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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

FIRE PREVENTION & FIRE FIGHTING

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

COURSE CONTENTS
MODULE:

1. INTRODUCTION, SAFETY AND PRINCIPLES

2. THEORY OF FIRE.

- Conditions for Fires


- Properties of Flammable Material.
- Fire Hazard and Fires and Appropriate Extinguishing Agents.

3. FIRE PREVENTION
- Fire Prevention Principles.
- Ship constructions arrangements.
- Safe practices.

4. FIRE DETECTION
- Fire and Smoke Detection Systems.
- Automatic Fire Alarm.

5. FIXED FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS


- General.
- Smothering effect system - Co2 and Foam.
- Inhibiting effect - Dry chemical powders.
- Cooling effect systems. Sprinklers, Pressure Spray.
- Fire Hydrants, International shore connections
- Emergency Fire pumps.
- Dry Chemical powder applicants.

6. MISCELLANEOUS FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTS


- Fire hoses and nozzles
- Portable Fire Extinguishers
- Mobile Fire Extinguishers
- Fire Man’s Outfit
- Breathing Apparatus
- Resuscitation Apparatus
- Fire Blankets

7. SHIPS FIRE FIGHTING ORGANISATION


- General Emergency Alarm.
- Fire Control Plans and Muster List.
- Communication System.
- Personal Safety Procedures.

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- Periodic Ship Board Drills


- Patrol Systems.

8. FIRE FIGHTING METHODS


- Knowledge of Fire Safety Arrangements.
- Fire Alarm and First Actions.
- Fire Fighting.

9- FIRE FIGHTING DRILLS


- Small Fires.
- Extensive Fires.
- Drills in Smoke Filled Spaces.
- Review and Final Assessment.

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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION, SAFETY AND PRINCIPLES

1 .1 The main aims of annex 2 of Resolution A.437 (XI) are:


- Instruction to officers and key personnel about organizational methods and the best use of
staff for combating Fires.
- Training them in the maintenance and inspection of Fire extinguishing Equipments.
- Safe methods for Fire Fighting

1.2 The principles of Survival in relation to Fire are:


- Knowledge of Fire Theory and Fire Precautions.
- Regular Training and Drills.
- Preparedness for any Fire Emergency.
- Knowledge of Dangers of Smoke and Toxic Fumes.
- Regular Inspection and Maintenance of:
• Fire Detection Equipments.
• Fixed Fire Extinguishing Equipments.
• Portable/Mobile Fire Extinguishers.
• Fireman’s Outfit (Including Breathing Apparatus).
• Emergency Escape Breathing Device (E.E.B.D)

OBJECTIVES
On completion of this course the Trainee will be able to: -
- Minimize the risk of Fire onboard.
- Action to be taken in case of Fires.
- Maintain & state of readiness onboard to respond to emergency situations involving Fires.
- Fight and Extinguish the Fire.
- Use all Fire Fighting Equipments correctly.
- Knowledge of Routes and Exits and Emergency escapes.
- Knowledge of Emergency Alarms.

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INTRODUCTION “FIRE”_____ “FIRE”_________ “FIRE”

- SHOUT
- RAISE THE ALARM
- MUSTER THE CREW
- STOP SPREAD OF FIRE
- CONTROL & CONTAINEMENT
- FIGHT THE FIRE

It seems very simple but the frequency of serious Fires and the incidence of ship losses by Fire
is higher than any other cause.

The problems of Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting on board ships need more systematic and
organized approach to Fire Fighting techniques including the correct use of equipments and
more effective Fire Fighting drills.

There is a general need to enhance and upgrade the standards of training, to improve
management skills in organization of Fire Fighting and to enhance the understanding of Fire
prevention measures onboard.

Investigations in the causes of accidents have revealed that the great majority of accidents
results from Human weakness, even those which are attributed to technical failure usually reveal
some Lapse in the man supervision of the machine. Perhaps by inadequate design, maintenance
or operation. Major causes of accidents have been categorized as: -

Human Error 88% (Ignorance & Negligence)


Material/Machinery Fai1ure 10% (Human Factor to certain extent)
Act of God/Nature 2% (Weather, Lightening, Earthquakes etc)

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Principles Of Survival In Fire


- Knowledge Of Fire Theory
- Regular Training
- Preparedness For Fire Emergency
- Knowledge Of Escape Routes
- Knowledge Of Dangers
- Regular Inspection And Maintenance
- Fire Alarm And Fire Detectors
- Fixed Extinguishing Equipments
- Portable / Mobile Extinguishing
- Breathing Apparatus
- Breathing Apparatus Sets
- Fireman’s Outfits

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

Chapter 2
THEORY OF FIRE

Conditions required for a Fire to occur are: -

- The presence of material, which act as a fuel.

- A source of Ignition, e.g. chemical, biological or physical.

- The presence of oxygen, in air or from oxidizing agents.

These three conditions can be represented as a triangle.

When three elements are together as per required ratio they produce .MCR.

2.1.2 FIRE SQUARE/ TETRAHEDRON

2.1.3 FIRE SQUARE IS HAVING FOUR SIDES/ELEMENTS.

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MOLECULAR CHAIN REACTION

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MCR (MOLECULAR CHAIN REACTION): -


1. It is a continuous process of burning substances
2. It is continuous process of burning vapors.
3. Exothermic chemical reaction generates heat.

FIRE:
Fire is a chemical reaction of burning substances with oxygen with emission of heat, light, and
flame. (It produces heat and light).
Full Form of Word “Fire”
F - Find/Feel
I - Inform/Investigate
R - Restrict/Rescue
E - Extinguishments/Evaluate

1. Find:
- Type of Fire
- Place of Fire
- How long
- Any Casualty/Trapped

2. Inform Control Station


- By Shouting “FIRE FIRE FIRE”
- By Fire Alarm
- By Telephone, Walkie/Talkie, Radioset
- By Messenger

3. Restrict
- By removing Oxygen — Smothering
- By removing Heat — Cooling
- By removing Fuel –Starving
- By cutting MCR - 1nhibiting (B.C.R)

4. Extinguishment
Use proper Extinguishing Media, (Must know reactivity of extinguishing media on burning
substances)

FIRE is divided in two groups

(A) Group (B) Group

- Wanted fire - Unwanted Fire


- Controlled Fire - Uncontrolled Fire
- Friend - Enemy

Always keep “A” Group Fire aboard this Fire can be ignited with switches on completion of
work Fire can be extinguish with switches. It is called wanted fire. This fire provides various

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

services to man such as Fire for cooking, for Power, Energy, and Locomotive. (For travel to
Moon and Back to Earth etc.).

UNWANTED FIRE:

This Fire must be prevented aboard as name is given unwanted, uncontrolled which burn down
dwelling of man, his work places, forest wealth and cause of death.

SOURCES OF HEAT/IGNITION

A source of ignition is required for combustion to occur Fire Prevention and extinguishments
depend on the control of heat or heat energy source. Heat energy can be produced: -
- Chemical Heat Energy: - Exothermic Reaction, Decomposition,
Combustion and Spontaneous Combustion.
- Mechanical Heat Energy: - Friction.
- Electrical Heat Energy: - Sparks, Heat Conductors.
- Nuclear Heat Energy: - Molecules, atoms and Ions.

Fire can be extinguished by removing of anyone of the elements. By removing heat (Cooling),
By removing Fuel (Starving), By removing Oxygen (Smothering), and By removing or Stopping
M.C.R (Inhibiting/Breaking Chain Reaction).

Heat/Temperature can be transferred by Radiation, Convection and Conduction. Fire can be


spread to other combustible materials in the vicinity or compartments, which receive heat.

Radiation is responsible for the spread of fire to lesser but significant degree due to its high
temperature leading to evolution of vapour from the other material in the vicinity thus increasing
the flame.

Convention Currents carry the Heat to Spaces far away from the flame, while Heat, in the course
of time, gets conducted within and through the material and raises its temperature.

Conduction transfer of Heat within substances from high temperature, by direct contact between
the particles of solid. By means of elastic waves, Heat energy is passed from one molecule to the
next.

When a fire occurs in an enclosed space the hot gases rise to the ceiling, where they spread out
to from a hot layer (Incipient Phase of Fire). As the fire proceeds, this layer increases in depth
and temperature keeps on increasing (Free Burning Speed). When all of the available oxygen
has been consumed the fire dies down to a smoldering mass with the atmosphere above
consisting of combustion gases and unburned vapours at or above their ignition temperature. If
fresh air finds its way to the compartment through any opening, the unburned vapour bursts into
flame with almost explosive force. This phenomenon is termed as flash over and it gives new
life to the dormant fire leading to a much greater catastrophe.

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CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES

Fire classifications are generally A, B, C, and D. Their are currently two standards, defining
classes of fire according to the nature of the material undergoing combustion, as follows

International Organization for National Fire Protection Association


Standardization (ISO Standard 3941) (NFPA-10)

Class ‘A ‘- Fire involving solid Class ‘A‘- Fires in ordinary combustible


materials, usually of an organic nature, in materials such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber,
which combustion normally takes place and many plastics.
with the formation of glowing embers.

