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HKDSE CHEMISTRY – A Modern View

(Second Edition)

(Chemistry and Combined Science)


Coursebook 2
Suggested answers

Chapter 14 Introduction to acids and alkalis Page


Number
 Class practice 1

 Think about 3

 Chapter exercise 3

Chapter 15 Concentration of solutions

 Class practice 9

 Self-test 11

 Think about 12

 Chapter exercise 13

Chapter 16 Indicators and pH

 Class practice 24

 Think about 25

 Chapter exercise 26

Chapter 17 Strength of acids and alkalis

 Class practice 30

 Think about 31

 Chapter exercise 31

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Chapter 18 Salts and neutralization

 Class practice 35

 Think about 38

 Chapter exercise 38

Chapter 19 Volumetric analysis involving acids and alkalis

 Class practice 46

 Self-test 51

 Think about 52

 Try it now 53

 Chapter exercise 53

 Part exercise 64

Chapter 20 Hydrocarbons from fossil fuels

 Class practice 71

 Think about 72

 Chapter exercise 73

Chapter 21 Homologous series, structural formulae and naming of


carbon compounds
 Class practice 78

 Think about 82

 Try it now 82

 Chapter exercise 82

Chapter 22 Alkanes and alkenes

 Class practice 88

 Think about 89

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 Chapter exercise 90

Chapter 23 Addition polymers

 Class practice 93

 Think about 94

 Chapter exercise 94

⚫ Part exercise 98

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

Chapter 14 Introduction to acids and alkalis

Class Practice
A14.1 (p.14-6)
(a) 2Al(s) + 3H2SO4(aq) → Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 3H2(g)
2Al(s) + 6H+(aq) → 2Al3+(aq) + 3H2(g)
(b) Ca(s) + 2HCl(aq) → CaCl2(aq) + H2(g)
Ca(s) + 2H+(aq) → Ca2+(aq) + H2(g)

A14.2 (p.14-7)
(a) Mg(OH)2(s) + H2SO4(aq) → MgSO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)
Mg(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq) → Mg2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)
(b) ZnO(s) + 2HNO3(aq) → Zn(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l)
ZnO(s) + 2H+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + H2O(l)

A14.3 (p.14-8)
(a) Magnesium dissolves to give a colourless solution/effervescence occurs (or
colourless gas bubbles evolve)/the solution becomes warm. (Any ONE)
Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)
Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) → Mg2+(aq) + H2(g)
(b) Aluminium oxide dissolves to give a colourless solution/the solution becomes
warm. (Any ONE)
Al2O3(s) + 3H2SO4(aq) → Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 3H2O(l)
Al2O3(s) + 6H+(aq) → 2Al3+(aq) + 3H2O(l)
(c) Iron(II) hydroxide dissolves to give a pale green solution/the solution becomes
warm. (Any ONE)
Fe(OH)2(s) + 2HCl(aq) → FeCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
Fe(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq) → Fe2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)
(d) Copper(II) carbonate dissolves to give a pale blue solution/effervescence occurs
(or colourless gas bubbles evolve). (Any ONE)
CuCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq) → CuSO4(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
CuCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) → Cu2+(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

A14.4 (p.14-13)
1. Magnesium reacts with the hydrogen ions (from ascorbic acid) to give hydrogen
gas.
Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) → Mg2+(aq) + H2(g)

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

2. (a) There is no colour change to the blue litmus paper.


When there is no water, liquid ethanoic acid (pure) cannot ionize to give
H+(aq) and thus cannot exhibit acidic properties.
(b) The blue litmus paper turns red.
In the presence of water, ethanoic acid ionizes to give H+(aq) and thus can
exhibit acidic properties.

A14.5 (p.14-14)
(a) 1 (monobasic)
(b) 2 (dibasic)

A14.6 (p.14-19)
1. (a) (i) Potassium hydroxide
(ii) H+(aq) + OH–(aq) → H2O(l)
(b) (i) Magnesium oxide, zinc hydroxide and copper(II) oxide
(ii) MgO(s) + 2H+(aq) → Mg2+(aq) + H2O(l)
Zn(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)
CuO(s) + 2H+(aq) → Cu2+(aq) + H2O(l)

2. (a) 2KOH(aq) + CO2(g) → K2CO3(aq) + H2O(l)


2OH–(aq) + CO2(g) → CO32–(aq) + H2O(l)
(b) 2NH4Cl(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) → 2NH3(g) + CaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
NH4+(aq) + OH–(aq) → NH3(g) + H2O(l)

A14.7 (p.14-22)
1. (a) (i) Mg2+(aq) + 2OH–(aq) → Mg(OH)2(s)
(ii) The colour of the precipitate is white.
(iii) There would be no observable change.
(b) (i) Fe2+(aq) + 2OH–(aq) → Fe(OH)2(s)
(ii) The colour of the precipitate is dirty green.
(iii) There would be no observable change.
2.
Colour of the metal Is the metal hydroxide soluble in
Metal ion
hydroxide excess NaOH(aq)? excess NH3(aq)?
3+
Al (aq) white yes no
Cu2+(aq) pale blue no yes
2+
Pb (aq) white yes no
Zn2+(aq) white yes yes

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

A14.8 (p.14-24)
(a) They all contain hydroxide ions.

water
(b) (i) KOH(s) → K+(aq) + OH–(aq)
water
(ii) Ca(OH)2(s) ⇌ Ca2+(aq) + 2OH–(aq)
water
(iii) NH3(g) → NH3(aq)

NH3(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ NH4+(aq) + OH–(aq)

(c) (i) NH4+(aq) + OH–(aq) → NH3(g) + H2O(l)


(ii) Ca(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq) → Ca2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)
(iii) Cu2+(aq) + 2OH–(aq) → Cu(OH)2(s)

A14.9 (p.14-29)
(a) Wear safety spectacles.
(b) Stopper properly the bottles of concentrated acids or concentrated alkalis.
Perform the experiments in fume cupboard to avoid breathing in any of their
vapours.
(c) Wear protective gloves and laboratory coat.
(d) When diluting concentrated sulphuric acid, add the acid to a large amount of
water slowly with constant stirring.

Think about
Think about (p.14-2)
1. In addition to carbon dioxide, salt and water would also form in the reaction.
2. Refer to Figure 14.1 on p.3 and Figure 14.15 on p.15 of this chapter for some
examples of household substances which contain acids and alkalis respectively.
3. Refer to p.4 to 8 and p. 16 to 22 of this chapter for the general properties of acids
and alkalis respectively.

Chapter exercise (p.14-36)


1. hydrogen ion
2. water; water; hydrogen; H+
3. basicity; monobasic; dibasic
4. salt; water; alkali
5. hydroxide; OH–
6. hydrogen ions; oxidizing; oxidizing; dehydrating
7. corrosive; hydroxide ions

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

8. (a) (i) The iron nail dissolves slowly to give a pale green solution/a few
colourless gas bubbles evolve. (Any ONE)
(ii) Fe(s) + 2H+(aq) → Fe2+(aq) + H2(g)
(b) (i) Magnesium oxide powder dissolves to give a colourless solution.
(ii) MgO(s) + 2H+(aq) → Mg2+(aq) + H2O(l)
(c) (i) Sodium hydrogencarbonate powder dissolves to give a colourless
solution/colourless gas bubbles evolve. (Any ONE)
(ii) HCO3–(aq) + CH3COOH(aq) → CH3COO–(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) OR
HCO3–(aq) + H+(aq) → H2O(l) + CO2(g)
(d) (i) A colourless gas with a pungent smell evolves. The gas can turn moist
red litmus paper blue.
(ii) NH4+(aq) + OH–(aq) → NH3(g) + H2O(l)
(e) (i) A dirty green precipitate forms.
(ii) Fe2+(aq) + 2OH–(aq) → Fe(OH)2(s)
(f) (i) A white precipitate forms.
(ii) Al3+(aq) + 3OH–(aq) → Al(OH)3(s)

9. (a) The limewater turns milky and then becomes clear again.
Ca(OH)2(aq) + CO2(g) → CaCO3(s) + H2O(l)
CaCO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) → Ca2+(aq) + 2HCO3−(aq)
(b) A pale blue precipitate forms. Then, the precipitate dissolves in excess
aqueous ammonia to give a deep blue solution.
Cu2+(aq) + 2OH–(aq) → Cu(OH)2(s)
Cu(OH)2(s) + 4NH3(aq) → [Cu(NH3)4]2+(aq) + 2OH–(aq)
(c) A white precipitate forms. Then, the precipitate dissolves in excess sodium
hydroxide solution to give a clear colourless solution.
Zn2+(aq) + 2OH–(aq) → Zn(OH)2(s)
Zn(OH)2(s) + 2OH–(aq) → [Zn(OH)4]2–(aq)

10. (a) Add equal masses of calcium granules separately to the two excess but
equal volumes of acids. Calcium granules dissolve completely in dilute
hydrochloric acid, but do not dissolve completely in dilute sulphuric acid.
(b) Heat the two solutions separately with sodium hydroxide solution. Test any
gas evolved with a piece of moist red litmus paper. Ammonium nitrate
solution gives out a gas which can turn moist red litmus paper blue. There is
no observable change for sodium nitrate solution.
(c) Add dilute hydrochloric acid separately to the two solutions. Test any gas
evolved with limewater. Potassium carbonate solution gives out a gas which

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

can turn limewater milky. There is no observable change for potassium


sulphate solution.

11. C
Tea contains tannic acid.

12. A
A ‘pop’ sound is heard when the hydrogen gas formed is burnt with a burning
splint.

13. C
Dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with metals which are higher than copper in the
metal reactivity series.

14. D
Equation for the reaction: ZnO(s) + H2SO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + H2O(l)

15. D
(A): carbon dioxide is produced.
(B): carbon dioxide is produced.
(C): hydrogen is produced.
(D): Equation for the reaction:
CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) → CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l)

16. B
Ionic equation is an equation which includes only those species that are produced
or changed during the reaction.

17. B
Refer to Section 14.3 for details.

18. B
Citric acid crystals and hydrogen chloride gas do not contain H+(aq) ions. Hence,
they do not show the properties of acids.

19. C
Both HNO3 and CH3COOH are monobasic acids. H2SO4 is a dibasic acid. H3PO4
is a tribasic acid.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

20. C

21. D
Refer to p.15 of chapter 14 for details.

22. A
(1): 2KOH(aq) + SO2(g) → K2SO3(aq) + H2O(l)
(2): 2KOH(aq) + CO2(g) → K2CO3(aq) + H2O(l)

23. B
Both Pb(NO3)2 and Al(NO3)3 react with sodium hydroxide solution to form a
white precipitate. The white precipitates dissolve in excess sodium hydroxide
solution to give a colourless solution.

24. D
Upon heating, (NH4)2SO4 reacts with NaOH(aq) to give NH3(g), which has a
pungent smell. MgSO4 reacts with NaOH(aq) to give a white precipitate of
Mg(OH)2(s). The white precipitate cannot dissolve in excess NaOH(aq).

25. B
(1): a pale blue precipitate of copper(II) hydroxide forms.
(2): a white precipitate of magnesium hydroxide forms.
(3): a reddish brown precipitate of iron(III) hydroxide forms.

26. C
Dry litmus paper does not contain water. Ammonia gas cannot ionize to give
OH–(aq) ions and thus cannot exhibit properties of alkalis.

27. A
(1): KOH dissociates in water to give OH–(aq) ions, which turn the litmus paper
blue.
(2): Cu(OH)2 is insoluble in water and hence no OH–(aq) ions form.
(3): CH3COOH ionizes in water to give H+(aq) ions, not OH–(aq) ions.

28. C

29. B
Refer to p.27 of chapter 14 for details.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

30. (a) Carbon dioxide


(b) Gas Y can turn limewater milky. Carbon dioxide reacts with calcium
hydroxide to form a white precipitate (calcium carbonate).
Ca(OH)2(aq) + CO2(g) → CaCO3(s) + H2O(l)
(c) In the presence of water, the solid acid ionizes to give H+(aq) ions which
react with sodium hydrogencarbonate to give carbon dioxide.
(d) H+(aq) + HCO3–(aq) → H2O(l) + CO2(g)
(e) 2NaHCO3(s) → Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

31. (a) Ethanoic acid


(b) 1 (monobasic)
(c) (i) Magnesium ribbon dissolves to give a colourless solution.
Effervescence occurs (or colourless gas bubbles evolve).
The solution becomes warm.
A hissing sound is heard.
(ii) Mg(s) + 2CH3COOH(aq) → (CH3COO)2Mg(aq) + H2(g)
(d) (i) This is because carbon dioxide forms.
(ii) Na2CO3(aq) + 2CH3COOH(aq)
→ 2CH3COONa(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

32. Firstly, add aqueous ammonia separately to the solutions of the samples of the
three metal ions until a white precipitate is seen. Only the white precipitate
formed from Zn2+ can dissolve in excess aqueous ammonia.
Then, add sodium hydroxide solution separately to the samples of the remaining
two solutions of metal ions until a white precipitate is seen. Only the white
precipitate formed from Pb2+ can dissolve in excess sodium hydroxide solution.
The white precipitate formed from Mg2+ neither dissolves in excess sodium
hydroxide solution nor excess aqueous ammonia.

33. (a) Equation for the reaction between carbon dioxide and dilute sodium
hydroxide solution:
2NaOH(aq) + CO2(g) → Na2CO3(aq) + H2O(l)
Equation for the reaction between carbon dioxide and dilute calcium
hydroxide solution:
Ca(OH)2(aq) + CO2(g) → CaCO3(s) + H2O(l)
(b) There will be no observable change when carbon dioxide is bubbled into
dilute sodium hydroxide solution. The sodium carbonate formed is soluble
in water.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

The calcium hydroxide solution turns milky and then becomes clear again.
The white calcium carbonate formed is insoluble in water. When excess
carbon dioxide is bubbled into the milky solution, it reacts with the calcium
carbonate in the solution to form soluble calcium hydrogencarbonate.
(c) Add excess dilute hydrochloric acid to the resultant solution and see if any
colourless gas bubbles evolve. If colourless gas bubbles evolve, this shows
that sodium hydroxide solution has reacted with carbon dioxide.
Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(The sodium carbonate formed from the reaction between carbon dioxide
and sodium hydroxide solution will react with dilute hydrochloric acid to
give carbon dioxide.)

34. (a) Add solid calcium hydroxide to water and stir the mixture for a long time.
Then, filter the suspension to get the clear filtrate.
(b) Hydroxide ion
(c) 2NH4NO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) → Ca(NO3)2(aq) + 2NH3(g) + 2H2O(l)
(d) (i) A white precipitate forms.
Ca2+(aq) + CO32−(aq) → CaCO3(s)
(ii) A pale blue precipitate forms.
Cu2+(aq) + 2OH−(aq) → Cu(OH)2(s)

35. (a) Fe2+(aq) and Cu2+(aq)


Iron(II) hydroxide: dirty green
Copper(II) hydroxide: pale blue
(b) Mg2+(aq)
Mg2+(aq) + 2OH−(aq) → Mg(OH)2(s)
(c) Hydroxide ion/OH−(aq)

NH3(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ NH4+(aq) + OH−(aq)

(d) As an active ingredient of window cleaners.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

Chapter 15 Concentration of solutions

Class Practice
A15.1 (p.15-7)
0.05 mol
1. (a) Molarity of the solution = = 0.2 mol dm−3
250.0
dm 3
1000
(b) Molar mass of KMnO4 = (39.1 + 54.9 + 16.0 × 4) g mol−1 = 158.0 g mol−1
Concentration of solution in g dm–3
= 0.2 mol dm−3 × 158.0 g mol−1 = 31.6 g dm−3

10.0 g
2. (a) (i) Concentration of KOH solution = 3
= 20 g dm−3
0.5 dm
(ii) Molar mass of KOH = (39.1 + 16.0 + 1.0) g mol−1 = 56.1 g mol−1

20 g dm −3
Molarity of KOH solution = −1
= 0.357 mol dm−3
56.1 g mol

12.1 g
(b) (i) Concentration of KNO2 solution = = 12.1 g dm−3
1000 3
dm
1000
(ii) Molar mass of KNO2 = (39.1 + 14.0 + 16.0 × 2) g mol−1 = 85.1 g mol−1
12.1 g dm −3
Molarity of KNO2 solution = −1
= 0.142 mol dm−3
85.1 g mol
9.8 g
(c) (i) Concentration of H2SO4 solution = 3
= 4.9 g dm−3
2.0 dm
(ii) Molar mass of H2SO4 = (1.0 × 2 + 32.1 + 16.0 × 4) g mol−1
= 98.1 g mol−1
4.9 g dm −3
Molarity of H2SO4 solution = −1
= 0.050 mol dm−3
98.1 g mol
6.62 g
(d) (i) Concentration of Pb(NO3)2 solution = = 26.48 g dm−3
250.0 3
dm
1000
(ii) Molar mass of Pb(NO3)2 = [207.2 + 2 × (14.0 + 16.0 × 3)] g mol−1
= 331.2 g mol−1
26.48 g dm −3
Molarity of Pb(NO3)2 solution = = 0.07995 mol dm−3
331.2 g mol −1

3. Mass of 20.0 dm3 conc. HCl = 20.0 × 1000 cm3 × 1.19 g cm−3 = 23 800 g

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

Mass of HCl in 20.0 dm3 conc. HCl = 23 800 g × 38.0% = 9044 g


9044 g
Number of moles of HCl = = 247.8 mol
(1.0 + 35.5) g mol −1
247.8 mol
Molarity of conc. HCl = 3
= 12.4 mol dm−3
20.0 dm

