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Journal of

Marine Science
and Engineering

Article
A Computational Approach to the Prediction of the
Floating Condition of ROPAX Vessel after Firewater
Accumulation in Firefighting Operation
Honggui Wang * and Zhaolin Wu
Navigation College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China; wuzl@dlmu.edu.cn
* Correspondence: wanghonggui@dlmu.edu.cn; Tel.: +86-1894-113-6663

Received: 7 December 2019; Accepted: 6 January 2020; Published: 9 January 2020 

Abstract: A reliable estimation of the floating condition of a roll on/roll off cargo (ROPAX) vessel after
the accumulation of firewater on the vehicle deck is extremely important for making correct decisions
on evacuation and abandonment. Thus, for the seafarer working on a ROPAX vessel, there is a demand
for a time-dependent prediction of the floating condition of the vessel after the firewater accumulation.
For this purpose, a new iterative computational approach, based on quasi-static theory, is presented.
The approach is examined through the records observed in an accident of the M/V Dashun. The
results show that the approach has good accuracy and feasibility provided that the actual heeling
angle and cargo shift during the accident are carefully monitored.

Keywords: firewater accumulation; floating condition of ROPAX vessel; cargo shift; a critical static
heeling angle

1. Introduction
Ships designed to carry passengers and roll on/roll off cargo (ROPAX ships) are among functional
types of ships. The flexibility, ability to integrate with other transport systems and operating speed,
has become extremely popular in many routes [1]. Recent developments in the design of passenger
ships have led to larger and larger vessels with an increasing capacity for carrying more passengers
and crew [2]. The largest cruise ship can carry more than 8800 people to date. Throughout the
history of commercial ROPAX traffic, fire accidents involving large passenger ships have been
rare, and fortunately, they have seldom caused fatalities. However, if a large amount of firewater
accumulates on the vehicle deck, the vessel may capsize, which could be rapid and disastrous,
and probably accompanied by a large number of fatalities. As shown in Table 1, some of these accidents
are still fresh in our memory, such as M/V Dashun in 1999 (282 fatalities) [3–5] and M/V Al Salam
Boccaccio 98 in 2006 (1031 fatalities) [6].

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Table 1. Accidents of roll on/roll off cargo (ROPAX) vessels involving firewater accumulation over last 40 years (Source: DNV-GL, MSA, MAIB, FBMCI, PMA).

Ship Name Date Location Accident Description


The vessel was heavily heeled due to firewater accumulation,
Angelina Lauro [7] 30 March 1979 Caribbean
and while under towage, finally sank.
The vessel listed due to the water pumped on board to fight a fire.
Farah II [7] 06 March 1986 Neweiba, Egypt The vessel capsized in the Gulf of Aqaba after being towed away
from the berth.
After being flooded due to a collision, the vessel was further
Dronning Margrethe II [7] 14 March 1991 Rødbyhavn damaged by firewater, which caused the heeling to be out of
control. The vessel was finally grounded.
The vessel sank to the sea bed due to firewater accumulation, and
Pegasus [7] 02 June 1991 Venice
later, was declared as a total loss.
The engine room was partly flooded with firewater, and the boilers
Albatros [7] 22 May 1995 Red Sea
were shut down. The vessel was drifted to port.
Firewater caused the vessel to heel to 10◦ and later to 30◦ . The
Romantica [7] 04 October 1997 Mediterranean
vessel was towed into port.
A fire was started by the collision of two trucks on the vehicle deck
during an improper ship handling operation. The entire drencher
Shenglu [3] 17 October 1999 Bohai Sea, China system on the deck was started later. Too much water accumulated
on vehicle deck due to the blockage of the scuppers. The vessel was
finally sunk. Two people were reported as missing.
The vessel was heavily heeled due to firewater accumulation on the
Dashun [3] 24 November 1999 Bohai Sea, China vehicle deck, and finally sunk in combination with other reasons.
A total of 282 people died.
The onboard water-drencher system broke down immediately after
being started. A foreign firefighting assistance was deployed and
Liaohai [8] 16 November 2004 Sanshan Island of Dalian, China engaged by local authority. The maximum heeling angle due to
firewater accumulation was controlled within 15◦ on the starboard
side. The fire was successfully put out.
The accumulation of a large amount of water coupled with weather
Al salam98 [6] 03 February 2006 Red Sea conditions finally caused an excessive heeling of the vessel towards
starboard. A total of 1031 people died.
Firefighting efforts were suspended due to the blockage of vehicle
Commodore Clipper [9] 16 June 2010 On passage to Portsmouth, UK deck scuppers. The firewater accumulated on deck reduced the
vessel’s stability.
The scuppers had become partly clogged with debris from a fire,
resulting in the firewater being trapped on the upper deck, which
LISCO GLORIA [10] 08 October 2010 NW of Fehmarn, Germany
caused the ferry to heel to the port side. The vessel was declared as
a constructive total loss. A total of 28 people injured.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 30 3 of 16

