is a clear intent to define.

C: Limits:
This definition allows the resolution to be viewed in the broadest sense, and underlimiting
the debate allows for increased knowledge of the topic and prevents stale debate and allows
for many original and creative arguments. It promotes critical thinking because it forces
debaters to think about every aspect of an issue.

53
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - And/Or = One or Other or Both (2)
And/or means a choice between two alternatives or both
Brians, PhD at Indianna University, ‘8 (Paul, November 2008, “Common Errors in English Usage,” 2nd Edition,
http://public.wsu.edu/~brians/errors/andor.html)

The legal phrase “and/or,” indicating that you can either choose between two alternatives or choose both
of them, has proved irresistible in other contexts and is now widely acceptable though it irritates some readers as jargon.
However, you can logically use it only when you are discussing choices which may or may not both be done: “Bring chips and/or
beer.” It’s very much overused where simple “or” would do, and it would be wrong to say, “you can get to the campus for this
morning’s meeting on a bike and/or in a car.” Choosing one eliminates the possibility of the other, so this isn’t an and/or situation.

And/or means one or the other or both


Words and Phrases 07
(3A W&P, p. 220)

C.A.1 (Mass.) 1981. Words “and/or,” for contract purposes, commonly mean the one or the other or both.
—Local Division 589, Amalgameted Transit Union, AFL-CIO, CLC v. Com. Of Mass., 666 F.2d 618,
certiorari denied Local Div. 589, Amalgamated Transit Union AFL-CIO v. Massachusetts, 102 S.Ct.
2928, 457 U.S. 1117, 73 L.Ed.2d 1329.—Contracts 159.

54
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - Development = Commercial Activity – 1NC
Interpretation:
Space development means to increase the scale and diversity of commercial activity in
space
Daniel S. Goldin, NASA Administrator, “NASA: Enhanced Strategy for the Development of Space Commerce”,
NASA, 9/24/01, http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewsr.html?pid=3692//jchen
A core NASA mission is "to advance the human exploration, use, and development of space" to benefit
the quality of life on Earth. Increasing the scale and diversity of commercial activity in space is essential
to fulfilling this mission. To promote the development of robust space commerce, NASA will implement
the following strategic goals: Goal 1: Remove barriers to space commerce Goal 2: Use market tools and
commercial strategies in furtherance of NASAs mission and strategic plan Goal 3: Provide opportunities
for new commercial space markets Goal 4: Support free and fair trade in space goods and services Goal
5: Strategically align NASA participation in commercial activities with the Agencys mission and values

Violation:
The aff doesn’t do that—_______ is not an increase in commercial development

Vote neg:
Limits: Defining as commercial development is the only way to set predictable limits to the
topic. Prevents the aff from running squirrely affs that used ground-based space assets like
passive SETI or send up a random satellite

Ground:
Key to preserve core neg ground like the on-ground CP or spending DAs that are based off
of expensive space assets development—And that’s necessary to give meaning to the word
substantial in the resolution—not increasing commercial development makes it
unquantifiable

55
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – Development = Commercial - 2NC – Interpretation
Extend our interpretation—the aff plan needs to increase commercialization of space.
That’s Goldin
And prefer it

1) Straight out of the horse’s mouth


Goldin is a NASA administrator and cites NASA’s core missions and goals for
development. The plan would go through NASA so using their definition is the best way to
define the topic.
And most predictable in the literature—all space lit is based on NASA.

2) Specificity
Our evidence outlines the goals in the NASA mission to advance development of space—
prefer it over their arbitrary interpretation that doesn’t give specific strategies for how to
develop space.

56
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – Development = Commercial - 2NC – AT: Counter-interpretation
Any interpretation other than ours is too arbitrary—
There’s no way to tell what is development unless there’s proof of space being developed.
Commercialization is the best standard because it rests on tangible effects that allow us to
quantify the extent to which the aff develops—

And that preserves meaning to the word substantial in the resolution. Under their
interpretation, affs that change the direction of a satellite up in space as a means of
development would be viable—that’s not only untopical in terms of development but
destroys any meaning to the word substantial

57
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – Development = Commercial - 2NC – Ground
Our interpretation is key to preserve negative ground
Caselist proves that the aff still has plenty of ground to run affs that are deeply rooted in
the literature. Allowing the aff to defend deploying a random space weapon or passive
SETI means that we don’t get links to spending or politics because they’re based off
programs that create change in space.

58
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – Development = Commercial - 2NC – Limits
We include:
Colonization
Lunar/asteroid/planetary mining
All legal affs like property rights
Privatization

Be lenient on the question of overlimiting—


1) At worst we only overlimit on one of the words in the resolution. Setting limits to
development is key to set fair parameters to the topic. The aff gets the word exploration
2) The aff gets to defend the and/or in the resolution which means only setting a clear
brightline to the topic can establish fair grounds for debate

Defining development as commercialization keeps teams from getting away with running
affs that increase ground-based space assets or arbitrary weapons in space—key to
preserve predictability because having a set rubric for what development is ensures that
the neg has a fair burden of reserach

59
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality – Development Not Militarization – 1NC
A. Interpretation- Development includes economic and commercial activities while
exploration is venturing to unknown areas
Hsu and Cox 09
[Feng Hsu, Sr. Fellow, Aerospace Technology Working Group and Ken Cox, Founder & Director Aerospace
Technology Working Group, 2/20/09, http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewsr.html?pid=30702, Caplan]
In our view, even with adequate reform in its governance model, NASA is not a rightful institution to lead or
manage the nation's business in Space Development projects. This is because human space development activities,
such as development of affordable launch vehicles, RLVs, space-based solar power, space touring capabilities,
communication satellites, and trans-earth or trans-lunar space transportation infrastructure systems, are primarily
human economic and commercial development endeavors that are not only cost-benefit-sensitive in project
management, but are in the nature of business activities and are thus subject to fundamental business principles
related to profitability, sustainability, and market development, etc. Whereas, in space exploration, by its nature and
definition, there are basic human scientific research and development (R&D) activities that require exploring the
unknowns, pushing the envelope of new frontiers or taking higher risks with full government and public support,
and these need to be invested in solely by taxpayer contributions.

B. Violation- The Aff increases space militarization capabilities- not tied to economic or
commercial development

C. Voting issue-

1. Limits – The topic is already massive – allowing militarization allows for a whole new
research base with thousands of different plan mechanisms for militarization- killing limits

2. Brightline – only our definition sets what is topical and what is not. Any other
interpretation is vague and destroys education

60
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – Dev’t Not Military – 2NC Cards
Space Development is for peaceful purposes only
Nomura 95
[Tamiya Nomura, Deputy Chairman of the Space Activities Commission , “Japan's new long-term vision Creating a
space age in the new century”, Space Policy Volume 11, Issue 1, February 1995, Accesed Via Science Direct,
Caplan]

The Japanese Government's Space Activities Commission (SAC) has released its latest Long-Term
Vision of Japan's future in the exploration and use of outer space. The Vision will contribute to the
formulation of government policy for space development. In this article, the philosophy of space
development is defined as follows: ‘It enables space to be used as the common property of all mankind in
order to contribute to the enduring prosperity of all those living on Earth.’ Within this philosophy, Japan's
principal objectives are projected into the middle of the twenty-first century as being: construction of a
global Earth observation system; promotion of advanced space science programmes; full implementation
of space activities using the Japanese Experiment Module of the International Space Station; and
development and operation of new space infrastructures.

The development of space must be peaceful


Vuillemot 01
[Ward W. Vuillemot, Aerospace Engineering, Masters of Science Computational Fluid Dynamics, Research
Assistant; Professor Uri Shumlak • NASA Graduate Fellow, Masters of Science Technical Japanese “Japan’s Space
Development: Past, Present, and Future”, http://web.mac.com/wwv/docs/japanese.space.development.pdf, Caplan]

To begin, we will examine how its members perceive the development of outer space within an
international and globally inclusive framework. Congruent with other world nations, the commission
defined the development of outer space as, “In order to contribute to the continual prosperity of life on
Earth, we should strive to effectively maximize the utilization of the limitless possibilities of unknown
outer space through mankind’s shared assets.” [11]

61
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - Development ≠ Scientific Research - 1NC
A) Development excludes scientific research
NSF No Date, National Science Foundation, http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/randdef/fedgov.cfm
Conduct of research and development (R&D): Research and development (R&D) activities comprise creative work
undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture
and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. Include: Administrative expenses for
R&D. Exclude: Physical assets for R&D such as R&D equipment and facilities... Routine product testing, quality
control, mapping, collection of general-purpose statistics, experimental production, routine monitoring and
evaluation of an operational program, and the training of scientific and technical personnel

B) Vote Neg

1. Limits – their aff opens the door to a slew of possible experiments that could be
conducted in space, which would be impossible to research, reducing debates to a stalemate
over generic Consult CP’s and Science Bad Critiques, crushing diverse and interesting
education.

2. Ground – Core negative positions like spending, debris, and space militarization require
creation of new installations and technology in space, their aff justifies putting another
potted plant in the ISS. That makes debates one-sided and boring.

3. T’s an a priori voter for fairness and jurisdiction – evaluate with competing
interpretations – that’s least arbitrary

62
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - Development = List – 1NC
A: Development includes the following:
NASA 10 – (July 19, 2010 “NASA SBIR AND STTR 2010 Program Solicitations” Section 2.14
http://sbir.nasa.gov/SBIR/sbirsttr2010/solicitation/chapter2.html#2.4, Caplan]

2.14 Research or Research and Development (R/R&D) Creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of
knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture, and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. It includes
administrative expenses for R&D. It excludes physical assets for R&D such as R&D equipment and facilities. It also excludes routine
product testing, quality control, mapping, collection of general-purpose statistics, experimental production, routine
monitoring and evaluation of an operational program, and training of scientific and technical personnel.
Basic Research: systematic study directed toward fuller knowledge or understanding of the fundamental aspects of phenomena and of observable
facts without specific applications toward processes or products in mind. Basic research, however, may include activities with broad applications
in mind.
Applied Research: systematic study to gain knowledge or understanding necessary to determine the means by which a recognized and specific
need may be met.
Development: systematic application of knowledge or understanding, directed toward the production of useful
materials, devices, and systems or methods, including design, development, and improvement of prototypes and new
processes to meet specific requirements.
Note: NASA SBIR/STTR programs do not accept proposals solely directed towards system studies, market research,
routine engineering development of existing products or proven concepts and modifications of existing products
without substantive innovation (See Section 1.1).

B: The Affirmative promotes [Something not on the list]

C: Precision:
The definition comes from a space program, which is the ultimate authority on
space travel, so it would be the most valid definition. This promotes critical
thinking and decision-making education because it promotes decisions made based
on the most knowledgeable source rather than other definitions, which could be
random or broad. Further there is a clear intent to define, rather than an
assertion.

Limits
The definition says a specific list of things that can be done, and it is a large list,
meaning it limits the debate to a certain degree, while allowing for many advocacies on
both sides. This has a direct link to education because limiting the debate creates a
predictable debate and prevents debaters from bad debate practices running overly
obscure positions to avoid debate clash.

D:
Vote off of education because debate is considered “intellectual competition.” The
point of debate is to become educated on topics as well as to promote critical
thinking and decision making. If debate wasn’t educational, it would also promote
bad debate practice like taking positions meant to be hard to predict rather than
educational, avoiding an actual debate rather than engaging in one.

63
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - Development = R&D – 1NC

A: Space development includes R+D and activities to facilitate exploration


SDPA 5
[Space Development Promotion Act of the Republic of Korea, Journal of Space Law, 33, 5-31,
http://www.spacelaw.olemiss.edu/library/space/Korea/Laws/33jsl175.pdf, Caplan]

Article 2 (Definitions) Definitions of terms used in this Act are as follows:


(a) The term “space development” means one of the following:
(i) Research and technology development activities related to design, production, launch, operation, etc.
of space objects;
(ii) Use and exploration of outer space and activities to facilitate them;
(b) The term “space development project” means a project to promote space development or a project to
pursue the development of education, technology, information, industry, etc. related to space
development;
(c) The term “space object” means an object designed and manufactured for use in outer space,
including a launch vehicle, a satellite, a space ship and their components;
(d) The term “space accident” means an occurrence of damage to life, body or property due to crash,
collision or explosion of a space object or other situation;
(e) The term “satellite information” means image, voice, sound or data acquired by using a satellite, or in
formation made of their combination, including processed or applied information.

B: The affirmative promotes [something not on list]

C: Precision
The definition comes from a space program, which is the ultimate authority on
space travel, so it would be the most valid definition. This promotes critical
thinking and decision-making education because it promotes decisions made based
on the most knowledgeable source rather than other definitions, which could be
random or broad. Further there is a clear intent to define, rather than an
assertion.

D: Vote off of education because debate is considered “intellectual competition.” The point of
debate is to become educated on topics as well as to promote critical thinking and decision
making. If debate wasn’t educational, it would also promote bad debate practice like taking
positions meant to be hard to predict rather than educational, avoiding an actual debate rather
than engaging in one.

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T - Development = List – Aff Answers
A: Development is R and D activities and projects that facilitate Exploration
UN 09
[United Nations Office of Outer Space Affiars, “Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space Legal
Subcommittee” 4/3/09, www.unoosa.org/pdf/limited/c2/AC105_C2_2009_CRP14E.pdf, Caplan]

"Space development" means any one of the following items: (a) Research activities and technology
development activities relevant to the design, manufacturing, launch, and/or operation of space objects
and (b) The use and exploration of outer space as well as activities that promote such activities. 2. "Space
development project" means projects that promote space development and projects that promote the
development of the relevant sectors in education, technology, information, and industry, etc.

C: Precision
This interpretation comes from the UNOOSA, the highest authority in the world on space
affairs, making it the most precise possible interpretation. Further there is clear intent to
define, not just a simple assertion.

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T - Development - Generic (1)
Development means to expand
OED Online. 2011. Oxford University Press. <http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/51434?
redirectedFrom=development>.

The bringing out of the latent capabilities (of anything); the fuller expansion (of any principle or activity).

Space development should not get in the way of funds


GAO 2009, Government Accountability Office, March http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d09306sp.pdf

While space development programs are complex and difficult by nature, and most are one-time efforts,
we are convinced that NASA would benefit from a more disciplined approach to its acquisitions. The
nature of its work should not preclude NASA from achieving what it promises when requesting and
receiving funds.

Development includes Colonization and Exploitation


Minqing 04
[ Han Minqing, Vice President of Shandong Academy of Social Science, Director of New Industrialization Research
Center, Shandong Social Science, Issue. 6, 200, accessed at http://www.chinasecurity.us/index.php?
option=com_content&view=article&id=254&Itemid=8, Caplan]

This article is representative of a large amount of writing urging China to fulfill ambitious goals in space.
According to Han, the development of space will largely define the modern age of industrialization.
Space development includes resource exploitation, which encompasses new energy sources, materials and
the establishment of new settlements. The pursuit of knowledge of outer space and the scientific and
technological means to conquer it will be a central driving force in exploring this new frontier. If China is
to be a world power, it must be a space power, argues the author. He looks far into the future and urges
China to pursue construction of lunar bases for deep space exploration and acquiring new energy sources
and materials. Following this, China should establish bases on Mars. Accomplishing these feats will
require major breakthroughs in launch vehicle capability, artificial intelligence, space networking
technologies, chemistry and life sciences.

Development excludes many activities


NASA 10 – (July 19, 2010 “NASA SBIR AND STTR 2010 Program Solicitations” Section 2.14
http://sbir.nasa.gov/SBIR/sbirsttr2010/solicitation/chapter2.html#2.4, Caplan]

2.14 Research or Research and Development (R/R&D) Creative work undertaken on a systematic basis
in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture, and society, and the
use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. It includes administrative expenses for R&D.
It excludes physical assets for R&D such as R&D equipment and facilities. It also excludes routine
product testing, quality control, mapping, collection of general-purpose statistics, experimental
production, routine monitoring and evaluation of an operational program, and training of scientific and
technical personnel.
Basic Research: systematic study directed toward fuller knowledge or understanding of the fundamental
aspects of phenomena and of observable facts without specific applications toward processes or products
in mind. Basic research, however, may include activities with broad applications in mind.
Applied Research: systematic study to gain knowledge or understanding necessary to determine the
means by which a recognized and specific need may be met.
Development: systematic application of knowledge or understanding, directed toward the production of
useful materials, devices, and systems or methods, including design, development, and improvement of
prototypes and new processes to meet specific requirements.
Note: NASA SBIR/STTR programs do not accept proposals solely directed towards system studies, market
research, routine engineering development of existing products or proven concepts and modifications of
existing products without substantive innovation (See Section 1.1).
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T - Development - Generic (2)
Development is improving or producing a product
BES 2007, Barron’s Educational Services, http://www.allbusiness.com/glossaries/development/4963277-1.html
Development-improving a product or producing new types of products.

Development is adding improvements


BES 2007, Barron’s Educational Services, http://www.allbusiness.com/glossaries/development/4963277-1.html
Development

the process of adding improvements on or to a parcel of land. Such improvements may include drainage,
utilities, subdividing, access, buildings, and any combination of these elements. Also the project where
such improvements are being made.

Space development is done by government institutions and transnational corporations


James A. Vedda 2007, senior policy analyst in the Washington, D.C. area, on civil, commercial, and
national security space issues. He received his Ph.D. in political science from the University of Florida, “The
role of Space Development in Globalization.” Societal Impact of Space Flight, http://history.nasa.gov/sp4801-
chapter10.pdf

The challenge for space development is to continue its role as a key element of globalization without
becoming associated with its negative consequences the same entities that dominate space
development—government institutions and transnational corporations—are seen by critics as
orchestrating globalization to serve the wealthy at the expense of the poor.

“Space development” includes launching objects and operating satellites


Kwanbo 7
[South Korean Publication, “Space Damages Compensation Act”, Global Legal Information Network, 12-21,
http://www.glin.gov/view.action?glinID=205544, Caplan]

There is a rising need to prepare for space accidents. The probability of such accidents has increased as
countries around the world have actively pursued space development and private companies that use
satellites are appearing. However, it is inappropriate to apply liability with negligence under the civil act
to compensate for damages resulting from space accidents considering that space technology engenders
many cutting-edge fields such as aerospace, electricity & electronics, telecommunications, and advanced
materials. Also, payments for damages would be astronomical: forcing the payment in its entire amount
would hinder the private sector's participation in the space development business. The need for a new
compensation scheme is clear. This act is intended to set up specific standards and procedures such as the
scope of compensation for damages and limits of responsibility for space accidents related to space
development activities such as launching of space objects and operating of satellites.

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T - Development - Generic (3)

Development excludes product testing, mapping, statistic collection, experimental


production, training, market research, and routine engineering/modification of proven
concepts without substantial innovation; it also entails specific requirements
NASA 10 – (July 19, 2010 “NASA SBIR AND STTR 2010 Program Solicitations” Section 2.14
http://sbir.nasa.gov/SBIR/sbirsttr2010/solicitation/chapter2.html#2.4)

2.14 Research or Research and Development (R/R&D) Creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the
stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture, and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. It
includes administrative expenses for R&D. It excludes physical assets for R&D such as R&D equipment and facilities. It
also excludes
routine product testing, quality control, mapping, collection of general-purpose statistics,
experimental production, routine monitoring and evaluation of an operational program, and
training of scientific and technical personnel.
Basic Research: systematic study directed toward fuller knowledge or understanding of the fundamental aspects of phenomena and of observable
facts without specific applications toward processes or products in mind. Basic research, however, may include activities with broad applications
in mind.
Applied Research: systematic study to gain knowledge or understanding necessary to determine the means by which a recognized and specific
need may be met.
Development: systematic application of knowledge or understanding, directed toward the
production of useful materials, devices, and systems or methods, including design, development,
and improvement of prototypes and new processes to meet specific requirements.
Note: NASA SBIR/STTR programs do not accept proposals solely directed towards system studies,
market research, routine engineering development of existing products or proven concepts and
modifications of existing products without substantive innovation (See Section 1.1).