A15.2 (p.15-9)
50.0
1. Number of moles of Na2SO4 present = 0.40 mol dm−3 × dm 3 = 0.02 mol
1000
0.80 mol
2. Volume of the NaOH solution = −3
= 1.6 dm3
0.50 mol dm
500.0
3. (a) Number of moles of Na2SO4 = 0.50 mol dm−3 × dm 3 = 0.25 mol
1000
Mass of Na2SO4 = 0.25 mol × (23.0 × 2 + 32.1 + 16.0 × 4) g mol−1
= 35.5 g
(b) Number of moles of Na2CO3 = 0.15 mol dm−3 × 0.25 dm3 = 0.0375 mol
Mass of Na2CO3 = 0.0375 mol × (23.0 × 2 + 12.0 + 16.0 × 3) g mol−1
= 3.98 g

A15.3 (p.15-12)
1. 1 mole of Al2(SO4)3 contains 2 moles of Al3+ ions and 3 moles of SO42− ions.
∴molarity of Al3+ ions = 0.50 M × 2 = 1.0 M;
molarity of SO42− ions = 0.5 M × 3 = 1.5 M

25.0
2. Number of moles of K2CO3 = 0.20 mol dm−3 × dm 3 = 5 × 10−3 mol
1000
1 mole of K2CO3 contains 2 moles of K+ ions and 1 mole of CO32− ions.
∴number of moles of K+ ions = 5 × 10−3 × 2 mol = 0.01 mol
number of moles of CO32− ions = 5 × 10−3 mol

3. Number of moles of HCl (before dilution) = Number of moles of HCl (after dilution)
M1V1 = M2V2
25.0
0.5 × = 0.05 × V2
1000
V2 = 0.25
Volume of diluted HCl(aq) obtained = 0.25 dm3 (or 250.0 cm3)
∴volume of water to be added = (250.0 − 25.0) cm3 = 225.0 cm3

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

4. Number of moles of NaOH (before dilution) = Number of moles of NaOH (after dilution)
M1V1 = M2V2
200.0
1.60 × V1 = 0.20 ×
1000
V1 = 0.025
∴volume of 1.60 M NaOH(aq) needed = 0.025 dm3

Self-test
Self-test 15.1 (p.15-5)
0.50 mol
(a) Molarity of the solution = = 2 mol dm−3
250.0 3
dm
1000
(b) Concentration of solution in g dm−3 = 2 mol dm−3 × (39.1 + 35.5) g mol−1
= 149.2 g dm−3

Self-test 15.2 (p.15-6)


8.0 g
(a) Concentration of solution in g dm−3 = = 80 g dm−3
100.0 3
dm
1000
(b) Molar mass of NH4NO3 = (14.0 × 2 + 1.0 × 4 + 16.0 × 3) g mol−1 = 80.0 g mol−1
8 .0 g
Number of moles of NH4NO3 = = 0.1 mol
80.0 g mol −1
0.1 mol
Molarity of the solution = = 1 mol dm−3
100.0 3
dm
1000

Self-test 15.3 (p.15-7)


Mass of the 1.0 dm3 sample of concentrated sulphuric acid
= 1.83 g cm−3 × (1.0 × 1000) cm3 = 1830 g
Mass of H2SO4 in the 1.0 dm3 sample = 1830 g × 98.0% = 1793.4 g
Number of moles of H2SO4 in the acid sample
1793.4 g
= = 18.3 mol
(1.0  2 + 32.1 + 16.0  4) g mol −1
18.3 mol
Molarity of the concentrated sulphuric acid = 3
= 18.3 mol dm−3
1.0 dm

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

Self-test 15.4 (p.15-8)


500.0
Number of moles of CuSO4 present = 0.5 mol dm−3 × dm 3 = 0.25 mol
1000

Self-test 15.5 (p.15-8)


0.40 mol
Volume of Na2SO4 solution = −3
= 0.8 dm3 (or 800 cm3)
0.50 mol dm

Self-test 15.6 (p.15-9)


100.0
Number of moles of K2Cr2O7 = 0.25 mol dm−3 × dm 3 = 0.025 mol
1000
Mass of K2Cr2O7 = 0.025 mol × (39.1 × 2 + 52.0 × 2 + 16.0 × 7) g mol−1 = 7.36 g

Self-test 15.7 (p.15-11)


Number of moles of HCl (before dilution) = Number of moles of HCl (after dilution)
M1V1 = M2V2
50.0 500.0
5.0 × = M2 ×
1000 1000
M2 = 0.5
∴the molarity of the diluted acid is 0.5 M.

Self-test 15.8 (p.15-11)


Number of moles of CuSO4 (before dilution) = Number of moles of CuSO4 (after dilution)
M1V1 = M2V2
100.0
3.0 × = 0.5 × V2
1000
V2 = 0.6
Volume of diluted CuSO4(aq) obtained = 0.6 dm3 (or 600.0 cm3)
∴volume of water to be added = (600.0 − 100.0) cm3 = 500.0 cm3

Self-test 15.9 (p.15-12)


1 mole of Na3PO4 contains 3 moles of Na+ ions and 1 mole of PO43− ions.
∴molarity of Na+ ions = 0.5 M × 3 = 1.5 M;
molarity of PO43− ions = 0.5 M × 1 = 0.5 M

Think about
Think about (p.15-2)
1. The first solution on the right contains the largest amount of copper(II) ions.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

2. The concentration of a solution can be expressed quantitatively such as in g dm−3,


in mol dm−3 (molarity), etc.

Think about (p.15-10)


This saves money in purchasing aqueous bench reagents of various concentrations
and reduces space for storage.

Chapter exercise (p.15-16)


1. mass; volume
2. moles; volume
3. molar mass
4.
Mass Molarity
Molar Volume Concentration
Formula of
mass (g of of solution
of solute solute solution cation anion
mol–1) solution (in g dm–3)
(g)
2.00 1.00
NaCl 58.5 117 1.00 M 1.00 M 58.5
dm3 M
1.00 0.100 0.100
AgNO3 169.9 17.0 0.100 M 17.0
dm3 M M
500 0.05
Na2CO3 106.0 2.65 0.05 M 0.1 M 5.3
cm3 M
1.50 0.206 0.412
MgCl2 95.3 29.4 0.206 M 19.6
dm3 M M
12.0
C6H12O6 180.0 0.36 0.167 M – – 30.0
cm3

5. (a) Number of moles of Na2SO3


1.58 g
= = 0.0125 mol
(23.0  2 + 32.1 + 16.0  3) g mol −1
0.0125 mol
Molarity of the Na2SO3 solution = = 0.05 mol dm−3
250.0
dm 3
1000
2.14 g
(b) Number of moles of NH4Cl = = 0.04 mol
(14.0 + 1.0  4 + 35.5) g mol −1
0.04 mol
Molarity of the NH4Cl solution = = 0.8 mol dm−3
50.0
dm 3
1000

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

(c) Number of moles of Ca(NO3)2


6.47 g
= = 0.0394 mol
[40.1 + 2  (14.0 + 16.0  3)] g mol −1
0.0394 mol
Molarity of the Ca(NO3)2 solution = = 0.394 mol dm−3
100.0 3
dm
1000
9.21 g
(d) Number of moles of NaCl = = 0.157 mol
(23.0 + 35.5) g mol −1
0.157 mol
Molarity of the NaCl solution = = 0.314 mol dm−3
500.0
dm 3
1000
7.93 g
(e) Number of moles of FeSO4 = = 0.0522 mol
(55.8 + 32.1 + 16.0  4) g mol −1
0.0522 mol
Molarity of the FeSO4 solution = = 0.696 mol dm−3
75.0 3
dm
1000
6. D
Concentration of K2SO4 solution
= 0.35 mol dm−3 × (39.1 × 2 + 32.1 + 16.0 × 4) g mol−1 = 61.0 g dm−3

7. D
Number of moles of C8H5O4K used
1.63 g
= −1
= 7.99 × 10−3 mol
(12.0  8 + 1.0  5 + 16.0  4 + 39.1) g mol
7.99  10 −3 mol
Molarity of C8H5O4K solution obtained = = 0.080 mol dm−3
100.0
dm 3
1000

8. B
In 1.0 dm3 of 0.05 M H2SO4(aq), number of moles of H2SO4
= 0.05 mol dm−3 × 1.0 dm3 = 0.05 mol
Number of moles of H+ ions in 1.0 dm3 of 0.05 M H2SO4(aq)
= 0.05 × 2 mol = 0.10 mol
0.10 mol  1.0 g mol −1
+
Concentration of H in the acid solution = = 0.10 g dm−3
1.0 dm 3

9. C
Number of moles of oxalic acid used

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

4.83 g
= = 0.0383 mol
2  (12.0 + 16.0  2 + 1.0) + 2  (1.0  2 + 16.0) g mol −1
0.0383 mol
Molarity of oxalic acid solution needed = = 0.153 mol dm−3
250.0
dm 3
1000

10. D
9.31 g
Number of moles of NaOH = = 0.233 mol
(23.0 + 16.0 + 1.0) g mol −1
0.233 mol
Molarity of NaOH(aq) = = 2.33 mol dm−3
100.0 3
dm
1000
9.31 g
Concentration of NaOH(aq) = = 93.1 g dm−3
100.0 3
dm
1000

11. B
Number of moles of NaOH in 100.0 cm3 of 0.5 M NaOH(aq)
100.0
= 0.5 mol dm−3 × dm 3 = 0.05 mol
1000
Number of moles of NaOH in 200.0 cm3 of 1.5 M NaOH(aq)
200.0
= 1.5 mol dm−3 × dm3 = 0.3 mol
1000
(0.05 + 0.3) mol
Molarity of the resultant NaOH(aq) =
(100.0 + 200.0)
dm 3
1000
= 1.17 mol dm−3

12. A
26.4
Number of moles of CH3COOH = 0.091 mol dm−3 × dm3 = 0.0024 mol
1000

13. C
Number of moles of NaOH in 250.0 cm3 of 1.0 M NaOH(aq)
250.0
= 1.0 mol dm−3 × dm3 = 0.25 mol
1000
(A): Number of moles of NaOH in 100.0 cm3 of 4.0 M NaOH(aq)

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

100.0 3
= 4.0 mol dm−3 × dm = 0.4 mol
1000
(B): Number of moles of NaOH in 200.0 cm3 of 1.5 M NaOH(aq)
200.0
= 1.5 mol dm−3 × dm3 = 0.3 mol
1000
(C): Number of moles of NaOH in 500.0 cm3 of 0.5 M NaOH(aq)
500.0
= 0.5 mol dm−3 × dm3 = 0.25 mol
1000
(D): Number of moles of NaOH in 1000 cm3 of 0.2 M NaOH(aq)
1000 3
= 0.2 mol dm−3 × dm = 0.2 mol
1000

14. B
12.0 g
Number of moles of NaOH used = = 0.3 mol
(23.0 + 1.0 + 16.0) g mol −1
0.3 mol
Volume of NaOH(aq) obtained = −3
= 0.15 dm3 = 150 cm3
2.00 mol dm

15. B
1 mole of MgCl2 contains 1 mole of Mg2+ ions and 2 moles of Cl− ions.
∴molarity of Mg2+ ions = 0.05 M (given)
molarity of Cl− ions = 0.05 × 2 M = 0.10 M
Number of moles of Cl− ions in FeCl3 = (0.40 − 0.10) M = 0.30 M
1 mole of FeCl3 contains 1 mole of Fe3+ ions and 3 moles of Cl− ions.
0.30
∴molarity of Fe3+ ions in the solution = M = 0.10 M
3

16. C
250.0
Number of moles of glucose needed = 0.167 × mol = 0.04175 mol
1000
Mass of glucose needed
= 0.04175 mol × (12.0 × 6 + 1.0 × 12 + 16.0 × 6) g mol−1
= 7.515 g

17. D

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

Solution 1 Solution 2
(A) Mass of Na2SO4 Mass of Na2SO4
500 100
= 0.50 × × 142.1 g = 35.5 g = 2.50 × × 142.1 g = 35.5 g
1000 1000
(B) Mass of Na2CO3 Mass of Na2CO3
= 0.15 × 0.25 × 106.0 g = 3.975 g = 0.75 × 0.05 × 106.0 g = 3.975 g
(C) Mass of NaOH Mass of NaOH
25 = 0.05 × 0.05 × 40.0 g = 0.1 g
= 0.10 × × 40.0 g = 0.1 g
1000
(D) Mass of NaCl Mass of NaCl
100 = 0.02 × 0.025 × 58.5 g
= 0.05 × × 58.5 g = 0.2925 g
1000 = 0.02925 g

18. B
Number of moles of Na2CO3 (before dilution)
= Number of moles of Na2CO3 (after dilution)
M1V1 = M2V2
100
2× = 0.5 × V2
1000
V2 = 0.4
Volume of diluted Na2CO3(aq) obtained = 0.4 dm3 (or 400 cm3)
∴volume of water to be added = (400 − 100) cm3 = 300 cm3

19. B
Number of moles of KNO3 (before evaporation)
= Number of moles of KNO3 (after evaporation)
M1V1 = M2V2
250.0 220.0
0.05 × = M2 ×
1000 1000
M2 = 0.057
∴molar concentration of the remaining solution is 0.057 M.

20. B
Number of moles of H2SO4 (before dilution)
= Number of moles of H2SO4 (after dilution)
M1V1 = M2V2
250.0
0.50 × V1= 0.15 ×
1000

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

V1 = 0.075
3 3
∴0.075 dm or 75.0 cm of 0.50 M H2SO4(aq) is needed.

21. B
In the process of dilution, as only water is added to the solution, the number of
moles of solute in the solution does not change.

22. C
1 mole of Fe2(SO4)3 contains 2 moles of Fe3+ ions and 3 moles of SO42− ions.
∴molar concentration of Fe3+ ions = 0.13 × 2 M = 0.26 M
molar concentration of SO42− ions = 0.13 × 3 M = 0.39 M

23. B
(1) 1 mole of NaNO3 contains 1 mole of Na+ ions and 1 mole of NO3−
ions. Total number of moles of ions
36
= 1.0 × × 2 mol = 0.072 mol
1000
(2) 1 mole of NaOH contains 1 mole of Na+ ions and 1 mole of OH− ions.
Total number of moles of ions
30
= 1.5 × × 2 mol = 0.09 mol
1000
(3) 1 mole of K2SO4 contains 2 moles of K+ ions and 1 mole of SO42−
ions. Total number of moles of ions
24
= 1.0 × × 3 mol = 0.072 mol
1000

24. C
Total number of moles of K+ ions present
50.0 100.0
= (0.75 × × 2 + 0.5 × × 2) mol = 0.175 mol
1000 1000
Concentration of K+ ions in the resultant solution
0.175 mol
= = 1.17 mol dm−3
(50.0 + 100.0)
dm 3
1000

25. B
Since the number of moles of NO3− ions = 2.0 × 10−3 mol,

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

2.0  10 −3
number of moles of Ca(NO3)2 = mol = 1.0 × 10−3 mol
2
1.0  10 −3 mol
Molarity of Ca(NO3)2 solution = = 0.02 mol dm−3
50.0
dm 3
1000

26. B
3.0 g
Number of moles of Mg(NO3)2 =
[24.3 + 2  (14.0 + 16.0  3)] g mol −1
= 0.0202 mol
Total number of moles of ions = 0.0202 × 3 mol = 0.0606 mol
0.0606 mol
Concentration of ions in the solution = = 0.606 M ≈ 0.61 M
100.0 3
dm
1000

0.35 mol
27. (a) Molarity of the solution = = 1.4 mol dm−3 (or 1.4 M)
250.0 3
dm
1000
(b) Molar mass of K2CO3
= (39.1 × 2 + 12.0 + 16.0 × 3) g mol−1 = 138.2 g mol−1
Concentration of the solution
= 1.4 mol dm−3 × 138.2 g mol−1 = 193.48 g dm−3

28. (a) Number of moles of the solute present


125.0 3
= 1.5 mol dm−3 × dm = 0.188 mol
1000
(b) Molar mass of Mg(NO3)2
= [24.3 + 2 × (14.0 + 16.0 × 3)] g mol−1 = 148.3 g mol−1
Mass of the solute present = 0.188 mol ×148.3 g mol−1 = 27.9 g

29. (a) Molar mass of sucrose


= (12.0 × 12 + 1.0 × 22 + 16.0 × 11) g mol−1 = 342.0 g mol−1
5g
Number of moles of sucrose = = 0.0146 mol
342.0 g mol −1
Concentration limit of sugar in ‘low sugar’ drinks
0.0146 mol
= = 0.146 mol dm−3
100 3
dm
1000

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

(b) According to the regulations, a 375 ml of drinks is said to be ‘low sugar’ if


375 ml
it contains not more than 5 g × = 18.75 g of sugar. Hence, the carton
100 ml
of 375 ml lemon tea, which contains 26.5 g of sugar, cannot claim to have
‘low sugar’ content.

