Sie sind auf Seite 1von 18

SPECIFICATION FOR

CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL

REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER WORKS

0 02-02-2002 Approved Issue


rev. date Description/issued for prepared authorised
client: ADWEA
project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 1 of: 18


Table of Contents page

1. GENERAL..............................................................................................3
1.1 Purpose .......................................................................................3
1.2 Calculation and Drawings ............................................................3

2. DESIGN LOADINGS..............................................................................3
2.1 General........................................................................................3
2.2 Imposed Loads ............................................................................3
2.3 Dynamic Loads............................................................................4
2.4 Crane Loads................................................................................6
2.5 Thermal Effects ...........................................................................7
2.6 Loads During Erection and Maintenance.....................................7
2.7 Piping Loads................................................................................8

3. BEARING PRESSURES........................................................................8

4. DESIGN LEVELS ..................................................................................9

5. METEOROLOGICAL AND AMBIENT CONDITIONS............................9

6. WATER TIGHTNESS...........................................................................10

7. FOUNDATIONS ...................................................................................10
7.1 General......................................................................................10
7.2 Calculations...............................................................................11
7.3 Factors of Safety .......................................................................11
7.4 Settlements ...............................................................................11
7.5 Foundation Bolts........................................................................11
7.6 Reinforcement in Concrete Upstand Over Floor........................12

8. STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS............................13


8.1 Type Of Construction And Bracing ............................................13
8.2 Minimum Sizes Of Structural Members/Components. ...............13
8.3 Definition of Loads In Various Conditions Of Application...........14
8.4 Load Combinations....................................................................17
8.5 Load Factors For Limit State Design .........................................17
8.6 Material Strength .......................................................................17
8.7 Deflections.................................................................................17
8.8 Miscellaneous Loading ..............................................................18
8.9 Pre-Engineered Buildings..........................................................18

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 2 of: 18


1. GENERAL

1.1 Purpose

This specification covers the minimum technical requirements for the design of all concrete &
steel works related to the civil and structural design of water works and defines the design
loads, quality and strength of materials to be used, requirement for factor of safety, water
tightness for concrete structures, etc.

1.2 Calculation and Drawings

The CONTRACTOR will be responsible for, but not necessarily limited to, the following:

• Preparation of detailed design calculations in accordance with the relevant


American/International/British Codes/Authorised local and national bodies taking into
account the most unfavourable condition of dead load, live load, wind load, erection load
etc. for foundation, sub-structures, superstructures for reservoirs, pump stations, service
building, chlorination buildings, accommodation buildings, surge vessel foundations,
auxiliary structures e.g. gate house, sun shades etc., external works e.g. boundary wall,
fence, septic tanks, soak-way pits, trenches etc.
(Minimum concrete grade, cover, reinforcement grade etc. shall be as per detailed
specifications for materials submitted separately).

• Preparation of detailed working drawings, reinforcement schedules, material lists, bill of


quantities etc.

2. DESIGN LOADINGS

2.1 General

The loadings to be used in the design of structures and buildings shall generally be in
accordance with BS 6399 Part 1 'Code of Practice for Dead and Imposed Loads',

Part 2 'Code of Practice for Wind Loads' or BSCP 3 Chap V (Part 2) Wind Loads Part 3
imposed roof loads, BS 2573 loads for crane Gantry Girders, BS 2655 'loads due to lifts' and
loads due to machinery, vibration, construction, test loads etc.

2.2 Imposed Loads

The following live loads shall be taken into account:

• The loads for platforms including staircases shall be 5.0 kN/m2, or a minimum single
point load of 7.50 kN whichever is more unfavourable for the structure.

• For inaccessible roofs only 1 kN/m2 shall be considered. In addition all roof members
shall be checked for a single load of 2 kN.

• Other live loads shall be in accordance with BS. 6399 or equal.

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 3 of: 18


• Sand load shall be additive to live loads when area under consideration is used as a
work area. A 0.75 kN/m 2 load shall be used in design of flat roofs.

The effect of sand accumulating behind barriers, walls and upstands shall be considered in
the design of walls and roofs.