Class ‘B’- Fire involving liquids or Class ‘B‘- Fires in Flammable liquids. Oils,
liquefiable solids. greases, tars, oil based paints, lacquers and
flammable gases.

Class ‘C’- Fire involving Gases. Class ‘C’- Fires, which involve energized
electrical equipment where the electrical non-
conductivity of the extinguishing medium is
of importance. (When electrical equipments
are de-energized, extinguishers for class A or
B fires may be used safely.)

Class ‘D’-Fire Involving Metals Class ‘D’ –Fire in Combustible Metals such
as magnesium, Titanium, Zirconium, Sodium,
Lithium and Potassium

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CLASSIFICATION:

Extinguishers are classified according to the type of extinguishing medium they contain. At
present the types of extinguishers and the uses of which they are recommended are as follows: -

Extinguishing medium Recommended for use on Fires involving

Water Wood, Paper, Textiles and similar materials

Foam Wood, Paper, Textiles and Flammable


Liquids.
Dry Powder/Dry Chemical Flammable Liquids, Electrical Equipments and
Flammable Gases.
Dry Powder/Dry Chemical Wood, Paper, Textiles, Flammable Liquids,
(Multiple or General purpose) Electrical Equipments and Flammable
Gases.
Ternary Eutectic Chloride Combustible Metals
(TEC) Metal
Carbon Dioxide - Flammable Liquids Electrical Equipments and
Flammable Gases.

FIRE FIGHTING AGENTS

Substances, which are used for extinguished fires, are termed as Fire Extinguishing Agents.
Substances, which is used for extinguishing fires on board and their effects/ process.

Substances Effects / process

- Water Cooling

- Foam Smothering / Cooling

- Carbon Dioxide Smothering

- Dry Chemical Powder Inhibiting (BCR)/ Smothering

- Sand Smothering

- Steam Smothering

- Fire Blanket Smothering

- Inert Gas Prevention of Fire

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Factors to be considered in selecting an extinguishing medium for application in any situation


are listed below.

- Reactivity with the burning substances.


- Efficiency in a particular situation (Enclosed Space/Open Space).
- Electrical conductivity.
- Possibilities of Evolution of Toxic Vapours, effects on life.
Supporting Environment.
- Possibilities of undesirable physical phenomenon (Boil Over).
- Availabilities of Appropriate Appliances.
- Effects on the Stability of the vessel.
- Possibilities of damage to Cargo, equipments or other items.

WATER

Water is a coolant having a large capacity for absorbing heat far in excess of any other
commonly used medium. As it extracts heat from the burning substance it turns into steam,
which gives smothering effect. It may be applied in a solid jet on class ‘A’ fires involving solid
materials such as Wood, Paper and Fabrics achieving deep penetration to the seat of fire. A fine
spray can be used in extracting heat from the flames from the burning liquids without seriously
disturbing the surface of the liquid. Water spray curtains are used to protect the front of the
superstructures facing the cargo tanks from deck spillage fires. Water spray curtains generated at
nozzles of hand held hoses are also effective for protection of the fire fighters. Water is also
having some advantages and some disadvantages: -

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

- Cooling Effect - If conducts Electricity

- Available. - It can cause considerable damage to the


Cargo/Machinery and Electrical
- Smothering Action of Water after Equipments.
changing in Steam.
- It can cause loss of stability when used
in large quantities.

- Cheap - It can cause Corrosion

- It can cause Boil Over.

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PROPERTIES OF FLAMMABLE MATERIAL

FLAMMABILITY: -

The ability of a substance to burn vapours given off by a flammable material can burn when
mixed with air in the right proportion in the presence of an ignition source.

BURNING SPEED: -
Low Speed— Combustion Process (Burn Slow)
Sub Sonic Speed — Deflagration (Flame)
Super Sonic Speed — Detonation (Explosion)
Speed of Sound — 332mtrs/Sec

FLASH POINT: -
The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient vapours to foam a flammable
mixture near surface of the liquid. (Fuel having flashpoint above 60°C are generally used on
board ships).

IGNITION POINT: -
The lowest temperature to which a flammable substance must be heated for it to ignite.

AUTO IGNITION: -
Ignition of flammable materials without the help of external heat. When the material has been
raised to a temperature at, which self sustained combustion occurs.

FLAMMABLE LIMITS: -

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (L.F.L)

Minimum concentration (% by volume) of a flammable gas in air to support and propagate


combustion.

UPPER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (U.F.L.)


Maximum concentration (% by volume) of a flammable gas in air beyond which combustion
cannot be supported and propagated.

FLAMMABLE RANGE: -
The range of flammable concentration (% by volume) in air between the lower and upper
flammable limits.

BOIL OVER: -
A phenomenon produced when water falls on oil that is at temperature close to or higher than
the boiling temperature of water (100°C). Water gets converted into steam and rises with
particles of oil in the form of a cloud, which gets ignited instantaneously in an extremely
dangerous manner; such an occurrence can spread the fire and cause injuries to persons nearby.

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BLEVE (BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOUR EXPLOSION): -


A phenomenon of bursting of container is having liquid under pressure, when the container gets
heated. Due to temperature liquid inside the container gets changed in steam giving rise to more
pressure which may lead to explosion, if the contents are flammable the condition gets worst.

PHASES OF FIRE DEVELOPMENT: -


1. IGNITION (INCIPENT)
If fire occurs in an enclosed compartment, hot gases rise to the ceiling. Then they spread out to
form a hot layer.
2. DEVELOPING (SURFACE FIRES)
Material such as wood, paper are poor conductor of heat, only the surface of the fuel is hot.
Then surface fire is blown out.
3. ABSULATE FIRE (FIRE IN DEPTH IN SOLIDS) When the heat penetrates-the fuel, it
becomes deep-seated fire.
4. BURNING OUT When solid materials are decomposed or smolder due to lack of oxygen
called burning out.

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CHAPTER 2 B

PORTABLE AND NON-PORTABLE FIRE APPLIANCES

A. EXTRACTS FROM ASSOCIATED RULES


A1 Fire Pumps, Fire Mains, Water Service Pipes, Hydrants, Hoses And Nozzles
A 1.1 Fire Pumps:

 Ships shall be provided with fire pumps operated by power, number of which shall
depend upon the type and size of the ship

 Each capable of delivering at least one jet of water simultaneously from each of any
two fire hydrants, hoses and nozzles at specified pressures.

 Discharge capacity is dependent on the size of the ship but should not be less than
3
25m /hr.

 Any fire pump shall, when discharging the specified quantity of water through adjacent
fire hydrants in any part of the ship from specified size nozzles, be capable of maintaining the
specified pressure at any hydrant.

 Relief valves to be provided if pumps are capable of developing pressure exceeding


design pressure of fire main and other fittings.

A 1.2 Emergency Fire Pump:

 Fixed, self-priming and independently driven and with a separate section line needs to
be provided if fire in one compartment could put all the fire pumps out of action.

 Pump capacity shall not be less than 40% of total capacity of all the fire pumps and in
any case not less than 25 m3/hr. (i. e. similar to that of fire pump) while maintaining a
minimum pressure of 2.5 bar.

 Total suction head shall not exceed 4.5 m under all likely service conditions.

 Any diesel driven power source for the pump shall be capable of starting with hand
cranking at O˚ C. Service fuel tank capacity for at least 3 hours on hull load and reserve fuel
for additional 15 hours. Hand cranking, or approved type of alternative means for starting at
least 6 times in 30 minutes, and at least twice in the first 10 minutes.

A 1.3 Fire Hoses:

 Not to exceed 18m. in length, or 27m for exterior use and cargo spaces for vessels of
moulded breadth of 27m. or more.

 Made of closely woven flax, canvas or other approved material.

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 Provided with couplings and other fittings and with plain nozzles or dual-purpose
nozzles.

 Hose diameter should not be less than 64 mm if unlined or 45 mm if lined.

 To be located in conspicuous positions near the hydrants, or connections.

 Provision of interchangeable hose and nozzle for each hydrant.

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 Other than those required for machinery spaces, one for each 30m. Ship length, or part
thereof; but in no case less than five in a ship above 1000 tons and over and not less
than three in a ship under 1000 tons.
 One spare Complete with coupling and nozzle.

A 1.4 Hydrants (Isolating Valve/Drain):

 Hydrant valves of screw lift type or cocks fitted to water service pipes.
 Located so that hoses can be easily coupled.
 Number and position of hydrants be such that at least two jets of water not emanating
from the same hydrant, one of which should be from a single length of hose, may reach
any part of the ship normally accessible to passengers or crew and any part of any cargo
space when empty.
 In machinery spaces, at least two hydrants, one on port side and one on the starboard
side.
 Isolating Valves to separate the section of fire main within the machinery space
containing the main fire pump or pumps from the rest of the fire main shall be fitted in
an easily accessible and tenable position outside the machinery spaces.
 Drain Valves or cocks to be provided on fire main for use in frosty weather, so that no
water remains inside and freezes, thereby blocking the water flow.