Over the last few years, the problem of water on deck of passenger vessels has drawn wide
attention from the ocean engineering community, and many experimental studies have been conducted
to date [11–13]. However, it is difficult to cover all the situations under limited laboratory conditions,
especially in regard to water accumulation on a vehicle deck due to improper firefighting operations.
This type of water accumulation is different from that caused by a damaged hull on the basis of
the following factors: (1) the vessel is still intact below the waterline, (2) the flow into the vehicle
deck is not affected by the waves outside but depends on the spraying capacity of water-drencher
system, sometimes in combination with the use of fire hoses by seafarers, and (3) the flow out of the
vessel exists during the water accumulation process if the elevation of water on the vehicle deck is
higher than that outboard. Certainly, one of most common issues of the water accumulation caused
by improper firefighting shared with that caused by a damaged hull is how to predict the floating
condition of the vessel with an increase in the accumulation of water, based on which the decision
on the evacuation of passengers and seafarers, the abandonment of the vessel or the continuation of
sailing can be made. Lee et al. [14] developed a framework for survivability assessment of a damaged
ship, taking into account the heeling angle and the range of stability. Jasionowski [15] presented
a method for vulnerability analysis which can also be used for decision support when the flooding
condition is already known. Choi et al. [16] proposed a DB(Database)-based supporting system on the
basement of detected damage condition. Later, D. Spanos and A. Papanikolaou [17] evaluated the
probability of slow (and fast) sinking/capsize of passenger ships, aiming to clarify the feasibility of safe
operations/evacuation in flooding incidents. The same year, Varela et al. [18] presented a on-board
decision support system for ship flooding emergency response according to the current ship status
and existing damages. More recently, Hee Jin Kang et al. [19] designed a new concept for buoyancy
support systems for damaged ships which considered the technical and economic matters, but is far
from the usage in marine practice. However, these systems are based on the fact that the damage
condition has been detected, and moreover, may not be suitable for the case of firewater accumulation.
Usually, the amount of water on a vehicle deck can be detected by the sensors of the
flooding detection system [20], as required by SOLAS regulation II-1/22-1 [21], or by using
professional commercial software, such as NAPA [22] and ANSYS-Fluent [23]. There are,
nevertheless, still passenger vessels in service which are not equipped with flooding level sensors
or not even equipped with such a detection system. Even if the detection system has been used
onboard, in the case of a firewater accumulation condition, the flood level sensors may send a false
signal because the water is widely sprayed to the vehicle deck through a water-drencher system rather
than solely flooded from a damaged hole. Furthermore, for seafarers working on board these vessels,
a commercial hydrostatic or hydrodynamic software may be not available for immediate use due to
its sophistication and specialization. Therefore, a feasible and simple direct computational approach,
which can predict the change in the floating condition of the vessel with an increase in the accumulation
of firewater, is needed.

2. Mathematic Formulation and Computational Approach

2.1. Firewater Accumulation


According to the requirements of the SOLAS convention, two methods may be used for the
discharge of water from a vehicle deck. One of them is that the water is discharged to the reservoir
tank through pipelines and then discharged outboard by a bilge pump. The other is that the water is
directly discharged outboard through deck scuppers. The latter is widely used in the design of ROPAX
vessels due to its practicability and convenience. In this paper, the latter one is chosen in order to
analyze the problem of water accumulation problem on a vehicle deck.
After the occurrence of fire on a vehicle deck, the water-drencher system that the deck is equipped
with will be started at the control center of the vessel. Burning debris and loose cargoes will be flushed
onto the vehicle deck, and probably drifted toward the openings of scuppers, causing these openings
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sufficient(assuppers
blocked shown inareFigure
blocked1). and the accesswater
Subsequently, to thewill
openings forinmanually
build up the deck ifcleaning the
sufficient debris
suppers
becomes
are blockedimpracticable
and the because
access to theofopenings
large amounts
for of heat and
manually smoke.
cleaning the debris becomes impracticable
sufficient suppers are blocked and the access to the openings for manually cleaning the debris
because of
becomes large amounts
impracticable of heatofand
because smoke.
large amounts of heat and smoke.

(a) (Source: MAIB) [9] (b) (Source: MAIB) [9]

Figure 1. A deck
(a) (Source: scupper
MAIB) [9] blocked by potatoes. (a)
(b)Blocked.
(Source:(b) Removed.
MAIB) [9]

Figure 1. A deck scupper blocked by potatoes. (a) Blocked. (b) Removed.


1. A deck scupper blocked by potatoes. (a) Blocked. (b) Removed.
As shown inFigure
Figure 2, the discharge capacity of the pipeline of a scupper mentioned above is
determined by:
As shown in Figure 2, the discharge capacity of the pipeline of a scupper mentioned above is
determined by: n
H = h f +∑
Xn a i hi (1)
H = h f + in= 0 ai hi (1)
H = h f + ai hi
2
∑i=0
flv
i =0
(1)
hf = (2)
gd2
2f lv
hhf = flv 2 r (2)
f = 2gdr (2)
2kgd v 2r
hi = k iv2 (3)
hi = k 2
i g2
i v (3)
hi = 2g (3)
where H denotes the total elevation head difference2 between g the water level on the vehicle deck and
where H denotes the total elevation head difference between the water level on the vehicle deck and
that outboard; hf, f, l, v, g and dr represent the frictional head loss, the coefficient of frictional head
where H denotes
that outboard; hf ,the
f, l,total elevation
v, g and head difference
dr represent between
the frictional headthe water
loss, the level on theof
coefficient vehicle deckhead
frictional and
loss, the length of a drain pipeline, the average velocity of flow out, the acceleration due to gravity
that
loss, outboard;
the lengthhof
f, f,a l, v, g and
drain dr represent
pipeline, the frictional
the average velocity of head
flowloss,
out,the
thecoefficient of frictional
acceleration head
due to gravity
and the diameter of the pipeline, respectively; and hi, ai, and ki indicate the local head loss of part i,
loss,
and thethediameter
length ofof a drain pipeline,
the pipeline, the averageand
respectively; velocity
hi , ai , of
andflow out, the the
ki indicate acceleration
local headduelosstoofgravity
part i,
the quantity of part i, and the head loss coefficient of part i.
and the diameter
the quantity of part ofi,the
andpipeline,
the headrespectively; andofhipart
loss coefficient , ai, and
i. ki indicate the local head loss of part i,
the quantity of part i, and the head loss coefficient of part i.

Passenger Deck A
Passenger Deck B
Passenger Deck A
Vehicle Deck C
Passenger Deck B
Vehicle Deck D
Vehicle Deck C
Water Level
Vehicle Deck D
Water Level

Vehicle Deck D

Vehicle Deck D

Figure 2. Arrangement of the scuppers on vehicle deck D.


Figure 2. Arrangement of the scuppers on vehicle deck D.

Figure 2. Arrangement of the scuppers on vehicle deck D.