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T – Development – SAC card
Space development is a lot of stuff
SAC 96
[ Japanese Space Activities Commission January 24,1996 ,“The Fundamental Policy for Japan's Activities”,
http://www.jaxa.jp/library/space_law/chapter_4/4-1-1-4/4-1-1-42_e.html, Caplan]

Chapter 2 . Organisation of Space


Development Activities 2-1. Priority Areas for the Development of Space Promotion of Satellite
Observation and Earth Science Satellite observation is becoming increasingly important as a source of useful information for Earth
science and as a means of resolving global environment problems. To respond to social needs we will, therefore, develop and operate Earth
observing satellites. As a part of this process, we will develop observing sensors, restructure the existing information networks, and reinforce the
institutional structure for wide use of observation data. In addition to these endeavors, we will try to establish a global Earth observation system
through the coordination of observing satellites from various countries. Promotion of Space Science and Lunar Exploration We have
received high praise from other countries for our efforts in space science. We will now make further efforts to promote astronomical observation
and conduct scientific research on the solar system, planets, and asteroids. We will also accumulate scientific knowledge about the moon,
including lunar exploration, to evaluate the possibility of exploitation of the moon. Consolidating Space Activities The Japanese
Experiment Module (JEM), which will be attached to the International Space Station, is called an " Orbital Laboratory " . JEM is expected to play
a central role in research activities both in space, and on the ground. An over- all research system will be established in association with the
Laboratory in order to consolidate space activities . The Sophistication of Satellite Generic Technology and Utilization Japan has
accumulated generic satellite technology by developing and operating its engineering test satellites. Japan will further develop these technologies
as well as develop advanced satellite missions and equipment for telecommunication, broadcasting, and navigation. Development and
Operation of New Infrastructure for Space New space infrastructure necessary for our space activities, such as systems and facilities,
will be developed and operated. For example, the following projects will be undertaken: The Advanced H-II launch vehicle (H- IIA) will be
designed to be both economical and to adapt to growing demands for launching different satellite missions HOPE- Xwill be designed to establish
the main technologies for a reusable transportation vehicle capable of drastically reducting transportation costs. Data Relay Test Satellite
(DRTS) system will be designed to ensure effective transmission of Earth observation and experimental data 2- 2. Space Activities in Individual
Fields Satellite Observation and Earth Science Satellite observation and Earth science contribute to our understanding of many areas,
including weather forecasting, climate change prediction, monitoring oceanic phenomena, geology, resources exploration, vegetation, agricultural
products , and the oceanic ecosystem. They also provide basic knowledge about how to cope with global environmental issues (global warming,
ozone layer depletion, etc.) and natural disasters (earthquake, volcanic eruption, etc.). As a result, it is important to expand the activities in this
field. (1) Series of Earth Observation Satellites A series of Earth observation satellites will be developed and operated in a way to
efficiently meet users' needs at home and abroad, and to maintain harmony with other countries' observation and research projects. This will be
done through a collaboration by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA, a development and implementing agency), as well
as universities, national research institutes, the private sector, and government agencies. The Earth observation satellite series consists of two
categories: atmospheric and oceanic observation satellites and land observation satellites. The development/implementing agency and user
organizations, will co-operate to improve sensor precision and resolution, and to develop a new sensors. Aircraft, the JEM, and satellites will be
used, if necessary, to ensure effective implementation of new sensor developments. Meteorological satellites will be launched and operated
continuously to provide regular observation data. (2) Use of Observation Data To improve the use of observational data from Japanese and
foreign earth observation satellites, work to verify data validity, standardize data quality and format, and create data processing and analytical
software, will be pursued. At the same time, ground stations and an information network for users will be established. The development and
implementing agency and the user organizations will make joint efforts to reinforce the institutional framework for data use, by using the existing
systems for cooperative research and for inviting researchers. (3) Global Earth Observation System Japan will try to play a proper role in
establishing a global earth observation system, in harmony with the earth observing satellites of other countries and through positive international
consultation and coordination. Space Science Space science is expected to play an important role in investigating the Earth and solar systems,
astrophysics, the evolution of the solar system, and the evolution and structure of the universe. As one of the leading nations in this field, we
consider it important for Japan to seek international cooperation and expand our activities in the future. (1) Series of Medium- Size Science
Satellites and Space Probes The medium- size science satellites and space probes will be developed and launched by the M- V rocket
about once a year. By using these satellites, science exploration of the near earth space, the moon and asteroids and of the solar system will be
conducted together with astronomical observation on wider wavelengths, in conjuction with observation from the Earth. (2) Large Science
Satellites and Space Probes Scientific research and astronomical observation of the sun and planets will be conducted using a large satellite
and a space probe, launched either by the H-II launch vehicle or through international collaboration. Moon Exploration As the moon is the
closest and most familiar celestial body, exploration of the moon is a first step in extending our space activities beyond the Earth. It is important
to accumulate scientific knowledge about the moon, and survey its topography, geology, and mineral composition and mass distribution. (1)
Unmanned Exploration NASDA and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), in cooperation with other agencies , will
conduct an unmanned lunar exploration project including the development of a lunar orbiting satellite and a lunar landing vehicle. Project
planning will take into account and international aspects of the venture as well as progress in technology. (2) Scientific Observation and
Exploration from the Moon Keeping other countries' Lunar programs in mind, the National Astronomical Observatory, ISAS, and NASDA
will jointly promote research and development of observation technology and lunar infrastructure technology. This will be done for future moon
projects such as international lunar observatory and a long-term lunar mission. Communication, Broadcasting, and Navigation In the fields of
satellite communication, broadcasting, and navigation, we will deal with growing sophistication and diversification of social needs. It is also
important to develop high-risk technology, requiring verification through a series of mission demonstration satellites (described later). This fits in
with international trends and with Japan's contribution to the advancement of a future global information and communication system. (1)
Communication Development of personal satellite-based mobile communications will be promoted to help strengthen our communication
infrastructure. Advanced satellite communication technology, such as gigabit-class, ultra high-speed satellite communication technology,
millimeter-wave or laser satellite communication technology, will be developed with the aim of establishing an international high-speed satellite
communication network. (2) Broadcasting Digital and high precision broadcasting, satellite broadcasting technology related to mobile digital

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multimedia broadcasting and new broad-bandwidth satellite broadcasting will be developed. (3) Navigation The GPS navigation
satellites launched by the U.S. is used by ships and cars, and as a research tool for determining causes of earthquakes and volcanic activity as
well as for measurement required for public use. In order to cope with the growing sophistication and diversification of needs in our country, we
will develop elementary technology for navigation systems, to improve precision. We will also develop new navigation technologies associated
with communications. (4) The Aviation A satellite will be launched and operated to ensure safety and efficiency of air traffic control. The Use
of Space Space is characterized by microgravity and high vacuum. Research on how to use those characteristics will contribute significantly to
scientific knowledge and to creating key technologies for new industries. In particular, the Japanese Experiment Module JEM) which is an "
orbital laboratory ", will provide useful research opportunities . In addition, we should pursue research on uses of space in various ways including
international cooperation, orbital experiments, and joint research projects on the ground among NASDA, universities, and national research
laboratories. (1) Space Experiments In addition to promoting JEM's development and operation, we will perform space experiments using
drop towers, aircraft, small rockets, recoverable capsules, and the US Space Shuttle, choosing the facility according to the experiment's
characteristics . We will also develop experimental equipment and technology, such as unmanned space experiment systems, to meet various
demands for space utilization. (2) Research System With a view to ensuring wide use of results from future space projects, it is important that
we enhance the research system so that researchers from universities, national research institutes, and the private sector can participate. In this
sense, NASDA, universities, the national research laboratories, and the private sector will promote joint research projects. NASDA will make use
of the personnel exchange program to play a leading role in this field. NASDA will also promote effective and wide use of the research system by
strengthening the existing support system. At the same time, we will work to ensure safety of on-board equipment, construction of a database for
research results, and establishment of an information network for research. Manned Space Activities Manned space missions have significant
implications for exploring the possible expansion of human activities , acquiring new scientific knowledge and pursuing the effective use of
space. It is, therefore, meaningful to promote manned space flight. (1) Manned Space Technology Experience and expertise in crew
selection, training, and healthcare will be accumulated through JEM's development and operation, as well as the use of US Space Shuttle. The
Technology for intravehicular activity, extravehicular activity, and manned space systems, including safety and reliability, will also be acquired.
(2) Space Medical Science Research on the calcium depletion of human bone, and on the radiation effects of stays in space will be
expanded. Moreover we will endeavor to study the closed ecosystem necessary for man to live in space, to acquire basic technology related to
manned space activities, and to train personnel for the job. Basic Satellites Technology We have accumulated the basic technologies common to
all satellites . We now feel it will be necessary to look forward and develop technology to cater for the growing sophistication and diversification
of demand. (1) Mission Demonstration Satellites Series It is necessary to develop mission equipment, including earth observation
sensors, with a view to familiarizing the public with the use of space. For the development of communications , broadcasting, and navigation, we
must reduce technological risks by using operational satellites to verify technology. As a matter of fact, some mission equipment and space
missions have been verified using the Engineering Test Satellites (ETS)series. This verification work will now involve developing a new series of
the mission demonstration satellites. Implementing the new series will require cooperation between NASDA, the government agencies,
universities, national research laboratories, and the private sector, including making satellite development cheaper and easier by adopting a
common satellite bus . We are now also discussing the introduction of announcement of opportunities (AOs). (2) Engineering Test
Satellites (ETS) Series We will emphasize further development and efficiently responce to more sophisticated and diversified needs in future
satellites. With this in mind, we will use the ETS series to develop generic technologies, such as platform satellite technology and rendezvous-
docking technology. By developing the ETS series, we will acquire basic satellite technologies such as on-board equipment miniaturization,
Iight-weight materials, and power reduction and conservation. In addition, we will be able to improve the reliability of electronic and mechanical
devices, as well as the performance of on-board software. (3) Satellite Bus Technology We have several different kinds of satellite bus in
Japan. We will now reduce development risks and cost of the mission demonstration satellites and the earth observing satellites by adopting a
common satellite bus . Furthermore, element devices for satellite buses will be standardized and designed for easy conversion into general use.
Space Infrastructure To expand and advance space activities, we must strengthen and restructure space infrastructure. A robust space
transportation system is a one fundamental factor for ensuring unrestricted expansion of our own space activities. We must therefore utilize all of
our accumulated technology to construct such a system. (1) Transportation System (i) M launch vehicle To advance our space science,
which has been highly praised by other countries, we will develop and upgrade the M-V launch vehicle. We intend to use this vehicle to launch
medium-size science satellites and space probe projects. (ii) H-II launch vehicle The H-II launch vehicle will be able to adapt to launch
demands, through continuous efforts to upgrade and improve its reliability. Such efforts will allow an advanced H-II launch vehicle (H-II A) to
launch a 20-ton payload into low Earth orbit (or a 4-ton payload into geostationary orbit) with a potentially major cost reductions. This vehicle
will be developed to meet various needs in the 2lst century, including access to the space station. (iii) Small payload launch vehicle Small
launch vehicles including the J-I launch vehicle , will be developed to launch small satellites. (iv) HOPE-X HOPE-X will be developed to
perform flight experiments as a part of reusable transportation system, which should drastically reduce transportation costs. HOPE-X will
establish major technologies for an unmanned, winged space plane and enable us to accumulate technology for a future study of reusable
transportation systems . (v) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) We will develop and operate the HTV with rendezvous and docking functions to
prepare for the task of supplying logistics to the space station. (vi) Future Transportation System In order to meet future transportation
demands we will require, a reusable transportation system with an innovative design. The system will also be necessary to drastically
reduce transportation costs and protect the space environment . Based upon the results of H-II A and HOPE-X development projects, we will
initiate a study for a reusable transportation vehicle including an unmanned winged space plane. We will also start, if necessary, its development,
taking into consideration both international and demand trends. Later we will also start research into a fully reusable aerospace plane ( space
plane) with the capacity of horizontal take-off and landing, in cooperation with the related research institutes. A study for a manned space plane
will also be started as part of the preparation for manned space activities. Another study for an orbit transfer vehicle, capable of moving from one
orbit to another, will be initiated to prepare for moon exploration. (2) On-Orbit System (i) Unmanned System To help implement space
experiments, we will develop a platform type satellite in low-and-medium altitude Earth orbits. In implementating this project, the possibility of
international cooperation should be considered. After the platform type satellite is developed and operated, an orbital service vehicle will be
required. So, proper coordination for these two projects is important. (ii) Manned System Based upon the experience and know-how obtained
from the development and operation of the JEM, research work will begin on improved and more economical manned systems. (3) Support
System (i) Modification of Launch Site and Landing Field Due to the complexity and expansion of space activities, the launch site
for the H-II A will be modified, and a new landing field for HOPE-X will be prepared. It may be necessary to formulate a new policy for

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managing and operating the launch pads, since expanded demand for satellite launches has been forecast for the 2lst century, together with
considerable space development. Necessary measures will be discussed, taking into account the issues of safety and organizing international
cooperation. (ii) Data Relay and Tracking Satellite System The Data Relay and Test Satellite System (DRTS) will be developed to
transmit a large amount of observational data and experimental data from satellites in low and medium Earth orbit to ground stations, and to
provide regular tracking and control services for those satellites. The technology for intersatellite laser communications technology, which is
regarded a component of future tracking and control systems, will be investigated in orbit. Automation and autonomy will be developed to further
improve tracking and control system. (iii) Monitoring Space Debris In order to support manned space activities, as well as expanded and
more sophisticated unmanned space activities, we will conduct research on space debris monitoring systems , and space weather forecasting
systems in order to predict space radiation. In addition, large volume data transmission systems will be studied in order to strengthen the space
information and communication infrastructure.

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T - Development not Exploration
Development includes economic and commercial activities while exploration is venturing to
unknown areas
Hsu and Cox 09
[Feng Hsu, Sr. Fellow, Aerospace Technology Working Group and Ken Cox, Founder & Director Aerospace
Technology Working Group, 2/20/09, http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewsr.html?pid=30702, Caplan]

In our view, even with adequate reform in its governance model, NASA is not a rightful institution to
lead or manage the nation's business in Space Development projects. This is because human space
development activities, such as development of affordable launch vehicles, RLVs, space-based solar
power, space touring capabilities, communication satellites, and trans-earth or trans-lunar space
transportation infrastructure systems, are primarily human economic and commercial development
endeavors that are not only cost-benefit-sensitive in project management, but are in the nature of business
activities and are thus subject to fundamental business principles related to profitability, sustainability,
and market development, etc. Whereas, in space exploration, by its nature and definition, there are basic
human scientific research and development (R&D) activities that require exploring the unknowns,
pushing the envelope of new frontiers or taking higher risks with full government and public support, and
these need to be invested in solely by taxpayer contributions.

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Topicality - “Of”
In context, ‘of’ means the action of plan must affect space
MacMillan Dictionary, No Date, http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/of
Of: used after nouns that refer to actions for saying who or what is affected by the action

“Of” means referring to a thing with concern (plan must be directed and concerned with
space. Limits out earth observation affirmatives)
Brainy Quote, No Date, http://www.brainyquote.com/words/of/of195878.html
Of: Denoting reference to a thing; about; concerning; relating to; as, to boast of one's achievements.

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T – “Space” – Generic definitions (1)
Space is the area beyond the Earth’s atmosphere

Merriam Webster, No Date, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/space


5 : the region beyond the earth's atmosphere or beyond the solar system

Space means outer space

Dictionary.com, No Date, http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/space


of, pertaining to, or concerned with outer space or deep space: a space mission.

Space is the void beyond any celestial body, including the Earth

Barry Dainton, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Liverpool, 2003, Time and Space, pg. 132

For many of us these days, a conception of space that has considerable intuitive appeal runs thus: space is
an infinite expanse of featureless emptiness within which physical bodies are located and move. It is not
surprising that we are drawn to this idea, for we are brought up to think of the Earth as a planet revolving
around the Sun, which is just one star out of billions, strewn through the vastness of galactic and
intergalactic space. The so-called "outer space” that separates the planets, stars and galaxies is, we are
told, a hard vacuum, empty save for the odd molecule, perhaps one per cubic metre. An initial
characterization of this view of space might run along these lines: The void Conception: Space in itself is
nothing at all; it has no intrinsic features of its own, it is mere absence. Objects can be separated by
different spatial distances — London is closer to Paris than it is to New York - and we know this because
of the different amounts of time it takes to travel or transmit signals between them: we cannot directly
measure magnitudes of space. since space is itself featureless void.

Space is everything 50 miles above the Earth

Jay Levine, X-Press Editor, NASA, 10/21/2005, “A Long-Overdue Tribute”,


http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/news/X-Press/stories/2005/102105_Wings.html

U.S. Air Force pilots in the X-15 program received their astronaut wings after the qualifying flights were
complete. No such honor existed, however, for NASA X-15 pilots and only recently was the decades-old
controversy surrounding the definition of the boundary of space – above 50 miles, according to the Air
Force – resolved (see sidebar); with that issue settled, efforts finally moved forward to allow the three
NASA pilots to get their due for their historic flights.

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T – “Space” – Generic definitions (2)
Space is the physical universe beyond Earth’s atmosphere

Oxford Dictionary, No Date, http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/space?view=uk


(also outer space)the physical universe beyond the earth's atmosphere.

Space is everything beyond Earth’s atmosphere

MacMillan Dictionary, No Date, “Space”, http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/space


The whole of the universe outside the Earth’s atmosphere

Space is everything there is


MacMillan Dictionary, No Date, “Space”, http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/space
The area in which everything exists

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T - Space – Definitions Key
Delimitation of space is good – it checks unfair expansion of state sovereignty

Leire Mugarra, Faculty of Law at McGill University, 2008, McGill University, “Legal aspects of commercial
space transportation”, pg. 5-6, Proquest

Firstly, some jurists find it necessary to delimitate outer space due to the existent opposite principles of
“state's sovereignty” over the air space and the “freedom of exploration and use” of outer space by all
states. If a boundary is undoubtedly fixed, those states that claim sovereignty over the entire space above
their territories will have no base for their claims because the Outer Space Treaty establishes that outer
space “shall be free for exploration and use by all States without discrimination of any kind, on a basis of
equality and in accordance of international law, and there shall be free access to all areas of the celestial
bodies”7. It also pnovides that outer space “is not subject to national appropriation by claim of
sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means”8.

Delimitation of space is a pre-requisite to discussion of space policies – real world


disagreements prove

Leire Mugarra, Faculty of Law at McGill University, 2008, McGill University, “Legal aspects of commercial
space transportation”, pg. 6-7, Proquest

Thirdly, there is a group of academics that affirm an urgent need to define and delimitate, at least, the
airspace in its upper limit for the purpose of clarifying the applicability of the sovereignty principle.”
Moreover, other jurists in the attempt to elucidate the extent of the state's exclusive jurisdiction and
control over their airspace have stated several proposals to identify a clear and specific boundary. 12
Fourthly, other jurists while finding it difficult to agree in a clear boundary opine that the solution for
some jurisdiction problems’3, arms race prevention and space weapons prohibition or authorization.’4 as
well as other specific issues: might be the application of a limited-purpose boundary. Fifthly, another
argument supports the importance of a clear establishment of a boundary to prevent actions by states to
claim sovereignty rights over outer space as it happened with the Bogota Declaration of 1976. ‘ Finally,
some jurists believe that the delimitation of outer space by establishing an upper limit of the air space will
be important for the creation and development of space technologies as well as considerably significant to
avoid tension and possible international disputes among States in the future’6.

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T – Space = Space Between
Space is the vacuum between planetary bodies, not the bodies themselves
Oxford Dictionary, No Date, http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/space?view=uk
(also outer space)the physical universe beyond the earth's atmosphere. The near-vacuum extending
between the planets and stars, containing small amounts of gas and dust. The near-vacuum extending
between the planets and stars, containing small amounts of gas and dust.

There’s a clear legal definition between “space” and the celestial bodies themselves
Virgiliu Pop, PhD candidate at University of Glasgow, Citing GP Zhukov, former Executive Secretary of the
Academy of Sciences, 2001, Space Future,
http://www.spacefuture.com/archive/a_celestial_body_is_a_celestial_body_is_a_celestial_body.shtml

ZHUKOV considers as celestial bodies in the OST legal sense the "planets and their natural satellites,
asteroids, and large meteorites", but excludes "micrometeorites, smaller meteorites, and comets", the
latter presenting "more grounds for their referring directly to outer space[25]."

Space is the area between bodies, not the bodies themselves


MacMillan Dictionary, No Date, “Space”, http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/space
An empty area between things

There is clear legal precedent for “outer space” – space is a distinct difference (If the
resolution meant “outer space” it would have said that)
He Qizhi, former member of the Governing Board of the Chinese Society of International Law, 1982, Journal of
Space Law, “The Problem of Definition and Delimitation of Outer Space”, http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?
handle=hein.journals/jrlsl10&div=17&g_sent=1&collection=journals

The term ‘outer space” as a concept of space science has existed for a long period of time. It is generally
used to refer to the whole space beyond the earth's atmosphere. La international law, some writers in the
early fifties began to use the term “outer space” to denote the entire space beyond state sovereignty, no
matter whether it starts from within or above the atmosphere. Meanwhile some other terms were also
adopted to refer to the same concept. Such as ‘cosmic space”, “extraterritorial space”, .interstellar space”
and “upper space", and so on. It was only after the United Nations General Assembly unanimously passed
the resolutions on establishing the Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in 1958 and
the present Committee on Peaceful Uses or Outer Space (COPUOS) as a permanent body in 1959, that
the term “outer space” began to appear frequently and to be used officially.