A 1.5 Nozzles:
 12mm, or 16mm, or 19mm diameter nozzles to supply quantity of water as required.
 Jets/spray type with a shut off facility.
 One for each hydrant.
 For ro /ro spaces at least three water fog applicators in addition to the required nozzles

A 2 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS:

A2.1 Portable Extinguishers:


• Fluid contents not more than 13.5 liters but not less than 9 liters.
• Capacity of carbon dioxide type- At least 5 kg of Carbon dioxide.
• Capacity of dry chemical powder type At least 5 Kg of dry powder.
• Not to exceed 23 kg in weight (as per I.M.O.) in fully charged condition. (25. 5 kg as
per Indian rules).
• As far as practicable to have uniform method of operation for ones used in
accommodation and service Spaces.
• Extinguishers with pressurized contents, or those containing extinguishers medium
which will be harmful to persons, are prohibited for use in accommodation.(CO2 ) and
Halon type
• For Radio Rooms, switch Boards or similar spaces the volume of vapour released bye
the extinguisher has to be less than 5% of the net volume of the space.
• To be periodically inspected at intervals not exceeding two years.

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• Required number to be kept fully charged at all times.


• Spare charge, or replacement for every portable extinguisher. (100%)

A 2.2 Non-portable FOAM Extinguishers:

 Body of welded construction with cylindrical ends.


 Made of tinned or lead coated sheet steel for protection against corrosion.
 Capable of withstanding, for a period of 5 min, an internal pressure of 1.5 times the
maximum working pressure, and in no Event less than 24.5 bar.
 Safeguard against inadvertent operation.
 Reinforced discharge hose with a nozzle, producing foam projection to a distance of 14m
for a period not less than 90 sec. for 135 liters capacity, and to a distance of 10m lasting 60
sec. for less than 135 liter capacity.
 Distinguishing marks for maker, capacity, test pressure, operating instructions, year of
manufacture, and level of solution at full capacity.
 Provided with a controllable device to enable the discharge to be interrupted.

A 2.3 Non-portable Carbon Dioxide Extinguisher:


 Provided with internal discharge tube, and a valve to release the gas.
 Discharge hose to withstand a pressure of 122 bar (bore of the discharge hose to be not
less than 9mm dia. for 16 kg or 12mm dia. for 45 kg) and provided with a horn of
electrical non-conducting material. Operating handle to be sheathed to protect the hand of
the operator from extreme cold.
 At temperatures between 15-18°C, 75% of capacity to be discharged in 30-45 sec. for 16
kg and in 60-90 sec. for 45 kg extinguisher.
 Distinctive marking for the maker, capacity, operating instruction, and weight of empty
and filled cylinder, year of manufacture and test pressure.

A 2.4 Non-portable Dry Powder Extinguisher:

• Constructed of suitable material and of sufficient strength.


• Provided with a nozzle and reinforced discharge hose constructed to withstand four times
four times the maximum working pressure (as specified)
• Gradual release of residual pressure when the cap/covers are being removed.
• Protection of all parts against corrosion.
• Provided with a suitable device to control discharge as required
• Actuating mechanism to be protected against inadvertent operation.
• Capable of discharging at least 85% of dry powder charge when operated under normal
conditions. Discharge rate not less than 1 kg/sec.
• Distinctive marking for the maker, capacity, operating instruction, year of manufacture
and test pressure.

Recharging: Only refills approved for the fire extinguishers in question shall be used for
recharging.

A.2.5 Portable Foam Applicator Unit

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 Provided with an induction type of air foam nozzle capable of being connected to the fire
main.

 Portable tank containing 20 liters of foam concentrate with facility for connecting to
nozzle.

 Spare foam concentrate

 Foam expansion ratio not to exceed 12:1.

A 3 FIREMAN’S OUTFIT:

 Ships to be provided with the required number of fireman’s outfit depending upon
size and type.

 So stored as to be easily accessible and ready for use.

 If more than one such set is carried, they shall be stored in widely separated positions.

 A fireman’s outfit shall consist of: —

A 3.1 Personal Equipment, comprising.

(a) Protective clothing of material to protect the skin from the heat radiating from the fire
and from burns and scalding by steam. The outer surface shall be water-resistant.
(b) Boots and gloves made of electrically non-conducting material.
(c) Rigid helmet for protection against impacts.
(d) Electric safety lamp with a capacity to work for minimum three hours.
(e) An axe to the satisfaction of the administration.

A 3.2 Fire Proof Life and Signaling line made of copper or galvanized steel wire rope over
laid up to at least 32mm in circumference for firm grip when wet.

A 3.3 Breathing Apparatus (Air Hose Type):

 Smoke mask with connection for air supply from the outside atmosphere.

 Non-collapsing hose of sufficient length to enable reach any part of accommodation,


service, cargo and machinery spaces while keeping the air pump or bellows on the open
deck in clean air.

 Air pump or bellows for pumping air into the hose.

 If in order to comply with the above requirement, an air hose exceeding 36 meters in
length is necessary, a self-contained breathing apparatus shall be substituted or
provided in addition.

OR

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Self-contained Breathing Apparatus:

 Approved type open circuit compressed air type unit.

 Be constructed of material having adequate mechanical strength and durability and be


resistant to deterioration by heat, contact with water or fire and shall not allow the
breathing circuit to be penetrated by smoke or chemical fumes likely to be encountered.

 Capable of working for at least 30 min. and provided with one face mask

 Cylinder capacity of at least 1200 liters for free air

 Provision for automatic regulation of air supply to the wearer (85 liters per min. when
the cylinder pressure is above 10.5 bar). Means to by-pass pressure regulating valve to
increase the volume of air available to the wearer, if required.

 Provided with a pressure gauge with an anti-bursting orifice in the high-pressure air
supply system to enable the wearer to read directly and easily the pressure of air in the
cylinder.

 Adjustable safety belt or harness made of shrink proof material (fabric), capable of
ecure attachment or detachment by the wearer by means of a snaphook.

 Legible instructions at each end of fire proof line for signals on a non-flammable plate.

 Maximum weight 16 kg excluding lifeline, safety belt or harness.

 Spare cylinders fully charged with capacity of at least 2400 liters of free air, except
here:
Ships carrying 5 or more sets the total spare capacity not to be required to exceed 9600
iters or if provided with suitable means of recharging, spare capacity per set to be at
east 1200 liters and total spare capacity not require to exceed 4800 liters.

 Provided with audible warning device when & 80% of usable capacity has been
onsumed.

 Markings of the maker or vendor and the year manufacture.

 Operating instruction in clear and permanent lettering.

A 4 INTERNATIONAL SHORE CONNECTION:

 To enable water to be supplied from another ship or from shore to the fire main.

 Every ship shall have at least one and stored together with a gasket, four bolts and eight
washers.

 Fixed provisions to be made to enable such a connection to be used on both sides of the
ship.
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 Shall have a flat flange on one side, and to the other have a permanently attached
coupling that will fit the ship’s hydrant and hoses.

PORTABLE EXTINGUSHERS
Acknowledgement: Notes and diagrams in this section draw heavily on the contents of chapter
4 of Part 5 of Marine Engineering Practice Vol. 1, FIRE FIGHTING EQIUPMENT AND ITS
USE IN SHIPS, by G. Victory and I. H. Owen; The institute of Marine Engineering publication.

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C 1.1 GAS PRESSURISED WATER TYPE (9litre)

(CO2 /Water type)

A charge of plain water can be ejected by piercing the sealing disc of the container holding gas
charge, usually 63 gm of liquid C02, the extinguisher being used in upright position .Threaded
cap three 2 mm dia. holes to release pressure before the cap can be fully opened.

Range: minimum 6m for at least 30 sec., complete discharge in max. 90 sec.


Hydraulically tested to 24 bars initially, subsequent tests as per regulations/manufacturers
recommendations.

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C 1.2 GAS PRESSURISED FOAM (9 LITERS)

(Mechanical Foam)

The construction and operation are similar to that of the gas pressurized water type. The foam
solution is directed through a hose to a special nozzle, which agitates the mixture and induces air
in to the stream, thus forming a mass of small air bubbles i.e. foam. Threaded cap has three 2
mm dia. holes to release pressure before the cap can be fully opened.

Charge: protein/fluoro protein/AFF foam compound solution

Hydraulically tested to 24 bar initially, subsequent tests as per regulations/manufacturers


recommendations.

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C 1.3 CARBON DIOXIDE (5kg)

Carbon dioxide in liquid state at ambient temperature is stored in heavy-duty steel cylinder at a
high pressure. The means of operating fall into two classes, (a) piercing a disc and (b) opening
of a valve. Discharge from the piercing disc type, once initiated, cannot be stopped while that
from the valve type can be done at will. In a valve type there is a risk of a partially empty
extinguisher being returned to its stand and becoming a hazard to the next operator. In either
case, the liquid is discharged through a short flexible or swivel hose to a discharge horn, where
the liquid changes to gas and is spread evenly over the burning surface, thus excluding the air.
An internal pipe is fitted to ensure rapid release of liquid so that evaporation will not take place
in the bottle, as this would cause icing due to absorption of latent heat of the liquid causing the
formation of solid CO2.

Hydraulically tested to 207 bar or 236 bar.

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

DRY POWDER

Dry powder is expelled by means of pressure when CO 2 gas is released by piercing the gas
cartridge. The internal gas tube is arranged to give a violent motion inside the container to
induce the powder into the discharge hose, which usually has a controllable nozzle.