30. (a) Cu(s) + 2Ag+(aq) → Cu2+(aq) + 2Ag(s)


(b) A silvery solid formed. The solution changed from colourless to blue.
0.635 g
(c) Number of moles of Cu used = = 0.01 mol
63.5 g mol −1
Number of moles of Ag+ ions in 100 cm3 of 0.5 M AgNO3(aq)
100
= 0.5 mol dm−3 × dm3 = 0.05 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of Cu to Ag+ is 1 : 2.
∴Cu is the limiting reactant.
Number of moles of Cu2+ formed = 0.01 mol
In the resultant solution,
0.01 mol
Concentration of Cu2+ions = = 0.1 mol dm−3
100 3
dm
1000
(0.05 − 0.02) mol
Concentration of Ag+ ions = = 0.3 mol dm−3
100
dm 3
1000

31. (a) Number of moles of oxalic acid present


1.8 g
= = 0.0143 mol
[(12.0 + 16.0  2 + 1.0)  2 + (1.0  2 + 16.0)  2] g mol −1
(b) Molarity of 25.0 cm3 of solution of oxalic acid
0.0143 mol
= = 0.572 mol dm−3
25.0
dm 3
1000
(c) Number of moles of oxalic acid (before dilution)
= Number of moles of oxalic acid (after dilution)
M1V1 = M2V2
25.0 250.0
0.572 × = M2 ×
1000 1000
M2 = 0.0572
∴the molarity of the diluted oxalic acid solution is 0.0572 mol dm–3.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

32. (a) Number of moles of HNO3 (before dilution)


= Number of moles of HNO3 (after dilution)
M1V1 = M2V2
45.0
0.65 × = 0.45 ×V2
1000
V2 = 0.065
Volume of diluted HNO3(aq) obtained = 0.065 dm3 (or 65.0 cm3)
∴volume of distilled water to be added = (65.0 − 45.0) cm3 = 20.0 cm3
(b) Number of moles of HNO3 (before evaporation)
= Number of moles of HNO3 (after evaporation)
M1V1 = M2V2
30.0
0.45 × 0.065 = M2 ×
1000
M2 = 0.975
∴molarity of HNO3(aq) after evaporation is 0.975 mol dm−3.

33. (a) Mass of NH3 in 1 dm3 of the solution


= 0.68 g cm−3 × 1 cm3 × 34% = 0.231 g
Mass of NH3 in 1 dm3 of the solution = 0.231 g × 1000 = 231 g
231 g
(b) Molarity of this solution = = 13.6 mol dm−3
(14.0 + 1.0  3) g mol −1
1 dm 3
(c) Number of moles of NH3 (before dilution) = Number of moles of NH3 (after dilution)
M1V1 = M2V2
13.6 × 1 = 1 × V2
V2 = 13.6
∴volume of distilled water needed = (13.6 − 1.0) dm3 = 12.6 dm3

34. (a) Monobasic acid is an acid which when ionizes in water, each molecule will
give 1 hydrogen ion.
(b) When the ‘fizzy drink’ tablet is added to water, the citric acid and ascorbic
acid ionize to give hydrogen ions, H+(aq). The hydrogen ions then react
with sodium hydrogencarbonate to give carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide
causes the fizz.
H+(aq) + HCO3−(aq) → H2O(l) + CO2(g)
(c) Number of moles of ascrobic acid in 1000 mg of ‘fizzy drink’ tablet

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

1000
g
= 1000 = 5.68 × 10−3 mol
−1
(12.0  6 + 1.0  8 + 16.0  6) g mol
Molarity of the ascorbic acid in the solution
5.68  10 −3 mol
= = 0.0227 mol dm−3
250.0
dm 3
1000

35. Molar mass of Na2CO3•10H2O


= [(23.0 × 2 + 12.0 + 16.0 × 3) + 10 × (1.0 × 2 + 16.0)] g mol−1 = 286.0 g mol−1
25.0 g
Number of moles of Na2CO3•10H2O = = 0.0874 mol
286.0 g mol −1
0.0874 mol
Molarity of 250.0 cm3 of the Na2CO3 solution = = 0.350 mol dm–3
250.0
dm 3
1000
1 mole of Na2CO3•10H2O contains 2 moles of Na+ ions and 1 mole of CO32−
ions.
∴molarity of Na+ ions = 0.350 × 2 mol dm−3 = 0.700 mol dm−3;
molarity of CO32− ions = 0.350 mol dm−3

36. Number of moles of Na+ ions in 100.0 cm3 of 1.5 M Na2SO4(aq)


100.0 3
= 1.5 mol dm−3× dm × 2 = 0.3 mol
1000
Number of moles of Na+ ions in 200.0 cm3 of 2.0 M NaCl(aq)
200.0
= 2.0 mol dm−3× dm3 = 0.4 mol
1000
Number of moles of Cl− ions in 200.0 cm3 of 2.0 M NaCl(aq)
200.0
= 2.0 mol dm−3× dm3 = 0.4 mol
1000
Number of moles of K+ ions in 100.0 cm3 of 1.0 M KCl(aq)
100.0 3
= 1.0 mol dm−3× dm = 0.1 mol
1000
Number of moles of Cl− ions in 100.0 cm3 of 1.0 M KCl(aq)
100.0 3
= 1.0 mol dm−3× dm = 0.1 mol
1000

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

(a) Molarity of Na+(aq) in the resultant solution


(0.3 + 0.4) mol
= = 1.75 mol dm−3
(100.0 + 200.0 + 100.0) 3
dm
1000
(b) Molarity of K+(aq) in the resultant solution
0.1 mol
= = 0.25 mol dm−3
(100.0 + 200.0 + 100.0) 3
dm
1000
(c) Molarity of Cl−(aq) in the resultant solution
(0.4 + 0.1) mol
= = 1.25 mol dm−3
(100.0 + 200.0 + 100.0) 3
dm
1000

37. Mass of NaOCl in 10 cm3 of chlorine bleach


= 10 cm3 × 1.0 g cm−3 × 6% = 0.6 g
Number of moles of NaOCl in 10 cm3 of chlorine bleach
0.6 g
= −1
= 8.05 × 10−3 mol
(23.0 + 16.0 + 35.5) g mol
8.05  10 −3 mol
Molarity of the diluted chlorine bleach = = 7.97 × 10−3 mol dm−3
10 + 1000 3
dm
1000

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

Chapter 16 Indicators and pH

Class practice
A16.1 (p.16-5)
(a) HCl ionizes completely in water according to the following equation:
HCl(aq) → H+(aq) + Cl−(aq)
∴concentration of H+(aq) = 0.01 M
pH = −log[H+(aq)]
= −log 0.01
=2
(b) HCl ionizes completely in water according to the following equation:
HCl(aq) → H+(aq) + Cl−(aq)
∴concentration of H+(aq) = 0.10 M
pH = −log[H+(aq)]
= −log 0.10
=1
(c) HCl ionizes completely in water according to the following equation:
HCl(aq) → H+(aq) + Cl−(aq)
∴concentration of H+(aq) = 1.00 M
pH = −log[H+(aq)]
= −log 1.00
=0
(d) HNO3 ionizes completely in water according to the following equation:
HNO3(aq) → H+(aq) + NO3−(aq)
∴concentration of H+(aq) = 0.50 M
pH = −log[H+(aq)]
= −log 0.50
= 0.30
(e) H2SO4 ionizes completely in water according to the following equation:
H2SO4(aq) → 2H+(aq) + SO42−(aq)
∴concentration of H+(aq) = 0.10 × 2 M = 0.20 M
pH = −log[H+(aq)]
= −log 0.20
= 0.70

A16.2 (p.16-6)
1. Solution A is slightly acidic.
Solution B is highly acidic.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

Solution C is slightly alkaline.


Solution D is neutral.

2. (a) Magnesium ribbon reacts with the hydrogen ions in dilute hydrochloric acid
to give hydrogen gas.
Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) → Mg2+(aq) + H2(g)
When H+(aq) ions are consumed, [H+(aq)] decreases. Thus, the pH of the
solution increases.
(b) Hydrogen chloride gas dissolves in water and ionizes completely to give
hydrogen ions. When H+(aq) ions form, [H+(aq)] increases. Thus, the pH of
the solution decreases.

A16.3 (p.16-8)
B: Incorrect conclusion. When the colour of litmus is blue, the pH of the solution
must be greater than 8 which is alkaline.
C: Incorrect conclusion. Phenolphthalein is colourless when the pH of the solution is
below 8.3. The solution can be acidic, neutral or slightly alkaline.

A16.4 (p.16-11)
(a) Ethanoic acid
(b) (i) Add a few drops of universal indicator to a sample of vinegar. Then,
compare the colour produced by the solution with that of the colour chart to
determine the pH value of the vinegar.
(ii) Dip the pH electrode into a sample of vinegar. Then, read the pH value
shown on the display of the pH meter.

Think about
Think about (p.16-2)
1. pH is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration in an
aqueous solution.
2. The pH of some common substances can be measured by using universal
indicator, pH paper, pH meter or data-logger with pH sensor.

Think about (p.16-3)


1. Yes. When [H+(aq)] > 1 M, pH has a negative value. For example, when [H+(aq)]
= 1.5 M, pH = −log 1.5 = −0.176.
2. No. pH values may not necessarily be whole number as seen in (1). One more
example, when [H+(aq)] = 0.5 M, pH = −log 0.5 = 0.301.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

Think about (p.16-7)


No. The pH values of water and aqueous ammonia (0.1 M) are 7 and 11 respectively.
Methyl orange has a yellow colour when the pH value of a solution is above 4.4.

Chapter exercise (p.16-16)


1. (a) higher
(b) equal
(c) lower
2. pH; –log [H+(aq)]
3. higher; H+(aq)
4. pH; methyl orange; litmus; phenolphthalein
5. Universal; Universal; pH
6. pH meter, pH sensor
7. (a) pH = –log [H+(aq)]
= –log (1.8  10–5) = 4.7
∴the solution is acidic.
(b) pH = –log [H+(aq)]
= –log (7.2  10–9) = 8.1
∴the solution is alkaline.
(c) pH = –log [H+(aq)]
= –log (5.5  10–7) = 6.3
∴the solution is acidic.
(d) pH = –log [H+(aq)]
= –log 0.04 = 1.4
∴the solution is acidic.

8. (a) pH = –log [H+(aq)]


4.7 = –log [H+(aq)]
[H+(aq)] = 2.0  10–5 M
(b) pH = –log [H+(aq)]
12.5 = –log [H+(aq)]
[H+(aq)] = 3.2  10–13 M
(c) pH = –log [H+(aq)]
3.7 = –log [H+(aq)]
[H+(aq)] = 2.0  10–4 M
(d) pH = –log [H+(aq)]
7.0 = –log [H+(aq)]
[H+(aq)] = 1.0  10–7 M

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

9. A
Among the four substances, only soap solution is alkaline.

10. C
(A): the pH of lemon juice is about 2.5.
(B): the pH of household ammonia is about 10.
(C): the pH of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid is 1.
(D): the pH of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide is 13.

11. A
Refer to p.3 of chapter 16 for details.

12. A
(3): aqueous ammonia turns red litmus paper blue.

13. A
pH = −log [H+(aq)]
= −log 0.002
= 2.7

14. A
(A): pH = −log 0.05 = 1.3
(B): pH = −log (0.05 × 2) = 1
(C): pH = −log 0.10 = 1
(D): pH = −log (0.10 × 2) = 0.70

15. B
1 mole of H2SO4 ionizes in water to give 2 moles of H+ and 1 mole of SO42−.
∴concentration of H+(aq) = 0.03 × 2 M = 0.06 M
pH = −log [H+(aq)]
= −log 0.06
= 1.2

16. D
Let the [H+(aq)] in a solution be y mol dm−3.
pH = −log y
If the solution is diluted by 100 times,

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

y
[H+(aq)] = = 0.01y
100
The new pH value, pH’ = −log 0.01y
= −(log 0.01 + log y)
= −log 0.01 − log y
= −(−2) + pH
= 2 + pH

17. A
Copper has no reaction with 0.5 M hydrochloric acid. The concentration of
hydrogen ions and hence the pH of the hydrochloric acid would remain
unchanged.

18. C
Silver has no reaction with 0.5 M sodium hydroxide solution. The concentration
of hydroxide ions and hydrogen ions in sodium hydroxide solution would remain
unchanged. Hence the pH of the sodium hydroxide solution would also remain
unchanged.

19. A
(1): the concentration of hydrogen ions in an acid solution decreases if water is
added to the acid. Thus, the pH value increases.
(2): the number of moles of hydrogen ions in an acid solution remains unchanged
if water is added to the acid.

20. A
Refer to p.7 of chapter 16 for details.

21. A
(A): methyl orange has a red colour when the pH of the solution is below 3.1.
The solution is acidic.
(B): methyl orange has a yellow colour when the pH of the solution is above 4.4.
The solution can be acidic, neutral or alkaline.
(C): phenolphthalein is colourless when the pH of the solution is below 8.3. The
solution can be acidic, neutral or alkaline.
(D): litmus has a purple colour when the pH of the solution is between 5 and 8.
The solution can be acidic, neutral or alkaline.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

22. C
The pH value of calcium hydroxide solution is about 12.

23. A
The pH value of lemon juice is about 2.5.

24. B

25. B

26. (a) Measure the pH values of the two acids separately (by using a pH meter).
The pH of sulphuric acid is higher than that of the hydrochloric acid.
(b) Add equal masses of calcium granules separately to the two excess but
equal volumes of acids. Calcium granules dissolve completely in
hydrochloric acid, but do not dissolve completely in sulphuric acid.

27. (a) pH of 0.0005 M HCl(aq) = −log 0.0005 = 3.3


∴the colour of bromothymol blue is yellow.
(b) pH of the solution = −log (3.2 × 10−13) = 12.5
∴the colour of phenolphthalein is pink.
(c) About 4.4 to 6.0.

28. (a) Use pH paper/universal indicator/pH meter/data-logger with pH sensor


(Any TWO)
(b) Oven cleaner, distilled water, orange juice
(c) Orange juice

29. (a) pH meter


(b) The solution is acidic. This is because its pH value is below 7 at room
temperature and pressure.
(c) pH = –log [H+(aq)]
2.87 = –log [H+(aq)]
[H+(aq)] =1.35  10–3 mol dm–3
(d) pH = –log [H+(aq)]
1.35  10−3
pH = –log ( )
2
= 3.17
(e) Easy to use and quick to obtain accurate readings.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

Chapter 17 Strength of acids and alkalis

Class practice
A17.1 (p.17-5)
(a) Sulphuric acid molecules
(b) Hydrogen ions, nitrate ions, water molecules; hydroxide ions
(c) Citric acid molecules, hydrogen ions, citrate ions, water molecules; hydroxide
ions
(d) Ammonia molecules, ammonium ions, hydroxide ions, water molecules,
hydrogen ions

A17.2 (p.17-8)
(a) Hydroxide ions

(b) NH3(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ NH4+(aq) + OH–(aq)

(c) The pH value of 0.1 M NaOH(aq) is higher than that of 0.1 M NH3(aq). This
suggests that 0.1 M NaOH(aq) has a higher concentration of hydroxide ions than
0.1 M NH3(aq). NaOH(aq) is a stronger alkali.
(d) NaOH(aq) is a stronger alkali than NH3(aq). For the same molar concentration of
the two alkalis, the former has a higher concentration of mobile ions than the
latter. Hence, 0.1 M NaOH(aq) has a higher electrical conductivity than 0.1 M
NH3(aq).

A17.3 (p.17-10)
1. (a) The statement is wrong. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid which can ionize
completely in water. It has a high pH (5) because it is a very dilute solution.
(It should be noted that pH is a measure of [H+(aq)] but not a measure of
strength of acids or alkalis.)
(b) The statement is wrong. Ethanoic acid is a weak acid whatever its
concentration is.

2. (a) Dip the pH electrode separately into the three acids. Then, read the pH
value shown on the display of the pH meter.
(b) Order of pH of the three acids: 2.0 M ethanoic acid, 2.0 M hydrochloric
acid, 2.0 M sulphuric acid
Ethanoic acid ionizes only slightly in water to give hydrogen ions, while
both hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid ionize more completely in water
to give hydrogen ions. In addition, each sulphuric acid molecule can give

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two hydrogen ions in water, while each hydrochloric acid molecule can give
only one hydrogen ion.
Hence, 2.0 M sulphuric acid contains the highest concentration of hydrogen
ions while 2.0 M ethanoic acid contains the lowest.

Think about
Think about (p.17-2)
1. The difference in concentrations of hydrogen ions in the acids.
2. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid. It ionizes completely in water to give
hydrogen ions and chloride ions. Ethanoic acid is a weak acid. It ionizes only
slightly in water to give hydrogen ions and ethanoate ions. Hence, for the same
molarity, hydrochloric acid has a higher concentration of hydrogen ions than
ethanoic acid for the reaction with magnesium ribbon.

Think about (p.17-4)


pH = –log [H+(aq)]
For 0.1 M hydrochloric acid,
1.00 = –log [H+(aq)]
[H+(aq)] = 0.1 M
For 0.1 M ethanoic acid,
2.88 = –log [H+(aq)]
[H+(aq)] = 1.32 × 10–3 M

Think about (p.17-4)


Sulphuric acid ionizes in water in two steps.
H2SO4(aq) → H+(aq) + HSO4–(aq)

HSO4–(aq) ⇌ H+(aq) + SO42–(aq)

The second step of the ionization is reversible. Therefore, some HSO4–(aq) ions are
found in the aqueous solution of sulphuric acid.

Chapter exercise (p.17-14)


1. (a) completely; highly; hydrochloric acid
(b) slightly; ethanoic
2. (a) completely; sodium hydroxide
(b) slightly; ammonia
3. (a) higher
(b) lower

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(c) higher

4. D
A strong acid is an acid which ionizes completely (or highly) in water.

5. C
Ethanoic acid ionizes only slightly in water to give hydrogen ions and ethanoate
ions. In addition, ethanoic acid is acidic. It contains more hydrogen ions than
hydroxide ions.