In most cases, the local head loss of a discharge pipeline is composed of valve loss, elbow loss,
inlet loss and outlet loss. The total head loss can be written as:
In most cases, the local head loss of a discharge pipeline is composed of valve loss, elbow loss,
inlet loss and outlet loss. The total head loss can be written as:
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In most cases, the local head loss of a discharge pipeline is composed of valve loss, elbow loss,
inlet loss and outlet loss. The total head loss can be written as:
n
X ∑
n a h = a h +a h +a h +a h
i i 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
i =0ai hi = a1 h1 + a2 h2 + a3 h3 + a4 h4
(4)
(4)
i=0
where a1, a2, a3 and a4 are the quantities of check valves, elbows, inlets and outlets; and h1, h2, h3 and h4
are the alocal
where 1 , a2 ,head losses
a3 and ofthe
a4 are check valves, of
quantities elbows,
check inlets
valves,and outlets,
elbows, respectively.
inlets and outlets; and h1 , h2 , h3 and
The
h4 are thecoefficient
local headoflosses
frictional headvalves,
of check loss f can be obtained
elbows, through
inlets and the
outlets, Darcy–Weisbach equation:
respectively.
The coefficient of frictional head 1loss f can be obtainedε 2.through
51 the Darcy–Weisbach equation:
1 / 2 = 2 log( + 1/ 2 ) (5)
f1 3.7εd r f 2.51 Re
= 2 log( + 1/2 ) (5)
f 1/2 3.7d
ρvdrr f Re
Re = (6)
μ
ρvd r
Re = (6)
1 µ 2
Qout = πdr v (7)
1
Qout =4 πd2r v (7)
4
where ε is the roughness of the pipeline, Re is the Reynolds number, μ is the coefficient of viscosity,
where ε is the roughness of the pipeline, Re is the Reynolds number, µ is the coefficient of viscosity,
and Qout is the volumetric flow rate of the flow out of the vessel.
and Qout is the volumetric flow rate of the flow out of the vessel.
2.2.
2.2. Firewater
FirewaterAccumulation
Accumulation without
without aa Persistent
Persistent Heeling
Heeling Angle
Angle
Normally, firewater will
Normally, firewater willaccumulate
accumulateon onthe theside
sidewhere
where thethe blocking
blocking condition
condition is heavier
is heavier thanthan
the
the other side, based on the assumption that the heeling process proceeds
other side, based on the assumption that the heeling process proceeds in a quasi-static way [24,25].in a quasi-static way [24,25].
Then,
Then, the
the heeling
heeling angleangle can
can bebe considered
considered to to be
be equal
equal to
to the
the vertical
vertical angle
angle ofof the
the water
water triangular
triangular
prism accumulated on deck [26,27]. For an accurate computation, the
prism accumulated on deck [26,27]. For an accurate computation, the deformation of the whole deformation of the whole water
wedge
water wedge due to the complicated ship structure should be taken into consideration. From bow,
due to the complicated ship structure should be taken into consideration. From stern to stern
the vehicle deck is longitudinally divided into sufficient sections at an interval
to bow, the vehicle deck is longitudinally divided into sufficient sections at an interval δli , as shown δli, as shown in Figures

3inand 4. If the
Figures interval
3 and 4. Ifofthe
each step, δlof
interval i, is adequately small, the deformation of each micro-triangular-
each step, δli , is adequately small, the deformation of each
prism due to the ship structure can
micro-triangular-prism due to the ship structure then be neglected. can At
thensection i, the breadth
be neglected. of vehicle
At section i, thecargo
breadthspace
of
and the breadth of micro-triangular-prism are, respectively, B i and bi. With an increase in water
vehicle cargo space and the breadth of micro-triangular-prism are, respectively, Bi and bi . With an
accumulation,
increase in water theaccumulation,
outer margin of thethe whole
outer water
margin ofwedge,
the whole ywj, water
will move
wedge,fromywjthe starboard
, will move from sidethe
to
the port side. To maintain the same accuracy as the longitudinal step,
starboard side to the port side. To maintain the same accuracy as the longitudinal step, the movement the movement of every
transverse step, δywjstep,
of every transverse , is also
δy set, isasalso
the set
length of length
as the δli. of δl .
wj i

Water Level

Figure 3.
Figure Firewateraccumulated
3. Firewater accumulated on
on the
the starboard
starboard side.
side.
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Figure 4. Illustration
Illustration of
of the
the firewater
firewater computation.

can be
For section i, bii can be ascertained
ascertained by:

 minB ( iBi − y , B ) ((iiff bbi >>0)


(
0)
bi = min( 2− ywjw, Bj i ) i (8)
bi =  0 2 i
(i f bi ≤ 0) (8)
0 (if bi ≤ 0)

where ywj is positive on the starboard side, ranging from B/2 to −B/2. The letter B mentioned here is
where ywj is positive
the maximum breadthonofthe
thestarboard
vehicle cargo side,space.
ranging from B/2 to −B/2. The letter B mentioned here is
the maximum breadth
In the practice of the vehicle
of ROPAX cargo space.
transportation, the permeability caused by the volume occupied by
In the practice
the wheels of ROPAX
and carriages of vehicles, µp , should
transportation, the permeability
be taken intocausedaccount by [28].
the volume occupied
The weight by
of the
the wheels and carriagesatofsection
micro-triangular-prism vehicles,i, pμi ,p, and
should the be taken
total into account
weight of all the[28]. The weight
firewater of the micro-
accumulated after
triangular-prism
a period of time t,atP(t),
section
can i,
bepiexpressed
, and the total as: weight of all the firewater accumulated after a period of
time t, P(t), can be expressed as:
1
pi = 1 µp ρδlb2i2 tan θ(t) (9)
p i = 2 μ p ρδ lb i tan θ(t ) (9)
2
I
11 X
I
P(Pt()t )== ∑ μµpρδ lb i22i tan
ρδlb tanθθ( t()t) (10)
(10)
2 1 p
2
1
where
where ρρ isisthe
thewater
waterdensity,
density, I isI is
thethe quantity
quantity of the
of the totaltotal longitudinal
longitudinal sections
sections and isθ(t)
and θ(t) theisfinal
the static
final
static
heelingheeling
angle angle
causedcaused
by theby waterthe water
weight.weight.
The
The equilibrium between the heeling moment
equilibrium between the heeling moment and and thethe upright
upright moment
moment of of the
the vessel
vessel can
can bebe
established
established as:as:
P(t)(KG − Zp (t))
P(t) yp (t) = (∆ + P(t))(GMc + P (t )( KG − Z p (t )) ) tan θ(t) (11)
P (t ) y p (t ) = ( Δ + P (t ))(GM c + ∆ + P(t) ) tan θ (t ) (11)
Δ + P (t )
P(t)
Zp (t) = Zv + P(t ) (12)
Z p (t ) = Z v + ρµ p Sv (12)
ρμ p Sv
where yp (t) is the transverse center of the whole water wedge, ∆ is the displacement of the vessel,
where
GMc is ythe p(t)initial
is themetacentric
transverse center
height of the whole
corrected by freewater wedge,
surface, KGΔisisthe
thecenter
displacement
of gravityofofthe
the vessel,
vessel,
GM c is
Zp (t) is,the initial
under metacentricassumption
a dangerous height corrected
that allbythefree surface,
water KG is the center
accumulated of gravity
can flow from oneof side
the vessel,
to the
Zp(t) is,
other, the under
center a dangerous
of gravity ofassumption
the water onthat all the
vehicle deck,waterZv accumulated
is the height ofcan flow from
vehicle deck one
aboveside to the
baseline,
other,
and Svthe center
is the areaofof
gravity of thedeck,
the vehicle waterrespectively.
on vehicle deck, Zv is the height of vehicle deck above baseline,
and SThen,
v is the ypjarea
canofbethe vehicleas:
obtained deck, respectively.
Then, ypj can be obtained as: I
B b
b2i δl( 2i − 3i )
P
1I
ypj = b2δ l( Bi − bi ) (13)
∑ i P I
2 3
ypj = 1 b i
δl (13)
I
1 2
∑i b
1
δ l

