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HVAC

Fundamentals

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Objectives
To gain familiarity with:

• Basic industry terms

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• Basics of BMS and HVAC
Why have Controls and BMS ?
Comfort Safety Economy

• Too hot/cold • of People • Save money

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• Too dry/humid • of equipment • Use just the right amount of
energy (electric power, gas
• Too polluted
etc.)
• “Sick Occupancy”
• Increase equipment life by
• Health and Safety using it efficiently
• Protect equipment and
• 21 Deg C/ 50% RH
products (avoids wastage -
•24 Deg C/ 50% RH paintings in a gallery,
drug/chemical stores)
• Enough Fresh Air
• People’s productivity
• Clean Air
Why have Controls and BMS ?
Comfort
People lose heat (feel cold) - amount they lose depends on temperature
around them - cooler it is, more heat they will lose through their skin

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OR they “generate” heat (feel warm/hot - WORK TOO HARD!) - need to
cool them down by reducing air temperature around them
People feel “muggy” - the air around them has too much moisture
People feel “dry” - not enough moisture in the air around them
Buildings (where people live and work) also lose or gain heat (through walls,
Windows, floors, roofs, heat generating equipment e.g. VDUs, and
computer equipment)

• Need to ADD/REMOVE heat and/or moisture


• Need to clean (filter air) and supply adequate fresh air
Why have Controls and BMS ?
Safety

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Can’t have coolers or heaters (boilers) running “wild” - they might
freeze up or blow up!
If too hot or cold for long period of time - affects their health
Sometimes you have special needs for process (making capsules,
fiber, etc)
Hospitals may have special needs for patients / medicines / labs

• Need to provide protection against equipment running “wild” / out of control


• Need to make sure people are safe at all times
Why have Controls and BMS ?
Economy
Electric power or fuel (gas, coal, oil) is expensive and limited (?)- need to use

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efficiently
Environmental issues (Clean atmosphere for the occupants)
Need to ensure maximum return on investment - prolong equipment life and get
the best out of it
Increase productivity of people increased profits for offices, hotels, etc.
Ensure that products you are making/ supplying (e.g. supermarket) do not
deteriorate because of bad “environment”

• Use energy efficiently - use plant efficiently - make people comfortable


(they will produce more???)
You already know Controls.....

• How do you heat / cool your


home?

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• How does the heating /
cooling know when to turn
on?
• How does the Hot / Chilled
water turn on and off ?
In your home
• What does the thermostat
do?

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• What does the A/C do?
• What does a radiator do?
• .. and the time switch?
Air-conditioning in large buildings
Basic issues are same - Comfort, Safety, Economy, BUT

• Larger areas to be heated or cooled therefore bigger

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equipment
(e.g. Chillers, pumps, valves)
• Different types heating/cooling equipment are used.
• Operational needs are different e.g.
• different areas of the buildings occupied at different times
• different areas have differing heating/ cooling requirements
• Central monitoring point for Building Energy Management
System
Wet & Dry Systems?

• People working in the industry refer to Wet and Dry


Systems in a building
Dry Systems:

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Wet Systems:
• Any systems to do with water e.g. • Any systems to do with Air e.g.
– Chillers (cool Water) – Fans (makes air flow in ducts)
– Boilers (heat water) – Filters (clean air)
– Pumps (makes water flow in – Dampers (regulates amount of
pipes) Air flow through the ducts)
– Valves (regulates amount of – Air handling units (cools,
water flow through heating or heats, filters air - ALL IN
cooling “radiators” or coils ONE)

Need to CONTROL and/or MONITOR both Systems


Managing large building?

• Control and Monitor


• Room (Air) temperature, humidity, ventilation
• Chillers (chilled/cold water services)

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• Boilers (Hot water services)
• Pumps
• Fans
• Lights
• Flow
• What types of buildings and facilities do you think can use
controls and BMS?
– Any building
Introduce HVAC?

H
Heating
eating V
Ventilating
entilating A
Airir C
Conditioning
onditioning

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Increase or ALL IN ONE - HANDLES ALL
Supply right
Decrease the
amount of Cool Air
water or Air
Clean fresh air
Temperature Heat Air
Heat Air
Clean Air Air
Boilers Fans Add Moisture Handling
Radiators Air Ducts(?) Unit
Remove Moisture
Pumps Dampers(?) (AHU)
Move air
Recover wasted Heat
HVAC System in a Building

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Basic of Refrigeration
How it Works

Refrigeration

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is
COOL
THERE

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IS NO COOL
ONLY HEAT
AS LONG AS THERE’S ATOMIC MOTION
Cold can’t
be given to an object.