Duration of discharge: 10-l5sec.

Charge: sodium bicarbonate, or potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium phosphate. Magnesium


stearate is added to avoid compacting powder.

Hydraulically tested to 24 bar, subsequent tests as per regulation manufactures


recommendation.

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

NON-COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS

MATERIAL, WHICH NEITHER BURNS NOR GIVES OFF FLAMMABLE


VAPOURS IN SUFFICIENT QUANTITY FOR SELF IGNITION WHEN
HEATED TO APPROXIMATELY 750°C

DIFFERENT CLASSES OF DIVISIONS

“A” CLASS DIVISION: - DIVISION FORMED BY BULKHEAD AND


DECKS, WHICH COMPLY WITH THE FOLLOWING.

1) THEY SHALL BE CONSTRUCTED OF STEEL OR OTHER


EQUIVALENT MATERTAL.

2) THEY SHALL BE SUITABLY STIFFENED.

3) THEY SHALL BE SO CONSTRUCTED AS TO BE CAPABLE OF


PREVENTING THE PASSAGE OF SMOKE AND FLAME TO THE
END OF ONE HOUR STANDARD FIRE TESTS

4) THEY SHALL BE INSULATED WITH APPROVED NON


COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS SUCH THAT THE AVERAGE
TEMP. OF THE UNEXPOSED SIDE WILL NOT RISE MORE THAN
140°C ABOVE THE ORIGINAL TEMP.AT ANY ONE POINT
INCLUDING ANY POINT RISE MORE THAN 180°C ABOVE THE
ORIGINAL TEMP. WITHIN THE TEMP THE TIME
LISTED BELOW: -

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

CLASS “A’ 60” 60 MIN. CLASS ‘-A’ — 30” 30 MIN.


CLASS “A’— 15” 15 MIN. CLASS “A’— 0” 0 MIN.

“B” CLASS DIVISION: -


DIVISIONS FORMED BY BULKHEADS, DECKS, CELING OR LININGS,
WHICH COMPLY WITH THE FOLLOWING: -

1. THEY SHALL BE SO CONSTRUCTED AS TO BE CAPABLE OF


PREVENTING THE PASSAGE OF FLAME TO THE END OF THE
FIRST HALF-HOUR OF THE STANDARD FIRE TEST.

2. THEY SHALL HAVE AN INSULATTON VALUE SUCH THAT


AVERAGE TEMP. OFTHE UNEXPOSED SIDE WILL NOT RISE
MORE THAN 140°C ABOVE THE ORIGINAL TEMP.

CLASS “B — 15” 15 MINUTES


CLASS “B —0’ 0 MINUTES.

3. THEY SHALL BE CONSTRUCTED OF APPROVED NON-


COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS.

“C” CLASS DIVISION: -

DIVISION CONSTRUCTED OF APPROVED NON COMBUSTIBLE


MATERIALS.THEY NEED NOT MEET NEITHER REQUIREMENTS
RELATIVE TO THE PASSAGE OF SMOKE AND FLAME NOR
LIMITATIONS RELATIVE TO THE TEMP RISE.

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

Inert gas:
A gas which having mixture of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and other gases such as flue gas
containing very less oxygen to prevent combustion. It is produce by Ships boiler. It is
combination of as follows:
Carbon Dioxide - 12 To 14.5%
Oxygen - 02 To 4.5 %
Sulphur Dioxide - 02 To 3 %
Nitrogen - About 79 %

Remainder water vapour, solids and other gases.

Purging:
The introduction of inert gas into space to reducing oxygen (hydro carbon gas) concentration
below %, which not form a flammable mixture.

Static electricity:
It is produced by dissimilar materials through physical contact and separation.

Explosion:
The sudden release of high-pressure gas into the environment.

Inerting:
The introduction of inert gas in a space with the object of reducing the oxygen content to a level
at which combustion can not be supported.

Gas free:
When sufficient air has been introduced into it to lower the levels of any flammable, toxic or
inert gases.

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

SAFE WORKING PRACTICES (Fire Precautions)

The only sure way to avoid the disastrous consequences of a Fire at sea is not to have one at all.
It is a moral responsibility of everyone on board to take all the necessary precautions to prevent
a fire from occurring.

Although safe working practices have been detailed below it is basically a common sense, and a
sense of responsibility (attitude) that matters eventually.

Good housekeeping is the prime requirement for prevention of fires

1. SMOKING

Fires are often caused by careless disposal of burning cigarettes ends and matches, or smoking
at prohibited places. Ashtrays and suitable containers must be provided and used where smoking
is permitted. Care must be taken to ensure that matches are fully ‘extinguished, and that the
cigarette ends are properly stubbed out. They must not be thrown overboard since these may be
blown back on board.

Conspicuous warning notices should be displayed in any part of the ship where smoking is
forbidden. Disciplinary action must be taken against the persons not obeying such
instructions.

It is dangerous to smoke in bed.

2. ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES AND OTHER FITTING

Unauthorized persons must not interfere with electrical fittings. Permission should be sought
from the ship’s electrical officer or the responsible engineer officer before using and connecting
personal electrical appliances Notices should be displayed on the notice boards and in
accommodation spaces to this effect.

Appliances and fittings must be tested and maintained as per Rules and Regulations of national
and classification authorities.

Precautionary measures must be adhered to before commencing, during and after any of the
electrical item or distribution system is being attended to for repair or Maintenance.

Use of a faulty appliance, machinery, fitting or wiring should be stopped immediately and
brought to the attention of responsible officer

All electrical appliances must be firmly secured and served by permanent connections wherever
possible;

Make shift plugs, sockets and fuses should not be used;

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

Overloading of circuits must be avoided at all times to prevent damage to the fittings and
insulation;

All portable appliances, lights etc. must be isolated from the mains after use;

Use of portable heaters must be avoided at all times. However, only under special circumstances
in ports, such appliances may be used with appropriate precautionary measures, of preventing
contact or proximity with combustible materials such as furniture, carpets, floors, etc.;

3. LAUNDRY SPACES

Hand pressing irons must be switched off after use, and secured on suitable stand;

Clothing should be left to dry only in designated places. Drying of clothes in machinery spaces,
or close to heating appliances, radiators, etc. must be prohibited.

Contact of clothes with steam pipes, electrical appliances, etc. must be prevented at all times.

4. SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION

Dirty waste, soiled laundry, linen, rags, sawdust and other rubbish - particularly if it is
contaminated with oil or damp - is susceptible to spontaneous combustion if left on its own in a
closed space or a container. Risk of fire increases in proximity with paints and other volatile
liquids.

5. MACHINERY SPACES

Good housekeeping entails cleanliness, prevention of oil leaks, proper storage of combustible
materials, maintaining guards, and similar practices.

Suitable metal containers should be provided for storage and disposal of cotton waste or rags.
Such containers must be emptied at frequent intervals and contents disposed off in safe
manner.

Wood, paints, spirits, oils, greases and similar substances must be kept away from hot spaces
like boiler rooms, generator platforms, and purifier spaces. etc.

Engine room bilges and tank tops should be kept clean and free of oil and rags. Proper lighting
would help inspection and indication of leaks etc.

Particular care must be taken in carrying out maintenance work on lubricating, hydraulic, and
fuel oil equipment and system to avoid accidental release of oils under pressure.

Possibility of oil drips on hot surfaces (exhaust trunking, steam pipes, heaters) must be
eliminated through repositioning oil lines or providing appropriate guards as far as
possible.Welding and gas cutting work must be carried out with great care at all times. Similarly
grinding and metal cutting work needs to be carried out with appropriate precautions against.
Occurrence of fire.

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

Particular care must be taken when filling a tank, which has its sounding pipe in cue machinery
spaces; ensure that the weighted cock on the sounding pipe is closed all the time. Similarly,
transfer of oils and bunkering operation where there is a possibility of overflow within the
machinery spaces must be carried out with utmost care.

Where potable lights are needed to provide adequate illumination, they should be clamped or
otherwise secured in position, not hand-held with leads kept clear of the working area and
protected from chaffing.

6. HOT WORK
Welding and flamecutting elsewhere than in the workshop should generally be subject of
a ‘permit to work’.

Only competent persons should be allowed to carry out welding and hot work. Equipment must
be checked carefully before use.

Welding and flamecutting must be properly supervised at all times. Suitable fire extinguishers
must be kept nearby for any emergency.

Before commencing any kind of hot work, check must be made to ensure that there is no
combustible material (solid, liquid or gas) at, below or adjacent to area of work. Similarly, when
working on bulkheads, ceilings and similar locations one must ensure that the other side is clear
of combustible materials, cables, pipelines and other services which might be affected by heat.

Utmost care must be taken while working in tanks, pump rooms and enclosed spaces.

Suitable screens/nets must be erected to prevent falling of hot metal in open tanks, hatches, etc.

7. GALLEYS

Fire in galleys and pantries occur due to spills of oil and fat on hot surfaces, or oil leaks from
pipes and container-

Electrical equipment with loose/faulty connections, switches, broken insulation and similar
defects must not be used until the fault has been rectified.