2.3 Dynamic Loads

Each structure shall be designed to withstand the effects of vibration and impact to which it
may be subjected. Each structure and foundation supporting a compressor, pump etc. having
significant dynamic unbalance shall be designed to resist the peak loads specified by the
manufacturer. Vibration amplitudes of the supporting structure or foundation shall be kept
within acceptable limits of dynamic forces that occur during normal machine operation. The
frequency ratio i.e. ratio of frequency of disturbing moment to the natural frequency of
vibrations of foundation block shall be as per clause 3.4.2 of CP 2012 or equivalent code.

Centrifugal pump foundations for pumps less than 750 kW do not require a dynamic analysis.
However, the foundation to pump assembly weight ratio shall not be less than 3 to 1.

Foundations for step, centrifugal pumps etc. over 750 kW require a three dimensional
dynamic analysis.

All natural frequencies below 2 times the operating frequency for reciprocating equipment and
below 1.5 times the operating frequency for rotating equipment shall be calculated.

It shall be demonstrated that the amplitudes at the natural frequencies between 0.35 and 1.5
times the operating frequency are within the allowable values even assuming that due to
differences between the actual structure and the assumed model – resonance does occur. In
this case a reasonable amount of damping should be estimated.

The natural frequency of the supporting structure shall not coincide with any resonant
frequency of the equipment.

No load assumptions will be allowed for Dynamic Analysis. The loads to be considered are
those given by the MANUFACTURER/SUPPLIER.

2.3.1 Static Deformation

The static deformation for rotating equipment foundation shall be calculated and shown to be
within the limits stated by the Vendor of the equipment. The calculations shall include, but not
be limited to, the following causes of deformation:

• Shrinkage and creep of concrete;

• Temperature effects caused by radiation and convection of heat or cold generated by


machinery, piping and ducting;

• Elastic deformation caused by changing vapour pressure in condensers;

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 4 of: 18


• Elastic deformation caused by soil settlement or elastic compression of piles.

2.3.2 Dynamic Analysis

A three- dimensional vibration analysis for rotating equipment foundations shall be made
where required and shall show that the dynamic amplitudes will not exceed the lower of the
following values:

• The maximum allowable values stated by the manufacturer of the equipment;

• The permissible amplitude of machine/equipment foundation shall not exceed 0.0125


mm.

2.3.3 Existing Force

For the vibration analysis of structures and foundations or rotating equipment (subject to
vibrations), the existing forces shall be taken as the maximum values that, according to the
MANUFACTURER/SUPPLIER of the equipment, will occur during the lifetime of the
equipment.

2.3.4 Schematic Mechanical Model

The vibration calculation shall be based on mechanical model wherein the weights and
elasticity of both structure and foundation and the weight of the equipment are presented in
an appropriate way.

The design of the structure supporting a vibrating machine shall be based on the following
references:

• Major - Vibration Analysis and Design of foundations

• D.D. Barkan - Dynamics of Bases & Foundations.

2.3.5 Additional Requirements

• The soil parameters shall be taken from the final geotechnical investigation report.

• Soil bearing pressure shall not exceed 50% of the net allowable safe bearing capacity for
static loads.

• The maximum static plus dynamic soil bearing pressure shall be limited to 75% of the net
allowable safe bearing capacity.

• Machinery foundation shall be independent of adjacent foundations. Surrounding


concrete slabs or paving shall be separated from machinery foundation by a 15 mm joint
formed with compressible material and sealed with an approved elastic sealant.

• Reinforcement shall be used at all faces. If the foundation is over 1m thick, shrinkage
reinforcement should be provided spaced approximately 600mm, in three directions
(cube reinforcing with minimum bar diameter of 16mm).

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 5 of: 18


• The underside of the foundation shall be at least one meter below finished level and
above water table wherever possible.

• Equipment weighing less than 500 kg may be supported on thickened paving subject to
approval of ENGINEER.

• CP 2012 Part 1 - Foundations for Reciprocating machines, shall be used as design


guidelines for machinery foundations.

2.4 Crane Loads

Crane loads provided by MANUFACTURER/SUPPLIER shall be considered at their


maximum values, including the lifting capacity as well as the maximum horizontal loads
caused by braking or acceleration, producing worst conditions but not acting simultaneously
with maximum wind forces.

The design of Gantry girders (Runaway beams) shall be in accordance with BS 2573 part 1.

No load assumptions will be allowed.