Then, the governing Equation (11) can be expressed as:


 I 2 Bi bi 
 ∑bi δ l( − ) 
P (t )  1 2 3  = ( Δ + P(t ))(GM + P(t )( KG − Z P (t )) ) tan θ (t )
(14)

I

0
Δ + P (t )


∑ 1
bi
2
δ l 

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Then, the governing Equation (11) can be expressed as:


 I 
 P 2 Bi bi 
 bi δl( 2 − 3 )

1
 P(t)(KG − ZP (t))
P(t)  = (∆ + P(t))(GM0 + ) tan θ(t)

(14)
I  ∆ + P(t)
b2 δl
 P 

i

1

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2.3. Firewater Accumulation with a Persistent Heeling Angle
The2.3. Firewater Accumulation with a Persistent Heeling Angle
shift of vehicle cargoes will significantly affect the accumulation of water on the deck and the
The shift
floating condition ofofthe
vehicle cargoes
vessel, whichwillmay
significantly
happenaffect the the
during accumulation
firefighting of water
withon the deck
water. Theand
firewater
poses a the floating
danger condition
to the of the
security andvessel, whichofmay
lashings happen
vehicle duringon
cargoes thethe
firefighting with water.
vehicle deck in theThe
following
firewater poses a danger to the security and lashings of vehicle cargoes on the vehicle deck in the
ways: (1) an increase in the weight of water-absorbing cargoes in vehicles exposed to water-drencher
following ways: (1) an increase in the weight of water-absorbing cargoes in vehicles exposed to water-
system,drencher
(2) an increase inan
system, (2) the lashing
increase load
in the of the
lashing higher
load side ofside
of the higher vehicles duedue
of vehicles to to
heeling,
heeling,and
and (3) the
decrease(3)inthe
thedecrease
frictioninforce causedforce
the friction by the wetbydeck.
caused Equation
the wet (14) should
deck. Equation be corrected
(14) should as follows:
be corrected as
follows:  I 
 P 2 I Bi bi 
 bi δl
 ( 2 2 − 3Bi)  bi 
 1   bi δ l( − )  P(t)(KG − Zp (t))
∆GM tan θ + tan
Δ0GM P(tθ)+ P(t)  1 2  3= (∆ + P(t))(GMc P
= ( Δ + P(t ))(GM + +(t)(KG − Zp (t)) ) tan θ (t)) tan θ(15)
(t) (15)
0 I
 2 I   c
Δ + P∆(t+
) P(t)

b δl b δ l
 P 2
 i 

 i
1 1 

where θwhere θ0 is the persistent heeling caused by cargo shift.


0 is the persistent heeling caused by cargo shift.

2.4. A Time-Dependent Prediction of Floating Condition of Roll On/Roll Off Cargo (ROPAX) Vessels after
2.4. A Time-Dependent Prediction of Floating Condition of Roll On/Roll Off Cargo (ROPAX) Vessels after
Firewater Accumulation on the Vehicle Deck
Firewater Accumulation on the Vehicle Deck
The weight of the total firewater accumulated, P(t), is directly related to the final static heeling
Theangle,
weight
θ(t).of
Thethe totalinfirewater
change accumulated,
P(t) depends P(t), isofdirectly
on the total volume the flow related to the deck
into the vehicle finaland
static
thatheeling
angle, θ(t). The
of the out. in P(t) depends on the total volume of the flow into the vehicle deck and that of
change
flow
the flow out.
dPd(Pt)(t) → dθ((t)t)
dθ (16)
dt → dt (16)
dt dt
d P (t )
dP(t) = ρ (Q in (t ) - Q out ( t , n , H )) (17)
d=t ρ(Qin (t) − Qout (t, n, H )) (17)
dt
With an increase in water accumulation, as shown in Figure 5, the freeboard of vehicle deck D,
With an increase
F(P(t)), in water
and the height of theaccumulation,
water triangularas shown
wedge, in Figure
h(P(t)), 5, theSubsequently,
will change. freeboard of vehicle
H(P(t)) willdeck D,
F(P(t)), and as: of the water triangular wedge, h(P(t)), will change. Subsequently, H(P(t)) will be
the height
be affected
affected as:
B PP(t()t)
H (P )) =b tan
H((tP))(t= θθ(t()t )++FF00 −
b tan − B ××tan tan θθ((t t))−− (18)
(18)
22 100× ×
100 TPC TPC
where b where
is the bbreadth
is the breadth
of the of the longitudinal
longitudinal triangular
triangular prism
prism ofofwater
wateralong
along the
the length
lengthofofthe
thevehicle
vehicle deck
deck D, and to be on safe side, is ascertained by max(bi). TPC is the tonnage per centimeter of the
D, and to be on safe side, is ascertained by max(bi ). TPC is the tonnage per centimeter of the vessel.
vessel.

ywj
Qin (t)

n P(t) θ0 ypj, bi (i = 1…I)


F(P(t)) Qout (t)

H(P(t))
h(P(t)) N
θ(Eq.15)-θ’(Eq.11) < 0.01°

θ(t)

Figure
Figure 5. The 5. The chart
flow flow chart
for afor a time-dependentprediction
time-dependent prediction ofofthe floating
the condition
floating of after
condition ofthe firewater
after the firewater
accumulation on vehicle deck D.
accumulation on vehicle deck D.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 30 8 of 16

3. The Firewater Accumulation in the Accident of the M/V Dashun


In order to calculate the volumetric flow rate of the flow out of the vehicle deck, and then the
speed of firewater accumulation after the blockage of the scuppers, and finally to examine the approach,
the loading condition of the M/V Dashun at the time of the accident is selected as an example in this
section. The total water discharge speed of the vehicle deck is separately computed according to
actual heeling condition, for making a comparison. The approach is then examined by the records of
the accident.