Ovens, burners, hot plates should be shut off when cooking is finished.

Oil pans should never be left within ovens.

Only recommended frying pans and appliances must be used.

Fire blankets and extinguishers must be kept readily accessible at all times.

Reference: The DOT (UK) Code of safe working practices for merchant seamen. PPC100995

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

FIXED FIRE DETECTION AND FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS


GENERAL REQUIREMENTS:

Any required fixed fire detection and fire alarm system with manually operated call points shall
be capable of immediate operation at all times.

- There shall be not less than two sources of power supply for the electrical equipment used in
operation of the detection and fire alarm system, one of which shall be an emergency source.
The supply shall be provided by separate feeders reserved solely for that purpose. Such feeders
shall run to an automatic change over switch situated in.

Detectors and Manually operated call points shall be grouped into sections. The activation of
any detector or manually operated call point shall initiate a visual and audible fire signals at the
control panel and indicating units. If the signals have not received attention within 2 minutes an
audible alarm shall be automatically sounded throughout the crew accommodation.

- The control panel shall be located on the navigation bridge or in the main fire control station.

- The fire detection system shall not be used for any other purpose except that closing of fire
doors and similar functions may be permitted at the control panel.

INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

Manually operated call points shall be installed throughout the accommodation spaces and
control stations. One manually operated call point shall be located at each exit. Manually
operated call points shall be readily accessible in the corridors of each deck such that no part of
the corridor is more than 20 meters from the manually operated call point.

INTRODUCTION

An automatic fire alarm and detection system is required to be installed in the machinery,
accommodation, and cargo spaces of different class of vessel as per the stipulated regulations.
Automatic fire detectors operate on various principles

• Heat Detector operating at a predetermined temperature (fixed temperature).

• Heat Detector operating at a rate of rise in temperature reaching a set limit (Rate of rise).

• Smoke detector (Obscuration/ Optical type) (Optical smoke detector)

• Combustion product detector (Ionization type)

• Flame detector, which reacts to radiation emanating from flame.

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

DETECTORS

Whenever we realize a fire it is through our senses

• Our eyes enable us to see flames and smokes.

• Our body makes us feel the heat.

• Smell tells us the presence of combustion ashes.

Our sensory apparatus is in fact, acting as a complete fire detection system and a very efficient
one too. However, it is now possible for us to adopt a equipment (fire detectors) which can carry
out such functions in absence of human senses and thus provide a vigil all the time.

Fire Detectors

• Smoke (Combustion product) Type - (Smells a fire)

• Radiation (Flame) Type - (Sights a flame)

• Heat Type (Feels a fire).

TYPES OF DETECTORS
SMOKE
- IONIZATION SMELL
- OPTICAL - SCATTER SEE
- OBSCURATION SEE

HEAT
- CONSTANT TEMP. FEEL
- RATE OF RISE FEEL

FLAME
- 1NFRA RED SEE
- ULTRA VIOLET SEE

PRINCIPLES OF DETECTION

SMOKE - Consists of a suspension of solid or liquid particles in a gaseous medium.

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

IONISATION DETECTOR: -Sensitive to even small and invisible particles produced in


the early stages of fire.

OPTICAL DETECTOR: - Sensitive only to large & visible particles which give smoke its
characteristic appearance.

CARBON DIOXIDE GAS:

For smothering is achieved by diluting the oxygen content of the atmosphere in the
compartment from normal 21% to a level, which is insufficient to support combustion. For most
substances this is in the range of 11 % to 16%, but for smoldering solid combustible materials a
further reduction may be necessary to achieve complete extinction.
Carbon Dioxide gas is also having some advantages and disadvantages.

ADVANTAGES
- It is non-corrosive.
- It is cleanest extinguishing medium.
- It is not subject to deterioration in quality with age.
- It is always available.

DISADVANTAGES

- It is highly asphyxiating and strictly toxic, a concentration of about 9% would produce


unconsciousness within few minutes.
- It has very little cooling effect and there is consequently a danger of reignition if air is
readmitted to the compartment too soon after the fire.
- No effect in open area.
- When discharged, particles of solid Carbon Dioxide are normally present and can generate
sufficient static charge to produce an incentive spark which could ignite in flammable
atmosphere such as may be found in ships.

For this reason CO2 is unsuitable as an inerting medium in cargo oil tanks and pump rooms.

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

TYPES OF FOAM

1) CHEMICAL FOAM
Required minimum: - Two type of foam compound after mixing with chemical reaction. It
produces Foam and Co2 gas. CO2 is used to eject foam from extinguisher. Produced by
portable/mobile extinguishers.

2) MECHANICAL FOAM
To produce mechanical foam compound, water and air are required. It is produced by
potable /mobile extinguishers, Foam applicators, Fb-5X, Fb 10, and foam monitors.

3) EXPANSION RATIO
1. Low Expansion (8 to 12:1)
2. Med Expansion (12 to 150:1)
3. High Expansion (150 to 1000:1)

Low Expansion/ Med Expansion foam is produced by portable/mobile extinguishers, Foam


applicators, and foam monitors. It is used on Deck (Open Area) in tanks. This foam can be
thrown on a distance.

High Expansion: - This foam is produced by high expansion Foam Generators. Used only in
enclosed spaces. As Engine room, Cargo holds required steel trucking to pour the foam in the
compartment. This foam is giving smothering effect. This foam can not be thrown on a distance
very light in weight. One or two vents required opening condition

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

D Fixed Deck Foam System

• Capable of delivering foam to the entire cargo tank area, and into any of the cargo
tanks with ruptured deck.

• With ample and rapid operation through readily accessible controls.

• Rate of supply not to be less than 0.6 liters per min. per sq. m. of the cargo tanks
deck area or similar requirements.

• Sufficient foam concentrates for supply for at least 20 min of foam generation for
ships with IGS or 30 min of foam operations for ships without IGS.

• Provision of foam monitors, both on the port and the starboard front of the poop
accommodation, each capable of delivering at least 50 % of the required rate
for foam solution. The capacity of each monitor to be at least 3 liters of foam solution
per sq. m. of deck space area.

• The distance from the monitor to the farthest extremity of the required area shall not
be more than the 75% of the monitor throw in still air conditions.

• The capacity of an applicator to be less than 400 liters per min. with a throw of not
less than 15 m in still air condition. The number and position of foam outlets
to such that at least two applicators can be directed on to any part of the cargo tank
deck area.

• Provision of isolating valves to isolate damaged sections of the system.

Markings of Extinguishers

1. Each extinguisher should be clearly marked with the following minimum information.

2. Name of the manufacturer.

3. Types of fire for which the extinguisher is suitable:

4. Type and quality of extinguishing medium.

5. Approval Details.

6. Instructions for use and recharge:

7. Year of Manufacture

8. Temperature range over, which the extinguisher will operate satisfactorily.

9. Test procedures.

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

Types of Portable Fire Extinguishers

1. Gas Pressurized water type (9 Liters) (Co2 / Water type)

2. Gas Pressure Foam.(9 Liters) (Mechanical Foam)

3. Carbon Dioxide (5 Kgs)

4. Dry Chemical Powder (5 Kgs / l0 Kgs)

TYPES OF DRY CHEMICAL POWDERS

1. Sodium Bicarbonate

2. Potassium Bicarbonate

3. Mono Ammonium Phosphate

4. T.E.C (Ternary Eutectic Chloride)

Sr. No. 1 & 2 : - Used on “B” and “C” Class Fires.


Sr. No 3 :- This multipurpose powder can be used on “A” “B” and “C” Class Fires.
Sr. No 4 : - It is heat resistant powder and can be used on “D” class Fires only.

MEDIUM NOT TO BE USED ON METAL FIRES

• WATER

• FOAM

• GASES

• BI-CARBONATE

CAN BE USED ON METAL FIRES

• DRY SAND

• POWDER GRAPHITE

• SODA ASH

• LIME STONE

T.E.C (TERNARY EUTECTIC CHLORIDE)

It consist other heat resistant chlorides powders.

• SODIUM CHLORIDE 20%


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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

• POTTASSIUM CHLOR1DE 29%

• BARIUM CHLORIDE 51%

A4 INTERNATIONAL SHORE CONNECTION:

To enable water to be supplied from another ship or from shore to the fire main. Every ship
shall have at least one and stored together with a gasket, four bolts and eight washers.
Gasket of any material suitable for 1 N/mm2 services. Fixed provisions to be made to enable
such a connection to be used on both sides of the Ship shall have a flat flange on one side,
and to the other have a permanently attached coupling that will fit the ship’s hydrant and
hoses. It is designed for 1 N/mm2 services (10 bar).

Standard Dimensions of International Shore Connection


- Outside Diameter - 178 mm, Inside Diameter - 64 mm.
- Bolt Circle Diameter - 132mm, Flange Thickness - 14.5 mm (mini)
- Bolts and Nuts -4 each 16 mm diameter, 50 mm in length
- Slots in flange: 4 holes, 19 mm Diameter.

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

FIRE FIGHTING APPLIANCES

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR A FIXED SYSTEM.

- The medium used should not produce toxic gases.