6. B
(1): ethanoic acid is a monobasic acid.
(3): ethanoic acid reacts with aqueous ammonia to give salt (CH3COONH4).

7. C
In diagram C, acid ionizes completely in water to give hydrogen ions and the
corresponding anions.

8. C
Both NaOH(aq) and NH3(aq) form a white precipitate when they react with
Mg(NO3)2(aq).

9. C
(1): the respective pH of 0.5 M NaOH(aq) and 0.5 M NH3 are 12.7 and 11.5, and
litmus solution gives a blue colour at the pH of solution above 8.
(2): 0.5 M KOH(aq) has a higher pH than 0.5 M NH3(aq). Hence, the colours of
universal indicator are different in these two alkalis.
(3): both KOH(aq) and NH3(aq) form a reddish brown precipitate with
Fe2(SO4)3(aq).

10. A
Among the four acids, only nitric acid is the strong acid. Nitric acid ionizes
completely in water to give hydrogen ions for the reaction. Sulphurous acid,
phosphoric acid and citric acid are weak acids. A longer time is needed for them
to ionize in water to give enough hydrogen ions for the reaction.

11. B

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12. (a) HCl(aq) is a strong acid. 0.1 M HCl(aq) will ionize completely in water to
give 0.1 M of H+(aq).
(b) pH = –log [H+(aq)]
= –log 0.1
=1
(c) CH3COOH(aq) is a weak acid. It ionizes only slightly in water to give a
small amount of H+(aq) ions. 0.1 M CH3COOH(aq) gives H+(aq) ions with
concentration lower than 0.1 M. Hence, the pH of 0.1 M CH3COOH(aq) is
not 1 but higher than 1.

13. (a) Ethanoic acid is a weak acid, while hydrochloric acid is a strong acid.
(b) A strong acid is one which ionizes completely in water. A weak acid is one
which ionizes only slightly in water.
(c) Since hydrochloric acid is a stronger acid than ethanoic acid, it ionizes more
completely than ethanoic acid. For the same molar concentration of the two
acids, hydrochloric acid has a higher molar concentration of hydrogen ions.
Thus, it has a lower pH.
(d) Using a pH meter.

14. (a) pH = –log [H+(aq)]


2.0 = –log [H+(aq)]
[H+(aq)] = 0.01
∴the molarity of acid Y is 0.01 M.
(b) X and Z have the same molarity and basicity but X has a lower pH value
than Z. This suggests that X ionizes in water more completely than Z and
hence contains a higher concentration of hydrogen ions. Therefore, X is a
stronger acid than Z.

15. (a) MgCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) → Mg2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)


(b) Add equal masses of lumps of magnesium carbonate separately to excess
but equal volumes of 0.1 M sulphuric acid and 0.1 M sulphurous acid.
Compare the rate of evolution of colourless gas bubbles (carbon dioxide).
The one that gives out colourless gas bubbles more quickly is the stronger
acid.
(c) Sulphuric acid is a stronger acid than sulphurous acid. Hence, for the same
molar concentration of acids, sulphuric acid contains more hydrogen ions
for the reaction with magnesium carbonate. It reacts with magnesium
carbonate more quickly to give carbon dioxide. As a result, 0.1 M sulphuric

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acid gives out colourless gas bubbles more quickly than 0.1 M sulphurous
acid.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

Chapter 18 Salts and neutralization

Class practice
A18.1 (p.18-6)
(a) 2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)
OH–(aq) + H+(aq) → H2O(l)
(b) CH3COOH(aq) + KOH(aq) → CH3COOK(aq) + H2O(l)
CH3COOH(aq) + OH–(aq) → CH3COO–(aq) + H2O(l) OR
H+(aq) + OH–(aq) → H2O(l)
(c) Al(OH)3(s) + 3HNO3(aq) → Al(NO3)3(aq) + 3H2O(l)
Al(OH)3(s) + 3H+(aq) → Al3+(aq) + 3H2O(l)
(d) Fe2O3(s) + 6HCl(aq) → 2FeCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l)
Fe2O3(s) + 6H+(aq) → 2Fe3+(aq) + 3H2O(l)

A18.2 (p.18-9)
(a) 20.0 cm3
(b) For equal molar concentrations of NaOH(aq) and HCl(aq), equal volumes of the
acid and the alkali would neutralize each other completely. As there is 30.0 cm3
of alkali added, it is in excess. Thus, the resultant solution is alkaline.
(c) Neutralization is an exothermic reaction. No more heat is given out when the
neutralization is complete. Addition of excess alkali will cool the reaction
mixture. Thus, the temperature drops.
(d) (33.0 – 15.0)C = 18.0C
(e) Although the volumes of the acid and alkali used are doubled, the number of
moles of H+(aq) and OH–(aq) reacting are also doubled. Twice as much heat is
given out, but this is used to heat up twice the volume of the solution. Hence, the
maximum temperature change will be about +18.0C.

A18.3 (p.18-12)
1. (a) Salt: copper(II) chloride Parent acid: hydrochloric acid
(b) Salt: iron(III) sulphate Parent acid: sulphuric acid
(c) Salt: zinc nitrate Parent acid: nitric acid

2. (a) CH3COONa
(b) Pb(NO3)2
(c) (NH4)2SO4
(d) Ca(HCO3)2

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3. (a) Mg(s) + H2SO4(aq) → MgSO4(aq) + H2(g)


Magnesium sulphate
(b) Cu(OH)2(s) + 2HNO3(aq) → Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
Copper(II) nitrate
(c) Al2O3(s) + 3H2SO4(aq) → Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 3H2O(l)
Aluminium sulphate
(d) (NH4)2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NH4Cl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
Ammonium chloride

A18.4 (p.18-13)
(a) Soluble
(b) Insoluble
(c) Soluble
(d) Soluble
(e) Insoluble
(f) Insoluble
(g) Insoluble
(h) Insoluble

A18.5 (p.18-16)
1. (a) Magnesium oxide/magnesium hydroxide/magnesium carbonate (Any TWO)
Dilute hydrochloric acid
(b) MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l)
Magnesium oxide dissolves to give a colourless solution/the solution
becomes warm. (Any ONE) OR
Mg(OH)2(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
Magnesium hydroxide dissolves to give a colourless solution/the solution
becomes warm. (Any ONE) OR
MgCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
Magnesium carbonate dissolves to give a colourless solution/colourless gas
bubbles evolve. (Any ONE)

2. (a) CaCO3 + H2SO4 → CaSO4 + CO2 + H2O


(b) When dilute sulphuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate, the insoluble
calcium sulphate formed would coat on the surface of calcium carbonate.
This prevents the calcium carbonate from further reaction with the acid, so
the reaction quickly slows down and then stops.

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3. Add zinc carbonate to dilute hydrochloric acid until it is in excess.


Filter the reaction mixture and collect the filtrate (i.e. zinc chloride solution).
Heat the filtrate until it becomes saturated. Then, allow it to cool slowly to room
temperature. Zinc chloride crystals will form after some time.
Filter the remaining solution to obtain the crystals. Wash the crystals with a little
cold distilled water.
Finally, dry the crystals using filter paper.

A18.6 (p.18-20)
(a) Yes. HNO3(aq) and NaOH(aq)
(b) Yes. HCl(aq) and NH3(aq)
(c) No. Mg(OH)2 and MgCO3 are insoluble in water. So, no aqueous solutions of
these substances can be prepared for titration.
(d) No. Pb(OH)2 and PbCO3 are insoluble in water. So, no aqueous solutions of these
substances can be prepared for titration.

A18.7 (p.18-22)
1. (a) AgNO3(aq) + NaBr(aq) → AgBr(s) + NaNO3(aq)
Ag+(aq) + Br–(aq) → AgBr(s)
(b) Mg(NO3)2(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) → MgCO3(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)
Mg2+(aq) + CO32–(aq) → MgCO3(s)

2. (a) Impracticable. All salts are soluble in water. Mg(HCO3)2 cannot be


separated out by crystallization.
(b) Practicable
(c) Impracticable. PbSO4 is insoluble in water. Pb2+ ions in the solid state
cannot combine with the Cl– ions in the aqueous solution.

3. Dissolve silver nitrate in distilled water (if solid silver nitrate is provided). Then,
mix silver nitrate solution with (excess) sodium chloride solution. Precipitate of
silver chloride will form. Filter the reaction mixture to obtain the precipitate.
Wash the precipitate with a large amount of distilled water. Finally, dry the
precipitate using filter paper or in oven.

A18.8 (p.18-24)
1. Ca(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq) → Ca2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)

2. His/her statement is correct. Egg shells contain calcium carbonate which can

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neutralize the acid in soil.


CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) → Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

A18.9 (p.18-26)
(a) 2NH3 + H2SO4 → (NH4)2SO4
(b) 2HNO3 + Na2CO3 → 2NaNO3 + CO2 + H2O
(c) 2NaOH + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2H2O

Think about
Think about (p.18-2)
1. Neutralization
2. Salt and water
3. Adjusting soil pH, neutralizing excess acid in stomach, treating industrial liquid
waste, producing fertilizer, etc.

Think about (p.18-4)


No. This is because Cu2+ ions change from solid state to aqueous solution in the
reaction.

Think about (p.18-14)


No, we cannot. It would be extremely dangerous because these metals react
explosively with acids.

Think about (p.18-23)


No. This is because sodium hydroxide is very corrosive. Besides, it may make the soil
too alkaline for plants to grow.

Think about (p.18-24)


No. Sodium hydroxide is very corrosive. So, it will cause serious burns in the mouth
and oesophagus. Aqueous ammonia is poisonous and has an irritating smell.

Chapter exercise (p.18-35)


1. hydrogen; oxide; water
2. released
3. ionizable; metal; ammonium
4. (a) metal; base; carbonate
(b) alkali; soluble
5. precipitation

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6. (a) pH
(b) acid
(c) waste
(d) fertilizer
7. (a) (i) 2HNO3(aq) + CaO(s) → Ca(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l)
(ii) 2H+(aq) + CaO(s) → Ca2+(aq) + H2O(l)
(iii) Calcium nitrate
(b) (i) H2SO4(aq) + FeO(s) → FeSO4(aq) + H2O(l)
(ii) 2H+(aq) + FeO(s) → Fe2+(aq) + H2O(l)
(iii) Iron(II) sulphate
(c) (i) 2CH3COOH(aq) + Mg(OH)2(s) → (CH3COO)2Mg(aq) + 2H2O(l)
(ii) 2CH3COOH(aq) + Mg(OH)2(s)
→ 2CH3COO–(aq) + Mg2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)
(iii) Magnesium ethanoate
(d) (i) HCl(aq) + NH3(aq) → NH4Cl(aq)
(ii) H+(aq) + NH3(aq) → NH4+(aq)
(iii) Ammonium chloride

8.
Salt Parent acid Base
Ammonium chloride HCl NH3
CuO/CuCO3/Cu(OH)2
Copper(II) sulphate H2SO4
(Any ONE)
FeO/FeCO3/Fe(OH)2
Iron(II) nitrate HNO3
(Any ONE)
KOH/K2CO3
Potassium ethanoate CH3COOH
(Any ONE)

9. Insoluble carbonate: CaCO3, Al2(CO3)3, ZnCO3, FeCO3, PbCO3, CuCO3,


Ag2CO3, BaCO3
Insoluble chloride: PbCl2, AgCl
Insoluble bromide: PbBr2, AgBr
Insoluble iodide: PbI2, AgI
Insoluble sulphate: CaSO4, PbSO4 (given), BaSO4

10. (a) Dilute sulphuric acid and copper(II) oxide, copper(II) hydroxide or
copper(II) carbonate
H2SO4(aq) + CuO(s) → CuSO4(aq) + H2O(l) OR

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

H2SO4(aq) + Cu(OH)2(s) → CuSO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) OR


H2SO4(aq) + CuCO3(s) → CuSO4(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(b) Lead(II) nitrate solution and sodium chloride solution
Pb2+(aq) + 2Cl–(aq) → PbCl2(s)
(c) Dilute nitric acid and potassium hydroxide solution or potassium carbonate
solution
HNO3(aq) + KOH(aq) → KNO3(aq) + H2O(l) OR
2HNO3(aq) + K2CO3(aq) → 2KNO3(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

11. C
Nitric acid is a strong acid and potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali. The
reaction is in fact the combination of H+(aq) and OH–(aq) ions to form water.

12. C

13. D
(1): aqueous ammonia is alkaline.
(2): the reaction between aqueous ammonia and dilute sulphuric acid is a
neutralization reaction, which is exothermic.
(3): Fe2+(aq) + 2OH–(aq) → Fe(OH)2(s)

14. C
Calcium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid to form calcium chloride,
carbon dioxide and water. Calcium carbonate is insoluble in water. So, no
alkaline solution would be left if calcium carbonate is used in excess.

15. A
Number of moles of Volume of the
water formed (mol) reaction mixture (cm3)
(1) 0.025 50.0
(2) 0.1 200.0
(3) 0.1 100.0

In (2), the amounts of H+(aq) and OH–(aq) ions reacting are four times that in (1).
But the heat produced in (2) is used to heat up the volume of the reaction mixture
four times that in (1). Hence, the temperature rises in (1) and (2) are roughly the
same.
In (3), the amounts of H+(aq) and OH–(aq) ions reacting are four times that in (1).

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But the heat produced in (3) is used to heat up the volume of the reaction mixture
twice that in (1). Hence, the temperature rises in (3) is higher than in (1).

16. B
(2): calcium oxide burns with a brick-red flame in the flame test.

17. B
2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → (NH4)2SO4(aq)

18. D

19. D
NaHCO3(s) + HNO3(aq) → NaNO3(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

20. C
Refer to p.12 of chapter 18 for details.

21. B
(1): Fe(OH)2 is insoluble in water.
(2): CuCl2 is soluble in water. When added to water, it dissolves to give a blue or
green solution.
(3): K2SO4 is soluble in water. When added to water, it dissolves to give a
colourless solution.

22. D
Copper does not react with dilute sulphuric acid.

23. D
Magnesium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide are insoluble in water. No
aqueous solutions of these substances can be prepared for titration.

24. C
Among the four salts, only BaSO4 is insoluble in water. It can be prepared by
mixing Ba(NO3)2 solution and Na2SO4 solution.

25. B
Among the four salts, only calcium carbonate is insoluble in water. Precipitate of
calcium carbonate formed can be separated from the reaction mixture by

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filtration.

26. B
(A): dilute sulphuric acid rather than sodium sulphate should be used. Mg(OH)2
does not react with sodium sulphate.
(C): copper does not react with dilute sulphuric acid.
(D): hydrochloric acid rather than silver chloride should be used to prepare
sodium chloride. This is because silver chloride is insoluble in water. No aqueous
solution of silver chloride can be prepared for titration.

27. C
(1): a blue precipitate of CuCO3 would form.

28. B
PbSO4 is an insoluble salt. It can be prepared by precipitation. Hence, Y should
be a soluble salt.

29. A
(1): calcium nitrate gives a brick-red flame, while magnesium nitrate does not
give any characteristic flame colour in flame test.
(2): a white precipitate of calcium sulphate forms when calcium nitrate is mixed
with dilute sulphuric acid.
(3): both calcium nitrate and magnesium nitrate has no reaction with dilute
hydrochloric acid.

30. D
Zn(NO3)2 reacts with aqueous ammonia to form a white precipitate of Zn(OH)2.
The Zn(OH)2 can dissolve in excess aqueous ammonia to give a colourless
solution.

31. A
The active ingredients of antacids are weak bases.

32. C

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

33. (a)

Temperature of reaction mixture (C)

Volume of NaOH(aq) added (cm3)

(b) The temperature of the reaction mixture rises because heat is given out
when NaOH(aq) reacts with HCl(aq).
The temperature of the reaction mixture reaches a maximum because
NaOH(aq) and HCl(aq) react completely with each other.
The temperature of the reaction mixture falls because addition of excess
NaOH(aq) will not give out heat but cool the mixture.
(c) H+(aq) + OH–(aq) → H2O(l)
(d) (40.0 − 20.0)C = 20.0°C
(e) (i) Since the numbers of moles of H+(aq) and OH–(aq) reacting are
doubled, the amount of heat released from the reaction mixture is also
doubled. The heat will be used to heat the same volume of the solution.
Therefore, the maximum temperature rise of the reaction mixture will
be doubled.
(ii) Although the numbers of moles of H+(aq) and OH–(aq) reacting are
doubled, the amount of heat released from the reaction mixture is also
doubled. The heat will be used to heat the doubled volume of the
solution. Therefore, the maximum temperature rise of the reaction
mixture is more or less the same.