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Heat must be removed.
A Refrigeration System is a
Heat Moving Machine

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Condenser

Evaporator
Typical Refrigeration System

TX Valve
Legend

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High Pressure Vapor
High Pressure Liquid
Evaporator Low Pressure Liquid
Low Pressure Vapor

Condenser

Liquid Refrigerant
Receiver

Compressor
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Air Handling Unit
Air Handling Unit

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Room Units

Fan Coil Unit (FCU)

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Variable Air Volume (VAV) box
Packaged Units

Complete Room A/C Units

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Split Air Conditioning Units
HVAC Air Systems
• HVAC air systems are made up of:
• AHU - Air handling units
• Dampers
• Coils and Valves

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• Fans
• Distribution ducts and terminal boxes
• Pumps and Plumbing
• Control devices and control loops
• Unitary equipment: fan coils, perimeter
radiation, unit ventilators, unit heaters,
etc.
AHU - Components & Terminology

EA RA Return From
Space

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OA

Filter
DA
Cooling Coil
Heating
AHU components

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What are Functions of AHU ?
• Function:
• Condition the air
• Heat the air
• Cool the air

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• Dehumidify the air
• Humidify the air
• Clean the air
• Distribute the conditioned air into the
building space.
• Commercial air handling units can be
compared to home furnaces.
Air Handler Components
The damper section :
• Manually Operated for
Outside Air/Exhaust Air
• Motorized Modulating
• Motorized On/Off
• Fire Dampers – Motorized /
Fuse Link Operated
Air Handler Components
The fan section with
access door open.
Air Handler Components
Filters :
Types of Air Filters
 Pre Filters
 Fine Filters
 HEPA Filters
 ULPA Filters (Ultra Low
Penetration Air)
Air Handler Components
PRE-Filters

• 70-80-% Efficiency .

• Can filter particles

of size upto 5-10


microns.

• Reusable & Washable


Air Handler Components
Fine Filters

•90-95 % Efficiency .

• Can filter particles of


size upto 1 to 2 microns.

• Not Reusable
Air Handler Components
High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters (HEPA)

• 99.97-% to 99.99995 %
Efficiency .

• Can filter particles of


size upto 0.1 to 0.3
microns.

• Used in Clean Room


Applications.

•Not Reusable
Air Handler Components
The filter section.
Notice the cross stacking
of the filters to increase
surface area.
Air Handler Components
Temperature Sensor:
• Temperature sensors are used for
LF20 : AIR DUCT TEMP. SENSOR (NTC 20k)
measurement of temperature of a
Room, Air Duct, Hot /Cold Water,
Outside Air etc.
• Models are available with PT1000,
NTC20K, BALCO500 sensing
elements.
T7412 : ROOM TEMP. SENSOR (PT1000/NTC 20k)

T7413A : IMMERSION TEMP. SENSOR (PT1000)


Air Handler Components
Relative Humidity Sensor:
• Relative Humidity sensors are used
for measurement of Relative
humidity of a Room, Air Duct,
Outside Air etc.
• Sensor Type : Capacitance
• Combined Relative Humidity and
Temperature Sensors are available H7015 : DUCT RELATIVE HUMIDITY SENSOR

with PT1000, NTC20K, BALCO500


sensing elements.

H7012 : ROOM RELATIVE HUMIDITY SENSOR


Air Handler Components
Differential Pressure
Switch:
• Differential Pressure switches are
used for monitoring of Filter, Fan,
Pump, Fire Damper, Water Flow,
Air Flow Status of air handling
systems.
DPS1000 : AIR DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE SWITCH

TDIAP SERIS : AIR FLOW SWITCH


Air Handler Components
Differential Pressure
Sensors/Transmitter:
• Used for measuring diff. Pressure,
positive pressure and vacuum.

DPT1000 : AIR DIFF. PRESSURE TRANSMITTER

ST 3000 Pressure Transmitter


Air Handler Components
Coils :
Cooling Coils
Heating Coils

Coil Construction

• Copper with Aluminium fins,

• 13 Fins /inch

• Number of Rows, I.e 4/6/8


depending on the latent heat
load & Bypass Factor.
Air Handler Components
The coil section of a AHU.

Note:
There may be a wide
variety of actual configurations
Air Handler Components
Valves & Actuators

Valve Types
 2 Way or 3 Way
Actuator Types
 Motorised
 Magnetic
 Pneumatic
Operation
 On - Off,Floating,
Modulating
Air Handler Components
Energy Recovery :
A energy-recovery system is
often used in buildings where a
significant quantity of outdoor
air is used. Several types of
heat-recovery systems are
available Runaround systems

 Heat pumps
 Runaround systems
 Rotary heat exchangers
 Heat pipes.

Heat Wheel
AHU Coil Control
The air handler cooling
component is accomplished
via chilled water coils or
via a refrigerant evaporator

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coil absorbing heat in the
air stream.
Practical Example
Mixed Air AHU :

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Practical Example
100% Outside Air AHU :

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Plant

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Chiller Plant
Chiller Plant
Chiller Plant systems are made up of:
– Chiller/Condenser Unit
– Chilled Water Pumps
– Condenser Water Pumps

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– Cooling Towers
– Makeup Water Tank
– A/C Expansion Water Tank

TRANE Chiller
Typical Commercial Chillers

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What can we control on this system?
Chiller Plant
Chiller Plant Concept :

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Typical Cooling Tower

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Typical Chiller Plant

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Boiler Plant
Boiler Plant systems are made up of:
– Boiler Units
– Primary Pumps
– Secondary Pumps

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Typical Firetube Boiler
Typical Commercial Boiler System

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What can we control on this system?
Boiler Plant

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Questions ??