3.1. Fire Water Accumulation


According to [5], 11 scuppers are evenly distributed on either side of the vehicle deck D. By referring
to [29], the coefficients of local loss ki of the swing check valve, elbow, inlet and outlet are listed in
Table 2.

Table 2. The particulars of the scuppers on vehicle deck D of the M/V Dashun.

Item Value
Pipe length, l 5.80 m
Pipe diameter, dr 0.125 m
Roughness, ε 0.003 m
Coefficient of viscosity, µ 0.00089 kg/(m s)
Seawater density, ρ 1025 kg/m3
Initial freeboard of vehicle deck D, F0 1.87 m
Acceleration due to gravity, g 9.81 m/s2
Number of valves, a1 2
Number of elbows, a2 1
Number of inlets, a3 1
Number of outlets, a4 1
Coefficient of valve loss, k1 2
Coefficient of elbow loss, k2 0.64
Coefficient of inlet loss, k3 0.5
Coefficient of outlet loss, k4 1.0

Then, the total elevation head difference H and Darcy–Weisbach equation can be expressed as:

H = 2.36493374 f v2 + 0.31294597 v2 (19)

1 0.00001744
= 2 log(0.00648649 + ) (20)
f 1/2 v f 1/2
Before the accumulation of firewater, the total elevation head difference H is, if there is no
a persistent heeling, determined by the initial freeboard of the vehicle deck D, F0 . According to the
actual loading condition of the M/V Dashun, as shown in Table 3, it can be revealed that the average
velocity of flow out v = 2.06927836 m/s, and the coefficient of frictional head loss f = 0.05233750 when
the firewater initially accumulated on the vehicle deck D. Then, the volumetric flow rate of the flow out
for a single scupper Qout = 91.37157275 m3 /h at the beginning. The total discharge capacity of vehicle
deck D at different H can then be computed as shown in Figure 6. In the case of the accident of the
M/V Dashun, the total volumetric flow rate of the flow into vehicle deck D, including that sprayed
from the water-drencher system and the flow from the upper vehicle deck through the vehicle passage
ramp, Qin , is calculated as 500 m3 /h at least [30]. As shown in Figure 6, if all 11 scuppers are available,
the firewater will not accumulate. However, the firewater will surely accumulate if only 5 or less
scuppers are available.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 9 of 16

Table
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 3. The
2020, 8, 30 particulars of the loading conditions of the M/V Dashun at the time of the accident.
9 of 16

Item Value
Actual displacement, Δ 6451.00 t of the accident.
Table 3. The particulars of the loading conditions of the M/V Dashun at the time
Actual draught, T 4.83 m
ItemShip length, L Value
115.00 m
Actual displacement, ∆
Molded depth, D 6451.00
11.55t m
Actual draught, T
Vehicle deck D length, Lc 4.83 m m
104.00
Ship length, L 115.00 m
Vehicle deck D breadth, B 20.00 m
Molded depth, D 11.55 m
Height of center
Vehicle deck D length, Lc of gravity, KG 8.60mm
104.00
Vehicle
Vehicle deck deck height,
D breadth, B KP 6.70
20.00 mm
Height ofInitial of gravity, KG
centermetacentric height, GM 8.60 mm
1.45
Vehicle deck height,
Tonnage KP
per centimeter, TPC 6.70
20.23mt/cm
Initial metacentric height, GM 1.45 m
permeability of the cargo space, μp 0.9
Tonnage per centimeter, TPC 20.23 t/cm
Longitudinal step
permeability of the cargo space, µp length, δli 0.9 m
0.01
Transverse
Longitudinal stepδllength,
step length, i δywj 0.01
0.01 mm
Transverse step length, δywj 0.01 m

Figure 6. Scupper
Figure discharge
6. Scupper capacity
discharge of vehicle
capacity deck
of vehicle D. D.
deck

Actually, there was a heavy cargo shift in the accident of the M/V Dashun. The fire was caused
Actually, there was a heavy cargo shift in the accident of the M/V Dashun. The fire was caused
by the collision of two shifted vehicles after a leakage of gas oil from a damaged vehicle tank.
by the collision of two shifted vehicles after a leakage of gas oil from a damaged vehicle tank. The
The investigating team suggested that the persistent heeling angle caused by the shift of vehicle cargoes
investigating team suggested that the persistent heeling angle caused by the shift of vehicle cargoes
on deck D was less than 10◦ since the average shift of vehicles was less than 2 m [3]. Later, from a more
on deck D was less than 10° since the average shift of vehicles was less than 2 m [3]. Later, from a
reasonable perspective, Jiang et al. suggested that the average shift of vehicles was approximately 1.5
more reasonable perspective, Jiang et al. suggested that the average shift of vehicles was
m and that the persistent heeling angle caused by the shift should be 7.34◦ on the port side [5]. In view
approximately 1.5 m and that the persistent heeling angle caused by the shift should be 7.34° on the
of this calculation, there would be a high probability that the water would accumulate on vehicle deck
port side [5]. In view of this calculation, there would be a high probability that the water would
after the decrease of total elevation head, because the blockage of only 2 of 11 scuppers will make
accumulate on vehicle deck after the decrease of total elevation head, because the blockage of only 2
this happen.
of 11 scuppers will make this happen.
3.2. The Accident of the M/V Dashun
3.2. The Accident of the M/V Dashun
Since the accident of the M/V Dashun occurred almost 20 years ago, only a few of the records
Since the accident of the M/V Dashun occurred almost 20 years ago, only a few of the records
were, as listed in Table 4, available for the computation of the firewater accumulation and its influence
were, as listed in Table 4, available for the computation of the firewater accumulation and its
on the floating condition of the vessel. Moreover, the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and
Securing (the CSS Code) does not apply when the heeling angle of the vessel is greater than 30◦ .
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 30 10 of 16

According to the Report of the Investigation and Analysis of the ‘11.24’ Accident [3], the vehicles
on deck D may have been overturned, and ballast operations were carried out after the vessel was
heeled to 30◦ . However, the details of the conditions of overturned vehicles and the ballast operations
were not recorded by the vessel. In view of the limitation on records, the firewater accumulation in
the accident of the M/V Dashun is not computed when the static heeling angle is greater than 30◦ in
this paper.