- The quantity of the medium must be adequate for the spaces, which are to be protected.
- The piping system must have control valves and hydraulically tested.
- The release of a gas medium must not be automatic.
- The order to release the medium must be given by the captain or a senior officer.

MISCELLANEOUS FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTS ON BOARD

- Fire hoses, Nozzles, Main and Fire hydrants.


- Portable/Mobile fire extinguishers
- Fire Pumps
- Emergency Fire Pump
- Fixed Installation System
- Fire Blankets
- International Shore Connection
- Sand Box
- Automatic Fire Alarm and Fire Detection System (Smoke, Heat and Flame Detectors)

FIRE PUMPS

- CAPACITY DEPENDENT ON SIZE OF VESSEL

- TOTAL CAPACITY <180M3/FIR

- MINIMUM CAPACITY 25 M3/ HR

- NON - RETURN DISCHARGE VALVE

- SHOULD DEVELOP REQUIRED PRESSURE

EMERGENCY FIRE PUMP

- NOT DEPENDENT ON MAIN POWER


- INDEPENDENT SUCTION
- SELF PRIMING
- IF DIESEL DRIVEN MUST START AT 0˚C
- FUEL TANK FOR 3 HRS. AT FULL LOAD
- RESERVE FUEL FOR 15 HRS.,
- SUCTION HEAD <4.5 MTRS
- MINIMUM 6 STARTS IN 30 MIN. & TWICE IN FIRST 10MIN

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

FIXED FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM


INSTALLATION SYSTEM

1. Carbon Dioxide For engine room, pump room, cargo holds, and paint stores

2. Foam (High Expansion) For Machinery Spaces and cargo holds

3 Sprinkler systems For Accommodations engine room, cargo holds and paint
stores. (For Accommodation /Working Spaces. Automatic
water spray system) (For engine room, cargo holds and paint
stores high pressure water spray system is used)

4. Foam (Low Expansion) For Open Area (Deck) and cargo tanks (Tankers)

5. Dry Chemical Powder For Gas Carrier (LPG and LNG Tanker)

SMOTHERING EFFECT BY CARBON DIOXIDE

CO2 is very cleanest extinguishing media having some advantages. It is non-corrosive, does not
conduct electricity, leaves no residue, dilutes O2 to lower percentage. It does not deterioration
with age and always available, cheaper than all gases.

Co2 is having some disadvantages also. It is highly asphyxiating and slightly toxic, if
concentration of 9 % would produce unconsciousness within few minutes, cannot be used in
open spaces (no effect). It has little cooling effect and there is consequently danger of re-ignition
if air is readmitted to the compartment too soon after the fire. When discharged particles of solid
carbon dioxide are normally present and can generate sufficient Static charge to produce an
incentive spark which could ignite inflammable atmosphere such as may be found on ships.

For this reason Carbon Dioxide is unsuitable as an inerting medium in cargo oil tanks and pump
rooms. Before flooding Co2 in engine room makes sure no body is in the compartment. Close all
vents, stop running machinery, and eject entire Co2 in one lot by group release arrangement.
There are two levers to operate them as per the instruction and as per serial order, entire Co2
will go in the compartment in one shot.

SMOTHERING EFFECTS OF FOAMS

High Expansion Foam is produced by High Expansion Foam Generator, which produce up to
1500 liters from 1 ltr of foam compound. Very less quantity of water is used so this foam will
not allow oxygen to enter in this compartment. When foam is being filled in the room at least
one or two vents from top required to be in open condition.

There are two types of foams, one Chemical foam and second is mechanical foam. Chemical
foam is being phased out by administration & mechanical foam is used, nowadays, it is very
good extinguishing media. This foam is also having some percentage of water. Same is changed

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

into steam, because Fire is also having temperature. Steam is having smothering effect to dilute
O2 below required level for flame.

High expansion foam is having some advantages and disadvantages also.

Advantages:
• Can spread all around the space and provide lasting cover (smothering)
• Can be rapidly started and used.
• Can be fixed to existing ventilation ducts.
• Persons can walk through the foam before being asphyxiated.
• Unit can be used for extracting smoke.
• Very less maintenance is required.

Disadvantages:
• Cannot be thrown at distance. Not suitable for use in open spaces or for space under slight
pressure.
• Large steel trucking is required.

ACTION TO BE TAKEN IN CASE OF FIRE

1. Alarm to bridge (Control Station)


2. Fire alarm from Control Station (Bridge), Fire alarm response.
3. Muster at Muster Station.
4. Role of Team Leaders
5. Role of Bridge (Command) Team.
6. Role of Emergency Team I & II
7. Role of Support Team
8. Role of Backup/First Aid Team
9. Communications System
10. Personnel Safety Procedures
11. Periodic Ship Board Drills
12. Fire patrol System
13. Fire Control Plans
14. Fire Watch

TEAM FORMATION

1. Persons without any specific duty shall muster with support team.
2. Supernumeraries muster on the bridge.

 ALARM TO BRIDGE (CONTROL STATION) -


When anyone sees fire gives information to control. Station by above methods, tell clearly
what you found, try to restrict and start extinguishing the fire.

 FIRE ALARM FROM BRIDGE (ALARM RESPONSE)


On hearing alarm all personnel must assemble with: - Life Jacket, Put on Long Sleeved
Boiler Suit, Safety Shoes and Hard Helmet and proceed immediately to their muster
station. Watch keepers to remain on watch until relieved by emergency team members.
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 MUSTER STATION
Muster station depend upon type and size of ship (Location).

ROLE OF TEAM LEADERS

1. All team leaders must be capable of carrying out task assigned to any member of team.
2. The team leader should muster their teams and give report to control station.
3. Team leaders should never get so involved in actual operation that control on team
members is lost.
4. Team leader must ensure that his team is well trained and that the members have confidence
and know each other’s capabilities.

ROLE BRIDGE TEAM

Bridge team is responsible for command and control through proper assessment of the situation
appropriate action and maintaining communication (Internal and External) -
- Master will be over-all in charge.
- Ensuring that an efficient muster of all personnel is carried out.
- Stop Engine/ Stand By, Turning as Necessary.
- Record Keeping.
- Organizing a search party for any missing personnel.
- Pass message to Owner, Company, Nearest Vessel or Port about the emergency.
- Internal communication must be operational (kept on).
- Issue Walkie-Talkies, Radio-sets to all muster stations.

 ROLE OF EMERGENCY TEAM I & II

1. Both emergency teams will put on fireman’s outfit and stand by.
2. Accounting team members and reporting to the command center.
3. Taking action as directed.
4. Maintaining feedback.
5. One party will be in operation and second will stand by. When first team is tired the
second team will take over the duty and start extinguishing the fire. First team
will stand by.

 ROLE OF SUPPORT TEAM

- Accounting team members and reporting back to command


- Taking action as directed
- Preparing men and equipment for action and reporting readiness
- Maintaining feedback.
- Support team is responsible to supply fire-fighting medium and equipments, hoses, sand
fire blankets and B a set of air cylinder after charging.
- This team is responsible to lower life saving appliance up to deck level and life rafts etc.

 ROLE OF THE BACK UP TEAM/FIRST AID TEAM

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

- When the support team is busy with life-saving appliances both teams will start
supplying extinguishing Medium if no casualty.
- Both teams will start extinguishing fire-by-fire fighting methods.

 COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

Communications systems are of two types.


- Internal Communication
- External communication

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

PERSONAL SAFTY PROCEDURES

1. Knowledge of theory of fire.

2. Safe working practice

3. Good house keeping

4. Clean Ship to prevent spontaneous combustion

5. Proper training (Theory/Practical)

6. Every one must have responsibility to avoid emergency (Fire)

7. Switch off or close the fuel valve on completion of work

8. No smoking at unauthorized spaces

9. No smoking in beds/cargo holds

10. Electrical fitting (Cables) not to be over loaded

11. Use proper fuse wire

12. Laundry spaces iron plug must be removed after use

13. Prevent oil leakage on hot surface and proper storage of combustible materials.

14. Regular drills and exercise

15. Prepare checklist while doing hot work

16. Suitable screen (Asbestos Sheets) must be used to prevent falling of hot metal.

17. Do not throw ignited cigarette ends overboard

18. Never put wet cloth on the electrical motor or lamp shade

19. All pipes to be lagged

20. Keep the engine room platforms clean and dry

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

PERIODIC SHIP BOARD DRILLS

Fire Drills are to be carried out regularly in accordance with National regulations.

OBJECTIVE:

• To prepare a trained and organized response to situations of great difficulty which may
unexpectedly threaten loss of life at sea.

• Personnel should know what to do in case of fire.

• Their muster stations.

• Check serviceability of fire fighting equipments and their location.

• Trained the crew on how to operate the extinguishing medias and their effect on
burning substance.

• An abandon ship drill and a fire fighting must be held within 24 hours of leaving port
if more than 25% of the crew have not taken part in drills on board the ship in
previous month. As soon as possible, but not later than two weeks after joining the
ship.

• Personnel should mustor wearing life jackets properly secured.

• Any defects or deficiencies revealed during drills and the inspections, which
accompany them, be made good without delay.

FIRE PATROL SYSTEM

- This is before any emergency.