For the design of each structural element the most unfavourable position of the crane or other
moving loads shall be considered. For moving loads an appropriate impact factor shall be
applied according to the following guideline:

Loads applied due to cranes and moving sources shall not be less than the following (Ref.
ANSI/ASCE 7-95 CL 4.10.

Electric Operation Hand Operation

Vertical impact loads – increase maximum


wheel loads by: 25% 10%

Horizontal forces on rails – taken as a


percentage of the rated capacity of the crane
and the weight of the hoist and trolley.

Transverse to each rail: 10% 5%

Horizontal forces on rails – taken as


percentage of the maximum wheel loads of
the crane.

Along the rails: 10% 5%

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 6 of: 18


2.5 Thermal Effects

2.5.1 Thermal Loads

When thermal expansion results in friction between equipment or pipes and supports, the
friction forces shall be taken as the operating load on the support times the applicable friction
coefficient given in the table below.

Surfaces Friction Coefficient

Steel to steel (not corroded) 0.30

Stainless steel to PTFE 0.08

PTFE to PTFE 0.06

Graphite to graphite 0.15

Steel to concrete 0.45

Stainless steel to stainless steel 0.15


Note: The maximum sliding bearing pressures of the above material shall be taken into
account.

In the design of pipe supporting beams, the horizontal slip forces exerted by expanding or
contracting pipes on steel pipe racks shall be assumed to be 15% of the operating weight on
the beam. These 'slip forces' shall not be distributed to the foundations.

2.5.2 Thermo-Mechanical Forces and Stresses

Foundations and liquid retaining structures (including fireproofing) which are subject to
thermo-mechanical effects shall also be designed for the thermal loads and for any
temperature difference that may occur.

Heat transfer calculations shall be used to determine the effects of:

a) thermo-mechanical forces and stresses.

b) Changing of any properties of materials used.

2.6 Loads During Erection and Maintenance

All possible loading conditions during erection and maintenance shall be taken into account.
The most unfavourable condition shall be taken into account for each member.

The loads of scaffolding, including the wind loads, due to erection and maintenance shall be
taken into account for the design of the structure.

Heavy equipment lowered onto a supporting structure can introduce extreme point loads on
structural members, exceeding any operating or test load. After placing of equipment, the
exact positioning (lining out and levelling) can also introduce extreme point loads. The above

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 7 of: 18


should be interpreted on the basis of CONTRACTOR's practical experience and
MANUFACTURER/SUPPLIER information.

Beams and floor slabs in multi-storey structures, e.g. fire decks, shall be designed to carry the
full construction loads imposed by the props supporting the structure immediately above. A
note shall be added on the relevant construction drawings to inform the field engineer of the
adopted design philosophy.

2.7 Piping Loads

Structures

The following loads from piping shall be included in the design of all structures:

a. Pipes larger than 300 mm diameter shall be considered as concentrated loads in their
actual locations under empty, normal operation and test conditions, whichever gives the
most severe effect.

b. Piping less than 300 mm diameter shall be considered as a distributed load in the range
0.75 to 1.25 kN/m2 over the gross area of the supporting floor. The greatest value shall
be assumed where extensive piping is anticipated. In area of structures where there is
no piping, no allowance should be made.

c. The assumed loads given above are based on ANSI standard pipe and fitting. Where
non-standard pipe and fittings are to be installed, the loads shall be adjusted to suit.

d. Considerations shall be given to pipework where the configuration, operating loads and
operating temperatures may give rise to significant horizontal forces due to friction at
supports.

Earthquake load where applicable and specifically required by ADWEA/ENGINEER shall be


applied in accordance with the provisions of Uniform Building Code (UBC).

3. BEARING PRESSURES

For the purpose of comparison with the allowable bearing pressures, the loads to be used in
computing the maximum pressure under a foundation should be the dead loads and imposed
loads on the plant, equipment or structure and including the weight of its foundation less the
weight of the displaced soil.

Foundations will be designed to withstand the maximum stresses from loads and forces,
which are likely to occur simultaneously from combinations of the following load cases :

- Dead loads

- Live loads

- Wind loads

- Dynamic loads

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 8 of: 18


- Impact loads

- Erection can construction stresses load combinations as per BS 8110 Part 1 shall
considered.

The maximum pressure under eccentric loading on foundations due to any cause other than
wind pressure, should not exceed the specified allowable bearing pressure.