77
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - AT: Space Is the Area Between Bodies
International Space law treats space as everything beyond Earth’s atmosphere – including
celestial bodies
Bin Cheng, Emeritus Professor of Air and Space Law at University of London, 1999, Australian International
Law Journal, http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?
handle=hein.journals/austintlj16&div=6&g_sent=1&collection=journals

The United Nations subsequently in effect changed the meaning or the term by speaking consistently or
“outer space, including the moon and celestial bodies”. It follows that, irrespective or what specialists in
other disciplines may say, in the space law world, “outer space" no longer designates the space in
between all the celestial bodies. It now includes the moon and all the other celestial bodies. It
consequently comprises the whole universe and everything within it outside the planet Earth.

78
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Definition of “Celestial Bodies”
Celestial bodies are planets, moons, asteroids, and large meteorites
Virgiliu Pop, PhD candidate at University of Glasgow, Citing GP Zhukov, former Executive Secretary of the
Academy of Sciences, 2001, Space Future,
http://www.spacefuture.com/archive/a_celestial_body_is_a_celestial_body_is_a_celestial_body.shtml

ZHUKOV considers as celestial bodies in the OST legal sense the "planets and their natural satellites,
asteroids, and large meteorites", but excludes "micrometeorites, smaller meteorites, and comets", the
latter presenting "more grounds for their referring directly to outer space[25]."

79
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Space ≠ Celestial Bodies
Here’s a specific, contextual example of our argument in the Outer Space Treaty
Glenn H. Reynolds, Associate Professor of Law at University of Tennessee and JD from Yale, Spring 1990,
Harvard Journal of Law and Technology, “Legislative Comment: The Patents in Space Act", Harvard Journal of
Law & Technology, Lexis

This argument would be inconsistent with the rest of the Outer Space Treaty, however. Article VIII
provides that jurisdiction and control are retained while the space object is "in outer space or on a
celestial body," with the obvious corollary that national jurisdiction and control will not extend to a
spacecraft that has returned to earth in another country. n30 If, after all, a space object was considered
actually to be a part of the launching state, jurisdiction and control would always be present by virtue of
the territorial principle. Indeed, it makes little sense to talk about a part of the United States being "in
another country" -- it is always part of the United States and, though it may be surrounded by another
country, is not "in" that other country. Thus, regarding spacecraft as actual parts of the launching states,
instead of objects to be treated as within the jurisdiction of the launching state by virtue of nationality,
leads to obvious absurdities. Furthermore, such a construction would run afoul of Article II of the Outer
Space Treaty, which proscribes application of national sovereignty in outer space. n31

And that’s the most predictable source for context – the OST is the Constitution for Space
Thomas Gangale, aerospace engineer, 2009, The Development of Outer Space, Pg. 51-53

A final observation regarding the nature of the Outer Space Treaty should drive home the enormity of
advocating withdrawal from it. Such a withdrawal would not be equivalent to withdrawing from the 1972
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, which was between two states. As the codification of near-universal
principles, the treaty is regarded as the “constitution” of outer space.

80
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Need to Distinguish Between Space Activities and Partial Earth Activities
Distinctions need to be made between plans that are all in space and those that use the
ground
Matthew J. Kleiman, Corporate Counsel at the Draper Laboratory in Cambridge, MA , 2011, Air and Space
Lawyer, http://www.scribd.com/doc/58244298/Patent-Rights-and-Flags-of-Convenience-in-Outer-Space

It is important to distinguish between activities carried out in outer space and activities relating to outer
space that are carried out at least partially on Earth within the territory of a country. The latter would
generally be governed by patent laws of the country or countries where such activities occurred under the
general territorial principles of patent jurisdiction. This article is only concerned with activities that occur
entirely in outer space and outside the customary reach of the patent laws of any particular nation. See
WIPO issue paper, supra note 2, ¶ 42 (elaborating on this distinction).

81
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Definition of Commercial Space Sector
Commercial Space Sector requires private capital and risk with management residing in
the public sector
Courtney A. Stadd, Former NASA chief of staff, 10/26/2009,
http://commercialspace.pbworks.com/w/page/16189465/Topic:-Definition-of-Commercial-Space

In February 1991, then-President George H.W. Bush signed off on NSPD-3, “U.S. Commercial Space
Policy Guidelines,” which stated: “The U.S. government encourages private investment in, and broader
responsibility for, space-related activities that can result in products and services that meet the needs of
government and other customers in a competitive market. As a matter of policy, the U.S. government
pursues its commercial space objectives without the use of direct federal subsidies. A robust commercial
space sector has the potential to generate new technologies, products, markets, jobs and other economic
benefits for the nation, as well as indirect benefits for national security. “Commercial space sector
activities are characterized by the provision of products and services such that: private capital is at risk;
there are existing, or potential, nongovernmental customers for the activity; the commercial market
ultimately determines the viability of the activity; and primary responsibility and management initiative
for the activity resides with the private sector.” This definition has served as a baseline for subsequent
presidential space policy directives. If my former esteemed NASA colleagues are still seeking a working
definition, allow this former policy wonk to suggest they look no further than this guidance. So let’s
please move beyond tiresome definitional debates and instead aggressively pursue the hard work of
balancing national interests with the opportunities afforded by private investment in space as outlined by
Robert Bigelow.

82
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - BETM 1NC [1/2]
A. Interpretation Beyond means outside a stated limit
Cambridge 10 (Dictionaries Online, “beyond”, http://dictionaries.cambridge.org/define.asp?
key=beyond*2+0&dict=A) PB

beyond (OUTSIDE A LIMIT) preposition, adverb outside or after a stated limit

And that limit is 50 km up.


Russell 8 (Randy M. Russell develops textbooks with the Earth Sciences Teacher’s Association. B.S. in
astrophysics from Michigan State University in 1981; Master's in aerospace engineering from the Maryland in 1988;
and Ph.D. in educational systems development from Michigan State in 1998. July 17 2008
http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/mesosphere.html

The mesosphere is a layer of Earth's atmosphere. The mesosphere is above the stratosphere layer. The


layer above the mesosphere is called the thermosphere. The mesosphere starts at 50 km (31 miles) above
Earth's surface and goes up to 85 km (53 miles) high.

Violation - The Aff’s exploration must be directed beyond the mesosphere – it is not
enough for exploration to be located beyond the mesosphere. They distort the distinction
between “of” and “in.”
Bockstiegel 95 –Ph D., Directitor of the Institute of Air and Space Law, Chairman of the Space Law Committee
of the International Law Association; Chairman of Council of the National German Space Agency (Dr. Karl-Heinz,
1995, “Research and invention in outer space: liability and intellectual property rights” pg 4.)

The official title of the Outer Space Treaty (‘OST’) mentions both exploration and use of outer space as
the two ‘activities of States’ which one has to take into account and which are therefore covered by the
Outer Space Treaty. The same pair of terms appears again in the Preamble as well as further articles such
as Article I and Article III of the Treaty. Other articles and other space treaties either take up only one of
these two terms or use a general terms such as ‘activities in outer space’ (Art. VI, OST) or generally deal
with ‘objects launched into outer space’ (Art. VII, Art. VIII, OST and the Registration Convention) or
‘space objects’ (Liability Convention) or finally ‘activities of States on the Moon and other celestial
bodies’ (Moon Treaty). At first sight the distinction between exploration and use may seem sufficiently
clear. Indeed in connection with most space activities there may be little doubt which of these two terms
is applicable. First doubts appear, however, because the Outer Space Treaty speaks of exploration ‘of
outer space’. This wording could be interpreted to mean that space must be the object of exploration. The
consequence would be that the great part of research which has to take place ‘in space’ in view of the
specific physical conditions there, but which has as its object specific materials, would not be covered
and might only be considered as ‘use’ of space.

Standards

1. Ground - Our generics are based on the exploration and development happening in
space – we lose relations disads and can’t talk about colonization – it also dramatically
alters the nature of K ground.

83
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - BETM 1NC [2/2]
2. Limits - Tons of observation missions – destroys prior notice and complicates topic
uniqueness
Su et al 10 http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/7/7899/2010/hessd-7-7899-2010.html Su, Z., Dorigo, W.,
Fernández-Prieto, D., Van Helvoirt, M., Hungershoefer, K., de Jeu, R., Parinussa, R., Timmermans, J., Roebeling,
R., Schröder, M., Schulz, J., Van der Tol, C., Stammes, P., Wagner, W., Wang, L., Wang, P., and Wolters, E.: Earth
observation Water Cycle Multi-Mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS), Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 7,
7899-7956, doi:10.5194/hessd-7-7899-2010, 2010. 1Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation
(ITC), University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands

Earth observation technology is a unique tool to provide a global understanding of many of the
essential variables governing the water cycle and monitor their evolution over time from global to basin
scales. In the coming years an increasing number of Earth observation missions will provide an
unprecedented capacity to quantify several of these variables on a routine basis.

84
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - BETM – Extensions (1)
2NC O/V

The object of the Aff’s exploration/development must be the space beyond the earth’s
mesosphere, not earth. Our interpretation is key to give meaning to the words beyond the
mesosphere – their interpretation destroys the meaning of that phrase. The object of the
exploration/development outweighs where it comes from because all of our disads and
critiques are based on what the Aff does, not where it is done from – this is offense against
all of their we meet arguments. Fundamentally, they de-space the space topic.

2NC - Limits

there are thousands of earth observation missions now - explodes limits because the Aff
could increase any one of them. – that’s our Su evidence.

Also, Earth observation sats do tons of stuff – limiting to exploration solves

Rast et al, 99 - ESA Directorate for Scientific Programmes, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (M., “Payload-
Mass Trends for Earth-Observation and Space-Exploration Satellites,”
www.esa.int/esapub/bulletin/bullet97/rast.pdf)

Space Science missions are generally more exploratory in nature (Fig. 2), do not have to satisfy
operational requirements, and consequently have less-stringent resolution and stability requirements than
Earth Observation missions. Moreover, the tasks assigned to Space Exploration satellites are usually
highly focussed, whilst Earth Observation satellites have traditionally been designed to serve a broader
range of disciplines and consequently of users.

That evidence also says that weather satellites have many potential users – that’s an
independent access point to limits because while the use of space exploration/development
is generally restricted to the United States, weather satellites could be used by weather dot
com or energy speculation companies for anything from geology to studying x-ray
pollution.

2NC - Topic UQ

Allowing earth observation kills topic uniqueness – our Su evidence indicates that there are
a large amount of earth observation missions now, and they are not being cut – that
decreases negative disad ground and it proves that earth observation is different from
space exploration on two fronts
A. Space missions are being cut now but earth observation missions are not
B. Proves different lit base – magnifies neg research and enhances our limits arguments

85
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - BETM – Extensions (2)

2NC - Ground

Their interpretation kills negative ground – cross-apply the overview – the vast majority of
our arguments are based on what the aff does, not where it is done – we cannot read our
generic exploration links because they are about the exploration of space, not the
exploration of the earth. We lose links to core arguments like exploration bad and
development bad – those are obviously the core of the topic and are necessary to check
tricky affs.

Relations disads are no longer viable under their interpretation – there is a fundamental
difference between the moving into space and using space – actually moving into space
affords international relations arguments – simply using space does not.

We also lose most meaningful K ground – their interpretation permits the Aff to avoid the
resolutional question of ‘why space instead of earth”

Space exploration and development are naturally long term, large-scale endeavors – earth
observation is neither – that means that they flip

2NC - Of/In distinction

The preposition “of” excludes weather observation – they only meet the resolution “in”
outer space
Gorove 73 http://www.spacelaw.olemiss.edu/JSL/Back_issues/JSL%201.pdf *Chairman of the Graduate Program
of the School of Law and Professor of Law, University of Mississippi School of Law. Copyright 1973, Journal of
Space Law - University, Mississippi 38677; [No. t Spring 1973, pp. 1-104; No.2, Fall 1973, pp. 105-208
Similarly, it may be noted that freedom of scientific investigation "in" outer space which is guaranteed
by the last paragraph of Article-I of the Outer Space Treaty would be applicable to a scientific
investigation of the earth despite the fact the earth cannot be regarded under the nomenclature used in the
Treaty as a part of outer space. This line of reasoning may find support in -the clear-cut wording -of the
Treaty which speaks about scientific investigation "in" outer space rather than scientific investigation "of"
outer space.

2NC - Prefer our interp

Prefer our definition – the OST set up the legal framework for all things space – it’s
predictable
Encyclopedia 11 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/557348/space-exploration/237079/Issues-for-
the-future "space exploration." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia
Britannica, 2011. Web. 13 May. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/557348/space-exploration>.
The development of space as an arena for multiple government and private activities will pose significant
policy and legal challenges. The legal framework for space activities is based on the 1967 Outer Space
Treaty and four subsequent United Nations treaties implementing its provisions. These agreements were
negotiated at a time when governments were the principal players in space and commercial space
activities were in their infancy.

86
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - BETM – Extensions (3)

2NC - They do not meet

Context distinguishes between space technology for earth observation and space
exploration
Chung et al 10 Advances in Space Research 45 (2010) 155–168 “ Synergies of Earth science and space
exploration “ doi:10.1016/j.asr.2009.10.025, Advances in Space Research 45 (2010) 155–168 Chung: Space Policy
Institute, Elliott School of International Affairs, The George Washington University, Ehrenfreund: Pascale
Ehrenfreund, (Ph.D. Thesis University of Vienna/ University Paris VII) Research Professor of Space Policy and
International Affairs. Molecular Biology, Space Science and related policy making, technology management.
Rummel: Dr. John D. Rummel is the Director of the Institute for Coastal Science and Policy and a Professor of
Biology at East Carolina University (ECU). In addition to the research aspects of the Institute, his responsibilities
include oversight of the ICSP PhD Program in Coastal Resources Management and of ECU’s diving and water
safety activities, which support both research and instructional needs in these areas at ECU. Immediately prior to his
arrival at ECU in 2008, Dr. Rummel was the NASA Senior Scientist for Astrobiology, based in Washington, DC,
responsible for leading all aspects of NASA’s program to understand the origin, evolution, and fate of life in the
Universe. Nicolas Peter: Research Fellow, European Space Policy Institute, M.A. in International Science and
Technology Policy - Elliott School of International Affairs -The George Washington University, Washington D.C.,
USA

Increasingly, it has been shown that space technology can be applied to address problems on Earth
(UNOOSA, 2006). For instance, satellite imagery can cover large territories over regular time periods
and obtain information in different wavelength regions and thus deliver a comprehensive picture of planet
Earth. However, while the “Mission to Planet Earth” enabled by Earth observation satellites has been
recognized in the past decades, the role and potential contribution of space exploration activities to
understanding and protecting our home planet has not been accepted to the same degree.

Context explicitly distinguishes Earth observation from space exploration


Rast et al 99 www.esa.int/esapub/bulletin/bullet97/rast.pdf M. Rast, G. Schwehm & E. Attema ESA Directorate
for Scientific Programmes, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands Payload-Mass Trends for Earth- Observation and
Space-Exploration Satellites

Space Exploration and Earth Observation from space using satellites are both still comparatively young
scientific disciplines. Remote sensing from space was born in the early seventies, with the advent of the
US Landsat satellite series. It has evolved rapidly during the past 25 years and today provides a wealth of
information for environmental research and other applications that are crucial to the future of mankind.
Over the same time span, space scientists have started to investigate both the near-Earth environment and
our planetary system with satellites and space probes, starting with comparatively simple ‘particles and
fields’ missions and progressing to complex, largely autonomous planetary orbiters. The operation of
space- borne observatories has helped astronomers to expand their science into wavelength domains that
are not accessible from ground-based telescopes due to the observational limitations imposed by the
Earth’s atmosphere. As the goals have become more sophisticated and the demand for ever more
exacting data has soared, there has been a perceived tendency towards using larger platforms, like
Envisat, to carry the wide range of instruments proposed for Earth Observation missions, compared with
the smaller spacecraft being used for Space Exploration. Given the current popularity of the ‘smaller,
faster, cheaper’ approach to space missions in general, now is perhaps a timely moment to examine
whether the perception is indeed correct and whether it is a trend that will continue. The fact that satellite
payloads have evolved dramatically over the years not only in terms of their technological sophistication,
but also in terms of their mass and size, has had implications both for the launch requirements and
ground-segment structures. However, this trend towards ever larger space infrastructures has slowly
reversed in recent years, due to both political and financial constraints. The differences in mission
requirements Today the requirements for Earth Observation missions are more stringent, and therefore
more resource-hungry, than for Space Exploration because our knowledge of the Earth is more advanced.
87
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - BETM = Directed at Space – 1NC (Version 2)
A. Interpretation - Beyond means exploration missions must be looking outward from
Earth
VEGA Space, one of the leading names in the European Space sector, working with Space agencies, satellite
operators and manufacturers worldwide. Employs over 400 highly-qualified staff in the Space domain, working for
our companies in the UK, Germany, France and Spain. CNES (French National Space Centre), DLR (German
National Aerospace Agency), EADS Astrium, ETRI (Korea), European Commission, EUMETSAT (European
Meteorological Satellite Organisation), European Space Agency (ESA), Eutelsat, Inmarsat, INPE – Brazil, Intelsat,
ISRO, JAXA (Japanese Space Agency), NASA, RapidEye AG, SES, SSTL, TAI (Turkey), Thales Alenia Space,
UK Space Agency, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology (VAST)
2011, Space Exploration, http://www.vegaspace.com/newsroom/in_focus/space_exploration.aspx

Space exploration missions are about looking outward from Earth towards the Sun, other planets the
universe and beyond. Mission objectives include seeking to shed light on the evolution of our solar
system, our place in the universe, what the future may hold and the origins of life.

B. Violation – the aff plan looks towards Earth

C. Standards –
1.) Limits – allowing the aff to explore the Earth as well as space unlimits the
resolution. There are thousands of different missions already developed that observe Earth,
the neg would have no way of preparing for the unlimited amount of unpredictable cases.
2.) Ground – The neg suffers major ground loss, if the neg cannot predict whether
affs explore something in Earth or space then they lose DA’s, CP’s, and K’s with links to
exploring space.

D. Voting Issue

Education - unlimiting the topic and stealing neg ground disables negative teams
from being able to prepare for the aff plan, this results in no clash within the debate.
No clash means debaters aren’t obtaining the educational benefits in debate of
learning about the topic, how to make good decisions and process information

Fairness – with an unlimited topic negs will be unable to prepare for affs therefore
losing every debate.

88
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - Beyond = Not in room – 1NC
1. Interpretation As it is used in the resolution, beyond is a preposition
English Tutor 11 (Online English Tutor is an online service that teaches people how to speak English properly.
“Understanding Prepositions”http://www.onlinetutorforenglish.com/prepositions/understanding-prepositions.php

In the following you will find sentence examples using prepositions. Prepositions modify nouns,
pronouns, and clauses in a sentence. Against: I'm against the use of mining for oil because it hurts the earth. In this
sentence “against” is the preposition which modifies the noun “oil”. Where is the oil? It's in the earth. Around: I loved having
Jack's dog around at dinner time as he was always good company. The word “around” is the preposition which modifies the
compound noun, "dinner time". As: As it was nearly midnight and I was tired, I decided to go to sleep. In this sentence the “as”
preposition modifies the noun, "midnight" and pronoun "I". Before: Sometime before winter, flocks of geese fly south to find a
warmer climate. The word “before” is the preposition; it modifies the noun, "winter". Behind: I was mad that I was behind my
assignment because, busy with my sick baby, I didn't have time to do it. The word “behind” is the preposition that modifies the noun
"assignment". Below: I was embarrassed because my shirt had a stain below the pocket. In this sentence “below” is the preposition
which modifies the noun "pocket" used to show location. Beneath: In my childhood I sometimes played beneath an old bridge. In
this sentence “beneath” is the preposition which modifies the noun "bridge". Beside: Beside the old dining table were at least twenty
broken chairs. The word “beside” is the preposition which modifies the compound noun "table". Besides: I have no other family
besides my mother. In this sentence “besides” is the preposition which modifies the common noun "family" and the pronoun "I".
Between: I lost my watch between the parking lot and the movie theatre. The word “between” is the preposition which modifies the
noun "place". Beyond: Beyond the Blue Mountains lies the eastern coast of Australia. In this sentence
“beyond” is the preposition which modifies a compound proper noun, "eastern coast"

Beyond means outside the sphere of


OED ’89 (Oxford English Dictionary 1989 Second Edition <http://oed.com/view/Entry/18511?
redirectedFrom=beyond#eid PB.)

 a. Outside the limit or sphere of, past; out of the grasp or reach of.