34. (a) Silver is unreactive. It does not react with hydrochloric acid.
(b) Silver nitrate solution and sodium chloride solution.
(c) Ag+(aq) + Cl–(aq) → AgCl(s)

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

35. (a) Zinc nitrate


(b) ZnCO3(s) + 2HNO3(aq) → Zn(NO3)2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(c) Effervescene stops. Insoluble powdered smithsonite is seen.
(d) To make sure that all the nitric acid has been used up.
(e)

filter paper
excess powdered
filter funnel
smithsonite

filtrate (Zn(NO3)2(aq))

(f) Molar mass of Zn(NO3)2 = [65.4 + 2 × (14.0 + 16.0 × 3)] g mol–1


= 189.4 g mol–1
100.0
Number of moles of HNO3 used = 1.0 × mol = 0.1 mol
1000
ZnCO3(s) + 2HNO3(aq) → Zn(NO3)2 (aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
From the equation, mole ratio of HNO3 to Zn(NO3)2 is 2 : 1.
0.1
Number of moles of Zn(NO3)2 formed = mol = 0.05 mol
2
Theoretical mass of Zn(NO3)2 formed = 0.05 ×189.4 g = 9.47 g

36. (a) Titration


(b) No. This is because sodium sulphate is soluble in water.
(c) Acid X: dilute sulphuric acid; alkali Y: sodium hydroxide solution
(d) At this point, just enough acid X has been added to neutralize the alkali Y.
(e) Add a little activated charcoal to the coloured solution. Warm and then filter
the mixture. The filtrate would be a colourless solution of sodium sulphate.
OR
Repeat the experiment with exactly the same volumes of acid and alkali
needed for complete neutralization. However, do not add any methyl orange
indicator at the start this time.
(f) Crystallization

37. Dissolve solid zinc nitrate in distilled water. Then, mix the zinc nitrate solution
with (excess) sodium carbonate solution. Precipitate of zinc carbonate will form.
Filter the reaction mixture to obtain the precipitate. Wash the precipitate with a
large amount of distilled water. Finally, dry the precipitate using filter paper or in
oven.

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38. (a) CuO(s) + H2SO4(aq) → CuSO4(aq) + H2O(l)


(b) Copper(II) oxide should be used in excess. This is to ensure that all the acid
is used up. If not, the salt would be contaminated with the excess acid.
(c) Filter the reaction mixture and collect the filtrate (i.e. copper(II) sulphate
solution). Heat the filtrate until it becomes saturated. Then, allow it to cool
slowly to room temperature. Copper(II) sulphate crystals form after some
time. Filter the remaining solution to obtain the crystals. Wash the crystals
with a little cold distilled water. Finally, dry the crystals using filter paper.
(d) (i) This is because sodium hydroxide solution is very corrosive. If a few
drops of sodium hydroxide solution is added to his/her skin, he/she
may get skin burns.
(ii) He/she should wash the affected area with plenty of water.
(e) This is because the water of crystallization will be removed from copper(II)
sulphate crystals when heated. Anhydrous copper(II) sulphate is white in
colour.
CuSO4•5H2O(s) → CuSO4(s) + 5H2O(l)

39. (a) Calcium hydroxide


(b) CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g)
CaO(s) + H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(s)
(c) To neutralize the acid in soil.
(d) To neutralize the acidic industrial waste before discharge.
(e) Ca(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq) → Ca2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

Chapter 19 Volumetric analysis involving acids and alkalis

Class Practice
A19.1 (p.19-5)
(a) 25.0 cm3 pipette
(b) 25.0 cm3 measuring cylinder
(c) Electronic balance
(d) 250.0 cm3 volumetric flask

A19.2 (p.19-10)
500.0
(a) Number of moles of (COOH)2•2H2O needed = 0.1 × mol = 0.05 mol
1000
Mass of (COOH)2•2H2O needed
= 0.05 × [2 × (12.0 + 16.0 × 2 + 1.0) + 2 × (1.0 × 2 + 16.0)] g
= 6.3 g
6.45
(b) Number of moles of (COOH)2•2H2O used = mol = 0.0512 mol
126.0
0.0512
Molarity of the solution prepared = mol dm–3 = 0.102 mol dm–3
500.0
1000
(c) Yes. This is because the accurate molar concentration of the solution is known.
(d) Number of moles of ethanedioic acid (before dilution)
= Number of moles of ethanedioic acid (after dilution)
M1V1 = M2V2
250.0
0.102 × V1= 0.0150 ×
1000
V1 = 0.0368
∴the volume of the 0.102 mol dm–3 solution needed is 36.8 cm3.

A19.3 (p.19-14)
(a) After washing the burette, some distilled water (a few drops) may be left inside
the burette. When the given standard hydrochloric acid is filled in this burette, it
is diluted and the molarity of the acid is no longer known. The given
hydrochloric acid is not a standard solution any more.
(b) The burette should be rinsed with distilled water and then with the solution it is
going to deliver.
(c) Pipette

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

A19.4 (p.19-16)
(a) H+(aq) + OH–(aq) → H2O(l)
(b) 25.0 cm3 pipette
(c) From yellow to orange
(d) Methyl orange

A19.5 (p.19-19)
(a) Polystyrene cup is a poor conductor of heat. It can reduce heat loss to the
surroundings.
(b) This is because the temperature of the mixture will reach the maximum at the
equivalence point.
(c)
Temperature (˚C)

Volume of H2SO4(aq) added (cm3)

From the graph, the volume of H2SO4(aq) required is 16.0 cm3.

A19.6 (p.19-23)
1. (a) 10.0 cm3 pipette
(b) To save the amount of sodium hydroxide solution used in the experiment.
(c) Phenolphthalein. The colour changes from colourless to pink at the end
point.
(d) CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) → CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l)
23.50
Number of moles of NaOH used = 0.05 × mol = 1.175 × 10–3 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to CH3COOH = 1 : 1.
∴number of moles of CH3COOH in 25.0 cm3 diluted vingear
= 1.175 × 10–3 mol

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

Number of moles of CH3COOH in 250.0 cm3 diluted vinegar


250.0
= 1.175 × 10–3 × mol = 1.175 × 10–2 mol
25.0
Molarity of ethanoic acid in the 10.0 cm3 vinegar
1.175  10 −2
= mol dm–3 = 1.175 mol dm–3
10.0
1000

18.0
2. (a) Number of moles of HnA = mol = 0.2 mol
90.0
0 .2
Molarity of the acid solution = mol dm–3 = 2 mol dm–3
100.0
1000
50.0
(b) (i) Number of moles of NaOH = 2.00 × mol = 0.1 mol
1000
25.0
(ii) Number of moles of HnA = 2 × mol = 0.05 mol
1000
Number of moles of NaOH 0.1
(iii) = =2
Number of moles of H n A 0.05
Hence, the value of n in HnA is 2.

A19.7 (p.19-26)
1. (a) 2NaOH(aq) + H2X(aq) → Na2X(aq) + 2H2O(l)
25.0
Number of moles of NaOH used = 0.120 × mol = 3 × 10–3 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to H2X = 2 : 1.
3  10 −3
∴number of moles of H2X used = mol = 1.5 × 10–3 mol
2
1.5  10 −3
Molarity of the acid = mol dm–3 = 0.05 mol dm–3
30.00
1000
(b) Let the molar mass of H2X be y g mol–1.
6.30
Molarity of the solution = 0.05 = 1
y
y = 126.0
∴the molar mass of H2X is 126.0 g mol–1.

2. (a) 2HCl(aq) + M2CO3(aq) → 2MCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

33.20
Number of moles of HCl used = 0.150 × mol = 4.98 × 10–3 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of HCl to M2CO3 = 2 : 1.
∴number of moles of M2CO3 in 25.0 cm3 solution
4.98  10 −3
= mol = 2.49 × 10–3 mol
2
Number of moles of M2CO3 in 250.0 cm3 solution
250.0
= 2.49 × 10–3 × mol = 0.0249 mol
25.0
Let the molar mass of M2CO3 be y g mol–1.
Number of moles of M2CO3 in 250.0 cm3 solution
3.44
= 0.0249 =
y
y = 138.2
∴molar mass of M2CO3 is 138.2 g mol–1.
(b) Let the relative atomic mass of M be a.
Molar mass of M2CO3 = 138.2 = 2a + 12.0 + 16.0 × 3
a = 39.1
∴relative atomic mass of M is 39.1.

A19.8 (p.19-27)
2KOH(aq) + H2A(aq) → K2A(aq) + 2H2O(l)
20.00
Number of moles of KOH used = 0.10 × mol = 2 × 10–3 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of KOH to H2A is 2 : 1.
2  10 −3
∴number of moles of H2A in 25.0 cm3 solution = mol = 1 × 10–3 mol
2
250.0
Number of moles of H2A in 250.0 cm3 solution = 1 × 10–3 × mol = 1 × 10–2 mol
25.0
1 mole of H2A•nH2O contains 1 mole of H2A.
∴number of moles of H2A•nH2O used = 1 × 10–2 mol
Molar mass of H2A•nH2O = (90.0 + 18n) g mol–1
1.26
Number of moles of H2A•nH2O in 1.26 g H2A•nH2O = 1 × 10–2 =
90.0 + 18n
n=2
∴number of molecules of water of crystallization per formula unit of the hydrated
H2A is 2.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

A19.9 (p.19-29)
2HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
22.00
Number of moles of HCl used = 0.16 × mol = 3.52 × 10–3 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of HCl to Na2CO3 = 2 : 1.
∴number of moles of Na2CO3 in 25.0 cm3 solution
3.52  10 −3
= mol = 1.76 × 10–3 mol
2
Number of moles of Na2CO3 in 250.0 cm3 solution
250.0
= 1.76 × 10–3 × mol = 1.76 × 10–2 mol
25.0
Mass of Na2CO3 in the sample
= 1.76 × 10–2 × (23.0 × 2 + 12.0 + 16.0 × 3) g = 1.87 g
1.87 g
Percentage by mass of Na2CO3 in the sample = × 100% = 93.5%
2.00 g

A19.10 (p.19-31)
Number of moles of HNO3 added at the start
75.0
= 1.00 × mol = 0.075 mol
1000
Number of moles of NaOH used to neutralize unreacted HNO3(aq)
18.00
= 2.00 × mol = 0.036 mol
1000
NaOH(aq) + HNO3(aq) → NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l)
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to HNO3 = 1 : 1.
∴number of moles of unreacted HNO3 = 0.036 mol
Number of moles of HNO3 reacted with Mg(OH)2 in the antacid tablet
= (0.075 – 0.036) mol = 0.039 mol
2HNO3(aq) + Mg(OH)2(s) → Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
From the equation, mole ratio of HNO3 to Mg(OH)2 = 2 : 1.
0.039
∴number of moles of Mg(OH)2 in the antacid tablet = mol = 0.0195 mol
2
Mass of Mg(OH)2 in the antacid tablet
= 0.0195 × [24.3 + 2 × (16.0 + 1.0)] g = 1.14 g
1.14 g
Percentage by mass of Mg(OH)2 in the antacid tablet = ×100% = 95%
1.20 g

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A19.11 (p.19-31)
(a) About 6.50 g of sodium carbonate solid were weighed accurately using an
electronic balance.
(b) The solution was transferred to a 250.0 cm3 volumetric flask with the aid of filter
funnel.
(c) A few drops of methyl orange indicator were added to the conical flask.

Self-test
Self-test 19.8 (p.19-23)
4.80
Number of moles of the acid in 250.0 cm3 of solution = mol = 0.025 mol
192.0
Number of moles of the acid in 25.0 cm3 of solution
25.0
= 0.025 × mol = 2.5 × 10–3 mol
250.0
20.00
Number of moles of NaOH used = 0.375 × mol = 7.5 × 10–3 mol
1000
Number of moles of NaOH 7.5  10 −3 3
= =
Number of moles of the acid 2.5  10 −3 1
∴the basicity of the acid is 3.

Self-test 19.9 (p.19-24)


3NaOH(aq) + H3X(aq) → Na3X(aq) + 3H2O(l)
18.50
Number of moles of NaOH used = 0.50 × mol = 9.25 × 10–3 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to H3X = 3 : 1.
9.25  10 −3
∴number of moles of H3X in 25.0 cm3 solution = mol = 3.08 × 10–3 mol
3
Number of moles of H3X in 250.0 cm3 solution
250.0
= 3.08 × 10–3 × mol = 0.0308 mol
25.0
5.92
Molar mass of the acid = g mol–1 = 192.2 g mol–1
0.0308

Self-test 19.10 (p.19-26)


M(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl(aq) → MCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
30.40
Number of moles of HCl used = 0.10 × mol = 3.04 × 10−3 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of HCl to M(OH)2 = 2 : 1.

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∴number of moles of M(OH)2 in 25.0 cm3 solution


3.04  10 −3
= mol = 1.52 × 10−3 mol
2
Number of moles of M(OH)2 in 250.0 cm3 solution
250.0
= 1.52 × 10−3 × mol = 1.52 × 10−2 mol
25.0
2.60
Molar mass of M(OH)2 = g mol−1 = 171.1 g mol−1
1.52  10 − 2
Let the relative atomic mass of M be x.
Molar mass of M(OH)2 = x + 2 × (16.0 + 1.0) = 171.1
x = 137.1
∴the relative atomic mass of M is 137.1.

Self-test 19.12 (p.19-28)


2NaHCO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
27.50
Number of moles of H2SO4 used = 0.20 × mol = 5.5 × 10−3 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of NaHCO3 to H2SO4 = 2 : 1.
∴number of moles of NaHCO3 in 25.0 cm3 of solution
= 5.5  10−3 × 2 mol = 0.011 mol
Number of moles of NaHCO3 in 250.0 cm3 of solution
250.0
= 0.011  mol = 0.11 mol
25.0
Molar mass of NaHCO3 = (23.0 + 1.0 + 12.0 + 16.0  3) g mol−1 = 84.0 g mol−1
Mass of NaHCO3 in the sample = 0.11 mol  84.0 g mol−1 = 9.24 g
9.24 g
Percentage by mass of the NaHCO3 in the sample = 100% = 92.4%
10.00 g

Think about
Think about (p.19-2)
1. Titration
2. Burette and conical flask
3. Refer to Section 19.3.

Think about (p.19-17)


pH = –log [H+(aq)]
For 0.1 M hydrochloric acid,
pH = –log 0.1

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=1

Try it now (p.19-20)


○1 2HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
○2 2HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
0.10 M 0.050 M
? cm3 20.0 cm3
20.0

3 Number of moles of Na2CO3 = 0.050 mol dm–3 × dm3 = 1 × 10–3 mol
1000

4 From the equation, mole ratio of HCl to Na2CO3 = 2 : 1.
∴number of moles of HCl = 1 × 10–3 × 2 mol = 2 × 10–3 mol
2  10−3 mol

5 Volume of HCl(aq) = = 0.02 dm3 (or 20 cm3)
0.10 mol dm −3

Chapter exercise (p.19-38)


1. standard solution; solid; concentrated
2. primary standard
3. pipette; burette; distilled water; conical flask; distilled water
4. Equivalence point
5. acid-base indicator; pH; temperature
6. end point
7. strength
(a) methyl orange; phenolphthalein
(b) methyl orange
(c) phenolphthalein
8. past; third; passive; grammatical
9. Number of moles of Na2CO3•10H2O used
14.30
= mol = 0.05 mol
[( 23.0  2 + 12.0 + 16.0  3) + 10  (1.0  2 + 16.0)]
1 mole of Na2CO3•10H2O contains 1 mole of Na2CO3.
∴number of moles of Na2CO3 in 250.0 cm3 solution = 0.05 mol
0.05
Molarity of the Na2CO3 solution = mol dm−3 = 0.2 mol dm−3
250.0
1000

10. Number of moles of HCl (before dilution) = Number of moles of HCl (after dilution)
M1V1 = M2V2

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250.0
2.0 × V1 = 0.15 ×
1000
V1 = 0.0188 dm3 or 18.8 cm3
∴volume of 2.0 M HCl(aq) required is 18.8 cm3.

11. Number of moles of (COOH)2•2H2O used


3.78
= mol = 0.03 mol
[(12.0 + 16.0  2 + 1.0)  2 + 2  (1.0  2 + 16.0)]
1 mole of (COOH)2•2H2O contains 1 mole of (COOH)2.
∴number of moles of (COOH)2 in 250.0 cm3 of the solution = 0.03 mol
Number of moles of (COOH)2 in 25.0 cm3 of solution
25.0
= 0.03  mol = 0.003 mol
250.0
(COOH)2(aq) + 2KOH(aq) → (COO)2K2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
From the equation, mole ratio of (COOH)2 to KOH = 1 : 2.
∴number of moles of KOH = 0.003 × 2 mol = 0.006 mol
0.006
Molarity of the KOH solution = mol dm−3 = 0.4 mol dm−3
15.00
1000

1.89
12. Number of moles of the acid in 250.0 cm3 solution = mol = 0.015 mol
126.0
Number of moles of the acid in 25.0 cm3 solution
25.0
= 0.015  mol = 1.5 × 10–3 mol
250.0
15.0
Number of moles of NaOH used = 0.20 × mol = 3 × 10–3 mol
1000
Number of moles of NaOH 3  10−3 2
= −3
=
Number of moles of the acid 1.5  10 1
∴the basicity of the acid is 2.

13. 2MHCO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → M2SO4(aq) + 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)


10.50
Number of moles of H2SO4 used = 0.20 × = 2.1 × 10–3 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of MHCO3 to H2SO4 = 2 : 1.
∴number of moles of MHCO3 in 25.0 cm3 solution
= 2.1 × 10–3  2 mol = 4.2  10–3 mol
Number of moles of MHCO3 in 100.0 cm3 solution

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100.0
= 4.2  10–3  mol = 0.0168 mol
25.0
Let the relative atomic mass of M be x.
1.702
0.0168 =
( x + 1.0 + 12.0 + 16.0  3)
x = 40.3
∴the relative atomic mass of M is 40.3.