Increase in safe bearing capacity under the acton of wind will be allowed as per the provisions
of the relevant BS Codes.

Maximum permissible soil bearing pressures shall be determined by site testing at the
proposed founding levels.

Unfactored load values will be used for stability calculations. Calculations shall be as per
requirements of BS 8004 to ensure adequate stability against sliding and overtuning under
the most adverse condition of load.

4. DESIGN LEVELS

Basic design levels relative to site grade level in process and utility areas should be as
follows:

High point of finished grading Datum E.L. 100.00 m

Basic grade level within plot limits H.P. Grade -0.15 m

Concrete bases and plinths for columns, stacks,


major vessels, grade level pumping units and
similar equipment: minimum including 25 mm
grout. H.P. Grade as per design

Concrete bases and plinths for structural


steelwork baseplates: minimum including 25 mm
grout. H.P. Grade + 0.15 m

Ladder footings on plant bases or plinths:


including 25 mm grout. H.P. Grade + 0.15 m

Stairway footings on plant bases or plinths:


including 25 mm grout. H.P. Grade 1 stair riser

5. METEOROLOGICAL AND AMBIENT CONDITIONS

Climatic conditions are very severe. Dust storms are prevalent and the atmosphere is
saliferous, humid and corrosive. Humidity is high, maximum relative humidity being 100%
and periods of high humidity are long and continuous. Temperatures are high in summer.

Following are climatic condition parameters which include Abu Dhabi Emirate.

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 9 of: 18


Max. peak ambient temperature : 55 deg. C

Min ambient temperature : 0 deg. C

Max. wind velocity : 160 km/hr

Rainfall intensities roofs : 35 mm/hr

Site : 25 mm/hr

6. WATER TIGHTNESS

All water retaining structures shall be designed to the requirements of BS 8007. If the
underground water table is high, or if the site tends to be flooded, all structures required to be
free of water such as transformer compounds, cable trenches etc., have to be watertight
using water proofing membrane composed of bituminous coatings with a minimum of two
layers of fibre glass reinforcement or other system as may be approved by
ADWEA/ENGINEER. All construction joints below water level shall be made watertight by
using 250 mm water bars as manufactured to an approved quality.

7. FOUNDATIONS

7.1 General

Pressure for safe bearing foundation shall be as per the recommendations of the
Geotechnical report.

Detailed designs for all foundations are to be prepared by the CONTRACTOR and submitted
to ADWEA/ENGINEER for approval in accordance with the relevant clauses of the
specification. In case of piled foundation the minimum number of piles under any foundation
will be two piles.

The CONTRACTOR in preparing his design shall give particular regard to the
recommendation contained in British Standard for Foundations – BS 8004:1986 and CP 2012
Code of practice for foundations for machinery.

Machinery foundations should be designed to spread the load of installed machinery on to the
ground so that excessive settlement or tilting of the foundation block relative to the floor or
other fixed installations will not occur; they should have sufficient rigidity to prevent fracture
being under stresses set up by heavy concentrated loads, or by unbalanced rotating or
reciprocating machinery; They should absorb or damp down vibrations in order to prevent
damage or nuisance to adjacent installations or structures.

The CONTRACTOR's foundation design will be subject to the approval of


ADWEA/ENGINEER. Any changes/modifications that may be required by
ADWEA/ENGINEER shall be incorporated by the CONTRACTOR.

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 10 of: 18


7.2 Calculations

The foundations shall be designed and constructed to safely prevent overturning, base failure,
uplift and sliding. Due consideration shall be taken to the risk of detrimental deformation and
settlement of the soil. Rotation (angle of inclination), horizontal and vertical movements of the
foundations as a result of compression of the soil, must not exceed that which is acceptable
with regard to the resulting forces in the structures and the safe operation of the electrical
equipment.

7.3 Factors of Safety

The minimum factors of safety against base failure, overturning, uplift and sliding are listed in
the table below.

Factor of Safety for


Failure Type Permissible load based on :
load Combinations

Base Failure Shear Strength 3.0

Overturning Ultimate overturning resistance 1.5

Uplift Ultimate uplift resistance 1.4

Sliding Accord. to DIN 1054 1.4

The influence of ground water shall be taken into account. The bulk density and the
submerged density of the soil must be assumed to be greater than can be judged to
correspond to the actual conditions in each individual case.