2. It modifies mesosphere which is 50 km above the Earth’s crust.


NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 7/13/10, Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information
Services Center, Atmospheric Structure, NASA Official: Steve Kempler, Website Curator: M Hedge,
http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/ozone/additional/science-focus/about-ozone/atmospheric_structure.shtml

The mesosphere, (36k jpeg) a layer extending from approximately 50 km to 80 km, is characterized by
decreasing temperatures, which reach 190-180 K at an altitude of 80 km.In this region, concentrations of
ozone and water vapor are negligible.Hence the temperature is lower than that of the troposphere or
stratosphere.With increasing distance from Earth's surface the chemical composition of air becomes
strongly dependent on altitude and the atmosphere becomes enriched with lighter gases.At very high
altitudes, the residual gases begin to stratify according to molecular mass, because of gravitational
separation.

3. Violation – the aff doesn’t occur beyond the mesoshphere

4. Standards
a. Grammar – key link into predictability, the res prepares us to debate space policy
beyond the mesosphere, any other definition leads to arbitrary interpretations of
space that both affs and neg teams aren’t ready to debate
b. Limits – the aff deviates from space allowing virtually any critique, limits us to
generic offense that the aff debates every round – ensures the neg will lose
c. Education – underlimiting means that the neg can only respond with generics – kills
aff solvency because we can’t access any education, that moots the point of aff
education making the only valuable education topic based
T is a voter for education and competitive equality
89
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – BETM not in room - 2NC Overview
There needs to be a distinction between the two types of education in this round. In
round/room activism’s message doesn’t necessarily permeate to the negative. Our
education is governed by our interpretation of the language in the words in the resolution.
We value space policy and learning about NASA missions policies in space. Aff education
is bad in that it takes away the reason we are debating this topic, so instead of making us
interested in exploring the space in the room around us, we are deterred from even
engaging in debate as an activity all together.

90
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T – BETM not in room – 2NC Limits ext.
Looking into development in this room justifies looking in any other rooms in this building,
you could explore the porta potty at the construction site outside as a way to bring the poop
aff back from the alt energy topic.
Their interpretation actually allows for any affirmative. The only way to preempt that
would be to run affirmatives like the aff which distorts the education of the topic. No one
will have incentive to debate.
That also privileges breadth education, even in terms of critical arguments, no one will ever
learn enough to spread a message, or gain anything of value, that means the only
competitive affs wouldn’t be able to solve and debate as an activity would collapse.

91
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Beyond – Past, outside, further (1)
Beyond is on past
AHD 11 (American Heritage Dictionary, “beyond”,
http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/beyond) PB
PREPOSITION: On the far side of; past: Just beyond the fence. Later than; after: beyond midnight. To a
degree that is past the understanding, reach, or scope of: an evil beyond remedy. To a degree or amount
greater than: rich beyond his wildest dreams. In addition to: asked for nothing beyond peace and quiet.

Beyond means further in space


OED ’89 (Oxford English Dictionary 1989 Second Edition <http://oed.com/view/Entry/18511?
redirectedFrom=beyond#eid PB
2. b. of an object regarded simply as a point in space: Past, further on than, at a more distant point or
position than.

Beyond means outside the sphere of


OED ’89 (Oxford English Dictionary 1989 Second Edition <http://oed.com/view/Entry/18511?
redirectedFrom=beyond#eid PB.)
 a. Outside the limit or sphere of, past; out of the grasp or reach of.

Outside a stated limit


Cambridge 10 (Dictionaries Online, “beyond”, http://dictionaries.cambridge.org/define.asp?
key=beyond*2+0&dict=A) PB
beyond (OUTSIDE A LIMIT) preposition, adverb outside or after a stated limit

More distant than


Dictionary dot com 11 ( “beyond” http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/beyond) PB
farther on than; more distant than: beyond the horizon;beyond the sea.

Farther along in space


Princeton WordNet 11 (http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=beyond)
farther along in space or time or degree; "through the valley and beyond"; "to the eighth grade but not
beyond"; "will be influential in the 1990s and beyond"

Beyond refers to all space


Spirit Medium 11 (Spirit Medium 4 u Definitions page http://spiritmedium4u.com/Definitions.php)
BEYOND – refers to all invisible space, including all levels of energy interpenetrating each other. See
ETHERIC WORLD.

Beyond means incomprehensible – the plan is comprehensible


AHD 9http://www.thefreedictionary.com/beyond
Beyond: To a degree that is past the understanding, reach, or scope of: an evil beyond remedy

92
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Beyond – Past, outside, further (2)
Beyond means farther in space
Princeton’s WordNet, Princeton University, WordNet search 3.1, 6/21/2011,
http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?
s=beyond&o2=&o0=1&o8=1&o1=1&o7=&o5=&o9=&o6=&o3=&o4=&h=
S: (adv) beyond (farther along in space or time or degree) "through the valley and beyond"; "to the
eighth grade but not beyond"; "will be influential in the 1990s and beyond"

Beyond means on the farther side


Princeton’s WordNet, Princeton University, WordNet search 3.1, 6/21/2011,
http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?
s=beyond&o2=&o0=1&o8=1&o1=1&o7=&o5=&o9=&o6=&o3=&o4=&h=
S: (adv) beyond (on the farther side from the observer) "a pond with a hayfield beyond"

93
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Beyond – It’s a preposition
As it is used in the resolution, beyond is a preposition
English Tutor 11 (Online English Tutor is an online service that teaches people how to speak English properly.
“Understanding Prepositions”http://www.onlinetutorforenglish.com/prepositions/understanding-prepositions.php )

In the following you will find sentence examples using prepositions. Prepositions modify nouns,
pronouns, and clauses in a sentence. Against: I'm against the use of mining for oil because it hurts the
earth. In this sentence “against” is the preposition which modifies the noun “oil”. Where is the oil? It's in
the earth. Around: I loved having Jack's dog around at dinner time as he was always good company. The
word “around” is the preposition which modifies the compound noun, "dinner time". As: As it was nearly
midnight and I was tired, I decided to go to sleep. In this sentence the “as” preposition modifies the noun,
"midnight" and pronoun "I". Before: Sometime before winter, flocks of geese fly south to find a warmer
climate. The word “before” is the preposition; it modifies the noun, "winter". Behind: I was mad that I
was behind my assignment because, busy with my sick baby, I didn't have time to do it. The word
“behind” is the preposition that modifies the noun "assignment". Below: I was embarrassed because my
shirt had a stain below the pocket. In this sentence “below” is the preposition which modifies the noun
"pocket" used to show location. Beneath: In my childhood I sometimes played beneath an old bridge. In
this sentence “beneath” is the preposition which modifies the noun "bridge". Beside: Beside the old
dining table were at least twenty broken chairs. The word “beside” is the preposition which modifies the
compound noun "table". Besides: I have no other family besides my mother. In this sentence “besides” is
the preposition which modifies the common noun "family" and the pronoun "I". Between: I lost my
watch between the parking lot and the movie theatre. The word “between” is the preposition which
modifies the noun "place". Beyond: Beyond the Blue Mountains lies the eastern coast of Australia. In this
sentence “beyond” is the preposition which modifies a compound proper noun, "eastern coast".

94
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Mesosphere – Scientific definitions (1)
The mesosphere is between 36-51 miles above the surface
National Weather Service, 11 (“Layers of the Atmosphere”, 2/11,
http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream//atmos/layers.htm) PB

Stratosphere The Stratosphere extends from the top of the troposphere up to around 31 miles (50 km)
above the Earth's surface. This layer holds 19 percent of the atmosphere's gases but very little water
vapor. In this region the temperature increases with height. Heat is produced in the process of the
formation of Ozone and this heat is responsible for temperature increases from an average -60°F (-51°C)
at tropopause to a maximum of about 5°F (-15°C) at the top of the stratosphere. This increase in
temperature with height means warmer air is located above cooler air. This prevents "convection" since
there is no upward vertical movement of the gases and is the reason for the 'anvil-shaped' tops of
cumulonimbus clouds. These anvils occur at the tropopause. The transition boundary which separates the
stratosphere from the mesosphere is called the stratopause. Mesosphere The mesosphere extends from
the top of the stratosphere to about 56 miles (90 km) above the earth. The gases, including the oxygen
molecules, continue to become thinner and thinner with height. As such, the effect of the warming by
ultraviolet radiation also becomes less and less leading to a decrease in temperature with height. On
average, temperature decreases from about 5°F (-15°C) to as low as -184°F (-120°C) at the mesopause.
However, the gases in the mesosphere are still thick enough to slow down meteors hurtling into the
atmosphere, where they burn up, leaving fiery trails in the night sky. Both the stratosphere to the
mesosphere is considered the middle atmosphere. The transition boundary which separates the
mesosphere from the thermosphere is called the mesopause.

NASA definition
NASA 2010 (Page Editor: Shelley Canright, NASA Official: Brian Dunbar Student Feature – The Atmosphere.
Page Last Updated: October 29, 2010 http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/9-12/features/912_liftoff_atm.html
PB

The stratosphere starts just above the troposphere and extends to 50 kilometers (31 miles) high.
Compared to the troposphere, this part of the atmosphere is dry and less dense. The temperature in this
region increases gradually to -3 degrees Celsius, due to the absorbtion of ultraviolet radiation. The ozone
layer, which absorbs and scatters the solar ultraviolet radiation, is in this layer. Ninety-nine percent of
"air" is located in the troposphere and stratosphere. The stratopause separates the stratosphere from the
next layer. Mesosphere The mesosphere starts just above the stratosphere and extends to 85 kilometers
(53 miles) high. In this region, the temperatures again fall as low as -93 degrees Celsius as you increase in
altitude. The chemicals are in an excited state, as they absorb energy from the Sun. The mesopause
separates the mesophere from the thermosphere. The regions of the stratosphere and the mesosphere,
along with the stratopause and mesopause, are called the middle atmosphere by scientists. This area has
been closely studied on the ATLAS Spacelab mission series

The thermosphere is topical


Miami Science Museum No Date ( http://www.miamisci.org/ecolinks/activities/Atmosphere/ouratmosphere/
PB

THERMOSPHERE: Once called the Ionosphere, this layer extends beyond the Mesosphere (our next
layer) to the beginnings of outer space found in the Exosphere. Here solar energy boosts the temperatures
to a maximum of 3,600 degrees Fahrenheit. It extends 250 miles beyond the Mesosphere.

95
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Mesosphere – Scientific definitions (2)
The mesosphere is 50 km beyond the Earth’s crust.
NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 7/13/10, Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information
Services Center, Atmospheric Structure, NASA Official: Steve Kempler, Website Curator: M Hedge,
http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/ozone/additional/science-focus/about-ozone/atmospheric_structure.shtml

The mesosphere, (36k jpeg) a layer extending from approximately 50 km to 80 km, is characterized by
decreasing temperatures, which reach 190-180 K at an altitude of 80 km.In this region, concentrations of
ozone and water vapor are negligible.Hence the temperature is lower than that of the troposphere or
stratosphere.With increasing distance from Earth's surface the chemical composition of air becomes
strongly dependent on altitude and the atmosphere becomes enriched with lighter gases.At very high
altitudes, the residual gases begin to stratify according to molecular mass, because of gravitational
separation.

The Mesosphere is a key dividing point – limits


Russell 8 (Randy M. Russell develops textbooks with the Earth Sciences Teacher’s Association. B.S. in
astrophysics from Michigan State University in 1981; Master's in aerospace engineering from the Maryland in 1988;
and Ph.D. in educational systems development from Michigan State in 1998. July 17 2008
http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/mesosphere.html )

Scientists know less about the mesosphere than about other layers of the atmosphere. The mesosphere is
hard to study. Weather balloons and jet planes cannot fly high enough to reach the mesosphere. The orbits
of satellites are above the mesosphere. We don't have many ways to get scientific instruments to the
mesosphere to take measurements there. We do get some measurements using sounding rockets.
Sounding rockets make short flights that don't go into orbit. Overall, there's a lot we don't know about the
mesosphere because it is hard to measure and study.

The mesosphere is in space


Russell 8 (Randy M. Russell develops textbooks with the Earth Sciences Teacher’s Association. B.S. in
astrophysics from Michigan State University in 1981; Master's in aerospace engineering from the Maryland in 1988;
and Ph.D. in educational systems development from Michigan State in 1998. July 17 2008
http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/mesosphere.html )
The mesosphere is a layer of Earth's atmosphere. The mesosphere is above the stratosphere layer. The
layer above the mesosphere is called the thermosphere. The mesosphere starts at 50 km (31 miles) above
Earth's surface and goes up to 85 km (53 miles) high.

Topical Affs must enter the mesopause


Russell 8 (Randy M. Russell develops textbooks with the Earth Sciences Teacher’s Association. B.S. in
astrophysics from Michigan State University in 1981; Master's in aerospace engineering from the Maryland in 1988;
and Ph.D. in educational systems development from Michigan State in 1998. July 17 2008
http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/mesosphere.html
The boundaries between layers in the atmosphere have special names. The mesopause is the boundary
between the mesosphere and the thermosphere above it. The stratopause is the boundary between the
mesosphere and the stratosphere below it.

96
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Mesosphere – Scientific definitions (3)

Mesosphere may also refer to a layer of the earth’s crust, but our definition is obviously the
one about space
Collins Dictionary 2003 (Collins English Dictionary Complete and Unabridged 
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/mesosphere

1. (Earth Sciences / Physical Geography) the atmospheric layer lying between the stratosphere and the
thermosphere, characterized by a rapid decrease in temperature with height 2. (Earth Sciences /
Geological Science) the solid part of the earth's mantle lying between the asthenosphere and the core

The Mesosphere is 250 miles below the earth’s crust


Thinkquest 1999 (Thinkquest is an educational service that provides reference materials to students. Last
updated 1999
http://library.thinkquest.org/28327/html/universe/solar_system/planets/earth/interior/layers_of_earth.html

The next layer, the Transition region comprises 7.5% of Earth's mass with a depth of 250-406 miles (400-
650 kilometers). This layer is also known as the mesosphere and is 11.1% of the mantle-crust. It is made
of mainly basaltic magmas with amounts of calcium, aluminum and garnet (an aluminum-bearing silicate
mineral). The layer becomes dense when the garnet mineral cools but is buoyant and light when subject
to heat due to the low melting points.

97
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Mesosphere – Only accessible by rockets
The mesosphere can only be reached by rockets
NESTA, National Earth Science Teacher’s Assosiation, 7/17/08, Windows to the Universe, Last modified by
Randy Russell, http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/mesosphere.html

The mesosphere is a layer of Earth's atmosphere. The mesosphere is above the stratosphere layer. The
layer above the mesosphere is called the thermosphere. The mesosphere starts at 50 km (31 miles) above
Earth's surface and goes up to 85 km (53 miles) high. As you get higher up in the mesosphere, the
temperature gets colder. The top of the mesosphere is the coldest part of Earth's atmosphere. The
temperature there is around -90° C (-130° F)! The boundaries between layers in the atmosphere have
special names. The mesopause is the boundary between the mesosphere and the thermosphere above it.
The stratopause is the boundary between the mesosphere and the stratosphere below it. Scientists know
less about the mesosphere than about other layers of the atmosphere. The mesosphere is hard to study.
Weather balloons and jet planes cannot fly high enough to reach the mesosphere. The orbits of satellites
are above the mesosphere. We don't have many ways to get scientific instruments to the mesosphere to
take measurements there. We do get some measurements using sounding rockets. Sounding rockets make
short flights that don't go into orbit. Overall, there's a lot we don't know about the mesosphere because it
is hard to measure and study.

The mesosphere can only be reached by spacecraft such as rockets


New World Encyclopedia, 8/29/08, Earth’s atmosphere, Organizing knowledge for happiness, prosperity and
world peace, http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Earth's_atmosphere

The mesosphere (from the Greek word mesos = middle) is the layer between about 50 km and about 80–
85 km above the Earth's surface. It is sandwiched between the stratosphere and the thermosphere. The
temperature in this layer decreases with increasing altitude and can be as low as 200K (≈ -73° C, -99° F),
varying according to latitude and season. Given that it lies between the maximum altitude for most
aircraft and the minimum altitude for most spacecraft, this region of the atmosphere is directly accessible
only through the use of sounding rockets. As a result, it is one of the most poorly understood regions of
the atmosphere. Millions of meteors burn up daily in the mesosphere, as a result of collisions with the gas
particles contained there, leading to a high concentration of iron and other metal atoms. The collisions
almost always create enough heat to burn the falling objects long before they reach the ground. Thus the
mesosphere protects the Earth from a barrage of would-be meteorites. The stratosphere and mesosphere
are referred to as the middle atmosphere. Regions above the mesosphere are called the upper atmosphere.
The mesopause, at an altitude of about 80 km, separates the mesosphere from the thermosphere. The
mesopause lies near the turbopause, the band below which different chemical species are well mixed by
turbulent eddies.

98
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Mesosphere - Limits evidence
It’s a gateway region – key limit
Athena 10 (The European Space Agency’s Official Upper Atmosphere Wiki, “Mesosphere”, 4-26,
http://www.athena-spu.gr/~upperatmosphere/index.php/ Mesosphere) PB

Being the “gateway” that connects Earth’s environment and space, the mesosphere is a region of great
importance in energy balance processes and a link in vertical energy transfer, as it is in these layers that
great surges of energy meet: solar radiation and particles contribute to downward energy transfer,
whereas gravity waves, planetary waves and tides contribute to upward energy transfer from the
stratosphere. Thus this region is a boundary layer that determines the temperature and density
characteristics of the surrounding layers. In addition, in a time of increased concern about global climate
change, the fact that the mesosphere might act as a “canary in a coal mine”, being a sensitive indicator of
global temperature change, makes its long-term study an increasingly pressing matter. Finally, the
continuous and ever-increasing presence of mankind in space, and the importance of the behavior of this
region to multiple issues related to aerospace technology, such as orbital calculations, vehicle re-entry,
space debris lifetime etc., make its extensive study a pressing need.

It’s a crucial limit


Berube 97 (David Berube holds a Ph. D in communications from NYU. He is a professor at USC. TOPIC
ANALYSIS - SPACE
April 15 1997 http://debate.uvm.edu/Library/TopicFocus/CEDA-NDT/97-98topics/Berube-SPACE%20PAPER PB

To help resolve this problem and to preclude cases which address any phenomena which is beyond the
confines of any exosomatic container, the phrase beyond the Earth's mesosphere has been employed.
Space Age Dictionary defines mesosphere as "the region 15 to 20 and 50 miles altitude above the surface
of the earth, where photochemical activity is predominant. Coextensive with the chemosphere, according
to Chapman; however, according to Wares, the mesosphere lies between 250 and 600 miles altitude" (50).
Nevertheless, the more common meaning is "a stratum of atmosphere that lies between the stratosphere
and the ionosphere; also known as the chemosphere" (Ciadin, 126). Though the term is not widely used, it
will be an important limiting word in the topic. For those, who wish to use a more contemporary term,
you can use chemosphere, but again there will be some disagreement on its exact location.

99
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Mesosphere Limit - Karman line (1)
The Karman Line is the best limit – it’s an accepted boundary now
Jenkins 2008 (Dennis Dennis R. Jenkins is a consulting engineer in Florida who works on various aerospace
projects, including 20 years on NASA's space shuttle program. He also is the author of "Space Shuttle: The History
of the National Space Transportation System: The First 100 Missions," in addition to more than 30 other works on
aerospace history, several on the subject of the X-15 program. Extra Feature: A word about the definition of space
March 1st 2008 http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/news/X-Press/stories/2005/102105_Schneider.html )
aeronautical scientist Theodore von Kármán calculated that above an altitude of approximately 100
kilometersa vehicle would have to fly faster than orbital velocity in order to derive sufficient aerodynamic
liftvon Kármán proposed that 100 kilometers be designated the boundary of space for purposes of
engineering consistency.Upon adoption, it became the internationally accepted boundary to space for the
purposes of world records and many treaties. 

The US doesn’t use the Karman Line


Jenkins 2008 (Dennis Dennis R. Jenkins is a consulting engineer in Florida who works on various aerospace
projects, including 20 years on NASA's space shuttle program. He also is the author of "Space Shuttle: The History
of the National Space Transportation System: The First 100 Missions," in addition to more than 30 other works on
aerospace history, several on the subject of the X-15 program. Extra Feature: A word about the definition of space
March 1st 2008 http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/news/X-Press/stories/2005/102105_Schneider.html )

the U.S. government has never officially adopted either of these standards, because doing so would
complicate the issue of overflight rights for surveillance aircraft and reconnaissance satellites

But the DOD does


Jenkins 2008 (Dennis Dennis R. Jenkins is a consulting engineer in Florida who works on various aerospace
projects, including 20 years on NASA's space shuttle program. He also is the author of "Space Shuttle: The History
of the National Space Transportation System: The First 100 Missions," in addition to more than 30 other works on
aerospace history, several on the subject of the X-15 program. Extra Feature: A word about the definition of space
March 1st 2008 http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/news/X-Press/stories/2005/102105_Schneider.html )

It is interesting to note that the U.S. government has never officially adopted either of these standards,
because doing so would complicate the issue of overflight rights for surveillance aircraft and
reconnaissance satellites. (The Department of Defense is the exception, which, for purposes of
aeronautical ratings, does subscribe to the FAI definition.)