14. 3NaOH(aq) + H3A(aq) → Na3A(aq) + 3H2O(l)


18.75
Number of moles of NaOH used = 0.20 × mol = 3.75 × 10–3 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to H3A = 3 : 1.
∴number of moles of H3A in 25.0 cm3 solution
3.75  10 −3
= mol = 1.25  10–3 mol
3
Number of moles of H3A in 500.0 cm3 solution
500.0
=1.2510–3  mol = 0.025 mol
25.0
Number of moles of H3A•nH2O in 5.25 g of H3A•nH2O
5.25
= 0.025 =
192.0 + n  (1.0  2 + 16.0)
n=1
∴the value of n is 1.

15. Na2CO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)


20.00
Number of moles of H2SO4 used = 0.5 × mol = 0.01 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of Na2CO3 to H2SO4 = 1 : 1.
Number of moles of Na2CO3 in the solid mixture = 0.01 mol
1 mole of Na2CO3•10H2O contains 1 mole of Na2CO3.
∴number of moles of Na2CO3•10H2O in the solid mixture = 0.01 mol
Mass of Na2CO3•10H2O in the solid mixture
= 0.01  [23.0  2 + 12.0 + 16.0  3 + 10 × (1.0  2 + 16.0)] g
= 2.86 g
Percentage by mass of Na2CO3•10H2O in the solid mixture
2.86 g
= ×100% = 93.5%
3.06 g

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16. A

17. B
Number of moles of Na2CO3 (before dilution)
= Number of moles of Na2CO3 (after dilution)
M1V1 = M2V2
10.0 250.0
0.80 × = M2 ×
1000 1000
M2 = 0.032
∴the concentration of the resultant solution of Na2CO3 is 0.032 M.

18. D
250.0
Number of moles of Na2CO3 = 0.150 × mol = 0.0375 mol
1000
Mass of anhydrous Na2CO3 needed
= 0.0375 × (23.0 × 2 + 12.0 + 16.0 × 3) g
= 3.98 g

19. B
Burette is used to deliver variable volumes of a solution accurately.

20. A

21. A
NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
1.20
Number of moles of NaOH = mol = 0.03 mol
23.0 + 16.0 + 1.0
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to HCl = 1 : 1.
∴number of moles of HCl needed = 0.03 mol
0.03 mol
Volume of 0.50 M HCl(aq) needed = −3
= 0.06 dm3 = 60.0 cm3
0.50 mol dm

22. A

23. A
NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
25.0
Number of moles of NaOH = 0.1 × mol = 2.5 × 10–3 mol
1000

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From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to HCl = 1 : 1.


∴number of moles of HCl = 2.5 × 10–3 mol
2.5  10 −3 mol
Molarity of HCl(aq) = = 0.139 mol dm–3
18.00 3
dm
1000

24. A
3KOH(aq) + H3A(aq) → K3A(aq) + 3H2O(l)
21.35
Number of moles of KOH required = 0.5 × mol = 0.0107 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of KOH to H3A = 3 : 1.
0.0107
∴number of moles of H3A = mol = 3.57 × 10–3 mol
3
3.57  10 −3 mol
Concentration of H3A(aq) = = 0.14 mol dm–3
25.0
dm 3
1000

25. C
Na2CO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
From the equation, mole ratio of Na2CO3 to H2SO4 = 1 : 1.
∴volume of 0.25 M sulphuric acid needed
40.00 3
0.20 mol dm −3  dm
= 1000  1000 cm3
−3
0.25 mol dm
0.20  40.00 3
= cm
0.25

26. B
25.0
Number of moles of acid used = 2.0 × mol = 0.05 mol
1000
40.00
Number of moles of NaOH used = 2.5 × mol = 0.1 mol
1000
Number of moles of NaOH used 0.1
= =2
Number of moles of the acid used 0.05
∴the basicity of the acid is 2.

27. C
2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)

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20.0
Number of moles of H2SO4 used = 1.0 × mol = 0.02 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of H2SO4 to NaOH = 1 : 2.
∴number of moles of NaOH used = 0.02 × 2 mol = 0.04 mol
0.04 mol
Volume of 2.0 M NaOH(aq) used = = 0.02 dm3 = 20.0 cm3
2.0 mol dm −3
From the equation, mole ratio of H2SO4 to Na2SO4 = 1 : 1.
∴number of moles of Na2SO4 formed = 0.02 mol
0.02 mol
Concentration of Na2SO4(aq) = = 0.5 mol dm−3
(20.0 + 20.0)
dm 3
1000

28. B
Let the formula of the tribasic acid be H3X.
3NaOH(aq) + H3X(aq) → Na3X(aq) + 3H2O(l)
27.60
Number of moles of NaOH needed = 0.12 × mol = 3.312 × 10−3 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to H3X = 3 : 1.
3.312  10−3
∴number of moles of the acid reacted = mol = 1.104 × 10−3 mol
3
0.108 g
Molar mass of the acid = = 97.8 g mol−1
1.104  10 −3 mol

29. B
H2SO4(aq) + X2CO3(aq) → X2SO4(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
25.00
Number of moles of H2SO4 required = 0.2 × mol = 5 × 10−3 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of H2SO4 to X2CO3 = 1 : 1.
∴number of moles of X2CO3 reacted = 5 × 10−3 mol
Let the relative atomic mass of X be a.
0.53
Number of moles of X2CO3 = 5 × 10−3 =
2a + 12.0 +16.0  3
a = 23.0

30. A
Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
23.50
Number of moles of HCl required = 0.10 × mol = 2.35 × 10−3 mol
1000

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From the equation, mole ratio of Na2CO3 to HCl = 1 : 2.


∴number of moles of Na2CO3 in 25.0 cm3 solution
2.35  10 −3
= mol = 1.175 × 10−3 mol
2
Number of moles of Na2CO3 in 250.0 cm3 solution
= 1.175 × 10−3 × 10 mol = 1.175 × 10−2 mol
1 mole of Na2CO3•nH2O contains 1 mole of Na2CO3.
∴number of moles of Na2CO3•nH2O in 1.46 g of Na2CO3•nH2O
= 1.175 × 10−2 mol
1.46
1.175 × 10−2 =
23.0  2 + 12.0 + 16.0  3 + n  (1.0  2 + 16.0)
n=1

31. C
Refer to p.15 of chapter 19 for details.

32. C
50.0
Number of moles of HCl added at the start = 1.0 × mol = 0.05 mol
1000
Number of moles of NaOH used to neutralize the unreacted HCl(aq)
22.65
= 0.5 × mol = 0.0113 mol
1000
NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to HCl = 1 : 1.
∴number of moles of unreacted HCl = 0.0113 mol
Number of moles of HCl reacted with CaCO3 in the egg shell
= (0.05 − 0.0113) mol = 0.0387 mol
CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) → CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
From the equation, mole ratio of CaCO3 to HCl = 1 : 2.
0.0387
∴number of moles of CaCO3 in the egg shell = mol = 0.01935 mol
2
Mass of CaCO3 in the egg shell = 0.01935 × (40.1 + 12.0 + 16.0 × 3) g = 1.937 g
1.937 g
Percentage by mass of CaCO3 in the egg shell = ×100% = 50.3%
3.85 g

33. (a) Sodium hydroxide pellets will absorb the water vapour and carbon dioxide
in air. Hence, it is difficult to measure the mass of the pellets accurately.
(b) Calculate accurately the volume of 1.20 M sodium hydroxide solution

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needed (i.e. 25.0 cm3). Transfer the amount of sodium hydroxide solution
needed (i.e. 25.0 cm3) to a clean 100.0 cm3 volumetric flask. Add distilled
water up to the graduation mark of the volumetric flask. Finally, stopper and
invert the volumetric flask several times to mix the contents well.
(c) NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
20.15
Number of moles of NaOH used = 0.30 × mol = 6.05  10–3 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to HCl is 1 : 1.
∴number of moles of HCl = 6.05  10–3 mol
6.05  10 −3
Molarity of the HCl(aq) = mol dm–3 = 0.242 M
25.0
1000
water
34. (a) HOCH2COOH(s) ⇌ HOCH2COO–(aq) + H+(aq)

(b) HOCH2COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) → HOCH2COONa(aq) + H2O(l)


(c) (i) 22.5 cm3
22.5
(ii) Number of moles of NaOH used = 0.12 × mol = 2.7 × 10–3 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to HOCH2COOH = 1 : 1.
∴number of moles of HOCH2COOH in the facial cleanser
= 2.7 × 10–3 mol
Concentration of glycolic acid in the facial cleanser
2.7  10 −3
= mol dm–3 = 0.54 mol dm–3
5 .0
1000

35. (a) Ammonia


(b) NH3(aq) + HClO4(aq) → NH4ClO4(aq)
(c) (i) Methyl orange
(ii) Number of moles of HClO4 used
12.85
= 1.36 × mol = 0.0175 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of HClO4 to NH3 = 1 : 1.
∴number of moles of NH3 used = 0.0175 mol
0.0175
Concentration of NH3 used = mol dm−3 = 0.7 mol dm−3
25.0
1000
(d) (i) From the equation, mole ratio of HClO4 to NH4ClO4 = 1 : 1.

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∴number of moles of NH4ClO4 formed = 0.0175 mol


Theoretical yield of the reaction
= 0.0175 × (14.0 + 1.0 × 4 + 35.5 + 16.0 × 4) g = 2.06 g
(ii) The actual yield is less than the theoretical yield. This may be because:
− not all NH4ClO4 crystallizes out in the process of crystallization.
− some NH4ClO4 crystals are lost in the process of filtration.

36. (a) Using a clean (25.0 cm3) pipette, transfer 25.0 cm3 of 0.25 M of acid X to a
clean (250.0 cm3) volumetric flask. Add distilled water up to the graduation
mark of the volumetric flask. Finally, stopper and invert the volumetric
flask several times to mix the contents well.
(b) From yellow to orange
(c) By measuring the change in pH (or temperature) of the mixture after a small,
fixed amount of acid X is added each time.
25.0
(d) Number of moles of NaOH = 0.05 × mol = 1.25 × 10−3 mol
1000
0.25 24.70
Number of moles of acid X = × mol = 6.18 × 10−4 mol
10 1000
Number of moles of NaOH 1.25  10 −3
= = 2.02
Number of moles of acid X 6.18  10 − 4
∴the basicity of acid X is 2.

37. (a) Oxygen (or air) and water are necessary for rusting to occur.
(b) Fe2O3•nH2O(s) + 6HCl(aq) → 2FeCl3(aq) + (3+n) H2O(l)
40.0
(c) Number of moles of HCl added at the start = 1.5 × mol = 0.06 mol
1000
Number of moles of NaOH used to neutralize unreacted HCl
14.65
= 1.20 × mol = 0.0176 mol
1000
NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to HCl = 1 : 1.
∴number of moles of unreacted HCl = 0.0176 mol
Number of moles of HCl that reacted with the rust sample
= (0.06 − 0.0176) mol = 0.0424 mol
(d) From the following equation:
Fe2O3•nH2O(s) + 6HCl(aq) → 2FeCl3(aq) + (3+n) H2O(l)
mole ratio of Fe2O3•nH2O : HCl = 1 : 6.
∴number of moles of Fe2O3•nH2O in the rust sample

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0.0424
= mol = 7.07 × 10−3 mol
6
1.89
7.07 × 10−3 =
55.8  2 + 16.0  3 + n  (1.0  2 + 16.0)
n = 5.98 (≈ 6)
∴the number of molecules of water of crystallization in a formula unit of
the rust sample is 6.
(e) The number of molecules of water of crystallization in a formula unit of a
rust sample depends on the amount of water or water vapour that the iron
sample can react with. The greater the amount of water or water vapour, the
larger is the number of molecules of water of crystallization.

38. (a) CaCO3(s) + 2HNO3(aq) → Ca(NO3)2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)


(b) From colourless to pink
20.00
(c) (i) Number of moles of NaOH used = 0.40 × mol = 8 × 10−3 mol
1000
NaOH(aq) + HNO3(aq) → NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l)
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to HNO3 = 1 : 1.
∴number of moles of excess HNO3 = 8 × 10−3 mol.
(ii) Number of moles of HNO3 added at the start
50.0
= 0.50 × mol = 0.025 mol
1000
Number of moles of HNO3 that reacted with CaCO3
= (0.025 − 8 × 10−3) mol = 0.017 mol
From the equation, mole ratio of HNO3 to CaCO3 = 2 : 1.
∴number of moles of CaCO3 in the limestone sample
0.017
= mol = 8.5 × 10−3 mol
2
(iii) Mass of CaCO3 in the sample = 8.5 × 10−3 × (40.1 + 12.0 + 16.0 × 3) g
= 0.85 g
0.85 g
Percentage by mass of CaCO3 in the sample = ×100% = 66.4%
1.28 g

39. (a) In step (2), fill the flask with more distilled water until the bottom of the
meniscus reaches the graduation mark.
In step (3), the burette should be rinsed with distilled water, then with
standard hydrochloric acid right before titration.
In step (4), use a 25.0 cm3 pipette to transfer 25.0 cm3 of the diluted drain

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cleaner sample to a clean conical flask, but not a beaker.


(b)

burette

hydrochloric acid

conical flask
diluted drain cleaner sample +
a few drops of methyl orange

(c) (1): 25.0 cm3 of the drain cleaner sample were transferred to a 250.0 cm3
volumetric flask using a cleaned pipette.
(2): The flask was filled with distilled water until the bottom of the
meniscus reached the graduation mark. The flask was stoppered and
inverted several times.

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Part IV Acids and Bases

Part exercise (p.19-45)


1. A
(1): ammonia is an alkali. However, it does not contain metal ions.

2. A
100
(2): both acids contain 1.0 × mol = 0.1 mol acid molecules.
1000
(3): nitric acid is monobasic, while sulphuric acid is dibasic. For the same molar
concentration and volume of acids, the amount of H+(aq) in sulphuric acid is
twice that of nitric acid.

3. C
(1): pH of 0.5 M hydrochloric acid is 0.301, while pH of 1.0 M sulphuric acid
is –0.301. Addition of 1.0 M sulphuric acid will decrease the pH value of the
acid.
(2): limestone reacts with the hydrogen ions in the hydrochloric acid. Hence,
adding limestone to the acid will decrease the concentration of hydrogen ions in
the acid. As a result, the pH value of the acid increases.
(3): when water is added to the hydrochloric acid, the volume of the acid
increases. However, the number of moles of hydrogen ions in the acid remains
unchanged. Hence, adding water to the acid will decrease the concentration of
hydrogen ions in the acid. As a result, the pH value of the acid increases.

4. D
(1): 1.0 M hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium faster than 1.0 M ethanoic
acid.
(2): methyl orange has a red colour at the pH of the solution below 3.1 and has a
yellow colour at the pH of the solution above 4.4. The respective pH of 1.0 M
hydrochloric acid and 1.0 M ethanoic acid is 0 and 4.7. Hence, the colours of
methyl orange are different in the two acids.
(3): silver ions from the silver nitrate solution react with the chloride ions from
the hydrochloric acid to give a white precipitate of silver chloride. There is no
observable change when silver nitrate solution is added to 1.0 M ethanoic acid.

5. B
(A): phenolphthalein is colourless at the pH of the solution below 8.3.

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(B): solutions A and B contain the same number of moles of hydrogen ions (i.e.
2.5 × 10–3 mol). Hence, same volume of 0.1 M NaOH(aq) is required for
complete neutralization.
(C): concentrations of hydrogen ions in solutions A and B are different.

6. C
(A): the concentration of nitrate ions in the mixture increases.
(B): both potassium nitrate and water, which can conduct electricity, are found in
the resultant solution.
(D): neutralization is an exothermic reaction.

7. C
Number of moles of Number of moles of No. of moles of H2O
NaOH (mol) HCl (mol) formed (mol)
(A) 0.02 0.10 0.02
(B) 0.04 0.08 0.04
(C) 0.06 0.06 0.06
(D) 0.08 0.04 0.04
1 mole of NaOH reacts with 1 mole of HCl to produce 1 mole of salt and 1 mole
of water. The volume of the resultant solution is the same in each case. However,
in (C), the numbers of moles of OH–(aq) ions and H+(aq) ions reacting are the
greatest. The reaction mixture in (C) will give out the largest amount of heat.

8. B
Copper and silver do not react with dilute hydrochloric acid.

9. D
Lead(II) chloride is an insoluble salt. It can be prepared by precipitation. When
nitric acid reacts with lead(II) hydroxide, soluble lead(II) nitrate forms. Lead(II)
nitrate reacts with sodium chloride solution to give a precipitate of lead(II)
chloride.

10. C
(2): both lead(II) nitrate solution and zinc nitrate solution give a white precipitate
of hydroxide upon addition of a small amount of aqueous ammonia. However,
only zinc hydroxide can dissolve in excess aqueous ammonia to give a colourless
solution.
(3): insoluble lead(II) chloride forms when HCl(aq) is added to lead(II) nitrate

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solution. Zinc nitrate solution does not react with HCl(aq).

11. C
Fe2O3(s) + 3H2SO4(aq) → Fe2(SO4)3(aq) + 3H2O(l)
2.71
Number of moles of Fe2O3 reacted = mol = 0.0170 mol
55.8  2 + 16.0  3
From the equation, mole ratio of Fe2O3 to H2SO4 = 1 : 3.
∴number of moles of H2SO4 needed = 0.0170 × 3 mol = 0.051 mol
0.051 mol
Volume of H2SO4 needed = = 0.255 dm3 = 255 cm3
0.20 mol dm −3

12. (a) Assume that there are 100 g of sulphamic acid.