- This is moving duty.
- This is detection duty.
- This is prevention duty.

FIRE CONTROL PLANS

 Fire control plans chart/ booklet for assistance of shore side fire fighting personnel.

 It is prominently marked watertight enclosure outside the-deckhouse.

 Located/Positioned for ready access at a well illuminated position with due consideration
to the effects of any expected fire in marine environment.

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 Capable of being easily opened.

 Kept up to date with latest alterations.

 Duplicate copies kept on the bridge and exhibited for guidance of master and officers.

 Gives information about all fire fighting equipments, control station, bulkheads, fire
alarms, fire detection system, sprinkler installations, fire men’s outfit, means of access to
various compartments and decks in the ship, ventilation systems, master control, fan
controls, dampers, Vents, location of international shore connection & all means of
control.

FIRE WATCH

After extinguishing fire one party is kept on watch/inspection, incase reignition of fire takes
place.

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FIRE FIGHTING METHODS


KNOWLEDGE OF FIRE SAFETY ARRANGEMENTS

1. Knowledge of fire theory.


2. Regular Drill/Training
3. Knowledge of safety escape routes
4. Preparedness for fire emergency
5. Knowledge of dangers
6. Regular inspection and maintenance
a) Fire alarm and fire detectors.
b) Fixed Extinguishing Equipments
c) Portable/Mobile Extinguishers
d) Breathing Apparatus
e) Fire Man’s Outfits.
f) Emergency Escape Breathing Device (EEBD)

1. FIRE ALARM AND FIRST ACTION:

Action to be taken in case of fire informing to control station. First we have to find type of
fire, place of fire, how long and if any body trapped, then inform control. Restrict the fire
by stopping Air/Oxygen, cooling, starving, and cutting molecular chain reaction.

2. FIRE FIGHTING:

Use proper extinguishing medias and knowledge of reactivity of medium on burning


substances. Fire should not spread. Before starting the operation switch off electrical supply
of that area. Fire fighting methods are four. Removing one by one side of Fire Square.
- By removing Fuel — Starving
- By removing Heat — Cooling
- By removing Oxygen — Smothering
- By stopping MCR — Inhibiting (B.C.R)

The word “Fire” itself guides us to a logical action as the success of the entire operation
depends upon leadership (Command, Control, Co-Ordination and Communication).

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F - Find/Feel
I- Inform/Investigate
R - Restrict/Rescue
E - Extinguishments/Evaluate

FIND
- What is Burning?
- Where is it (Location)?
- How long has it been burning?
- Any one trapped?
- Where is it likely to spread/Special Circumstances/Dangers?

INFORM TO CONTROL STATION


- By Shouting “Fire” “Fire”
- By Alarm
- By Telephone, Walkie/Talkie, Radio set
- By Messenger (to control station)

RESTRICT

- By removing Fuel — Starving


- By removing Heat — Cooling
- By removing Oxygen — Smothering
- By stopping MCR — Inhibiting (B.C.R)

EXTINGUISHMENTS
Use proper Extinguishing Media, (Must know reactivity of extinguishing media on burning
substances)

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Fire Hoses
Introduction

Fire hoses is one of the basic elements of a fire fighter’s equipment it is necessary to convey water
from either open water supplies or pressure supplies e.g. hydrants to a fire. In areas where water is in
short supply, hoses may be required to relay water long distances and special large diameter hose is
carried on certain “special” appliances for this purpose.

In this part, various types of hose in general used by fire brigades are described. Broadly falls in two
categories according to its main use. “Delivery hose is laid from the delivery side of the pump to the
incident and water passing through it is always at a pressure greater than the atmosphere. –

“Suction” hose is connected to the suction side of the pump and water passing through it can be
either above or below atmospheric pressure.

Delivery is further divided into unlined hose and lined hose. Very few unlined hoses are still in use.
It will all be gone in a few years.

Suction hose includes various types of armored hose so constructed as to withstand external
atmospheric pressure.

Hose is made of synthetic yarns, especially polyester and nylon, which have extra strength, and
made of closely woven flax, canvas or other approved material.

Provided with the couplings and other fittings and with plain nozzles or dual purposes nozzles.
Hose diameter should not be less than 64mm if unlined or 45mm. if lined.
Hose are three types Canvas hose, Rubber hose and Nylon hose.
Minimum fire hoses required on board - five in nos. plus one fire hose as a spare. All the fire hoses
should have coupling on both sides.
On board cargo ship after every 30mtrs length of ship must have one fire hose. (In case length of
ship is 300mtrs that vessel must have 10 fire hoses) one spare complete with coupling and nozzles.
Fire hose not to exceed 18mtrs for internal use OR 27mtrs for exterior use and cargo spaces for
vessels of moulded breadth of 27mtrs or more.

Care of Hoses

1.The roll

In this method the hose is laid out flat on the surface and a start is made at the female coupling end
(see Fig. 2.10 left). The coupling is doubled down on the hose, which is then rolled up until the male
coupling is reached. A hose-strap is finally passed through the canter of the roll and secured behind
the male coupling (see Fig. 2.10, right). The correct method to run out a roll is to grasp the lugs of
the female coupling with both hands and the hose then rotates as it is run out (see Fig. 2.11). Rolled
hose should always be stowed on edge as shown in Fig. 2.10; right.

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Fig. 2.10 Left: The method of starting to roll a length of hose with instantaneous couplings. Right:
the roll of hose completed and secured with a hose strap

Fig. 2.11 Correct method of holding a roll of hose with instantaneous couplings for running out.

2. Dutch roll

The hose should be laid out flat on the surface and the female coupling should be drawn back along
the hose towards the other end so that the female coupling lies on top of the hose and about 1m short
of the male coupling (Fig. 2.12). After the upper layer has been arranged exactly over the lower layer
the hose is rolled up from the bight so that the couplings come together on the outside of the roll.
To run out hose made up in this manner, both couplings are held and the roll is given a push when it
will roll out and uncoil itself leaving a long loop of hose. The male coupling can then be attached to
the pump or stand-pipe and the female coupling taken towards the fire.

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

Fig. 2.12 Correct lay-out of couplings for making a Dutch roll.

3. Flaking In this method the hose is doubled back and forward on itself and is subsequently
secured at the centre of the folds (Fig. 2.13(1)). This method is now only used in HLLs.

Fig. 2.13 Sketch showing (1) flaked hose and (2) hose made up on a figure- Of-eight.

4. Figure of eight

This is a variation of flaking avoiding the sharp bends. It can be used to store hose but takes up more
room than when flaked. (See Fig. 2.13(2).

Damage and repair


The main causes of damage to modem hose are:
(1) Contact with sharp edges, which do not always penetrate right
through but may cut the outer cover.
(2) Damage by burning e.g. laid over, or buried, by hot debris.
Repair to hose will depend on where the damage is, its extent, the age of that particular length and
the cost-effectiveness of the repair e.g. Time taken in man-hours bearing in mind that hose can cost,
on an average, £80 a 25m length (1992).
Small cuts can be sewn and patched and longer, deeper cuts can be internally patched and then sewn
and patched, if necessary, on the outer cover.
The severity of burns or scorching will dictate whether repairs are carried out.
Because of the type of hose now used by brigades very little, if any, repair is carried out on stations.
Repair is a specialist job and is done in the brigade workshops.

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d. Mildew Mildew is not the problem it was and any mildew found on modern hose has probably
developed on dirt and dampness on the surface and can be wiped off easily without affecting the
hose-cover. The pores will usually develop on hose lying wet for an extended period of time e.g. in
an HLL. Crews should be careful not to distribute the pores when removing the hose and, as stated
before, washing or wiping with a damp cloth will be enough to get rid of it.

Care and repair of hose

a. Care

Despite the advances in the construction of hose and the subsequent elimination of a number of the
old causes of damage, firefighters should still take the trouble to avoid any maneuvers or procedures
which could leave hose open to damage. Although modern hose resists abrasion, chemicals, mildew
and shock lack of care in these areas could cause damage and hose could fail at just the time that a
firefighter needs the water most.

A few minor rules for firefighters to bear in mind are:


(1) Hose should still always be ramped when laid across any road,
(2) Hose should not be kinked round a corner under pressure
(3) Hose must not be rolled when frozen.
(4) Hose should be under-run before stowing on an appliance
(see. Fig. 2.9) or wiped dry after cleaning, if only to avoid dampness in the appliance locker.

Fig. 2.9 Correct method of under-running hose

b. Rolling and stowing hose


There are still 4 basic ways of making-up hose namely:
(I) the roll
(2) Dutch roll
(3) flaking
(4) figure of eight

Usually (1) and (2) are found on pumping appliances and (3) and (4) on special vehicles such as
HLLs.

• FIRE MAIN AND FIRE HYDRANTS


- Fire main and Fire hydrants are backbone of fire fighting system on board ship.
- The number and position of fire hydrants shall be such that at least two jet of water not
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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

emanating from same hydrant one of which shall be from a single length of hose may
reach any part of ship.
- In Machinery spaces, at least two hydrants one Port and one STBD side shall be provided.

• FOR SAFETY OF FIRE MAIN

Relief Valve: - Is fitted to release extra pressure.