Karman is brilliant
FAI 4 (The Federation Aeronautique Internationale is a French organization governing air sports and aeronautic and astronautic records.It
was founded in 1905. Written by Dr. S. Sanz Fernández de Córdoba, president of ICARE Presentation of the Karman separation line, used as the
boundary separating Aeronautics and Astronautics http://www.fai.org/node/22)
It took a most notable man, Hr. Theodore Von Karman to put things together. He was born at Budapest
(nowadays in Hungary; then a part of the Austria- Hungarian Empire), the 11 of May 1881. It is difficult
for modern readers to realise the international scientific prestige in aeronautics that Von Karman had
accumulated by the early 1950’s. But so was it. He had such a prestige, that certainly no engineer or
scientist in the world, interested in Aeronautics and/or Astronautics, would decline an invitation to co-
operate with him, even, needless to say, without any reward in terms of money.

100
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Mesosphere Limit - Karman line (2)
Using the Karman Line is key to an accurate distinction between aeronautics and astronautics

FAI 4 (The Federation Aeronautique Internationale is a French organization governing air sports and aeronautic
and astronautic records. It was founded in 1905. Written by Dr. S. Sanz Fernández de Córdoba, president of
ICARE Presentation of the Karman separation line, used as the boundary separating Aeronautics and Astronautics
http://www.fai.org/node/22 )

In the early 1950’s, Aeronautics and Astronautics were considered the same thing. In fact Astronautics,
besides the “dreams” of a few scientists and engineers, was only a military endeavour, linked to
Aeronautics in the Military Establishments of the time. But Theodore Von Karman [(1881-1963), who is
considered to be one of the great aeronautical scientists of the twentieth century] had the feeling that there
was a difference between the two. If such was the case, a line could be defined to separate them. The
basics were there : Astronautics needed the lack of atmosphere to be viable; Aeronautics needed the
presence of atmosphere. And atmosphere existed near the Earth’s surface, but did not exist far above the
ground. In Astronautics, speeds impossible to maintain in atmospheric drag could be maintained for very
long periods without power applied to the vehicle. In Aeronautics (heavier than air vehicles) sustained
flying without power is unthinkable. And so on. Thus, both disciplines could be separated in certain
important aspects just because of their dependence, in opposite ways, on atmosphere.

The Karman line is an important distinguisher

FAI 4 (The Federation Aeronautique Internationale is a French organization governing air sports and aeronautic
and astronautic records. It was founded in 1905. Written by Dr. S. Sanz Fernández de Córdoba, president of ICARE
Presentation of the Karman separation line, used as the boundary separating Aeronautics and Astronautics
http://www.fai.org/node/22

Although the Karman Line had been a theoretical construction, it was later demonstrated to be a real
thingI do not meanthere is anything magic about the exact 100 km., but it has been shown thatabout that
altitude, things change. In the early 1960´sthe U.S. X-15 Aircraft was flown up to 108 km. In that part of
the flight it was really a free falling rocket, with no aerodynamic control possible. In fact, it was
considered an astronautical flight, and the pilot got, as a consequence, his "astronautical wings", i.e. the
recognition of being an astronaut. Later in the same decade (or very early in the next; Soviet information
at the time was very scanty) the Soviet Union put in orbit an unmanned satellite, in very low orbit, whose
attitude was controlled by aerodynamic forceThe real reason of such an experiment is not yet known. It is
known however that it successfully described a few orbits just above the 100 km line (how much higher I
do not know),butcollapsed rapidly shortly after he crossed, or got too much close to, the 100 km. Karman
line.

101
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Mesosphere is not Earth’s crust
Space exploration takes place in outer space
Tony White and James Bell (writers for the Southern Kings organization)
http://www.edu.pe.ca/southernkings/Explor.htm
Since space exploration first began on October 4, 1957, spacecrafts have explored every type of object in the
Solar System and in outer space. On that day, the USSR launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to orbit
the Earth. The first space flight with humans aboard was made on April 12, 1961 when a Soviet cosmonaut
circled the Earth in a spacecraft. We always dreamed of travelling in space, and wanted to explore the
unknown to answer many questions about the Universe, such as, how the stars, the Sun, and the planets were
made, and whether life exists elsewhere. Scientists thought it was impossible to reach the Moon until the
Apollo 8 spacecraft orbited the Moon 10 times in 1968. During the fifty years since the first space expeditions
were made, spaceships have travelled around the Solar System visiting all kinds of different planets

102
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality - Cooperation Not T – 1NC
A. Interpretation—the affirmative must only increase exploration and/or development of
space beyond the Earth’s mesosphere.
Space development is the development itself and Exploration is going to unknown areas,
neither are an offer
Hsu and Cox 09
[Feng Hsu, Sr. Fellow, Aerospace Technology Working Group and Ken Cox, Founder & Director Aerospace
Technology Working Group, 2/20/09, http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewsr.html?pid=30702, Caplan]

In our view, even with adequate reform in its governance model, NASA is not a rightful institution to
lead or manage the nation's business in Space Development projects. This is because human space
development activities, such as development of affordable launch vehicles, RLVs, space-based solar
power, space touring capabilities, communication satellites, and trans-earth or trans-lunar space
transportation infrastructure systems, are primarily human economic and commercial development
endeavors that are not only cost-benefit-sensitive in project management, but are in the nature of business
activities and are thus subject to fundamental business principles related to profitability, sustainability,
and market development, etc. Whereas, in space exploration, by its nature and definition, there are basic
human scientific research and development (R&D) activities that require exploring the unknowns,
pushing the envelope of new frontiers or taking higher risks with full government and public support, and
these need to be invested in solely by taxpayer contributions.

B. Violation—the affirmative mandates a mission and includes an offer to another nation


to join

C. Standards
1. Limits—allows the aff to read any advantage as long as part of the plan is topical which
makes it impossible for the negative to prepare.

2. Aff severance is illegit—they can moot the 1NC by severing out of our links and kills
2NR strategy because we don’t know what they will advocate in the 2AR

3. Zero ground—allows them to claim anti-topical plan planks to spike out of all our
offense making it impossible to debate. Any ground we would gain is bad and
unpredictable.

4. Jurisdiction—independently their advocacy is outside of the resolution meaning they do


not prove the resolution true and you can vote neg on presumption.

Topically is necessary to preserve debate

103
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Cooperation 2NC Overview
Our interpretation is that development must be the actual development of space and
cannot include offers to other nations to explore space. This is best for the topic- the aff
justifies fiating cooperation with any international actor on any mission and claiming a
relations advantage They could read a plank that has peru make the engines for the
mission and claim an advantaged based off of u.s.-peru relations - this destroys limits and
makes it impossible to have effective debates.
And Depth outweighs- even if there is some merit to discussing a range of topics- the
affirmative leads to shallow debates with random countries that the neg can never prepare
for- only with a limited topic can we truly discuss the merits of space exploration

And limits are especially important on this topic-development could possibly include any
sort of action in space which kills education. This means whichever team comes up with the
most limiting interpretation for the topic should win.
Plus here’s evidence- Nasa does hundreds of missions
NASA 10
[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, “About NASA”
http://www.nasa.gov/about/highlights/what_does_nasa_do.html, 2/1/10, Caplan]

NASA Today NASA conducts its work in four principal organizations, called mission directorates:
Aeronautics: pioneers and proves new flight technologies that improve our ability to explore and which
have practical applications on Earth. Exploration Systems: creates capabilities for sustainable human and
robotic exploration. Science: explores the Earth, solar system and universe beyond; charts the best route of
discovery; and reaps the benefits of Earth and space exploration for society. Space Operations: provides
critical enabling technologies for much of the rest of NASA through the space shuttle, the International
Space Station and flight support. In the early 21st century, NASA's reach spans the universe. Spirit and
Opportunity, the Mars Exploration Rovers, are still studying Mars after arriving in 2004. Cassini is in orbit around Saturn. The
restored Hubble Space Telescope continues to explore the deepest reaches of the cosmos. Closer to home, the latest crew of
the International Space Station is extending the permanent human presence in space. Earth Science satellites are
sending back unprecedented data on Earth's oceans, climate and other features. NASA's aeronautics team
is working with other government organizations, universities, and industry to fundamentally improve the
air transportation experience and retain our nation's leadership in global aviation. The Future NASA is making
significant and sustained investments in: Transformative technology development and demonstrations to pursue
new approaches to space exploration, including heavy-lift technologies; Robotic precursor missions to
multiple destinations in the solar system; U.S. commercial spaceflight capabilities; Extensions and
increased utilization of the International Space Station; Cross-cutting technology development in a new
Space Technology Program; Climate change research and observations; NextGen and green aviation; and
Education, including focus on Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM).

104
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Cooperation 2NC A2: We Meet
Our interpretation is the aff must increase exploration and/or development of space beyond
the mesosphere—development is not and offer—our Hsu evidence provides a case list:
space shuttles, RLVs, SPS, space tourism, satellites, trans-earth transportation, and space
infrastructure

The plan is two actions – they have to both do the mission and offer to explore space with
another country - this means that they are extra topical at best- that was impacted in the
overview

105
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Cooperation 2NC A2: Counter Interpretation
They say development is cooperation, but their evidence just says development might
include facilitation
1. They don’t meet their counterinterp—An offer is not facilitation—Just because I offer to
help with something doesn’t mean I am actively facilitating it- at best they are effects t
which is a voting issue- there are an infinite amount of steps that could lead to space
exploration- this kills limits and predictability

2. Their counterinterp EXPLODES limits—under their interpretation funding STEM


education is topical because it will lead to more astronauts in NASA.

106
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Cooperation 2NC A2: NSP Evidence
1.Just because some vague idea of cooperation is in the NSP doesn’t mean it should be
allowed- Obama’s national space policy includes things like building infrastructure on the
ground and creating agreements with other countries – that doesn’t mean that these aff’s
are topical
2. That’s irrelevant- allowing cooperation aff’s unlimits the topic to the point at which any
education we claim would not be good because it would encourage shallow debates where
the aff just fiats a relations advantage

107
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Cooperation 2NC A2 Solvency Advocates Check
1. Literature is a bad standard because it means we have to read EVERYTHING first
which is impossible—limits are a prerequisite because they determine what the bounds of
the literature are in the first place—just because we have answers to your extra topical aff
doesn’t mean it’s a good for the topic
2. Even there are a limited amount of aff’s, still explodes limits—5 countries means 5
factorial times anywhere they can go means at least 120 affs

108
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Cooperation 2NC A2: Cooperation Inevitable
Double bind either
a) This takes out their offense- if cooperation is inevitable then that means that they should
be able to just read their aff and say that china would cooperate over the plan by normal
means. This means that there is NO REASON a cooperation plank is necessary – or
b) Cooperation is not inevitable- the u.s. preforms hundreds of unilateral missions- these
are the only predictable missions

109
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Cooperation 2NC A2: Overlimits
1. We allow for launch vehicles, RLVs, space-based solar power, space touring capabilities,
communication satellites, and trans-earth or trans-lunar space transportation
infrastructure systems- this is plenty of affirmative ground- we just limit out bad aff’s such
as stem and cooperation that are FX or Extra t
2. Overlimiting is probably good on this topic- development could possibly mean anything-
this means that the definition that is the most limiting should be preferred

110
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Cooperation 2NC A2: Substantial Checks
Even if substantial checks u.s. involvement it doesn’t answer this abuse story. The u.s.
could make huge endeavors in space but the inclusion of random other planks are what
kills limits.

111
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Cooperation 2NC A2: Reasonability
1. The aff is not reasonable- allowing any sort of cooperation aff is not a reasonable
interpretation for what should be considered topical
2. They make debate impossible for the negative—allowing the aff to claim anti-topical
plan planks to spike out of our offense eviscerates negative ground. Any ground we do gain
is bad and unpredictable.

112
Topicality Negative
Varsity
T - Cooperation 2NC Extra Violation-- “Its”
And the plan violates its which means belonging to
Encarta, 9
(Encarta World English Dictionary, http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/dictionary/DictionaryResults.aspx?
refid=1861622735)

its [ its ]
adjective  Definition:   indicating possession: used to indicate that something belongs or relates to
something
The park changed its policy.

That’s a voter because it explodes limits by allowing affs to enter space through over 180
governments and corporate bodies

113
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards - Cooperation – Aff (1)
These Cases are predictable
NSP 10
[National Space Policy of the United States of America, June 28, 2010,
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/national_space_policy_6-28-10.pdf, Caplan]

Consistent with these principles, the United States will pursue the following goals in its national space programs:
••Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite
manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship.
••Expand international cooperation on mutually beneficial space activities to: broaden and extend the benefits of
space; further the peaceful use of space; and enhance collection and partnership in sharing of space-derived
information. ••Strengthen stability in space through: domestic and international measures to promote safe and
responsible operations in space; improved information collection and sharing for space object collision avoidance;
protection of critical space systems and supporting infrastructures, with special attention to the critical
interdependence of space and information systems; and strengthening measures to mitigate orbital debris. ••Increase
assurance and resilience of mission-essential functions enabled by commercial, civil, scientific, and national security
spacecraft and supporting infrastructure against disruption, degradation, and destruction, whether from
environmental, mechanical, electronic, or hostile causes. ••Pursue human and robotic initiatives to develop
innovative technologies, foster new industries, strengthen international partnerships, inspire our Nation and the
world, increase humanity’s understanding of the Earth, enhance scientific discovery, and explore our solar system
and the universe beyond. ••Improve space-based Earth and solar observation capabilities needed to conduct science,
forecast terrestrial and near-Earth space weather, monitor climate and global change, manage natural resources, and
support disaster response and recovery.

Cooperation is normal means – their interpretation artificially limits the lit base – that
means any education they provide is useless and only aff education can be used outside of
the debate
Fukushima, National Institute for Defense Studies Fellow, 2011 (Yasuhito, “An Asian perspective on the new US space policy: The
emphasis on international cooperation and its relevance to Asia”, Space Policy, Vol. 27, No. 1, accessed: 6/20/11, Science Direct, CQ)

This paper aims to analyze the new US National Space Policy (NSP) and examine its relevance to Asia. President Barack
Obama announced the new NSP in June 2010, after inviting wide speculation on how the new administration wanted to define its
NSP. The NSP is a comprehensive document which stipulates principles, goals and inter-sectoral and sectoral guidelines for space activities; it
can be analyzed from various perspectives. Above all, the NSP’s great emphasis on the importance of international
cooperation has significant meaning for Asia. The USA has a long history of international space cooperation,
especially in the field of civil space, and past administrations also pledged the promotion of international cooperation in their NSPs. Even the
former Bush administration’s NSP, which was sometimes regarded as a product of unilateralism, included “cooperation with
other nations” as one of the principles of US space programs and activities.1 Obama’s NSP is, however, rooted in
cooperation and incorporates the concept throughout, instead of just mentioning it in one section. The introduction
states that “the United States hereby renews its pledge of cooperation,” whereas for the principles of space activities,
the USA will adhere to its principles “in this spirit of cooperation” and proposes that other nations follow suit . Also,
as one of the goals of its national space programs, emphasis is placed on the expansion of international cooperation. In the inter-sectoral
guidelines there is a special section on international cooperation, which stipulates the need to strengthen US space leadership, identify areas for
potential international cooperation, and develop transparency and confidence-building measures (TCBMs). According to a senior administration
official, who played a central role in shaping the document, enhancing international cooperation and collaboration in space is
positioned as a “key cornerstone” in Obama’s NSP.2

114
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards - Cooperation – Aff (2)
Space development includes international coop
Clara Moskowitz – Senior Staff Writer at Space.com (4/29/10, "Future Space Exploration Hinges on International
Cooperation, Astronauts Say," http://www.space.com/8297-future-space-exploration-hinges-international-
cooperation-astronauts.html, RG)

Only through further collaboration between nations can humanity reach its next major space goals, the
spaceflying group — which included a former NASA astronaut, an American space tourist and the first
Chinese man to fly into space — said at the 26th National Space Symposium in Colorado Springs, Colo.,
this month. "I think the development of space endeavors is not for one nation or one country," said
Yang Liwei, China's first astronaut. "I myself as an astronaut, I believe that the multinational, the
international cooperation is the future triumph of the development of space industry," he said through a
translator.

Exploration includes international coop


Piero Messina – director of human spaceflight, Microgravity and Exploration (5/30/07, "Key meeting on long-
term space exploration," http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEMARH9RR1F_index_0.html, RG)
The very nature of space exploration with its long-term goals and political and technological challenges
calls for a more structured international cooperation approach.

Extra-t inevitable –every mission involves some cooperation


Clara Moskowitz – Senior Staff Writer at Space.com (4/29/10, "Future Space Exploration Hinges on International
Cooperation, Astronauts Say," http://www.space.com/8297-future-space-exploration-hinges-international-
cooperation-astronauts.html, RG)
Former NASA astronaut Tom Henricks, a veteran of four space shuttle missions, agreed. He said that the
future in space will require much more collaboration between countries than there's been in the past. "I
don't think any major effort in space will again be done by a single nation," Henricks said. "They may
each have individual sub goals, but it's a human endeavor to go to Mars, and I think that's the way it needs to be approached."

Space development includes R+D and activities to facilitate exploration


SDPA 5 (Space Development Promotion Act of the Republic of Korea, Journal of Space Law, 33, 5-31,
http://www.spacelaw.olemiss.edu/library/space/Korea/Laws/33jsl175.pdf, Caplan)
Article 2 (Definitions) Definitions of terms used in this Act are as follows:
(a) The term “space development” means one of the following:
(i) Research and technology development activities related to design, production, launch, operation, etc.
of space objects;
(ii) Use and exploration of outer space and activities to facilitate them;
(b) The term “space development project” means a project to promote space development or a project to
pursue the development of education, technology, information, industry, etc. related to space
development;

Space development requires international cooperation


Sikke A. Hempeniusa and Caesar Voûtea, International Institute for Aerospace Surveys and Earth Sciences 2004
Space Policy, Volume 20, Issue 4, November, Pages 259-278, Science Direct,
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0265964685900712
Space technology carries another hazard with it - the danger of domination by extrovert cultures. Proper
development of space technology requires international cooperation, scientific creativity and
technological innovation combined with sociopolitical, economic and cultural aims and objectives and
ethical values. Norms and objectives have to take into account religious concepts, humanistic viewpoints
and sociocultural criticisms.

115
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards - Asteroids
Space Exploration includes asteroids and more
Ian F. Akyildiz, Ken Byers Chair Professor with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) at
Georgia Institute of Technology, and Weilian Su, et al., 2003, Ph.D degrees in Electrical and Computer
Engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology, 7/3, " InterPlanetary Internet: state-of-the-art and research
challenges"
The vision of future space exploration includes missions to deep space that require communication
among planets, moons, satellites, asteroids, robotic spacecrafts, and crewed vehicles. These missions
produce significant amounts of scientific data to be delivered to the Earth. In addition, these missions
require autonomous space data delivery at high data rates, interactivity among the in-space instruments,
security of operations, and seamless inter-operability between in-space entities.

Asteroids are Space Exploration


Brookhaven National Laboratory 2006, " Students Explore Safety of Space Travel at Brookhaven Lab",
6/14, http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/PR_display.asp?prID=06-77
With potential missions to Mars, exploration of near-Earth asteroids, and long-term moon missions,
astronauts are expected to spend more and more time in deep space travel. Yet the risks associated with
this travel are not fully understood. It is vitally important to learn how human space travelers will be
affected by the harsh environment of space and how best to protect people in space from harm.

Sending humans to an asteroid is exploration


NASA 10, 4/15 "President Outlines Exploration Goals, Promise",
http://www.nasa.gov/about/obamaspeechfeature.html
"Early in the next decade, a set of crewed flights will test and prove the systems required for exploration
beyond low Earth orbit," the president said. "And by 2025, we expect new spacecraft designed for long
journeys to allow us to begin the first-ever crewed missions beyond the moon into deep space. We’ll start
by sending astronauts to an asteroid for the first time in history. By the mid-2030s, I believe we can send
humans to orbit Mars and return them safely to Earth. And a landing on Mars will follow. And I expect to
be around to see it."