H N S O
Mass (g) 3.1 14.4 33.6 48.9
Number of
3 .1 14.4 33.6 48.9
moles of atoms = 3.1 = 1.03 = 1.05 = 3.06
1 .0 14.0 32.1 16.0
(mol)
Simplest whole
number mole 3 1 1 3
ratio of atoms
∴the empirical formula of sulphamic acid is H3NSO3.
(b) Let the molecular formula of sulphamic acid be (H3NSO3)n.
n × (1.0  3 + 14.0 + 32.1 + 16.0  3) = 97.1
n=1
∴molecular formula of sulphamic acid is H3NSO3.
(c) When the sulphamic acid in the powder dissolves in water, it ionizes to give
H+(aq) ions, which then react with the carbonate in lime scale and the oxide
in rust.
(d) Mass of sulphamic acid in the powder = 5.0 g × 14.5% = 0.725 g
0.725
Number of moles of sulphamic acid = mol = 7.47 × 10−3 mol
97.1
7.47  10 −3
Molarity of the solution prepared = mol dm−3 = 0.0374 mol dm−3
200
1000

13. (a) Pure sulphuric acid absorbs water vapour in air. So the molar concentration
of the sulphuric acid prepared cannot be accurately known.
(b) Pure sulphuric acid should be added slowly to a large amount of cold

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distilled water with constant stirring.


(c) Pure sulphuric acid does not contain mobile ions for conducting electricity.
Dilute sulphuric acid contains mobile ions (H+(aq) and SO42–(aq) ions).
Hence, it can conduct electricity.
(d) Add a few drops of the two acids separately to some white sugar.
Concentrated sulphuric acid can turn the sugar black but dilute sulphuric
acid cannot. (Accept other appropriate chemical tests.)

14. (a)

water
(b) HCOOH(l) ⇌ HCOO−(aq) + H+(aq)

(c) (i) HCOOH(aq) + HCO3−(aq) → HCOO−(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) OR


H+(aq) + HCO3−(aq) → H2O(l) + CO2(g)
(ii) From the equation in (c)(i), mole ratio of HCOOH to NaHCO3 is 1 : 1.
∴number of moles of NaHCO3 needed = 1.5 × 10−4 mol
Mass of NaHCO3 needed
= 1.5 × 10−4 × (23.0 + 1.0 + 12.0 + 16.0 × 3) g = 0.0126 g
(iii) Sodium hydroxide solution is highly corrosive. It would attack our
skin.

15. (a) From experimental results, when acid X is diluted 10 times or even 100
times, the pH of its aqueous solution is still low. This suggests that acid X
ionizes quite completely when dissolved in water. Hence, it should be a
strong acid.
(b) pH = −log [H+(aq)]
0.92 = −log [H+(aq)]
x = 0.12
(c) Using a clean (25.0 cm3) pipette, transfer 25.0 cm3 of acid solution X to a
clean (250.0 cm3) volumetric flask. Add distilled water up to the graduation
mark of the volumetric flask. Finally, stopper and invert the volumetric
flask several times to mix the contents well.

16. (a) CuCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq) → CuSO4(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

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(b) The sodium hydroxide solution will first react with the excess sulphuric
acid. When all the sulphuric acid in the filtrate has been reacted, excess
sodium hydroxide solution will react with copper(II) ions to form copper(II)
hydroxide. Hence, the appearance of blue precipitate indicates the end point
of the titration. An acid-base indicator is not needed.
(c)

filter paper
excess malachite
filter funnel

filtrate (CuSO4(aq))

(d) Let the number of moles of CuCO3 and Cu(OH)2 in the sample be x mol and
y mol respectively.
CuCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq) → CuSO4(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
x mol x mol
Cu(OH)2(s) + H2SO4(aq) → CuSO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)
y mol y mol

Total number of moles of H2SO4 added at the start


50.0
= 1.5 × mol = 0.075 mol
1000
2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)
28.65
Number of moles of NaOH reacted = 2.0 × mol = 0.0573 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to H2SO4 = 2 : 1.
0.0573
∴number of moles of unreacted H2SO4 = mol = 0.0287 mol
2
Number of moles of H2SO4 reacted with the malachite sample:
(x + y) mol = (0.075 – 0.0287) mol
(x + y) mol = 0.0463 mol
Number of moles of copper in the malachite sample = 0.0463 mol
Mass of copper = 0.0463  63.5 g = 2.94 g
Percentage by mass of copper in the sample of malachite
2.94 g
= ×100% = 73.9%
3.98 g

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17. (a) 25.0 cm3 pipette


(b) From red to orange
(c) Number of moles of HCl added at the start
25.0
= 2.0 × mol = 0.05 mol
1000
Number of moles of NaOH used to neutralize the unreacted HCl in 25.0 cm3
solution
14.00
= 0.10 × mol = 1.4 × 10−3 mol
1000
NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to HCl = 1 : 1.
∴number of moles of unreacted HCl in 25.0 cm3 of diluted solution
= 1.4 × 10−3 mol
Number of moles of unreacted HCl in 250.0 cm3 of diluted solution
250.0
= 1.4 × 10−3 × mol = 0.014 mol
25.0
Number of moles of HCl reacted with Ca
= (0.05 − 0.014) mol = 0.036 mol
Ca(s) + 2HCl(aq) → CaCl2(aq) + H2(g)
From the equation, mole ratio of HCl to Ca = 2 : 1.
0.036
∴number of moles of Ca in 0.77 g of Ca = mol = 0.018 mol
2
0.77
0.018 =
molar mass of Ca
Molar mass of Ca = 42.8 g mol−1
∴relative atomic mass of Ca = 42.8.
(d) It may be due to the wrong detection of the end point. Excess sodium
hydroxide solution might have been added to neutralize the excess
hydrochloric acid in the 25.0 cm3 diluted solution. As a result, the calculated
amount of hydrochloric acid that reacted with the calcium and hence, the
calculated amount of calcium in 0.77 g of calcium would be smaller. A
smaller number of moles of Ca will give a larger relative atomic mass of
Ca.
(e) No. Sulphuric acid will react with calcium to form insoluble calcium
sulphate, which will cover the surface of calcium metal and prevent it from
further reaction with the acid.

18. (a) Weak acid is an acid which ionizes only slightly in water.

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(b) H3A(aq) + 3NaOH(aq) → Na3A(aq) + 3H2O(l)


1.30
(c) Number of moles of NaOH used = 0.2 × mol = 2.6 × 10−4 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH to H3A = 3 : 1.
2.6  10−4
∴number of moles of citric acid = mol = 8.7 × 10−5 mol
3
Concentration of citric acid in the sample of lemon juice
1000 3
= 8.7 × 10−5 mol × dm × 192.0 g mol−1 = 3.34 g dm−3
5 .0
(d) The lemon juice does not contain other chemicals (except the citric acid)
that will react with the sodium hydroxide solution.
(e) The amount of chemicals used in the experiment can be saved. OR
The time for carrying out the experiment is shorter. (Any ONE)

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Chapter 20 Hydrocarbons from fossil fuels

Class practice
A20.1 (p.20-6)
1. Coal formed from the remains of plants that lived hundreds of millions years ago.
Petroleum formed from the remains of sea animals and plants that lived millions
of years ago.

2. This is due to the movement of the Earth’s crust.

A20.2 (p.20-11)
(a) Fractional distillation
(b) A hydrocarbon with more carbon atoms in its molecules has a higher boiling
point.
(c) There is physical separation but no chemical decomposition in the separation
process.

A20.3 (p.20-13)
(a) (i) As fuel for aeroplanes and as domestic fuel
(ii) As fuel for heavy vehicles such as lorries and buses
(iii) As fuel for motor cars
(b) Diesel oil has the highest boiling point range.
(c) Diesel oil is commonly used as fuel for buses and lorries. As there are a large
number of these vehicles in the modern society, the demand for diesel oil cannot
meet the supply.

A20.4 (p.20-14)
7
(a) C2H6 + O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O
2
(b) C3H8 + 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2O

A20.5 (p.20-19)
1. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburnt hydrocarbons and suspended
particulates

2. Sulphur dioxide and suspended particulates

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3. Complete combustion of octane:


25
C8H18 + O2 → 8CO2 + 9H2O OR
2
2C8H18 + 25O2 → 16CO2 + 18H2O
Incomplete combustion of octane:
17
C8H18 + O2 → 8CO + 9H2O OR
2
2C8H18 + 17O2 → 16CO + 18H2O

A20.6 (p.20-20)
(a) Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides

(b) SO2(g) + H2O(l) ⇌ H2SO3(aq)

4NO(g) + 2H2O(l) + O2(g) → 4HNO2(aq)


2NO2(g) + H2O(l) → HNO2(aq) + HNO3(aq)
(c) CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) → Ca2+(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
(d) This is because the air in industrial areas has high concentrations of acidic
pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

A20.7 (p.20-26)
(a) (i) Respiration by living things
(ii) Photosynthesis by green plants
(b) (i) Methane/CFCs/nitrogen oxides/ozone (Any ONE)
(ii) Solar energy from the Sun reaches the Earth. About half of this energy is
absorbed by the Earth. The Earth re-radiates most of the absorbed energy
into the space as infrared radiation. However, the greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere trap some of the radiation, preventing it from going back into
the space. As a result, the Earth gets warmer.
(c) Greenhouse gases trap infrared radiation re-radiated from the Earth. This keeps
the Earth warm for life to sustain on it.
(d) Melting of ice at the North Pole and the South Pole OR
Climate change OR
Flooding and climate change would put wildlife in danger

Think about
Think about (p.20-2)
1. Fossil fuels formed from the remains of plants and the remains of sea animals
and plants that lived hundreds of millions years ago.

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2. Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and suspended particulates


3. The burning of coal produces a lot of air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide,
nitrogen oxides and suspended particulates. The burning of natural gas produces
carbon dioxide and water only.

Think about (p.20-19)


Generally speaking, carbon dioxide is not classified as an air pollutant. It seems to be
harmless. However, carbon dioxide causes global warming. In this respect, carbon
dioxide may be classified as an air pollutant.

Think about (p.20-23)


Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. The average temperature of the Venus’s surface
would be higher than that of the Earth’s surface. (The average temperature of the
Venus’ surface is about 464˚C.)

Chapter exercise (p.20-40)


1. fossil; plants; animals
2. carbon; plants
3. hydrocarbons; sea
4. fractions; fractional distillation; refining
5. heavy; higher; hotter
6. Refinery gas LPG as domestic fuel, raw materials for manufacture of
chemicals
Petrol fuel for motor cars
Naphtha raw material for production of town gas
Kerosene fuel for aeroplanes, domestic fuel
Diesel oil fuel for heavy vehicles
Fuel oil fuel for ships, burnt to generate electricity in power plants
Lubricating oils making lubricating oils and candles
and waxes
Bitumen material for covering roads
7. darker; viscous; volatile; flammable; less
8. fuels; hydrocarbons
9. exothermic
10. carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides; unburnt hydrocarbons,
particulates
11. 5.6; sulphur dioxide; nitrogen oxides
12. infrared radiation, carbon dioxide

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13. rise; global warming


14. unleaded, catalytic converter
15. low sulphur; scrubbers
16. electrostatic precipitator

17. B
Refer to p.4 of chapter 20 for details.

18. C
(2) is not a hydrocarbon because it contains oxygen apart from hydrogen and
carbon.

19. A
Fuel oil is commonly used as fuel for ships. Diesel oil is usually burnt to power
buses.

20. B
Refer to p.10 of chapter 20 for details.

21. C
A petroleum fraction with fewer carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon molecules can
burn more easily.

22. C
Refer to p.14 of chapter 20 for details.

23. C

24. D

25. A
The combustion of natural gas (mainly methane) produces carbon dioxide and
water. Carbon dioxide and water vapour are both greenhouse gases.

26. A
Planting more trees on roadsides can reduce the atmospheric concentration of
carbon dioxide. However, it cannot reduce the emission of air pollutants from
taxis due to the burning of fossil fuels.

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27. A
(2): nitrogen dioxide in the exhaust can be removed by installing catalytic
converters in motor cars.
(3): sulphur dioxide in the waste gases can be removed by installing scrubbers or
flue gas desulphurization systems in power stations.

28. (a) Fractional distillation


(b) Fraction 4 contains hydrocarbons with larger molecular sizes, while fraction
1 contains hydrocarbons with smaller molecular sizes. The van der Waals’
forces between larger molecules are stronger. Hence, a larger amount of
energy is needed to separate the hydrocarbon molecules in fraction 4 during
boiling.
(c) Fraction 4
(d) Fraction 1
(e) Fraction 1. This is because it is the easiest to burn and it burns with the least
sooty flame.

29. (a) Petroleum formed from the sea plants and animals that lived hundreds of
millions years ago. As these organisms died, they sank to the bottom of the
seas and were covered by sand and mud. High temperature, pressure and the
action of bacteria slowly changed them into petroleum.
(b) Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon only.
(c) (i) Diesel oil
(ii) The hydrocarbons in LPG have lower carbon content. Hence, LPG
burns more easily with a less sooty flame.
(iii) Owners of public light buses have to replace the diesel light buses with
LPG ones.

30. (a) Anhydrous copper(II) sulphate changes from white to blue as water is
produced from the combustion of candle.
(b) The limewater turns milky as carbon dioxide is produced from the
combustion of candle.
(c) (i) Carbon soot
(ii) Carbon soot is produced from the incomplete combustion of
hydrocarbons in the candle.

31. (a) This is due to the incomplete combustion of petrol.


(b) When the car runs, the temperature of the engine is very high. A little

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nitrogen and oxygen in the air will combine to form nitrogen monoxide.
N2(g) + O2(g) → 2NO(g)
(c) Nitrogen oxides irritate our eyes and attack our respiratory system. OR
They cause the formation of acid rain/photochemical smog. (Any ONE)
(d) (i) Catalytic converter

Pt/Rh
(ii) 2CO(g) + 2NO(g) → 2CO2(g) + N2(g)

Pt/Rh
2CO(g) + O2(g) → 2CO2(g)

y Pt/Rh y
CxHy(g) + (x + )O2(g) → xCO2(g) + H2O(g)
4 2
(iii) This is because the catalyst is easily ‘poisoned’ by lead or lead compounds.

32. (a) S(s) + O2(g) → SO2(g)


(b) Mass of S in 100 kg of coal = (100 × 1000) g × 0.97% = 970 g
970
Number of moles of S burnt = mol = 30.2 mol
32.1
From the equation, mole ratio of S to SO2 is 1 : 1.
∴number of moles of SO2 produced = 30.2 mol
Mass of SO2 produced = 30.2 × (32.1 + 16.0 × 2) g = 1936 g
(c) It irritates our eyes and attacks our respiratory system, causing lung diseases.
OR It is a cause of acid rain. (Any ONE)
(d) Using fuels of low sulphur content. OR
Installing scrubbers/flue gas desulphurization system in power plants. (Any
ONE)

33. (a) The rapid increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
is due to deforestation/the burning of a large amount of fossil fuels in motor
cars/power plants/factories.
The rapid increase in the concentration of methane in the atmosphere is due
to an increase in the number of rice paddies and cattle farms over the world.
(b) (i) The Earth’s surface temperature increases.
(ii) Any ONE of the following:
Melting of ice at the North Pole and the South Pole OR
Climate change OR
Flooding and climate change would put wildlife in danger
(c) (i) Any ONE of the following:

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Using alternative energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy OR


Stopping deforestation OR
Planting more trees OR
Preventing and putting out forest fires
(ii) Collecting methane from decaying plant remains and animal wastes
and using it as fuel

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Chapter 21 Homologous series, structural formulae and


naming of carbon compounds

Class practice
A21.1 (p.21-3)
CO, CO2, Na2CO3, KHCO3, H2O, NH3, KOH, HCl, HNO3, NaCl (Accept other
correct answers)

A21.2 (p.21-7)
1. (a)

OR CH3CH(CH3)CH(CH3)2
(b)

OR (CH3)2C=CH2

(c)

2. (a) Condensed structural formula:


CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 OR CH3(CH2)6CH3

Skeletal formula:
(b) Structural formula: Skeletal formula:

(c) Condensed structural formula: CH3CH=CHCH3

Skeletal formula: OR
(d) Structural formula: Condensed structural formula:

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(e) Structural formula: Skeletal formula:

(f) Structural formula: Condensed structural formula:

A21.3 (p.21-9)
(a) (i) C5H12
(ii) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 OR CH3(CH2)3CH3
(b) (i) C11H24
(ii) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 OR CH3(CH2)9CH3

A21.4 (p.21-10)
(a) His statement is wrong. A has no functional group, while B has the
functional group. Hence, they belong to different homologous series.
(b) D and F: alkanoic acid (series)
(c)

A21.5 (p.21-13)
(a) A, B, D and F
(b) Alkanol (series)
(c) A, B, D, F. The larger the molecular size, the stronger are the van der Waals’
forces between the molecules. As a result, more energy is needed to separate the
molecules during boiling.