Table 4. A brief description of the accident of the M/V Dashun [3].

Local Time Fire Fighting Operation Floating Condition


The vessel encountered heavy
beam waves and thus suffered a
1520 7.34◦ (port side) [5]
heavy rolling. Vehicles on deck D
were shifted to port side.
Fire occurred on vehicle deck D.
The Water-drencher system on the
deck was stared manually on
1621 7.34◦ (port side) [5]
bridge. Four fire hoses were also
engaged for firefighting minutes
later.
Fire spread to vehicle deck C.
Water-drencher system on vehicle
deck C was also stared. The total
volumetric flow into vehicle deck
C and vehicle deck D was 700 m3 /h
at least. Such amount of firewater
1630 No record
was not stopped until the power of
fire pumps was accidentally cut off
at 2300. Most of the firewater was
sprayed into vehicle deck D.
Obvious firewater was found
accumulated on vehicle deck D.
1921 Firefighting operations continued. Approximately 22◦ (port side) [31]
Firefighting operations continued.
To keep the vessel upright, a
balancing operation was
undertaken by discharging a
1930 Approximately 30◦ (port side) [5]
ballast tank on the port side until
empty and adding ballast water to
all the tanks available on the
starboard side.
2220 Firefighting operations continued. Greater than 35◦ (port side)
Firefighting operations continued.
2230 Water flooded into the vessel due No record
to rolling.
Firefighting pumps were stopped
2300 No record
due to pump power failure.
The vessel capsized. The final
position was 35◦ 280 5” N, 121◦ 470 6”
2338 Capsized to port side
E, only 1.5 nm to the coast of
Yantai city of China.

As shown in Figure 7, the red line indicates the computation results of the change in the heeling
angle with the increase of accumulated firewater. The red line in Figure 8 shows the change of the
heeling angle with the passing of time. According to the results of the computation, 2 of 11 scuppers
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 30 11 of 16

are definitely blocked on the port side of the M/V Dashun, which means that the blocking condition in
vehicle deck D is not as serious as what was concluded in [5,6] and that the accumulation of firewater is
mainly caused by the influence of the persistent heeling due to cargo shift. According to computation
results, it was 1936 h local time when the vessel was heeled to 30◦ . In the records observed in the
accident, it was 1930 h local time the vessel was heeled to approximately 30◦ on the port side. The error
for this record is approximately 6 min within a total time consumption of 189 min. According to [31], a
salvage boat, “Yanjiu13”, arrived at the scene of the accident at about 1910, and tried to throw a heaving
line to M/V Dashun at about 1921 local time after communication with it. During this period, the
heeling angle of the M/V Dashun was about 21◦ to 22◦ on the port side. Therefore, the maximum
error of the computation result of the heeling angle of 22◦ , as shown in Figure 8, is 22 min within total
time consumption 180 min, and the minimum error is about 11 min. For making a correct decision
on a further operation after the firewater accumulation, this computational approach is feasible and
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 11 of 16
practicable. What should be mentioned here is that the calculation of the persist heeling
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW
angle caused
11 of 16
by cargo shift,
deck the
D, and total
thevolumetric
heeling angle flow intoinvehicle
observed deck D,
severe weather mayand
givethe heeling angle
a contribution to the observed
error of the in severe
weather may deck D, and
give
approach. the heelingthese
a However,
contribution angle observed
toerrors will in
the error severe
beof the weather
in may
approach.
minimized give a contribution
However,
a modern ROPAX these to the
errors
vessel error
willofbe
equipped theminimized
with
approach.
precision However,
instruments. these errors will be minimized in a modern ROPAX vessel equipped with
in a modern ROPAX vessel equipped with precision instruments.
precision instruments.

Figure 7. The firewater accumulation of the M/V Dashun accident.


FigureFigure
7. The7. firewater
The firewater accumulation of the M/V Dashun accident.
accumulation of the M/V Dashun accident.

Figure
Figure 8. The 8. The heeling
heeling time oftime of M/V
the the M/V Dashunaccident
Dashun accident after
afterthethe
blockage of 2 ofof
blockage 112scuppers.
of 11 scuppers.
Figure 8. The heeling time of the M/V Dashun accident after the blockage of 2 of 11 scuppers.
4. Discussion
4. Discussion
4.1. A Critical Static Heeling Angle for Firefighting Operation with Water
4.1. A Critical Static Heeling Angle for Firefighting Operation with Water
Since the persistent heeling will, as shown in Figures 9 and 10, significantly affect the discharge
Sinceofthe
capacity persistent
scuppers, heelingstatic
a critical will, as shownangle,
heeling in Figures 9 andbe
θc, should 10,determined
significantlyand
affect the discharge
identified during
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 30 12 of 16

4. Discussion

4.1. A Critical Static Heeling Angle for Firefighting Operation with Water
Since the persistent heeling will, as shown in Figures 9 and 10, significantly affect the discharge
capacity of scuppers, a critical static heeling angle, θc , should be determined and identified during
firefighting with water. When the vessel heels to the angel of θc , the elevation head difference Hc is
zero, which means that the average velocity of the flow out, v = 0 m/s, and that any further action of
firefighting with water will increase the accumulation of firewater on deck and make the circumstances
more dangerous.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 12 of 16
 2F0 vessel heels to the angel of θc, the elevation
2F
firefighting with
water.
arctanWhen ( the ) ∗ 57.3 (θ0 ≥ arctan( 0 ) head ∗ 57.3difference
) Hc is
B B

zero, which means that the average velocity of the flow out, v = 0 m/s, and that any further action of

P(θ0the

) accumulation of firewater on deck and make the

  
firefighting
θc with
 water will F increase

= −
 0 100TPC 
 (21)
circumstances more dangerous.
  2F0
 ∗ 57.3 (θ0 < arctan(

 arctan

 B ) ∗ 57.3)
F0 b(θ0 ) 
B

 22−

 
  
 2 F0
(θ 0 ≥ arctan(
 
arctan( ) * 57.3 ) * 57.3)
 B B
  P(θ 0 ) 
θc =total
where P(θ0 ) and b(θ0 ) are the  weight
 F0 − of water  accumulated on deck and the corresponding
(21) max(bi ),
arctan  100TPC  * 57.3 2 F0
respectively, when the persistent heeling θ is set as a (θ 0 < arctan(
variable and the ) * total
57.3) elevation head difference
  B − b0(θ )  B
is set as a constant (H = 0). P(θ 0 ) and b(θ2 0 ) can
0 be computed from Equations (13) and (17).