Drain Valve: Prevent chocking, icing, freezing in cold climate.
Isolating Valve: - Isolate from E/room to rest part of ship.

• TYPES OF NOZZLES
1. Control Nozzles
2. Uncontrolled Nozzles

o Control Nozzles: Fireman able to control the output of the nozzle from fine spray to jet or stop
the out put.

o Uncontrolled Nozzles: Fireman unable to control output of the nozzles.

• SIZE OF NOZZLE:
- 12mm, 16mm and 19mm diameter nozzles to supply quantity of water as required.
- One for each hydrant.
- For Ro-Ro spaces at least three fog applicators in addition to the required nozzles.

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ASSOCIATED REGULATIONS (Fire Control Aboard Ships)

FIRE CONTROL PLANS (FIRE PLANS)


All new and-exiting ships are required to be provided with ‘Fire Control Plans’ (or a booklet) for
assistance of shore side fire-fighting personnel, master and ships officers. The fire control plans to
be:

• Permanently stowed in a prominently marked watertight enclosure outside the deck house.
• Located/positioned for ready access at a well illuminated position with due considerations to the,
affects of any expected fire, and marine environment.
• Capable of being easily opened.
• Kept up to date with latest alterations.
• Duplicate copies kept on the bridge and exhibited for guidance of master and officers.

The enclosure is to be red and location to have sign of not less than 297 x 400 mm with red ship
silhouette on white background. If the enclosure is not adjacent to the gangway, there should be
appropriate guide signs to help the shore personnel to find the enclosure

A general arrangement plans showing clearly for each deck the following:

• Position of the control station

• Sections of the ship which are enclosed by fire resisting bulkheads,

• Particulars of fire alarms and fire detection system

• Sprinkler installations

• Firemen’ s outfits

• Fire extinguishing appliances

• Means of access to various compartments and decks in the ship

• Ventilating system including particulars of the master-fan controls

• Position of dampers and identification numbers of the ventilating fans serving each section of
the ship

• Location of the international shore connection and

• Position of all remote controls mentioned below.

MEANS OF STOPPING MACHINERY, SHUTTING OFF OIL FUEL SUCTION


PIPES AND CLOSING OF OPENINGS -
• Means for stopping ventilation fans serving machinery, accommodation and cargo spaces; oil

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

fuel transfer pumps oil fuel unit pumps and other similar pumps;
• Means of closing all skylights, doorways ventilators, annular spaces around funnels and other
openings to such spaces;
• Means to permit the release of smoke from machinery spaces;
• Valve or cock (quick closing ) Every pipe connected to any oil fuel or lubricating oil storage,
settling, or daily service tank not being a double bottom tank, which if damaged would permit
discharge of the contents so as to cause a fire hazard.

Such means to be capable of being operated from outside the said spaces and which would not
be made inaccessible by fire within such spaces. The controls shall be capable of stopping such
machinery or pumps in the event of file in such spaces.

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FIRE PLANS

(FIRE CONTROL PLANS)

All new and existing ships are required to be provided with ‘Fire Control Plans’ (or a booklet) for
assistance of shore side fire-fighting personnel.

The fire control plans to be:

• Permanently stowed in a prominently marked watertight enclosure outside the deckhouse.


• Located /positioned for ready access at a well-illuminated position with due considerations to the
affects of any expected fire, and marine environment.
• Capable of being easily opened
• Kept up to date with latest alterations.
• Duplicate copies kept on the bridge and exhibited for guidance of master and officers.

The enclosure is to be red and location to have sign of not less than 297 x 400 mm with red ship
silhouette on white background. If the enclosure is not adjacent to the gangway, there should be
appropriate guide signs to help the shore personnel to find the enclosure

A general arrangement plans showing clearly for each deck the position of the control station, the
sections of the ship which are enclosed by fire resisting bulkheads, together with the particulars of
fire alarms, Fire detection system, the sprinkler installations, firemen’s outfits fire extinguishing
appliances, the means of access to various compartments and decks in the ship, the ventilating
system including particulars of the master-fan controls, the position of dampers and identification
numbers of the ventilating fans serving each section of the ship, the location of the international
shore connection and the position of all means of control.

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Theory of breathing apparatus (SCABA)


(Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus)

Purpose: - To supply fresh air to the wearer on demand.


Necessity: - To save life of men and materials.

Functions: -

1. Provide sufficient positive pressure fresh air to the wearer on demand


2. Provide warning regarding availability of air in the cylinder.
3. Prevent inhalation of toxic, poisonous gases and smoke.
4. Provide means of exhalation of air to the atmosphere.

Breathing Apparatus Tests

• Visual Test
• Gauge/Leak Test
• Warning Whistle Test
• Face Mask Test

Weight of BA Sets

(1) Centurion — 19 Kgs


(2) Brigade — 18 Kgs
(3) Drager — 16.5 Kgs

Centurion Breathing Apparatus Specialties:

(1) Automatic System


(2) Positive Pressure
(3) Self Contained
(4) Safety Device
(5) Open Circuit
(6) By Pass Valve

Fresh Air, Smoke Helmet Type Breathing Apparatus (Bellow/ Blower):

1. Foot operated bellow/ Blower


2. Air hose (length of air hose more than 36 mtrs)
3. Terylene harness assembly with Shackle or triangle
4. Rubber breathing corrugated tube
5. Face mask with speech diaphragm
6. Signals plate
7. Fire proof lifeline hemp covered wire rope at the end snap hook.

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Advantage of Smoke Helmet:


1. Wearer can remain more time in compartment provided he is getting Positive pressure air in
face mask.

Disadvantages of Smoke Helmet:


1. Constant supply of fresh air is dependent on the pump operator.
2. Apparatus is bulky
3. Air hose is restricting movements of wearer
4. Air hose can be cut or damage by pulling.
S. Some time it comes at negative pressure.

SIGNALS ON FIRE PROOF LIFE LINE AT SCABA

Signal On Fire Proof Life


Given By Wearer Given By Attendant
(Fire Man) (Officer-In-Charge)
Line

I am all Right One Pull Are You All Right

Give Me Slack On Lifeline


Giving Slack On Life Line
Two Pulls And Fire Hose
And Fire Hose
(You Can Go Ahead)
(I Want To Go Ahead)

You Can Come Out


I Want To Come Out
Three Pulls (Taking Slack On Life Line
(Take Slack On Life Line
(By Fire Man)
And Hose)
And Hose)

Three Pulls
We Are Coming Out Come Out
(By Officer-In-Charge)

Search and Rescue Procedures:

1. Use breathing apparatus with Fire proof lifeline.


2. Work in pair
3. Use bulk head for guidance
4. Search with feet and back of palm
5. Give fire man lift to casualty
6. Familiar with lay out of Compartment and Ship
7. Follow instructions

Fireman’s-Out fit:

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GEIMS: FPFF: COURSE MATERIAL

1. Breathing Apparatus
2. Safety Lamp (It Should Work - Minimum 3hrs.)
3. Fire Proof Life Line (With Snap Hook)
4. Fire Axe (Insulated Handle)
5. Gloves and Shoes (Non Conducting)
6. Rigid Helmet
7. Set of Protective Clothing (Fire — Resistant and Water Proof)

Calculation of Time

- 1200 liters fresh air is compressed in cylinder.


- Consumption of air 35 to 40 liters/min
- Duration of cylinder 1200 ÷ 40=30 mm.
- Warning whistle will give sound when 20% air remain in cylinder.
- Safety Margin l2OO X 20 = 6 min
40 100
- Working Duration--------- 30 – 6 = 24 min.

Note: For the safety of fireman increase safety margin, decrease working duration.

Spare Cylinders on Board


- Cylinder connected with SCABA set not in account.
- Each cylinder must have fresh air not less than 1200 liters. If it is more than 1200 liters, it is also
counted only 1200 liters.

100% Spare Cylinders


If a vessel is having 4 SCABA sets or more, with an air compressor on board, the vessel must have 4
spare cylinders. Each cylinder must have a fresh air quantity of not less than 1200 x 4 = 4800 liters.

200% Spare Cylinders


If a vessel is having 4 SCABA sets or more but not having an air compressor, that vessel must have
8 spare cylinders and with a minimum fresh air quantity of 1200 x 8 = 9600 liters.

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1) BUFFER
2) CYLINDER VALVE
3) AIR CYLINDER
4) CYLINDER BEND
5) BACK FRAME ASSEMBLY
6) WAIST BELT ASSEMBLY
7) RIGHT SHOULDER STRAP
8) LEFT SHOULDER STRAP
9) MAIN CONNECTION
10) H.P. LINE CYLINDER TO REDUCING VALVE
11) PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE
12) H.P. LINE FROM REDUCING VALVE TO PRESSURE GUAGE
13) PRESSURE GUAGE
14) WARNING WHISTLE ASSEMBL
15) LOW PRESSURE LINE FROM REDUCING VALVE TO DEMAND VALVE
16) POSITIVE PRESSSURE DEMAND VALVE
17) BY PASS VALVE
18) RESET BUTTON
19) SPEECH DIAPHRAGM
20) EXHALATION VALVE
21) FACE MASK
22) HEAD HARNESS
23) NECK STRAP
24) INNER MASK

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