Where the ground water table is high, shallow foundations are preferable from a
constructional point of view.

7.4 Settlements

The risk of vibrations, erosion, change in the level of the ground-water table and other factors
which can reduce the bearing capacity of the soil or give rise to settlement shall be taken into
account when founded in soil.

For foundations in cohesive soil types and loosely stratified friction soil, the risk of dangerous
settlements shall always be taken into account. This applies in particular to foundations for
structures which shall chiefly withstand prolonged unilateral loads and to foundations of
statically indeterminate structures which are particularly sensitive to uneven settlements.

7.5 Foundation Bolts

The performance of foundation bolts shall comply with the relevant approved standards and
together with threads, nuts, plates and washers shall conform with the following :-

The projecting part of external foundation bolts and the length within 100mm of the concrete
surface shall be protected from corrosion by hot-dip galvanising.

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 11 of: 18


Permissible tensile stress is obtained by dividing the yield and the ultimate stress by the factor
of safety according to the table below. For each load combination the lower value calculated
is chosen as the permissible stress.

Factory of safety for yield point 1.5

Factory of safety for ultimate stress 2.0

7.5.1 Grouting Below Base Plates

Nominal thickness of grouting shall be 25 mm unless stated otherwise. Where thickness


greater than 50 mm are to be produced, consideration shall be given to the integration of a
fine aggregate filler.

Prepacked bags of non-shrink cementitious grout material shall be used. The minimum
compressive strength of grout shall be 75 N/mm 2 and concrete adhesion shall be 6 N/mm2.

Grout shall be mixed with requisite quantity of potable water and shall be placed by an
approved method in strict accordance with MANUFACTURER/SUPPLIER recommendations.

7.6 Reinforcement in Concrete Upstand Over Floor

Upstands shall be reinforced where these project from a base by more than 25% of the
plinth's minimum plan dimension, or where other than holding down bolts housed in tubes are
used, or where plinths project from an unreinforced base.

In all cases the top levels of plinths are to be not less than 150 mm above the finished level of
surrounding concrete floor.

7.6.1 Particular Requirements

Reinforced concrete foundations placed below grade shall be protected from the harmful
effects of sulphate and chlorine bearing soil by:

(a) Lining all trenches with polythene or bitumen impregnated sheeting, 1000g min
thickness.

(b) Painting with coal tar epoxy (300 microns) parts of bases and plinths which are in contact
with earth or sand.

(c) Providing a 100 mm thick layer of blinding concrete over the sheeting at foundation
formation level.

Low, grade-level, bases or plinths may be left unreinforced provided that the holding down
bolts are sufficiently embedded in the foundation sub-structure.

Bases as above, and normally reinforced bases, should be provided with a nominal
reinforcing mesh across their top surfaces where necessary to resist thermal stresses.

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 12 of: 18


Concrete bases, plinths and piers shall extend not less than 50 mm beyond the edges of plant
or equipment base rings, fixed base plates, or slide plates.

The bottom of soil bearing foundations shall extend to good soil and be at least 500 mm
below finished grade.

Foundations for small equipment such as pumps and drums which do not weigh more than
500 kg may be supported on concrete paving or floors, provided the connecting piping is
small and flexible to take care of differential settlement. Footings for stairs, ladders and light
structural members may also be supported in this manner with the 500 kg limit, provided
differential settlement will not cause any harmful effects to the structures or supporting piping.

Where foundations or footings are supported on paving or floor slabs, these shall be locally
reinforced as required and provision made for distribution of loading. This type of support
shall be avoided over or near underground lines which will require excavation for inspection
and maintenance.

8. STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

8.1 Type Of Construction And Bracing

- All building and 'structures' or parts thereof shall be designed on the basis of elastic
principle, utilising the 'fully rigid design' and/or 'simple design' philosophy. The principles
of 'plastic design' shall not be permitted.

- All structural steelwork shall be designed to have adequate capacity to withstand all the
loads or forces which are likely to occur simultaneously.

- Where bracing is utilised, it shall be positioned so that the specified headroom and other
clearances are strictly maintained.

- All compound members comprising two sections (e.g. angles, channels or tees) placed
back to back, welded or bolted, shall be spaced apart sufficiently to allow for subsequent
material preparation, painting and future maintenance. Compound battened members
shall also be arranged in such a manner that all surfaces are accessible.