116
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards - Microsatellites
Microsatellites serve as space exploration
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 1998, September, "Down-to-Earth Testing of
Microsatellite", https://www.llnl.gov/str/pdfs/09_98.3.pdf
The microsatellites are envisioned as operating autonomously in orbit to serve a variety of future space-
exploration needs in addition to probing near-Earth asteroids. Microsatellites would be able to strike or
probe the potentially hazardous objects that threaten Earth. In addition, they might be handy rescue
vehicles used to inspect disabled satellites and relay observations about them to ground stations; they
might also dock with and repair satellites. Microsatellites could also be part of a control system that
protects and defends U.S. assets in space.

117
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards – Space Debris (1)
Technology has to be tested – most predictable
Wiedemann et al 04 (Carsten, Institute of Aerospace Systems, ILR, Technische Universität Braunschweig,
Michael Oswald, Jörg Bendischb, Holger Sdunnusc and Peter Vörsmann, “Cost and benefit analysis of space debris
mitigation measures,” Acta Astronautica, August – November 2004
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094576504001547)

The life cycle cost (LCC) of a satellite includes development cost (non-recurring cost), production cost
(recurring cost), launch cost, and orbital operations cost. Mitigation measures can have different
influences on these cost elements. Cost is related to project phases. The development cost includes
expenses for research and development during the phases 0, A, B, and C. Production and operations cost
refer to phases D and E. Development and production cost are difficult to separate. Development cost
includes the production of a prototype and is very difficult to estimate, because it depends on influencing
factors which cannot be described mathematically [3]. Development is defined as new design with proven
technology. Definitions like technological readiness levels (TRL) or heritage factors can be used for a
grading between development and production cost. Development cost covers expenses for research,
development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E). This includes production of a prototype (ground test unit)
but not the production and testing of flight units. Production cost comprises the production and test of
flight units. The development cost can vary between high risk technology development, classical
development, purchase with significant modification, purchase with interface adaptation, and pure
purchase [11]. Production cost is less sensitive to program characteristics and is much easier to estimate
than development cost [12]. Operations cost includes variable and fixed cost and is very difficult to
determine. It depends on ground station cost, number of satellites in orbit and orbital lifetime [7]. Mostly
there is a substantial amount of existing ground station hardware that can be used by several satellite
systems [13].

Development means physical change


Gochenaur 03 (Ross, for Susan Murray, AICP, Director, Zoning & Land Development Department, “Collier
County Land Development Code Staff Clarification Zoning & Land Development Staff Clarification,” 10/27/03
http://www.colliergov.net/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documentid=27257)

“Development” is defined by the LDC through reference to Florida Statute 380.04(1), which defines
development as “…the carrying out of any building activity or mining operation…[and]…the making of
any material change in the use or appearance of any structure or land…” Furthermore, the noise generated
by excavation activity has the same, if not greater, impact on surrounding improved properties, and
should be subject to the same hours of operation as other development activity.

Space debris clogs up commercial real estate


Dillow 10 ( Space .Com Writer, “New Report Calls for Creation of "Space Superfund" to Clean Up Junk in Low
Earth Orbit,” 12/14/10 http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2010-12/new-report-calls-space-superfund-clean-
junk-low-earth-orbit)
For most people – and even for the very companies and institutions causing the problem – all that orbiting
detritus isn’t visible and has yet to cause a serious calamity or loss of life. It’s out of sight and couldn’t be
further from the mind. But according to think tank RAND, the author of the DARPA report, the same
principles used to approach pollution problems on Earth – even visibility problems – can be tweaked to
work in space. A Superfund for space, the report says, could make space polluters pay for the cleanup of
low Earth orbit much as polluting industries are held accountable for cleaning up their fouled real estate
on Earth. But, like Superfund, it could also support those cleanup efforts with help from the space
community. But perhaps more importantly, it could help both governments and private industry reduce
their outputs of space debris and cultivate a space culture in which creating debris is considered
unacceptable. One of the report’s authors likens the problem to this past summer’s BP oil spill in the
Gulf of Mexico – the initial spill garnered some concern, but once the huge oil slicks and oil-laden birds
became visible, public awareness (and righteous outrage) grew. By making the space debris issue a
shared problem, a space Superfund could instigate more cooperative engagement to solve the problem.
118
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards – Space Debris (2)

Space debris prevents colonization – therefore development of property rights


Dinerman 04 (Taylor, Part time consultant for the DOD, “Space debris: not just an American problem?”
November 29, 2004 http://www.thespacereview.com/article/279/1)

All too often, people claim that space debris constitutes an imminent crisis. They say that there is so
much stuff is up there that it is going to destroy numerous satellites and, eventually, render any human
activity in orbit impossible. There are, in fact, several million kilograms of man-made gear, some of it in
the form of operational satellites and spacecraft, and some of it useless junk. A few experts say that,
eventually, there will be so much garbage up there that humanity will be confined to the Earth whether it
wants to leave or not. Is this perhaps too dire a prediction? At this time, the consensus is that “…man
made space debris poses little risk to ordinary unmanned spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO).” At least
that is the determination of the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC), an
international forum that includes representatives from NASA and from Europe’s space agencies, as well
as from China, India, Japan, Ukraine, and Russia. The IADC is trying to work out a set of guidelines and
a code of conduct that will reduce this problem to an absolute minimum.

Neg - No set definition of space debris – law defaults to space objects witch is uniquely
unlimbering
Gupta 06 (Apar, Lawyer specializing in technology, “Liability Supernova: “Space Debris” escaping the present
Space Law Regime,” 11/26/06 http://www.codex-
online.com/codex/contents.nsf/WNPPrintArticles/9B795DD4EC8F5EE6C2257232003E7B73?open)
The paucity of legislative activity with regards to international agreements has resulted in a situation
where the frequency of space operations has far outstripped the law designed to regulate it. In such a
situation due to liability issues abound as to damage which may be caused by ‘space debris’. Varying in
size from 1 to 100 microns, micro particulate matter consists of particles of gases and space glow, this is
created by spent fuels and is regarded as ‘space debris’. However before liability can be imputed on
damage caused ‘space debris’ it should be governed by the space law conventions which is only possible
when it is classified as a “space object”. The definition of the term ‘space object’ appears under the
Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects and the Convention on
Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space , in Art. I(d) and Art. I(b) respectively. These articles,
do not enunciate the parameters qualifying an object to be a ‘space object’. They are merely incorporative
of the term, “[c]omponent parts of a space object as well as its launch vehicle and parts thereof”. In this
respect two approaches exist which give different results as to whether space debris constitutes a space
object. The first approach renders a strict interpretation of a space object and relies on the general rule of
interpretation is provided under art. 31 ¶1 of the Vienna Convention which primarily adopts the textual
approach. The International Law Commission was unanimous as to it being given preference over the
other available methods of interpretation of treaties. It is an accepted part of customary international law
as declared by numerous pronouncements of various international courts and tribunals. International
space law treaties contain neither a definition, nor a description of space debris. Hence under this
approach the interpretation of the term remains limited to the treaty text and ‘space debris’ does not
qualify as a ‘space object’.

Space Debris is very valuable


Aerospace Capital of the United Sates No Date (“Rocket Science inside the Aerospace Capital,”
http://www.cityofwebster.com/documentview.aspx?did=321)
With tens of thousands of space debris objects, ranging in mass from nuts and bolts to large dead
reconnaissance satellites weighing as much as ten tons, space debris disposal and reduction is critical.
Also, since low polar orbits are invaluable space real estate, in that satellites within this orbit can view the
entire Earth daily, the United States and other countries have been periodically launching massive
satellites (those weighing ten tons) into polar orbits for decades. However, more than 80% of these
satellites no longer function due to attitude-control propellant depletion or instrument failure. With
billions of dollars invested annually into building and launching these satellites, highly valuable assets are
flying in a region of space where the chance of destructive collision multiplies.

119
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards - Legal Development – Aff (1)

A legal basis provides for the most predictable space policy


Marzion 98 (Lara L., former administrative law judge for the State of Connecticut, recently received her LL.M.
in international law from the Golden Gate University School of Law, “Multinational Investment in the Space
Station: An Outer Space Model for International Cooperation,” American University International Law Review
1997-1998 18:507 http://www.auilr.org/pdf/18/18-2-3.pdf)

If exploitation of outer space's bounty is our goal, we must establish a space property legal system that
creates both incentives and predictability. Space development is a highly risky endeavor, as well as mind-
bogglingly expensive. Who would expend the effort in developing a space colony, if they were not
certain of the project's legality? Valuable projects - energy collection, mining, and colonization - are by
no means inevitable. If the law of outer space rejects such uses, or even makes their legality uncertain, it
is unlikely that the necessary technology would ever be created.

We need a sound legal basis for development activities – UN Resolution


United Nations Office for Outer Space Affiars 79 (“Preparation of an International Treaty Concerning
the Moon,” 11/29/79 http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/oosa/fr/SpaceLaw/gares/html/gares_26_2779.html)

Recalling its resolution 2222 (XXI) of 19 December 1966 stressing the importance of international co-
operation in the field of activities in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon
and other celestial bodies, and the importance of developing the rule of law in this area of human
endeavour, Reaffirming the common interest of all mankind in furthering the peaceful exploration and
use of outer space for the benefit of all States and for the development of friendly relations and mutual
understanding among them, Taking into account the advances made in recent years in the exploration of
outer space, including those resulting from extensive lunar research programmes on the basis of modern
science and technology, Bearing in mind the interest of all mankind in the exploration and utilization of
the Moon exclusively for peaceful purposes and in preventing the Moon from becoming a scene of
international conflict, Prompted by the consideration that the Moon, as the only natural satellite of the
earth, has an important role to play in the conquest of outer space and that it should be used with due
regard to the interests of present and future generations, Desiring to further the elaboration of specific
rules of international law to govern the activities of States on the Moon on the basis of the Charter of the
United Nations and the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use
of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, as a means of further developing a sound
legal basis for such activities, Considering that special rules should also govern activities in the use of all
natural resources and substances of the Moon and other celestial bodies,

120
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards - Legal Development – Aff (2)
Develop means to set forth or make clear
Merriam-Webster ’11 (2011, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/developing)
a : to set forth or make clear by degrees or in detail : expound <develop a thesis>

Space development includes activities to facilitate use of space


SDPA 5 (Space Development Promotion Act of the Republic of Korea, Journal of Space Law, 33, 5-31,
http://www.spacelaw.olemiss.edu/library/space/Korea/Laws/33jsl175.pdf)

Article 2 (Definitions)
Definitions of terms used in this Act are as follows:
(a) The term “space development” means one of the following:
(i) Research and technology development activities related to design, production, launch, operation, etc.
of space objects;
(ii) Use and exploration of outer space and activities to facilitate them;
(b) The term “space development project” means a project to promote space development or a project to
pursue the development of education, technology, information, industry, etc. related to space
development;
(c) The term “space object” means an object designed and manufactured for use in outer space,
including a launch vehicle, a satellite, a space ship and their components;
(d) The term “space accident” means an occurrence of damage to life, body or property due to crash,
collision or explosion of a space object or other situation;
(e) The term “satellite information” means image, voice, sound or data acquired by using a satellite, or in
formation made of their combination, including processed or applied information.

Space development is private investment in technology and infrastructure in space for the
purpose of profit
NASA Academy, 8 - The NASA Academy is a leadership development summer program for undergraduate and
graduate students interested in pursuing careers in space-related fields at Goddard Space Flight Center (“Roadmap to
a Space Faring Civilization”,
http://www.eng.buffalo.edu/~cheetham/index_files/NA08_GSFC_RSFC_VER_1.0.pdf

Definitions
Space faring civilization – A space faring civilization is defined as one with frequent, safe, reliable, and
economically stable transport to space. This would include commercial access to space for both crew and
cargo. The civilization would have a permanent off-planet presence and would be permanently exploring
the solar system with human and robotic missions. Finally this civilization would utilize resources from
space and have mutual commercial trade between Earth and sites such as Earth orbit, the Moon, Mars,
asteroids and beyond.
Commercial development – fostering industrial profits based on the free-market sale and purchase of
space-related products. This industry would serve government and non-government customers, but
ultimately will exist independent of government funding.
Space development – private investment in space technologies, capabilities, and infrastructure such that
commercial entities work in and profit from space.

121
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards - Legal Development – Aff (3)
Property rights are development of space
Wayne N. White, Jr., Attorney at Law, 98, “Real Property Rights in Outer Space,” International Institute of Space
Law's 40th Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, http://www.space-settlement-
institute.org/Articles/research_library/WayneWhite98-2.pdf

A development regime which provides some form of property rights will become increasingly necessary
as space develops. Professionals foresee an integrated system of solar power generation, lunar and
asteroidal mining, orbital industrialization, and habitation in outer space. In the midst of this complexity,
the right to maintain a facility in a given location relative to another space object may create conflict.
Such conflicts may arise sooner than we expect, if private companies begin building subsidiary facilities
around space stations. Eventually large public facilities will become the hub of private space
development, and owners will want to protect the proximity value of their facility location.

The Humpty Dance - Their restrictive definition of development is untenable – legal


development counts, even if it has no economic role whatsoever
Sen, 2000 (Amartya Sen, Lamont University Professor, and Professor of Economics and Philosophy, Nobel Prize-
winning economist, What is the Role of Legal and Judicial Reform in the Development Process? Role of Legal and
Judicial Reform in Development, World Bank Legal Conference, June 5, 2000)

Before I go on to the second way in which constitutive connections reaching are the implications of an
integrated and overarching concept of development. as an illustration, let me now make the substantive
claim that this conceptual integrity of the overarching idea of development is indeed are important, let
me comment briefly on how far-reaching are the implications of an integrated and overarching concept of
development. While I have, so far, used this case only as an illustration, let me now make the substantive
claim that this conceptual integrity of the overarching idea of development is indeed correct. It is, of
course, true that at one level “development” is a matter of definition, and some people seem to insist
that they are free to define any concept in any way they like; it is almost like a "fundamental right to
define anew" (a fundamental right in favour of which street demonstrations may soon begin). However,
it so happens that linguistic usage over a long time has given a certain content to the idea of
development, and it is not possible to define development independently of these established
associations. It is hard to think that development can really be seen independently of its economic,
social, political, or legal components. We cannot very well say that the development process has gone
beautifully even though people are being arbitrarily hanged, criminals go free while law-abiding citizens
end up in jail, and so on. This would be as counterintuitive a claim as the corresponding economic one
that a country is now highly developed even though it is desperately poor and people are constantly
hungry. Only a Humpty Dumpty, in Lewis Carroll's insightful caricature, can provide full support for
the fundamental right to define anew: "When I use a word, it means just what I choose it to mean –
neither more nor less.” Development has a strong association of meanings that makes a basic level of
legality and judicial attainment a constitutive part of it. If this is accepted, then one part of the answer
to the question that I have been asked becomes immediately clear. In answering the query, "What is the
role of legal and judicial reform in the development process?" , we must at least begin by noting the
basic fact that legal development is constitutively involved in the development process, and conceptual
integrity requires that we see legal development as crucial for the development process itself. That is,
even if legal development were not to contribute one iota to economic development (I am not saying that
is the case, but even if this were, counterfactually, true) , even then legal and judicial reform would be a
critical part of the development process. The notion of development cannot be conceptually delinked
from legal and judicial arrangements. That central point deserves recognition before I go on to other
constitutive and also to the class of causal connections.

122
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards - Legal Development – Neg
‘Its’ is a possessive pronoun showing ownership
Glossary of English Grammar Terms, 2005
(http://www.usingenglish.com/glossary/possessive-pronoun.html)
Mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs are the possessive pronouns used to substitute a noun and to show
possession or ownership. EG. This is your disk and that's mine. (Mine substitutes the word disk and shows that
it belongs to me.)

NASA support of commercial space development is distinct from ‘its own’ space
development programs
Berger 11
Berger, 11 - Houston Chronicle's space, weather and science reporter. (“NASA still being torn between commercial
space and its own rockets,” Houston Chronicle Blog, 2/14, http://blog.chron.com/sciguy/2011/02/nasa-still-being-
torn-between-commercial-space-and-its-own-rockets/
The president’s budget for NASA released today (see fact sheet) is similar to the Senate compromise last year,
but contains some key differences. Notably the issues remain how much to spend on a heavy lift rocket and
launch vehicle, and how much to invest in private-sector initiatives, such as SpaceX, which two months ago
became the first commercial entity to launch a spacecraft into orbit and subsequently recover it upon its return
to Earth. As has been the case for some time, NASA is being asked to straddle a fence and support both
commercial access to low-Earth orbit and build its own fleet of new space vehicles. In this budget
environment, however, there’s just not enough money to do both. Under last year’s Senate compromise, for
2012, NASA would spend $400 million to foster private development of commercial crew services to orbit,
and $4.05 billion on a launch rocket and crew vehicle. In the President’s proposed budget, NASA would spend
$850 million on commercial crew services, but just $2.8 billion on a new NASA rocket and crew vehicle.

Development means research into new technologies and systems


GAO 10 – US Government Accountability Office (“United States Government Stewardship Information
(Unaudited) for the Years Ended September 30, 2010, and 2009 Stewardship Investments”
http://www.gao.gov/financial/fy2010/10stew.pdf)
With regard to development, the DOD and NASA had $65.3 billion (84 percent) and $9.1 billion (12 percent),
respectively, of total development investments in fiscal year 2010, as shown in Table 11. Development is
comprised of five stages: advanced technology development, advanced component development and
prototypes, system development and demonstration, management support, and operational systems
development. Major outputs of DOD development are: • Hardware and software components, and complete
weapon systems ready for operational and developmental testing and field use, and • Weapon systems finalized
for complete operational and developmental testing. NASA development programs include activities to extend
our knowledge of Earth, its space environment, and the universe, and to invest in new aeronautics and
advanced space transportation technologies that support the development and application of technologies
critical to the economic, scientific, and technical competiveness of the United States. Some outcomes and
future outcomes of this development are: • The Earth Science Research Program improves the capability to
document the global distribution of a range of important environmental parameters related to the Earth’s
atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, and land surface; to understand the processes that drive and
connect them; and to improve our capability to predict the future evolution of the Earth system, including
climate, weather, and natural hazards. • Earth Systematic Missions provide Earth observing satellites that
contribute to the provision of long-term environmental data sets that can be used to study the evolution of the
Earth system on a range of temporal scales. This information is used to analyze, model, and improve
understanding of the Earth system. • The Mars Exploration program has been developed to conduct a rigorous,
incremental, discovery-driven exploration of Mars to determine the planet’s physical, dynamic, and geological
characteristics, investigate the Martian climate in the context of understanding habitability, and investigate
whether Mars ever had the potential to develop and harbor any kind of life. • The Cosmic Origins missions
explore how the expanding universe grew into a grand, cosmic web of galaxies; how stars and planets formed
within the galaxies; how stars created the heavy elements, such as carbon, that are essential for life. Major
breakthroughs in our knowledge of the cosmos have already been made with the current suite of missions.

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Topicality Cards – Hardening Satellites
Aff - Development is applying enabling technology
Federal Funds for Research and Development 05 (“Appendix A. Technical Notes,” Fiscal Years 2003-
2005 http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf06313/appa.htm)

Development is defined as systematic application of knowledge or understanding, directed toward the


production of useful materials, devices, and systems or methods, including design, development, and
improvement of prototypes and new processes to meet specific requirements. To better differentiate
between the part of the federal R&D budget that supports science and key enabling technologies
(including technologies for military and nondefense applications) and the part that primarily supports
testing and evaluation (mostly of defense-related systems), NSF now collects from the Department of
Defense (DOD) development dollars in two categories: advanced technology development and major
systems development. DOD uses service codes 6.1 through 6.7 to classify data into the survey categories.
Within DOD's research categories, basic research is classified as 6.1, and applied research is classified as
6.2. Within DOD's development categories, advanced technology development is classified as 6.3A.
Major systems development is classified as 6.3B through 6.7 and includes demonstration and validation,
engineering and manufacturing development, management and support, and operational system
development.

Neg - Globalization of technology threatens to dilute space development – it needs to focus


on environmental and resource concerns
Veda 07 (James, PhD in Political Science at the University of Florida, “The Role of Space Development in
Globalization,” 2007 http://history.nasa.gov/sp4801-chapter10.pdf)

The challenge for space development is to continue its role as a key element of globalization without
becoming associated with its negative consequences the same entities that dominate space development—
government institutions and transnational corporations—are seen by critics as orchestrating globalization
to serve the wealthy at the expense of the poor.in this view,observations of earth from space might be
interpreted as security threats or as a way to spy on economic activities in other parts of the world, rather
than being seen as an instrument of environmental protection and disaster relief. Satellite communications
might be depicted as a tool for extracting information and capital from unsuspecting regions of the world,
rather than as a means of bringing information and capital to them. even incoming information can be
pejoratively portrayed as “cultural contamination” or Western propaganda designed to influence national
or regional policies and attitudes. Space technology could be seen by globalization critics as a tool of
transnational corporations that exploit workers, of foreign investors who undermine local businesses,or of
wealthy (i.e.,spacefaring) countries that economically take advantage of developing nations.the result
could be neo-luddite controls on technology and onerous trade protection schemes that suppress
economic dynamism.21 therefore, it is critical that government-supported space development be directed
at—and perceived as—seeking solutions for the planet in areas such as disaster relief, environmental
monitoring, climate research, medical research, and in the long term, the use of extraterrestrial resources
and capabilities for the benefit of earth.