The studies
where P(θ of the critical amount of water on deck for capsizing a ROPAX vessel in a damaged case
0) and b(θ0) are the total weight of water accumulated on deck and the corresponding

was well developed through


max(bi), respectively, when the static equivalency
the persistent heeling θ method
0 is set as(SEM) byand
a variable Vassalos,
the total D., Andrew
elevation headKendrick,
difference is set as a constant (H = 0). P(θ ) and b(θ ) can be computed from
Pawłowski, M. et al. [11,32,33]. In a case of firefighting with water, as per the suggestion of Stefan
0 0 Equations (13) and (17).
The studies of the critical amount of water on deck for capsizing a ROPAX vessel in a damaged
Krueger, the limiting amount of water on deck needs to be determined at the time when the roll
case was well developed through the static equivalency method (SEM) by Vassalos, D., Andrew
period doubles and the
Kendrick, Pawłowski,vessel M.still
et al.has a significant
[11,32,33]. In a case of remaining
firefighting stability
with water,margin
as per theagainst capsizing
suggestion of [13].
ComparedStefan
withKrueger,
the flooding water
the limiting in a damaged
amount of water on deckcase,needsthe firewater is much
to be determined at themore controllable
time when the and
manageable,rollwhich
period doubles
gives the andmaster
the vessel ofstill
thehas a significant
vessel sufficient remaining
roomstability
to make margin against capsizing
the decision whether or not
to continue[13]. Compared with the flooding water in a damaged case, the firewater is much more controllable
to fight the fire with water after the heeling angle reaches the critical value identified in this
and manageable, which gives the master of the vessel sufficient room to make the decision whether
paper. In the practice
or not to continueof firefighting
to fight the with water,
fire with waterit after
is suggested
the heelingthat the
angle heeling
reaches the angle
critical after
value firewater
accumulation is, however, well monitored to avoid the shift or overlapping of vehicle
identified in this paper. In the practice of firefighting with water, it is suggested that the heeling angle cargoes. In the
after firewater accumulation is, however, well monitored to avoid the
case of the M/V Commodore Clipper, the maximum heeling angle of the vessel was controlled within shift or overlapping of vehicle
cargoes. In the case of the M/V Commodore Clipper, the maximum heeling angle of the vessel was
5◦ by stopping and starting the water-drencher system alternately until the vessel arrived in the port of
controlled within 5° by stopping and starting the water-drencher system alternately until the vessel
destinationarrived
[9]. in the port of destination [9].

FigureFigure 9. Heeling
9. Heeling angleand
angle and heeling
heeling time θ0 =θ0°.= 0◦ .
time 0
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 13 of 16

J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 30 13 of 16


J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 13 of 16

Figure 10. Heeling


Figure
Figure 10. angle
10. Heeling and
angleand heeling
and heeling
heeling time θ0 =θ
time
time θ10°.= 10°.
00 = 10◦ .

According to the loading condition of the M/V Dashun, 220 t of accumulated firewater would
According to the loading condition of the M/V Dashun, 220 t of accumulated firewater would
have made the heeling angle of the vessel reach the critical value, θc = 16.98°, after◦ the cargo shift had
the heeling
have madecaused angle
a persistent of the
heeling vessel
vessel
angle reach
reach
θ0 = 7.34° on the critical
theport
the critical value,
value,
side (as shown θθcin
c= 16.9811).
=Figure
16.98°, , after
after the
the cargo
cargo shift had
caused a persistent heeling angle θ θ00 ==7.34°
7.34◦on onthe
theport
portside
side(as
(asshown
shownin inFigure
Figure 11).
11).

Figure 11. Critical heeling angle, θc, and the corresponding firewater weight, P.

4.2. The Guidelines of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the Problems at Present
Fires aboard ROPAX ships are gaining increasing interest and prompting the development of
new rules and regulations as well as new methods to reduce the risk of fires on board such vessels,
which is of great importance [34]. From 27 May to 5 June 2009, the International Maritime
Figure 11.
Organization Critical
(IMO) heeling
approved guidelines θcc,,the
angle, for
θ and
and the
the corresponding
of fire-fightingfirewater
corresponding
drainage firewater weight,
water from closed P.
vehicles
and Ro-Ro spaces and special category spaces of passenger and cargo ships (the Guidelines) at the
4.2. The
4.2. The Guidelines
Guidelines of
of the
the International
International Maritime
Maritime Organization
Organization (IMO)
(IMO) and
and the
the Problems
Problems at
at Present
Present
Fires aboard
Fires aboardROPAX
ROPAXshipsshipsare
aregaining
gainingincreasing interest
increasing andand
interest prompting
promptingthe development of new
the development of
rules and regulations as well as new methods to reduce the risk of fires on board such vessels,
new rules and regulations as well as new methods to reduce the risk of fires on board such vessels, which is
of greatisimportance
which [34]. From 27[34].
of great importance MayFrom
to 5 June
27 2009,
May the
to International
5 June 2009,Maritime Organization
the International (IMO)
Maritime
approved guidelines for the drainage of fire-fighting water from closed vehicles and Ro-Ro
Organization (IMO) approved guidelines for the drainage of fire-fighting water from closed vehicles spaces and
special
and category
Ro-Ro spacesspaces of passenger
and special categoryand cargoofships
spaces (the Guidelines)
passenger and cargo at the (the
ships 86thGuidelines)
MSC session at[35].
the
When fixed water-based fire-extinguishing systems are provided for the protection of closed vehicle and
Ro-Ro spaces and special category spaces, adequate drainage facilities, as required by the guidelines and
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 14 of 16