- Areas which are subjected to wash down or spillage shall receive special attention as to
the floor construction adopted, involving the use of solid steel plate or concrete flooring to
replace open grid steel flooring.

8.2 Minimum Sizes Of Structural Members/Components

- The thickness of all structural members shall be a minimum of 7 mm except in the case
of webs of structural sections which shall be a minimum thickness of 6 mm and sealed
tubes which shall be not thinner than 4 mm.

- The thickness of all plates and gussets shall not less than 8 mm.

- The thickness of all cap plates shall not be less than 10 mm.

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 13 of: 18


- In any structural steelwork connection a minimum of 2 (two) bolts shall be provided in the
direct shear plane.

- Unless otherwise indicated on the structural drawings, all principal and minor
connections of members shall be made with 20 mm diameter bolts. In some
circumstances the diameter of bolts is governed by the size of the connected part, and in
this event the size may be reduced to suit, but shall never be smaller than 16 mm
diameter.

- Stanchion bases generally shall be of 'pin type' philosophy but where the stanchion shaft
is over 500mm deep and not tapered at the bottom, then 'rigid design' principles shall be
adopted with the resulting forces and moments determined and shown on the
appropriate foundation loading short.

- All shop connection shall be welded

- Minimum fillet weld size shall be 5mm.

- Welds shall be continuous unless noted otherwise.

8.3 Definition of Loads In Various Conditions Of Application

Buildings and structures shall be designed for all anticipated loads and for combinations of
loads to which they are likely to be subjected. This section covers the definition of the loads to
be considered.

8.3.1 Dead loads

8.3.1.1 Dead load Conditions

Dead loads shall be considered for the following three conditions.

A Erection Condition

Dead load for 'erection' condition shall be taken as the sum of the following:

1) Own weight of structure (excluding fireproofing).

2) Weight of pipes empty (excluding weight of insulation).

3) Weight of empty equipment (shipping weight of equipment).

4) Weight of cladding.

B Operation Condition

Dead load for 'operating' condition shall be taken as the sum of the following:

1) Owner weight of structure, fireproofing, platforms, ladders, etc.

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 14 of: 18


2) Weight of pipes (including operating fluid and weight of insulation)

3) Operation weight of equipment.

4) Weight of cladding, electrical and instrument installations.

C Test Condition

Dead load for 'test' condition shall be taken as the sum of the following:

1) Own weight of structure, fireproofing, platforms, ladders etc.

2) Weight of pipes full of water.

3) Weight of equipment under hydrostatic test.

4) Weight of cladding, electrical and instrument installations.

8.3.1.2 Weights of Building Materials

Unit weights of building materials shall be in accordance with BS 6399, Part 1and BS 648.

8.3.1.3 Equipment Weights

a. Weights of equipment in empty, operating and test conditions shall be taken from
equipment Vendor's drawing, ensuring that weights are certified correct.

b. Weight of equipment in empty condition (shipping weight) shall exclude the weight of all
removable vessel internals, trays, catalysts, etc.

c. Operating weight of equipment shall be increased by 15% to allow for piping attached to
the equipment; piping and equipment insulation and fireproofing Vessel operating weight
shall include weight of internal and weight of fluid content.

d. Test weights of equipment shall be increased 10% to allow for attached piping.

e. Large vessels (test weight exceeding 200 kN), in close proximity to one another, shall
not be considered under test condition simultaneously.

8.3.1.4 Additional Forces from Equipment/Piping

These forces shall be considered as dead loads for the purpose of determining applicable
Load Factors from BS 5950: to be used in design.

a. Friction Force

One equipment with one end free to slide, the friction force from expansion or contraction
of the equipment shall be assumed at 25% of the operating weight carried by each stool
or 4.5 kN per stool whichever is the greater. This force acts parallel to the main axis of

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 15 of: 18


the equipment, being equal in magnitude and opposite in direction at each support, and
shall be applied at the top of the stool.

b. Pipe Thrust

For all equipment with the largest nozzle over 6 inches nominal diameter a pipe thrust of
1.2 KN per inch of one largest diameter nozzle is to be allowed for, acting in any
direction. Only 50% of the cumulative forces from various items of equipment shall be
considered in the design of longitudinal and transverse frames.