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Topicality Cards - Mars Colonization
Neg - Celestial Bodies are not included in Space
Barry Dainton - Astronomy professor at the University of Liverpool 2001,Time and Space

For many of us these days, a conception of space that has considerable intuitive appeal runs thus: space is
an infinite expanse of featureless emptiness within which physical bodies are located and move. lt is not
surprising that we are drawn to this idea, for we are brought up to think of the Earth as a planet revolving
around the Sun, which is just one star out of billions, strewn through the vastness of galactic and
intergalactic space. The so-called “outer space” that separates the planets, stars and galaxies is, we are
told, a hard vacuum, empty save for the odd molecule, perhaps one per cubic metre. An initial
characterization of this view of space might run along these lines: The Void Conception: Space in itself
is nothing at all; it has no intrinsic features of its own, it is mere absence. Objects can be separated by
different spatial distances - London is closer to Paris than it is to New York - and we know this because
of the different amounts of time it takes to travel or transmit signals between them; we cannot directly
measure magnitudes of space, since space is itself featureless void.

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Topicality Cards - ITAR
ITAR inhibits Aerospace Industry.
Ryan Zelino - Worker in the Aerospace Industry, 1-16-2006, “The effects of import control on the space industry”

Another effect that has hindered commercial manufacturers is the length of time it takes to get an ITAR
approval. This approval is needed for a variety of reasons including being able to discuss technical
performance details with the customer, obtaining insurance for a satellite (most insurers for spacecraft are
based out of London), exporting a satellite to a launch base, and being able to talk to ground operators for
help with flying the spacecraft.
There are many factors that affect the length of time for an approval, including the types of technologies
on a satellite as well as the country of export . Due to the large cost of satellites, Congressional approval
is also required for export. By law, Congress must either approve or reject any contract within 30 days of
its submittal. However, in practice what often happens is that a satellite is not submitted for approval until
all questions pertaining to its export license are already answered, a process that can hold it up for
months. There has also been some added length as the State Department continues to adjust to the volume
associated with satellites and their technologies. As the following figure taken from a report published by
the United States General Accounting Office shows, the Commerce Department is generally quicker in
approving systems and technologies associated with the space industry.
This increase in approval cycles has angered many customers from friendly countries and, as previously
stated, driven traditional US foreign customers like Telesat to European manufacturers.

ITAR makes SBSP impossible


Rogue 7
(Joseph D. Rogue is the director of the Pentagon's National Security Space Office Space‐Based Solar Power As an
Opportunity for Strategic Security 10 October 2007 Phase 0 Architecture Feasibility Study Report to the Director,
NSSO Interim Assessment Release 0.1 http://www.nss.org/settlement/ssp/library/final-sbsp-interim-assessment-
release-01.pdf)

Application of the International Traffic Arms Regulations (ITAR) may constitute a major barrier to
effective partnerships in SBSP and negatively impact national security. Right now ITAR greatly restricts
and complicates all space‐related business, as it treats all launch and satellite technologies as arms. This
has had the effect of causing [caused] America's competitors to develop ITAR‐free products, and had a
negative impact on our domestic space industries, which can no longer compete on level ground. Many
participants in the feasibility study were very vocal that including satellite and launch technology in
ITAR has had a counterproductive and detrimental effect on the US's national security and
competitiveness—losing control and market share, and closing our eyes and ears to the innovations of the
competition while selling ourselves on a national illusion of unassailable space superiority. Effective
collaboration, even with allies on something of this level, could not take place effectively without some
special consideration or modification

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Topicality Cards – Privatization
*Also see “Its” violation.*

The Private sector is not part of USFG


FEMA Glossary of Terms 8/11/2010

Private Sector.  Organizations and entities that are not part of any governmental structure. Includes
for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, formal and informal structures, commerce and industry,
private emergency response organizations, and private voluntary organizations.

The private sector is inextricably linked to the USFG


Market Institute, Political Magazine 06-09-2010, “Private Sector Shrinking?”
http://marketinstitute.org/2010/06/private-sector-shrinking/

The federal government relies on private sector earnings for its revenue.

Nasa can contract as part of development


Kelso 07
[Robert M. Kelso Manager, Commercial Space Development NASA–JSC, Commercial Crew/Cargo Program
November 15, 2007, http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/203082main_C3PO%20-TEC%20Briefing%20Nov_2007.pdf,
Caplan]

Nonreimburseable (unfunded) SAAs enabling NASA technical assistance with space transportation
capability development have been signed with five companies : – SpaceDev –SPACEHAB –PlanetSpace
–Transformational Space Corp. (t/Space) –Constellation Service International (CSI)

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Topicality Cards – ISS (1)
Use of ISS is both development and exploration of space
Terri L. Lomax, Vice Chancellor for Research and Innovation and Professor of Plant Biology at NC State,
February 2002, “A Flexible Architecture for Plant Functional Geonomics in Space Environments”,
http://www.niac.usra.edu/files/studies/abstracts/615Lomax.pdf

Testing the feasibility of the proposed plant functional genomics architecture for space has only recently
become possible with the availability of the first complete genome sequence for a plant (Arabidopsis), the
development of micro array technology for measuring gene expression, and the demonstration of efficient
homologous recombination in a model green land plant, a moss (Physcomitrella). The novel combination
of these three technologies will allow us to validate the viability of the proposed concept and define the
major feasibility issues during Phase I. Eventually, as more plant genomes are sequenced and
homologous recombination techniques are expanded to other species, it should become possible to use
this architecture to optimize the performance of any plant in any space environment. Future additions to
the architecture will include the technical advances necessary for remote collection and evaluation of
data. The proposed concept will advance NASA’s mission of human exploration, use, and development
of space, both in the near- to mid-term on the International Space Station and in the far-term and beyond
for longer duration missions (i.e. to Mars) and eventual space habitation.

The ISS is development of space


European Space Agency, No Date, “About Human Spaceflight”,
http://www.esa.int/esaHS/ESAM1B0VMOC_index_0.html

Welcome to the European Space Agency web site for human spaceflight. Our aim is to implement
Europe's participation in the development of space infrastructure, such as the International Space Station,
which makes it possible to perform experiments in an environment where weightlessness is the major
characteristic, very different from that we have on Earth.

The ISS develops space


The Artemis Project, 2/28/98, “Is the International Space Station important to the Artemis Project?”,
http://www.asi.org/adb/j/01/is-iss-important.html

Finally, the primary mission of the International Space Station is vital to the outlook for long-term
development of space. Scientific research on the effects of prolonged weightlessness on people, plants,
and animals will teach us how to protect the health of those who live in space. We don't know how the
experience of weightlessness will compare to the 1/6 gravity of the moon; but if the problems are solved
on the space station, they will be solved for all space travel ventures to come.

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Topicality Negative
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Topicality Cards – ISS (2)
Property rights on the ISS prove our plan is topical within US compartments
Bruce Sterling, Staff Writer, 9/26/09, Wired, http://www.wired.com/beyond_the_beyond/2009/09/intellectual-
property-on-the-international-space-station/

The ownership and the exploitation of any intellectual property - data or product - resulting from the
Space Station utilisation will then be highly dependent on the type of contract the users will have signed
with ESA. But the general Space Station framework sets already the following principles for intellectual
property rights. In the event an invention occurs on the Space Station, the country of inventorship will be
determined by the ownership and registry of the Station’s element in which the invention has taken place
(Article 21 of the Intergovernmental Agreement). For example, an invention made on a Japanese Element
(e.g. Kibo Laboratory) will be deemed to have occurred in Japan. (((Okay, now imagine this: being tried
for acts of IP piracy *committed inside* the International Space Station. Like, you got together in the
Kibo with your cosmonaut buddy and you uploaded a peer-to-peer mix-tape of Carla Bruni’s greatest
hits.))) This does not impact the ownership of the invention, not does it preclude the right to file for a
patent in multiple countries. An inventor may file for a patent in any country he chooses. For example a
European researcher inventing a process resulting from his experiment in the Kibo Laboratory (Japanese
territory), may file for a patent anywhere in the world to protect his invention. The purpose of the
territorial approach (e.g. Japanese components of the Station = Japanese territory) is only to determine the
location and country where the invention took place. (((Oh.)))

Neg - The ISS is distinct from exploration


Thomas Gangale, aerospace engineer, 2009, The Development of Outer Space, Pg. 190-191

In another historical irony, the Space Shuttle system failed just as its primary white reason was needed
most. As a result of OV-102 Columbia’s breakup in 2003, the partially-built International Space Station
(ISS) limps along in orbit, tended by a skeleton crew who can do little more than maintain it much less
perform the science duties that justify its existence. Although it will probably be “completed” someday,
according to some definition, the ISS is not the exploration of space, it is merely the occupation of space,
and moreover, a region of space that we have come to know quite well. It boldly goes where hundreds of
people have been going for nearly have a century.

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Topicality Cards - Moon Base
A Moon base is a critical form of space development and exploration
Eligar Sadeh et al, Willy Z. Sadeh, Jenine Abarbanel, Marvin Criswell, Eric E. Rice, all of Colorado State
University, July 2k, European Space Agency, sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/doc.cfm?fobjectid=39540

A human-tended base on the Moon can serve as a stepping stone for human exploration and development
of space beyond the International Space Station. Achievement of this goal in the twenty-first century
depends upon the development of low-cost and lightweight structures capable of accommodating humans
and supporting life on the lunar surface. Since an almost absolute vacuum prevails on the Moon, any
habitat on the lunar surface is a pressure vessel and the pressure of the internal artificial atmosphere
within a habitat is the dominant structural loading.

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Topicality Cards – Aliens – Neg (1)
Passive SETI is distinct from exploration
F. Lyall, Professor of Public Law, University of Aberdeen, 10/27/98, Acta Astronautica, “Legal aspects of SETI—
present and future arrangements”, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094576598000228

Under the general concept of state sovereignty it is for a state to regulate what is done within its
jurisdiction. On that basis it is for municipal law to determine the lawfulness of SETI activity, and, for its
own purposes to regulate what is done. Passive SETI, if I may so call the simple reception and analysis of
signals, could be classified as a matter lying wholly within the jurisdiction of a state. Can one argue that it
is an activity in outer space, which is the gravamen of the UN treaties? I think not. However, one could
say that it crawls into the international arrangements as being part of the “exploration” of space which is
dealt with internationally. However, if that is the case then visual astronomy must also qualify.2 Much
depends on whether in the phrase “exploration and use of outer space” the word “and” is conjunctive or
disjunctive—the sort of argument that lawyers love.

SETI is in no way a Federal Program


Gerry Zeitlin, has a degree in astrophysics from Berkeley, 9/8/07, Open SETI, http://openseti.org/OSCost.html

In the first place, SETI has not been a national program for most of its history, and is not one now, in that
it is not being operated or supported by the US government. No doubt there are federal grants for some
educational and outreach programs but this does not mean taxpayer money is spent to perform SETI
searches.

Exploration can mean virtually anything. Must be given a limited meaning


Lester 9 (Daniel F. Lester, Michael Robinson, Department of Astronomy C1400, University of Texas, Austin, TX
78712, USA b Hillyer College, University of Hartford, Visiions of Exploration, Space Policy 25 (2009), p. 239
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0265964609000691)

That Americans have broadly embraced exploration as a part of their national identity seems clear. Yet,
as the above examples show, this embrace provides little insight into the meanings of exploration, the
effect of such meanings on the planning of missions, or the value of such missions to the nation. Why
does such an important term as ‘‘exploration’’ retain such ambiguity? One finds many answers, but
perhaps comedian Gary Owen explains it best. Certain words, Owen states, are ‘‘freedom words’’, terms
with meanings broad enough to label things that would be hard to categorize. Like Owen’s made-up word
‘‘insegrevious’’, exploration has come to mean whatever its users want it to mean.

Space exploration requires spacecraft


Bohlmann 09 –Ph. D., Legal Officer at the headquarters of the European Space Agency in Paris, France (Ulrike
M., “The term “exploration” in the Corpus Iuris Spatialis”, Humans in Outer Space - Interdisciplinary Odysseys pg.
183)

The term “exploration” occupies a prominent place in the international space law codifications. The full
title of the so-called “Magna Charta of Space Law” reads “Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities
of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies” The
second paragraph of the preamble recognizes the common interest of all mankind in the progress of the
exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes; Articles I and 2 stipulates the general freedom
for all states to explore and use outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies. In general, the
term “exploration” signifies investigation, search, study, or travel for discovery parallel to a geographic
expedition. In a narrower sense, the term is understood to mean investigation of the universe beyond the
Earth’s atmosphere by means of manned and unmanned spacecraft.

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Exploration means to expand human presence to space
Logsdon, 9 – professor of political science at George Washington, former director of the Space Policy Institute
(John, “Fifty Years of Human Spaceflight Why Is There Still a Controversy?,”
http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20100025875_2010028362.pdf)

Many believe that the only sustainable rationale for a government-funded program of human spaceflight
is to take the lead in exploring the solar system beyond low Earth orbit.20 The MIT white paper provides
an insightful definition of exploration: Exploration is a human activity, undertaken by certain cultures at
certain times for particular reasons. It has components of national interest, scientific research, and
technical innovation, but is defined by none of them. We define exploration as an expansion of the realm
of human experience, bringing people into new places, situations, and environments, expanding and
redefining what it means to be human. What is the role of Earth in human life? Is human life
fundamentally tied to the earth, or could it survive without the planet? Human presence, and its attendant
risk, turns a spaceflight into a story that is compelling to large numbers of people. Exploration also has a
moral dimension because it is in effect a cultural conversation on the nature and meaning of human life.
Exploration by this definition can only be accomplished by direct human presence and may be deemed
worthy of the risk of human life.21 In the wake of the 2003 Columbia accident that took the lives of
seven astronauts and the report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board that criticized the absence
of a compelling mission for human spaceflight as “a failure of national leadership,”22 the United States,
in January 2004, adopted a new policy to guide its human spaceflight activities. The policy directed
NASA to “implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system
and beyond” and to “extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the
Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations.”23 This
policy seems totally consistent with the definition of exploration provided in the MIT white paper. The
issue is whether such a policy and its implementation, focusing on human exploration beyond Earth orbit,
can provide an adequate and sustainable justification for a continuing program of government-sponsored
spaceflight that will make contributions that will outweigh the costs and risks involved to the “primary
objectives” of national pride and prestige, and also to some of the several “secondary objectives.”

Space exploration requires the use of space travel


Desai 03-Currently an Engineer at Northrop Grumman Corporation, this was written as a report for his graduate
degree, Northrop Grumman is a leading global security company providing innovative systems, products and
solutions in aerospace, electronics, information systems, and technical services to government and commercial
customers worldwide. (2003, Ankit, “The Cost Ethics of Space Exploration”,
http://cseserv.engr.scu.edu/StudentAccounts/ENGR019Fall2003/ADesai/ADesai_ResearchPaper.pdf)

First, let me define what space exploration is. According to the Encarta Encyclopedia, space exploration
is the quest to use space travel to discover the nature of the universe beyond Earth. Many centuries before
space research began, many dreamt of flying into space and exploring unknown planets and solar
systems. Although the technologies needed to explore weren't invented until the 20th century, tools were
invented that allowed the study of space from the ground. Rockets were developed sometime in the 11th
century. Fueled by gunpowder, these rockets were used as weapons. In the 17th century, Galileo used the
telescope in order to study the moon as well as other planets in our solar system. He had mapped the
major visible mountains and valleys of the Moon and concluded that it was a solid world. Another
Scientist by the name of Johannes Kepler calculated the elliptical orbits of the planets using the telescope.
(1)

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Topicality Cards – Aliens – Aff (1)
Explore – To investigate, study or analyze
Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 1985, Webster http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/explore?
show=0&t=1308841396 LS

a : to investigate, study, or analyze : look into <explore the relationship between social class and learning
ability> —sometimes used with indirect questions <to explore where ethical issues arise — R. T.
Blackburn>

Exploration – The investigation of unknown regions


Dictionary.com 2011, http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/exploration LS
2. the investigation of unknown regions.

Exploration includes astronomy. Physical exploration is a sub-category


Khan 9 (Ather Khan is the director for on demand quality and problem management at the Oracle Corporation for
computing and engineering. He graduated from Western Michigan University and the University of Mumbai for
computer software. October 14, 2009 “Space exploration” http://all-space-technology.blogspot.com/2009/10/space-
explorationv.html)

Space exploration is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space.[1] Physical
exploration of space is conducted both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. While the
observation of objects in space, known as astronomy, predates reliable recorded history, it was the
development of large liquid-fueled rocket engines during the early 20th century that allowed physical
space exploration to become a reality. Common rationales for exploring space include advancing
scientific research, uniting different nations, ensuring the future survival of humanity and developing
military and strategic advantages against other countries. Various criticisms of space exploration are
sometimes made, generally on cost or safety grounds.

Space exploration entails looking outward from Earth


VEGA 11 - VEGA supports many European Space exploration missions, the vast majority of which are currently
undertaken by the European Space Agency (ESA). These include: Smart 1, XMM, ULYSSES, INTEGRAL, Mars
Express, Venus Express, Rosetta, HUYGENS, BEPI-COLUMBO, Herschel-Planck, GAIA, DARWIN and ExoMars
(VEGA Space, 2011, http://www.vegaspace.com/newsroom/in_focus/space_exploration.aspx)

What is Space exploration?


Space exploration missions are about looking outward from Earth towards the Sun, other planets the
universe and beyond. Mission objectives include seeking to shed light on the evolution of our solar
system, our place in the universe, what the future may hold and the origins of life.

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Topicality Cards – Aliens – Aff (2)
Their interpretation is derived from land-based contexts – doesn’t apply to space
Lester and Robinson, 9 –*Ph. D. Research Fellow at the University of works on the Stratospheric
Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, providing science and management policy, and is representing the
astronomical community on the Lunar Exploration Roadmap effort he serves on the congressionally chartered
Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which reviews and provides advisory oversight and
coordination of both space and ground-based astronomical research at NASA, NSF and DOE AND ** assistant
professor of history at the University of Hartsford. His teaching and research fields include the history of
exploration, history of American culture and science, and the history of globalization (Daniel F., “Visions of
exploration” Space Policy Volume 25, Issue 4, November 2009, Pages 236-243, Science Direct)

The word ‘‘exploration’’ threads its way through every discussion of human space flight and often
headlines national policy statements about the US space agency. Yet this concept, so rooted in our
culture, remains remarkably ill-defined. In this paper, we examine various presumptions implicit in the
term and its ramifications for federally supported space endeavors. We argue that historical examples of
exploration, widely used by policy makers, often make poor models for contemporary space travel. In
particular, historical precedents of exploration set up a land-biased view of discovery, a restriction which
impedes full expression of the Vision for Space Exploration and its possible scientific returns. These
same precedents also set up a view of discovery that is biased toward in situ human presence, a view that
modern technology is rendering increasingly absurd.

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Topicality Cards – SPS (1)

We remove a barrier to exploration


Rogue 7 (Joseph D. Rogue is the director of the Pentagon's National Security Space Office Space‐Based Solar
Power As an Opportunity for Strategic Security Phase 0 Architecture Feasibility Study Report to the Director, NSSO
Interim Assessment Release 0.1 10 October 2007 http://www.nss.org/settlement/ssp/library/final-sbsp-interim-
assessment-release-01.pdf PB

The technology to beam power over long distances could lower application satellite weights and expand
the envelope for Earth‐ and space‐based power beaming applications. A truly developed Space‐Based
Solar Power infrastructure would open up entirely new exploration and commercial possibilities, not only
because of the access which will be discussed in the section on infrastructure, but because of the power
available on orbit, which would enable concepts as diverse as comet / asteroid protection systems, de‐
orbit of space debris, space‐to‐space power utilities, and beamed propulsion possibilities including far‐
term concepts as a true interstellar probe such as Dr. Robert Forward’s StarWisp Concep

We meet substantial
Rogue 7 (Joseph D. Rogue is the director of the Pentagon's National Security Space Office Space‐Based Solar
Power As an Opportunity for Strategic Security Phase 0 Architecture Feasibility Study Report to the Director, NSSO
Interim Assessment Release 0.1 10 October 2007 http://www.nss.org/settlement/ssp/library/final-sbsp-interim-
assessment-release-01.pdf PB

FINDING: The SBSP Study Group found that individual SBSP technologies are sufficiently mature to fly
a basic proof‐of‐concept demonstration within 4‐6 years and a substantial power demonstration as early
as 2017‐2020, though these are likely to cost between $5B‐$10B in total.