A21.6 (p.21-14)
1. (a) Propyl group
(b) Hexyl group
2. (a) CH3(CH2)3CH2–
(b) CH3(CH2)5CH2–

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A21.7 (p.21-17)
(a) Methylpropane
(b) 2,3-dimethylbutane
(c) 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane
(d) 3,4-dimethylhexane

A21.8 (p.21-19)
(a) 1,1,1-trichloroethane
(b) 1,1-dichloro-2,2-dimethylpropane
(c) 1,2-dibromo-4-chloro-3,3-difluoropentane
(d) 2-chloro-3-fluoro-5-methylhexane

A21.9 (p.21-21)
(a) 2-methylbut-2-ene
(b) Propene
(c) 2-methylbuta-1,3-diene
(d) 4-ethyl-2-methylhexa-1,3-diene
(e) 8-chloro-2,3-dimethylocta-2,4,6,-triene

A21.10 (p.21-22)
(a) Butan-1-ol
(b) Pentan-2-ol
(c) Propane-1,3-diol

A21.11 (p.21-23)
(a) 3,3-dimethylbutanoic acid
(b) 3-methylpentanedioic acid
(c) Butanedioic acid

A21.12 (p.21-26)
(a) Chloroethene
(b) Trifluoroethanoic acid
(c) 3,4-dibromobutan-1-ol
(d) 3-bromobut-1-ene
(e) But-2-en-1-ol
(f) 6-chloro-3-fluorohex-4-enoic acid

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A21.13 (p.21-27)
1. (a)

(b)

(c)

2. (a) The correct structural formula is

each carbon atom forms 4 covalent


bonds (double covalent bond is
considered to have 2 bonds), not 5

(b) The correct structural formula is

the methyl group is


attached to C-2

(c) The correct structural formula is

the carboxyl carbon is


always the first carbon of
the main carbon chain

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Think about
Think about (p.21-2)
1.

2. It means the hydroxyl group is attached to the C-2.


3. Hydroxyl group (−OH)

Think about (p.21-16)


We should give the lowest possible numeral to the alkyl groups. As ‘2,3-’ is lower
than ‘3,4-’. Hence, the prefix of this compound is not 3,4-dimethyl.

Think about (p.21-18)


We should consider the alphabetical order of the first letter of the name of the
substituent. Here, bromo comes before chloro. Thus, the name of the compound is not
1-chloro-2-bromopropane.

Try it now (p.21-26)


○1


2


3


4

Chapter exercise (p.21-33)


1. Structural formula; skeletal formula
2. functional group
3. general formula; CH2, physical; chemical

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4. (a) alkane
(b) alkene
(c) alkanol
(d) alkanoic acid
5. IUPAC
6. (a) 3-ethyl-2-methylpentane
(b) 4-methylpent-2-ene
(c) 2,3-dibromo-2,3-dichlorobutane
(d) 1-bromo-2-chlorohex-3-ene
(e) 2-methylpropan-1-ol
(f) Penta-1,2,3-triol
(g) 1-bromo-3-methylbut-2-ene
(h) 1-chlorobut-2-en-1-ol

7. (a) (i)

(ii)

OR (CH3)2C=CHCH(CH3)2
(iii)

(b) (i) (ii)

(iii)

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(c) (i) (ii)

(iii)

(d) (i) (ii)

(iii)

(e) (i) (ii)

(iii)

(f) (i) (ii)

(iii)

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(g) (i) (ii)

(iii)

(h) (i) (ii)

(iii)

8. B
(1) and (3) have the same systematic name: 2-methylpentane.

9. D
Refer to p.11 of chapter 21 for details.

10. B
Members of a homologous series show similar but NOT identical chemical
properties.

11. A

12. D

13. C

14. (a) Alkene (series)


(b) Ethene and propene

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(c) Yes. This is because they have the same functional group, .
(d) No. They have different physical properties. This is because their molecular
sizes are different. Thus, the strengths of the van der Waals’ forces between
molecules are also different.

15. (a) Pentane


(b) X is a liquid under room conditions.
(c) (i) CnH2n+2
(ii) x = 6, y = 14
(d) Butane has a larger molecular size than methane. Hence, the van der Waals’
forces between butane molecules are stronger than those between methane
molecules. More energy is needed to separate the butane molecules during
boiling.

16. (a) (i) For 1-chloro-1,1,2,2,2-pentafluoroethane:

For dichlorodifluoromethane:
(ii) No. This is because they cannot be represented by the same general
formula.
(b) (i) Global warming refers to an undesirable rise in average temperature of
the Earth’s surface caused by enhanced greenhouse effect.
(ii) Melting of ice at the North Pole and the South Pole OR
Climate change OR
Flooding and climate change would put wildlife in danger
(c) (i) Hydrocarbon is a compound which consists of carbon and hydrogen
only.
(ii) CFCs deplete ozone, causing the ozone layer becomes thinner.
Hydrocarbons do not deplete oxygen.

17. (a)

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(b) (i) For propan-1-ol: For propan-2-ol

(ii) Propan-1-ol has a larger molecular size than ethanol. Hence, the van
der Waals’ forces between propan-1-ol molecules are stronger than
those between ethanol molecules. As a result, propan-1-ol is more
viscous.
(c) This is because the ethanol in hand sanitizer gel is flammable.

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Chapter 22 Alkanes and alkenes

Class practice
A22.1 (p.22-6)
13
(a) C4H10(g) + O2(g) → 4CO2(g) + 5H2O(l) OR
2
2C4H10(g) + 13O2(g) → 8CO2(g) + 10H2O(l)
(b) Test the products by using anhydrous copper(II) sulphate powder. The powder
changes from white to blue if water is present.
Test the products by using limewater. The limewater turns milky if carbon
dioxide is present.
(c) Butane has lower carbon content than octane. Hence, butane can burn more
completely with a less sooty flame.

A22.2 (p.22-9)
(a) The red-orange bromine solution is decolorized.
(b) (i)

(ii) Dibromomethane/tribromomethane/tetrabromomethane/hydrogen bromide


(Any TWO)

A22.3 (p.22-14)
1. (a) Cracking is the process of breaking down large molecules (usually
long-chain molecules of carbon compounds) into smaller ones.
(b) Petrol is commonly used as fuel for motor cars. As the number of motor
cars has been increasing, the demand for petrol has also been increasing.
(c) To produce alkenes. Alkenes can be used to make many useful organic
compounds.

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2. (a)

broken pieces of
glass wool soaked unglazed porcelain
with octane
gaseous products

strong heat

water

(b) (i) C8H18 → C4H8 + C4H10


(ii) C4H8 C4H10

A22.4 (p.22-18)
1. (a)

(b) Add ethane and ethene separately to acidified potassium permanganate


solution. Ethene can decolorize the acidified potassium permanganate
solution while ethane cannot.

2. Ethane burns with a less sooty flame than ethene because the former has lower
carbon content.

Think about
Think about (p.22-2)
1. Carbon dioxide and water
2. Saturated hydrocarbons are compounds made up of only carbon and hydrogen in
which the carbon and hydrogen atoms are all joined by single bonds only.
3. Yes. Propane reacts with chlorine or bromine (dissolved in an organic solvent) in

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the presence of UV light or heat in substitution.

Think about (p.22-10)


The heavy fractions will undergo combustion.

Think about (p.22-16)


Alkenes are important starting materials for making many useful chemicals. It would
be a waste to burn alkenes as fuels.

Chapter exercise (p.22-22)


1. CnH2n+2
2. substitution
3. petrol; alkenes
4. ; unsaturated; addition
5. two; more; single
6. C
Saturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that the carbon and hydrogen atoms
are all joined by single bonds only.

7. B
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons. They undergo substitution reactions with
chlorine.

8. A
A mixture of products forms at the end of the reaction.

9. A
Refer to p.8 of chapter 22 for details.

10. A

11. C
There are two common types of cracking. They are thermal cracking and
catalytic cracking. Thermal cracking can take place in the absence of catalyst.

12. A
In the reaction between alkenes and bromine, a bromine atom is added to each of
the doubly bonded carbon atoms.

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13. C
Refer to p.16 and 17 of chapter 22 for details.

14. (a) The red-orange bromine solution is decolorized. OR


(b) Light provides energy to break the Br–Br bonds in bromine molecules,
forming bromine radicals and start the chain reaction.
UV light
(c) (i) Initiation: Br2 → 2Br•
Propagation: CH4 + Br• → CH3• + HBr OR
CH3• + Br2 → CH3Br + Br•
Termination: CH3• + Br• → CH3Br
(ii) No. This is because the reaction produces a mixture of products.

15. (a) The C–C bonds and C–H bonds in alkanes are very strong. Hence, a large
amount of energy is needed to break these bonds during cracking.
(b) CnH2n
(c) C13H28 → C2H4 + C3H6 + C8H18
(d) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 OR CH3(CH2)6CH3
(e) The reaction can be carried out at a lower temperature by using a catalyst.
(f) To produce extra petrol/to produce alkenes that can be used to make many
useful chemicals.

16. (a) If the liquid paraffin is heated directly, it would vaporize very quickly and
pass through the broken pieces of porous pot without being cracked.
(b) They act as a catalyst.
(c) (i) The red-orange bromine solution is decolorized. This is because both
the alkane(s) and alkene(s) in the gaseous products can react with
bromine in the presence of light.
(ii) The red-orange bromine solution is decolorized. In the absence of light,
the alkene(s) in the gaseous products can react with bromine.
(d) This is because the first tube of gas collected contains mainly air.
(e) The delivery tube should be removed from water before the heat source is
removed.

17. (a) Carbon-carbon double bond


(b) (i) The red-orange bromine solution is decolorized.
(ii) The purple acidified potassium permanganate solution becomes
colourless (or very pale pink).

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(c) Reaction in (b)(i):

Reaction in (b)(ii):

(d) (i) Substitution reaction


(ii) Addition reaction

18. (a) Ethene is a gas under room conditions.


(b) This is because ethene contains carbon-carbon double bond in its molecules.
(c) Carry out fractional distillation to separate petroleum into several fractions
including heavy fractions.
Cracking of heavy fractions gives a mixture of smaller hydrocarbons which
includes ethene.
Carry out fractional distillation again to separate ethene out from the
product mixture of cracking.

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Chapter 23 Addition polymers

Class Practice
A23.1 (p.23-5)
1. (a) Glucose
(b) Starch is a natural polymer.

2. (a) (2) (b) (3) (c) (1) (d) (3) (e) (1)

A23.2 (p.23-9)
(a) Compounds (i) and (ii) can undergo addition polymerization.
For compound (i): For compound (ii):

(b) For compound (i): For compound (ii):

A23.3 (p.23-13)
(a) (i) Polyethene/polythene
(ii) Polypropene/polypropylene
(iii) Polyvinyl chloride
(b) (i) Ethene
(ii) Propene
(iii) Vinyl chloride/chloroethene
(c) (i) PVC is a good insulator of electricity and flexible.
(ii) Polypropene is resistant to many chemicals.
(d) No. This is because PVC may release some poisonous substances that
contaminate the food.

A23.4 (p.23-18)
1. (a) (4) (b) (1) (c) (2) (d) (3) (e) (5)

2. (a) Van der Waals’ forces

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(b) Polypropene contain macromolecules. The molecules in polypropene are


held together by weak van der Waals’ forces. Less energy is needed to
separate the molecules during melting. Diamond has a giant covalent
structure. The carbon atoms in diamond are held together by strong covalent
bonds. More energy is needed to break the strong covalent bonds during
melting.

Think about
Think about (p.23-2)
1. Synthetic polymers are a type of man-made polymers. They are made artificially
from the corresponding monomers.

2.
3. After an appropriate amount of plasticizer is added, polyvinyl chloride becomes
soft and flexible. Besides, polyvinyl chloride is water resistant.

Think about (p.23-3)


Plastics have the following properties which make them useful in making these
articles:
⚫ Usually strong but light
⚫ No reaction with air, water, acids, alkalis and most other chemicals
⚫ Usually are good insulators of heat and electricity
⚫ Can be moulded easily into any shape
⚫ Transparent, but can be easily dyed
⚫ Usually flexible, but some are very rigid

Chapter exercise (p.23-23)


1. Polymerization
2. Regenerated polymers; Synthetic polymers
3. monomer; polymer; small; unsaturated
4. repeating unit
5. (a) (i) (ii)

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(b) (i) (ii)

(c) (i) (ii)

6. B
(1): Perspex is a synthetic polymer.
(3): rayon is a regenerated polymer

7. B
The compounds involved in addition polymerization must contain carbon-carbon
multiple bond.

8. C

9. D

The monomer of polymer Y is . The carbon atoms on the main chain


should be numbered from the end closest to the carbon-carbon double bond. We
should give the lowest possible numerals to the substituents.

10. C
PVC should not be used to make drinking water pipes as it may release some
poisonous substances such as chloroethene.

11. B
Polypropene does not contain carbon-carbon double bonds in its polymer
molecules.

12. (a)

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(b)

(c)

(d) PVC is soft, flexible after plasticizer is added. Besides, it is water resistant.

13. (a)

(b) Tetrafluoroethene
(c) It is non-toxic, heat and chemical resistant. Besides, it has a smooth and
slippery surface.

14. (a) Addition polymerization


(b)

(c) (i) To prevent the bumping/to ensure the smooth boiling of the liquid
inside the pear-shaped flask.
(ii) If the reaction is complete, there should be no observable change to the
bromine solution.
(d) To make transparent containers such as sample bottles and cups/measuring
cups/compact disc cases (Any ONE). OR
Expanded polystyrene can be used to make lightweight ceiling tiles.

15. (a) (i) C. This is because C is flexible.


(ii) C is non-poisonous.
(b) D. This is because D can be used at high temperatures (up to 1350˚C).
Besides, it does not burn.
(c) A. This is because A has excellent transparency.
(d) (i) Perspex

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(ii) Perspex does not break as easily as glass.


(iii) PVC
(iv) PVC is cheaper and more resistant to wearing than rubber.
(v) Expanded polystyrene is more rigid than waxed paper.
(vi) Polyethene is lighter/a poorer conductor of heat than glass.

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Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds

Part exercise (p.23-26)


1. A
Fractional distillation, which is a physical separation method, can be used to
separate petroleum (a complex mixture) into several fractions (less complex
mixture).

2. C
CH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
8.0
Number of moles of methane used = mol = 0.5 mol
12.0 + 1.0  4
From the equation, mole ratio of CH4 to O2 = 1 : 2.
∴number of moles of O2 required = 0.5 × 2 mol = 1 mol
Mass of O2 required = 1 × (16.0 × 2) g = 32.0 g

3. C
The general formula of this homologous series is CnH2n. This is the alkene series.
The first member of the alkene series has two carbon atoms.

4. B
Cracking is a chemical change. Y is C6H12, which is an alkene.

5. D
The longest continuous carbon chain contains 5 carbon atoms. When numbering
the carbon chain, we should start from the end closest to the carbon-carbon
double bond, which is located between C-2 and C-3 for this compound.

6. B
In the reaction, a bromine atom is added to each of the doubly bonded carbon
atoms.

7. C
The –COOH group and the carbon-carbon double bond enable the compound to
react with sodium hydroxide solution and undergo addition polymerization
respectively.

8. D

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This compound does not contain ionizable hydrogen ions.

9. C

10. A
Refer to p.15 of chapter 23 for details.

11. (a)
thermometer

mineral wool soaked delivery tube


with petroleum

ice
heat water
petroleum fraction

(b) Wear safety spectacles/protective gloves/beware of burns/perform the


experiment in fume cupboard. (Any TWO)
(c) C
(d) B
(e) B, D, A, C

12. (a) Saturated hydrocarbons are compounds made up of only carbon and
hydrogen in which the carbon and hydrogen atoms are all joined by single
bonds only.
(b) C8H18
(c) C20H42 → C8H18 + C12H24
25
(d) C8H18(l) + O2(g) → 8CO2(g) + 9H2O(l) OR
2
2C8H18(l) + 25O2(g) → 16CO2(g) + 18H2O(l)
(e) (i) Carbon monoxide/unburnt hydrocarbons/soot (Any TWO)
(ii) By installing catalytic converter to the car exhaust system.
Carbon monoxide will be converted to carbon dioxide and unburnt
hydrocarbons will be converted to carbon dioxide and water.
By installing particulate trap to the car exhaust system. The carbon

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particles in soot will be trapped by the particulate trap.

13. (a) Molecular formulae of citric acid and limonene are C6H8O7 and C10H16.
(b) Carboxyl group (–COOH group)/hydroxyl group (–OH group) is present in
the molecule of citric acid. Carbon-carbon double bond ( ) is present
in the molecule of limonene.
(c) (i) The acidified potassium permanganate solution is decolorized.
(ii) Effervescence occurs (or colourless gas bubbles evolve).
(d) (i) The orange colour of the orange juice will mask the colour of the pH
paper. This leads to difficulty in determining the pH of the sample of
orange juice.
(ii) By using a pH meter.

14. (a) Addition polymerization


(b) (i) Polymer A: Polymer B:

(ii) Polymer A: Polymer B:

(c) (i) 1-chloropropene


(ii) Add polymer A and its monomer separately in bromine (dissolved in
an organic solvent). Monomer of A can decolorize bromine solution,
but polymer A cannot.

15. (a) (i) Fractional distillation


(ii) The hydrocarbons in petroleum have different boiling points.
(b) (i) Cracking
(ii) C18H38 → C2H4 + C3H6 + C13H28
(c) CH2=CH2 + Br2 → CH2BrCH2Br
(d) (i) Addition polymerization
(ii) Making plastic bags/wrapping film for food/flexible cold water
pipes/bottles for certain chemicals/buckets/box (Any ONE)

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY ⎯ A Modern View (Second Edition) Coursebook 2

16. (a) (i) Propene


(ii) Using a mixture of aluminium oxide and silicon dioxide as catalyst;
about 500˚C and about 1 atm
(iii) Fractional distillation
(b) Cracking produces alkenes, which are the raw materials for making some
kinds of addition polymers.
(c)

(d) Addition polymerization


(e) This is because polypropene is resistant to many chemicals.

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