8.3.1.5 Electrical and Instrument Loads on Structures and Piperacks.

Loading from electrical and instrument installation shall be allowed for, i.e. trays, troughs,
control panels, cables, etc., including protection barriers to cables. Design weight of cables
alone shall be taken initially as 1.5 KN/m 2, but this figure should be checked against final
electrical drawings.

8.3.2 Imposed Loading

Imposed loads shall be determined in accordance with BS 6399: Part 1.

Roofs, Floors, Platforms and Walkways

a) Access platforms and walkways 5.0 KN/m 2.

b) Working/operating/maintenance floors 5.0 KN/m2.

c) Special areas such as permanent storage, erection or maintenance etc. loading as


specified by client or determined by calculation based upon usage.

d) All roofs shall be designed for a minimum loading of 1.5 KN per sq.m in addition to the
applied plant loads. At the same time all roofs shall be designed to withstand an
additional load of 70 kg. placed in any position on and area 250 sq.mm without distortion
of the sheeting, overloading or abnormal deflection of any element.

e) Roof areas liable to short term loading during the installation or maintenance of plant
shall be designed to withstand such loading in addition to and at the same time as that
described.

8.3.3 Contingency

Load factors for contingency loads to be used in design to BS 5950: Part 1 shall be taken as
those applicable to dead loads.

The beams in floors, piperacks, platforms and walkways, etc., shall be designed for a
concentrated load which shall be applied in such positions on the structural member under
consideration so as to give the most severe conditions both for bending moment and for
vertical shear.

This load shall be additional to the loads specified elsewhere in this specification.

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 16 of: 18


This load shall not be taken as cumulative to beams and stanchions.

The following concentrated loads shall be applied:

a. platform and walkways.

b. Floor trimmers in buildings, equipment structures, and piperack ties.

c. Beams in buildings and equipment structures (excluding floor trimmers) and all piperack
beams including longitudinal edge beams

8.4 Load Combinations

Load combinations shall be considered to determine the most unfavourable conditions for
foundations, structures, buildings and individual members.

8.5 Load Factors For Limit State Design

Ultimate Limit States

Load factors to be applied to the loads when considering the strength requirements and
stability of a structures shall be in accordance with Table 2 of BS 5950 Part 1.

Serviceability Limit States

When determining deflection of a structure under serviceability loading, unfactored loads


should be used (load factor = 1.0).

8.6 Material Strength

Design strengths shall be reduced where steel members are subject to temperatures above
310ºC.

8.7 Deflections

Horizontal elements of all structural frames shall be designed for the following vertical
deflection criteria:

a. Operating condition 1/360

b. Test condition 1/200

c. Gantry girders 1/1000 or 1/600

d. Cantilevers 1/200 at free end

e. Purlins 1/250

f. Beams carrying water tanks


And vertical tall vessels, etc. 1/750

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 17 of: 18


g. Beams supporting plant machinery and other similar equipment shall receive special
consideration concerning allowable vertical deflection and shall be confirmed by the
plant manufacturer.

Maximum total horizontal deflection of portal frame construction due to all loads except
thermal forces shall be as follows:

a. Equipment structures h/200

b. Buildings (clad steel framed) h/300

The maximum deflection of flooring shall not exceed 10mm.

8.8 Miscellaneous Loading

Handrails for stairs, platforms or other uses shall be designed to withstand a horizontal
uniform load of 0.75 KN/m applied at the top of rail.

Davits shall be designed to withstand a lateral force of 20% of the lifted load.

8.9 Pre-Engineered Buildings

Pre-engineered "package" type buildings may be provided as an alternative to buildings


designed using hot rolled sections. It this case the builders shall conform to the intent of this
specification, however alternative recognised national standards may be substituted for those
referenced in the text above, provided these are approved by ADWEA/ENGINEER.

Construction of such buildings may incorporate sections fabricated from steel plate in lieu of
hot rolled sections provided these are demonstrated by calculations to be adequate.

Design of structures for pre-engineered buildings shall be as per Metal Building


Manufacturers Association (MBBA) recommendations and as approved by
ADWEA/ENGINEER.

Client ADWEA
Project: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR WATER WORKS
Title: SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL/STRUCTURAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER
WORKS

tender: project: document: W-C-SS-003 rev: 0 sheet: 18 of: 18