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Topicality Negative
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Topicality Cards – SPS (2)
ASPEC doesn’t apply
Rogue 7 (Joseph D. Rogue is the director of the Pentagon's National Security Space Office Space‐Based Solar
Power As an Opportunity for Strategic Security Phase 0 Architecture Feasibility Study Report to the Director, NSSO
Interim Assessment Release 0.1 10 October 2007 http://www.nss.org/settlement/ssp/library/final-sbsp-interim-
assessment-release-01.pdf PB

Lacking a specific mandate and clear responsibility, no U.S. federal agency has an existing or planned
program of research, technology investment, or development related to Space‐Based Solar Power.
Instead, the responsibilities for various aspects of SBSP are distributed among various federal agencies

SBSP is development
Hsu and Cox 9 Feng, Ph.D. is a Sr. Fellow, Aerospace Technology Working Group and Ken, Ph.D., is a
Founder and Director Aerospace Technology Working Group ‘9 ( An Aerospace Technology Working Group White
Paper Version 2.1.1, “ Sustainable Space Exploration and Space Development: A Unified Strategic Vision”, March
29, 2009, http://www.spacerenaissance.org/papers/A-UnifiedSpaceVision-Hsu-Cox.pdf)

Even with adequate reform in its governance model, NASA would not be the right institution to lead or
manage the nation’s business in Space Development projects. Human space development activities, such
as creation of affordable launch vehicles, RLVs, space-based solar power, space tourism, communication
satellites, and transEarth or trans-lunar space transportation infrastructure systems are primarily
commercial development endeavors that are not only cost-benefit-sensitive in project management, but
also subject to fundamental business principles related to profitability, sustainability, and market
development

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Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards - Observation Satellites (1)
*Also see SAC 96 card*

Satellites meet development


Yamanouchi 03, President of the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) in Japan (Shuichiro
Yamanouchi, “ [Business leaders] Space and the Global Environment”
http://www.japanfs.org/en/pages/011507.html)

The objective of space development is not rockets, it's satellites. When you think about what satellites do,
the first things that pop into your mind are probably weather satellites, BS or CS television broadcast
satellites, and GPS (Global Positioning System) satellites. Broadly speaking, the satellites that are the
most in use today are broadcast and communications satellites. Broadcasting satellites (BS) and
communications satellites (CS) have become full-blown businesses. Unfortunately, Japanese industry has
practically no orders for these on the world market. This is because it can't compete with the number of
satellites turned out by Europe and America, and also because following a trade dispute with America
five or six years ago, under "Super Article 301," Japan's satellites must be procured internationally. The
costs are quite different for a company that builds ten satellites a year compared to a company that builds
only one or two. Mitsubishi Electric Corporation finally got an order to build two, but because wages are
so high in Japan, the unfortunate reality is that it is not a good business.

Satellites are development


Hsu and Cox 9 Feng, Ph.D. is a Sr. Fellow, Aerospace Technology Working Group and Ken, Ph.D., is a
Founder and Director Aerospace Technology Working Group ‘9 ( An Aerospace Technology Working Group White
Paper Version 2.1.1, “ Sustainable Space Exploration and Space Development: A Unified Strategic Vision”, March
29, 2009, http://www.spacerenaissance.org/papers/A-UnifiedSpaceVision-Hsu-Cox.pdf)

Even with adequate reform in its governance model, NASA would not be the right institution to lead or
manage the nation’s business in Space Development projects. Human space development activities, such
as creation of affordable launch vehicles, RLVs, space-based solar power, space tourism, communication
satellites, and transEarth or trans-lunar space transportation infrastructure systems are primarily
commercial development endeavors that are not only cost-benefit-sensitive in project management, but
also subject to fundamental business principles related to profitability, sustainability, and market
development.

Observation is exploration – ilaw proves – so does the distinction between use and
exploration
Smith 3 http://www.victoria.ac.nz/law/research/vuwlr/prev-issues/pdf/vol-34-2003/issue-3/smith.pdf “ A
PHANTOM MENACE? PATENTS AND THE COMMUNAL STATUS OF SPACE” This article is an edited
version of a paper submitted in fulfilment of the requirements of the LLB(Hons) degree at the Victoria University of
Wellington, 2002.

Conversely, the scientific investigation, the freedom of which is guaranteed by article 1(3), almost
certainly falls within the definitions of "exploration" and use" in article 1(2). The crucial article as regards
the right of free use of space is therefore article 1(2). Article 1(2) both provides for freedom of
"exploration" and "use". "Exploration" and "use" represent the twin aspects of space utilisation envisaged
by the international community. "Exploration" refers to scientific exploration of the space environment.
Conversely, "use" is the equivalent of "exploitation".63 The inclusion of "use" in article 1 thus indicates
international acceptance "of peaceful activities in outer space other than scientific exploration only"64
and indeed guarantees the freedom to conduct such activities.

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Topicality Negative
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Topicality Cards - Observation Satellites (2)
Restricting exploration to physical movement is obsolete – we meet a better interp
Winn 9 http://davidbrin.blogspot.com/2009/07/does-moon-beckon-us-back.html Attorney Randy Winn is a
frequent contributor to law and justice efforts in the Puget Sound area. Having written software for decades before
law school, and lead the development of listserves and a website for the Washington State Bar Association, Randy
now focuses on using technology to facilitate education, networking and volunteering.

The difficulty with this argument is that it defines exploration as motion in space and reasons that, therefore, we
must keep moving in space, or else we're not exploring and will therefore stop improving ourselves. This may have
had some validity in an era when there was a lot of usable geography unexplored, and that a curious people who
naturally generate people who wanted to see what was Over There. However, it confuses causation; a lack of
exploration in such a case would be a SYMPTOM of a non-exploratory attitude, not the CAUSE of the attitude.
Today we have physically explored most of our planet; the question is whether the exploratory attitude can be
continued without ever-wider physical exploration. It's difficult to see how even the complete lack of a space
program would discourage software engineers, artists, biophysicists and so on from usefully exploring their fields.
And of course, we'll always have some sort of space exploration; with our telescopes and whatnot we see further
every year. It is not necessary to do things physically to experience the adventure, awe and majesty of exploration.
Exploration needs to be redefined away from mere motion in space into the gathering of useful information.

Technology has rendered their interpretation anachronistic


Lester and Robinson 9 “ Visions of exploration” Space Policy Volume 25, Issue 4, November 2009, Pages
236-243 Daniel F Lester, Research Fellow, PHD, Department of Astronomy, College of Natural Sciences at The
University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX Michael Robinson is an assistant professor of history. His teaching and
research fields include the history of exploration, history of American culture and science, and the history of
globalization. He received his Ph.D. in the history of science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2002.

The word “exploration” threads its way through every discussion of human space flight and often
headlines national policy statements about the US space agency. Yet this concept, so rooted in our
culture, remains remarkably ill-defined. In this paper, we examine various presumptions implicit in the
term and its ramifications for federally supported space endeavors. We argue that historical examples of
exploration, widely used by policy makers, often make poor models for contemporary space travel. In
particular, historical precedents of exploration set up a land-biased view of discovery, a restriction which
impedes full expression of the Vision for Space Exploration and its possible scientific returns. These
same precedents also set up a view of discovery that is biased toward in situ human presence, a view that
modern technology is rendering increasingly absurd.

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Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards - Demonstrations
*Also see SAC 96 card*

Development includes demonstration projects (common mechanism for SPS Affs)


Alves, 2k – PhD thesis for INSTITUT UNIVERSITAIRE DE HAUTES ETUDES INTERNATIONALES
(Péricles GASPARINI, “THE TRANSFER OF DUAL-USE OUTER SPACE TECHNOLOGIES:
CONFRONTATION OR CO-OPERATION?,” http://doc.rero.ch/record/3673/files/these_GaspariniP.pdf

Category I of the Annex includes a long section on definition of terms in order to avoid misinterpretation
of the items subject to control. For example, the term development covers a large realm of possibilities
ranging from research design to projects, pilot production schemes and mounted and test prototypes.
Production is understood to be all production phases: e.g., production engineering, integration inspection,
test, etc. Most interesting is the attention paid to define the term technology: described to be the specific
information required for the development, production, or use of a product, which can be technical data
or assistance. Here too the Decree is very meticulous and describes technical data to include diagrams,
formulas, diskettes, tapes, instruction manuals, and others, while technical assistance consists of training,
consulting, and etc.

139
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards - Militarization– Aff (1)
Militarization is development of space
Crawford, I. A. The Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London. (1995). "Space
development: social and political implications". Space policy (0265-9646), 11 (4), p. 219.

Disarmament Even allowing for international cooperation, there are few sectors of the world economy
from which it would be politically realistic to divert the resources envisaged here for space investment.
One of the few is military spending, which worldwide is currently about US$900 billion annually.
Resources of the required order of magnitude could be taken from this source without adversely affecting
the rest of the world economy. Moreover, as we noted above, space development is especially suitable as
an alternative outlet for the energies of the military-industrial complex.

Militarization is a core part of space development


Raymond D. Duvall, and Jonathan Havercroft , University of Minnesota & University of Victoria, March 22-
25, 2006 (“Taking Sovereignty Out of This World: Space Weaponization and the Production of Late-Modern
Political Subjects,” International Studies Association.
http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/9/8/6/8/pages98680/p98680-1.php ).

The weaponization of space—the act of placing weapons in outer space—has an intimate relationship to space
exploration, in that the history of the former is embedded in the latter, while the impetus for space exploration, in
turn, is embedded in histories of military development. Since the launch of Sputnik, states that have ability to access—
and hence to explore—outer space have sought ways in which that access could improve their military capabilities. Consequently,
militaries in general and the U.S. military in particular have had a strong interest in the military uses of
space for the last half century. Early on, the military interest in space had two direct expressions: enhancing
surveillance; and developing rocketry technologies that could be put to use for earthbased weapons, such
as missiles. Militaries also have a vested interest in the “dual-use” technologies that are often developed
in space exploration missions. While NASA goes to great lengths in its public relations to stress the
benefits to science and the (American) public of its space explorations, it is noteworthy that many of
the technologies developed for those missions also have potential military use.

Missile defense, military satellites, and tracking satellites are substantial


Smith 03 (Marcia S., Resouces, Science and industry division, CRS, “US Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and
Commercial,” April 22, 2003 http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/19957.pdf)

The Department of Defense (DOD) has a less visible but equally substantial space program. Tracking the
DOD space budget is extremely difficult since space is not identified as a separate line item in the budget.
DOD sometimes releases only partial information (omitting funding for classified programs) or will
suddenly release without explanation new figures for prior years that are quite different from what was
previously reported. The most recent figures from DOD show a total (classified and unclassified) space
budget of $15.7 billion for FY2002, $18.4 billion for FY2003, and a FY2004 request of $20.4 billion.
DOD space issues include management of programs to develop new early warning and missile tracking
satellites, and management of military and intelligence space activities generally. The appropriate role of
the government in facilitating commercial space businesses is an ongoing debate. For many years, the
focus has been on commercial space launch services, but commercial remote sensing satellites also pose
complex questions in terms of encouraging the development of commercial satellites that provide high
quality data, while protecting national security.

140
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards - Militarization– Aff (2)

Most predictable—history of space exploration is embedded in militarization


HUNTRESSGeophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, MOROZInstitute of Space
Research of Russian Academy of Science, SHEVALEVLavochkin Association, Khimki, 2003, Space Science
Reviews 107, p. 541-2, “LUNAR AND PLANETARY ROBOTIC EXPLORATION MISSIONS IN THE 20TH
CENTURY”

Most of the history of space exploration in the 20th Century is characterized by intense competition for
dominance between the USSR and USA. Europe and Japan were preoccupied with rebuilding their
nations at the dawn of the space age (circa 1950), after the devastation of World War II, while the USSR
and USA were developing their ICBMs. The USSR launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik, on
October 4, 1957, using a slightly modified version of their first operational ICBM. The first human space
flight was also Soviet; Yuri Gagarin’s orbital flight in April 1961. These events shocked Americans, who
had difficulty imagining how they could not have been first in space. The Americans also recognized
immediately the implications of these events for their national defense. The USA mobilized a massive
space development program of its own in 1958, and in 1961 President Kennedy formulated a national
goal to send astronauts to theMoon and back before the end of the decade, implicitly meaning that the
first human on the Moon should be American, not Soviet.

Space exploration and weaponization are interconnected


Raymond Duvall, Ph.D.: Northwestern University, and Jonathan Havercroft, (Ph.D. Minnesota, written for
Constellations and Review of International Studies, October 2006, “Taking Sovereignty Out of This World: Space
Weapons and Empire of the Future”, p. 5-6

The placing of weapons in orbital space has an intimate relationship to space exploration, in that the
history of the former is embedded in the latter, while the impetus for space exploration, in turn, is
embedded in histories of military development. Since the launch of Sputnik, states that have ability to
access—and hence to explore—orbital space have sought ways in which that access could improve their
military capabilities. Consequently, militaries in general and the U.S. military in particular have had a
strong interest in the military uses of space for the last half century. Early on, the military interest in space
had two direct expressions: enhancing surveillance; and developing rocketry technologies that could be
put to use for earth-based weapons, such as missiles. Militaries also have a vested interest in the “dual-
use” technologies that are often developed in space exploration missions. While NASA goes to great
lengths in its public relations to stress the benefits to science and the (American) public of its space
explorations, it is noteworthy that many of the technologies developed for those missions also have
potential military use.

141
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards - Militarization – Neg (1)
*For More Neg cards, see the “Development is not military” shell above*

Space weapons are defined as any devices places in outer space


Michael Krepon (the author or editor of thirteen books and over 350 articles. He worked at the Carnegie
Endowment for International Peace, the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency during the Carter
administration, and in the US House of Representatives, assisting Congressman Norm Dicks. He received an MA
from the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University and a BA from Franklin & Marshall
College. He also studied Arabic at the American University in Cairo, Egypt) 3/18/10.
http://krepon.armscontrolwonk.com/archive/2665/what-is-a-space-weapon

The term ‘weapon in outer space’ means any device placed in outer space, based on any physical
principle, which has been specially produced or converted to destroy, damage or disrupt the normal
functioning of objects in outer space, on the Earth or in the Earth’s atmosphere, or to eliminate a
population or components of the biosphere which are important to human existence or inflict damage on
them; A weapon shall be considered to have been ‘placed’ in outer space if it orbits the Earth at least
once, or follows a section of such an orbit before leaving this orbit, or is permanently located somewhere
in outer space.

Space weapons are defined as: specifically designed to kill or injure a person and destroy
an object
Michael Krepon (the author or editor of thirteen books and over 350 articles. He worked at the Carnegie
Endowment for International Peace, the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency during the Carter
administration, and in the US House of Representatives, assisting Congressman Norm Dicks. He received an MA
from the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University and a BA from Franklin & Marshall
College. He also studied Arabic at the American University in Cairo, Egypt) 3/18/10.
http://krepon.armscontrolwonk.com/archive/2665/what-is-a-space-weapon (quotes is Philip Baines, Canadian
diplomat,

Philip Baines, a Canadian diplomat with uncommon technical expertise has proposed another definition
of a space weapon: a device based on any physical principle, specially designed or modified, to injure or
to kill a person, irreparably damage or destroy an object, or render any place unusable.

Space development is defined as enabling space to be used as the common property of all
mankind
Tamiya Nomura, Deputy Chairman of the Space Activities Commission, 2/2/1.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/026596469593230I. “Japan's new long-term vision Creating a
space age in the new century”

The Japanese Government's Space Activities Commission (SAC) has released its latest Long-Term
Vision of Japan's future in the exploration and use of outer space. The Vision will contribute to the
formulation of government policy for space development. In this article, the philosophy of space
development is defined as follows: ‘It enables space to be used as the common property of all mankind in
order to contribute to the enduring prosperity of all those living on Earth.’ Within this philosophy, Japan's
principal objectives are projected into the middle of the twenty-first century as being: construction of a
global Earth observation system; promotion of advanced space science programmes; full implementation
of space activities using the Japanese Experiment Module of the International Space Station; and
development and operation of new space infrastructures.

142
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards - Militarization – Neg (2)

Space exploration includes robotic and human activities


S.Y. Chunga, , P. Ehrenfreunda, , J.D. Rummelb and N. Peterc. (all attending Space Policy Institute,
Elliott School of International Affairs, Institute for Coastal Science and Policy, European Space Policy Institute,
respectively) 10/23/09. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117709006887 “Synergies of Earth
science and space exploration”

The term “space exploration” encompasses both robotic and human exploration activities. Using ESA’s
definition from the document entitled: European Objectives and Interests in Space Exploration (ESA,
2007), space exploration is defined as to “extend access and a sustainable presence for humans in Earth–
Moon–Mars space, including the Lagrangian Points and near-Earth objects.” Space exploration, an issue
that used to be of marginal political interest in recent years, has returned to the top of the space policy
agenda of many space-faring countries. Space exploration can provide many socio-economic benefits
ranging from more influence on the international scene to increased industrial competitiveness. Human
spaceflight is also a source of inspiration for the general public, and the youth in particular. Space
exploration is thus not only seen as a destination, but also rather as a process driven by political and
socio-economic motives. However, space exploration is a very demanding endeavor both in terms of
financial and technological resources. The challenge posed by the complexity of long-term, multi-
destination exploration activities calls not only for a broad public support but also for a sustained political
engagement in order to have a wide and resilient backing of space exploration plans. The current
international space exploration environment is dramatically evolving due to two main trends.

OST proves that space exploration and weaponization are mutually exclusive
Michael Krepon, director of the South Asia and Space Security programs, worked at the Carnegie Endowment for
International Peace, the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency during the Carter administration, and in the US
House of Representatives, 3/25-6/04, , SPACE ASSURANCE OR SPACE WEAPONS, United Nations
Institute for Disarmament Research, p. 53-4

The cornerstone of space assurance remains the Outer Space Treaty, which provides the basic framework
on international space law, including the strictures that the exploration and use of outer space shall be
carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries and shall be the province of all mankind;
that outer space shall be free for exploration and use by all states; that nations shall not place nuclear
weapons or other weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in orbit or on celestial bodies or station them in
outer space in any other manner; that the Moon and other celestial bodies shall be used exclusively for
peaceful purposes; that nations shall be liable for damage caused by their space objects; and that nations
shall avoid harmful contamination of space and celestial bodies. The Outer Space Treaty also establishes
the principle that governments are responsible for space-related activities carried out within national
borders and for assuring treaty compliance “whether such activities are carried on by government
agencies or by non-governmental entities”. When space activities are undertaken by international
consortia, responsibility for compliance “shall be bourne both by the international organization and by the
States Parties to the Treaty participating in such organization”.

143
Topicality Negative
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Topicality Cards - Mining
Exploration does not include mining

Trans Afrika Resources, http://www.transafrikaresources.com/g.php, 2010,


http://www.transafrikaresources.com/g.php

Exploration
The intentional searching for any mineral, but not including mining.

144
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards – Science Experiments – Not Substantially
There are at least 100 experiments on the ISS right now

Louis Jacobson, 9/30/09, Politifact, http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/obameter/promise/337/use-


the-international-space-station-for-fundamenta/

Such work has been under way since 2000 and is continuing. A crew with members from the United
States, Russia and Canada began a mission to the space station on Sept. 30, 2009, on a Soyuz rocket
launched from Kazakhstan. In orbit, ISS crew members will work on many of the 98 experiments that are
currently being conducted on the space station. Of these, some address fundamental biological and
physical questions. The total number of experiments is set to rise to 140 by the following mission.

Space shuttles alone hosted 2,000 experiments

Suzanne Presto, 7/21/2011, Voice of America, “Researchers: Experiments in Space Result in Benefits on Earth”

So Collins and her research team sent an experiment up on the final mission of the space shuttle Atlantis
in order to study the way bacteria act in microgravity. It is just one of more than 2,000 science
experiments that have been conducted on the space shuttles during the past three decades.

145
Topicality Negative
Varsity
Topicality Cards - Solar Sails

Solar sails constitute space exploration missions


M. Leipold, Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration, DLR German Aerospace Centre,
Cologne, Germany D. Kassing, Systems Studies Division, ESA Directorate of Industrial Matters and Technology
Programmes, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands M. Eiden, Mechanical Systems Division, ESA Directorate of
Technical and Operational Support, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands L. Herbeck, Institute of Structural
Mechanics, DLR German Aerospace Centre, Braunschweig, Germany

Solar-sail technology holds the promise of significantly enhancing the interplanetary transportation
infrastructure for spaceexploration missions in the new millennium, by exploiting the freely available
space resource of solar radiation pressure for primary propulsion.

146