86th
J. Mar. MSC session
Sci. Eng. [35].
2020, 8, 30 When fixed water-based fire-extinguishing systems are provided for 14 ofthe
16
protection of closed vehicle and Ro-Ro spaces and special category spaces, adequate drainage
facilities, as required by the guidelines and SOLAS regulation II-2/20.6.1.4, should be provided to
SOLAS
preventregulation II-2/20.6.1.4,
the accumulation should bequantities
of significant provided of to prevent
water onthe accumulation
decks of significant
and the build-up of freequantities
surfaces.
of water on decks and the build-up of free surfaces. In addition, SOLAS
In addition, SOLAS regulation II-2/20.6.1.5 requires effective measures to be taken to ensureregulation II-2/20.6.1.5 requires
that
effective measures to be taken to ensure that floating debris does not cause
floating debris does not cause a blockage of the drains. The drainage system on each side of the decka blockage of the drains.
The
shoulddrainage
have an system on each
aggregate side ofof
capacity thenotdeck
lessshould
than 125%haveofanthe
aggregate
maximum capacity of not
flow rate ofless
the than
fixed125%
fire-
of the maximum flow rate of the fixed fire-extinguishing system water
extinguishing system water pumps plus the flow from two fire hoses (four if required by SOLASpumps plus the flow from two
fire hoses (four
regulation if required by SOLAS regulation II-2/19.3.1.2).
II-2/19.3.1.2).
Since its implementation,
Since its implementation, the the Guidelines
Guidelines have have played
played aa good
good role
role in
in preventing
preventing firewater
firewater
accumulation
accumulation on Ro-Ro decks. But the risk of firewater accumulation still exist, especially when the
on Ro-Ro decks. But the risk of firewater accumulation still exist, especially when the
vessel
vessel isis in
in port.
port. It
It should
should be be noted
noted that
that the
the fire
fire extinguishing
extinguishing system
system (usually
(usually low-pressure
low-pressure CO CO22)) is
is
ineffective
ineffective when
when the the ship
ship isis in
in port,
port, asas external
external andand internal
internal ramps
ramps areare open
open and
and can
can in
in many
many cases
cases
not
not be
be closed
closed quickly
quickly in in the
the case
case ofof aa fire
fire [36]. To avoid
[36]. To avoid aa major fire accident,
major fire accident, many
many ports
ports throughout
throughout
the world have been equipped with fireboats with a large spraying capacity.
the world have been equipped with fireboats with a large spraying capacity. For example, the For example, the M/V
M/V
Daxiao 01, one of the firefighting boats with the maximum water spraying
Daxiao 01, one of the firefighting boats with the maximum water spraying capacity in China at capacity in China at present,
has beenhas
present, equipped with a main
been equipped with water
a mainfirefighting gun with spraying
water firefighting gun with capacity
spraying 3600 m3 /h. If3600
capacity firefighting
m3/h. If
boats with such a large water spraying capacity are fully engaged in the firefighting
firefighting boats with such a large water spraying capacity are fully engaged in the firefighting of ROPAX vessels,
of
the situation may become deteriorated even though the drainage system
ROPAX vessels, the situation may become deteriorated even though the drainage system has been has been designed as per the
requirements
designed as per of the
SOLAS regulations
requirements of(Figure
SOLAS12). regulations (Figure 12).

Figure
Figure 12.
12. Two
Two fire
fire boats
boats engaged
engaged in
in the
the firefighting of the
firefighting of the M/V
M/V Liaohai.
Liaohai.

5. Conclusions
The accumulation of firewater on vehicle deck is a vicious vicious cycle
cycle for
for the
the safety
safety of
ofROPAX
ROPAX vessels.
vessels.
When there is a severe blockage of vehicle deck scuppers or a large persistent heeling angle angle or both,
both,
accumulation of firewater will occur, the total elevation
elevation head and the subsequent
subsequent water discharge
speed will decrease, and finally, the water accumulation speed will be faster. Therefore, Therefore, for seafarers,
seafarers,
some common facts can be understood from another another perspective. Foreign firefighting assistance by
a port
port fireboat
fireboat may
may save
save aa ship
ship that
that is
is on
on fire,
fire, and
and also
also may
may make
make ititcapsize.
capsize. A persistent
persistent heeling
caused by cargo shift will affect
affect not
not only
only the
the ship’s
ship’s stability
stability but
but also
also the
the firewater
firewaterdischarge.
discharge.
A computational approach for time-dependent prediction of
time-dependent prediction of the floating condition
condition of ROPAX
vessels after firewater
firewater accumulation
accumulation on on vehicle
vehicle deck
deck is presented.
presented. The approach will provide valuable
information
information for decision-making.
decision-making. In addition, for avoiding the firewater accumulation, a critical static
heeling angle is identified and computed. The The approach
approach can
can be
be utilized
utilized for other different sizes of
ROPAX vessels if the vehicle deck of the vessels is equipped with the same water discharge discharge system.
system.
The master of the vessel should be well aware of the negative consequence of the action of firefighting firefighting
with water when persistent heeling has been greater than the critical static heeling angle mentioned in
this paper.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 30 15 of 16

The stability of the vessel will be dramatically decreased by the free surface of the
water accumulated on the vehicle deck. Unfavorable weather conditions will, if encountered,
further deteriorate the heeling of the ROPAX vessel. Due to the complicated matter of dynamic
interactions, the floodwater motions, namely sloshing, may be important for wide rooms [37,38].
The studies concerning the floodwater effects on ship motions have been conducted [39,40] for years
in a damage condition, while those concerning the firewater effects on ship motions are relatively rare
and still required.

Author Contributions: Conceptualization, Methodology, Software, Formal Analysis, Validation, Investigation,


Data Curation, Writing—Original Draft Preparation, Writing—Review and Editing: H.W.; Supervision,
Writing—Review & Editing, Validation, Investigation: Z.W. All authors have read and agreed to the published
version of the manuscript.
Funding: This research was funded by Liaoning Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China,
grant number 2015020626.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References
1. Endrina, N.; Rasero, J.C.; Konovessis, D. Risk analysis for RoPax vessels: A case of study for the Strait of
Gibraltar. Ocean Eng. 2018, 151, 141–151. [CrossRef]
2. Wilson, P.A. Basic Naval Architecture Ship Stability, 1st ed.; Springer International Publishing AG:
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