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Aim and Purpose of Social Studies

College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards

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What does 21st century Social Studies look like?

Social Studies connects student thinking with real world contexts from local to global scales. Social
Studies education is essential in supporting students to interact with difference within communities.

According to the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS),

The primary purpose of social studies is to help young people make informed and reasoned
decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an
interdependent world.

(Source: National Council for the Social Studies, Expectations of Excellence: Curriculum Standards for
Social Studies (Washington, D.C.: NCSS, 1994): 3.)

How do we create a sense of belonging for every child and many opportunities for civic action in our
classrooms, schools, and communities? Sustained practice with social studies concepts, skills, and
habits of mind will foster learning today and citizens tomorrow.

Why is social studies important for Minnesota students?

The National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) contends that student learning should involve civic
competence as part of preparation for college, career, and civic life. See C3 Framework.

Minnesota’s social studies standards embrace this focus on civic life along with deep thinking about
how people live together on earth.

Our state’s anchor standards compel students to:

understand the facts, concepts, principles, and perspectives that shape social studies

apply learning to complex situations and contexts

think critically about important issues and communicate their findings

engage in the processes of problem solving and discipline-based inquiry

(Taken from the Introduction to the 2011 Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Social Studies: 3.
Social Education in the Classroom: The
Dynamics of the Hidden Curriculum
Henry A. Giroux & Anthony N. Penna
Page 21-42 | Published online: 02 Jul 2012
 

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 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00933104.1979.10506048

 
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Abstract
This paper reviews recent studies on the relationship of classroom life to larger
social/political institutions. It analyzes the phenomenon which Philip Jackson has
identified as the “hidden curriculum”, that covert pattern of socialization which
prepares students to function in the existing workplace and in other social/political
spheres. The authors argue that this pattern has been largely ignored by social
studies curriculum developers. By ignoring the values contained in the social
processes of schooling, social studies developers failed to influence school
programs in a fundamental way. To promote a more complete understanding of the
dynamics of classroom life and its relationship to the larger society, the authors have
identified social processes of school and classroom life which give specific meaning
to the term hidden curriculum. They argue that a new set of processes will have to
replace existing ones if the goals of social education are to be realized. In the latter
part of the paper, a new set of social processes are described which could form the
basis for a new and more progressive approach to social studies instruction.
size
The Construction of the Hidden
Curriculum: messages and meanings in
the assessment of student learning
Kay Sambell  & Liz McDowell 
Page 391-402 | Published online: 28 Jul 2006
 

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 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0260293980230406

 
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ABSTRACT
A wide range of diverse responses by individual students to innovative or alternative
assessment are described and discussed, drawing on research data. Student
perspectives are significant since assessment is a powerful factor in determining the
hidden curriculum and assessment reform has frequently been proposed as a means
of better aligning actual experience with the official curriculum. At a general level,
students appeared to understand and adapt to new assessment requirements but
case studies illustrate that students do not respond in a fixed nor simple way.
Individuals are active in the reconstruction of the messages and meanings of
assessment. Ostensibly the same assessment is interpreted differently not just by
‘staff and ‘students’ but by individuals. Students import a range of experiences,
motivations and perspectives which influence their response. However, although the
process is complex, insights gained can be helpful in better aligning the hidden and
the formal curriculum.
The hidden curriculum revisited: a
critical review of research into the
influence of summative assessment
on learning
Gordon Joughin 

Page 335-345 | Published online: 26 Apr 2010

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 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02602930903221493

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Abstract
That summative assessment drives learning has become one of the most frequently
stated maxims in the literature of assessment and learning in higher education.
However, a careful review of the empirical research often cited in support of this
proposition may cause us to reconsider its veracity and to seek a more nuanced
understanding of the research findings. Seminal research on the influence of
assessment on learning in higher education was reviewed on the basis of its context,
research methods used, sampling, reported findings, and the generalisability of
these findings. This study found that the treatment of the research reported in
frequently cited works such as Making the grade, The hidden curriculum, and Up to
the mark has often oversimplified, and thus misrepresented, the research findings,
leading to singular interpretations of complex, multi‐faceted phenomena. Other
research suggesting limitations to the capacity of assessment per se to improve
students’ approaches to learning is often misunderstood or under‐emphasised,
leading to the risk of exaggerated claims for the capacity of ‘alternative’ forms of
assessment to foster effective learning processes in students. The findings of this
review lead to a proposed agenda for empirical research to address what seem to be
serious gaps in our understanding of fundamental aspects of the interactions
between assessment and learning.

Keywords: hidden curriculum, approaches to learning, critical review, 

The hidden curriculum revisited: a


critical review of research into the
influence of summative assessment
on learning
Gordon Joughin 

Page 335-345 | Published online: 26 Apr 2010

 Download citation

 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02602930903221493

Select Language ▼

Translator disclaimer








Abstract
That summative assessment drives learning has become one of the most frequently
stated maxims in the literature of assessment and learning in higher education.
However, a careful review of the empirical research often cited in support of this
proposition may cause us to reconsider its veracity and to seek a more nuanced
understanding of the research findings. Seminal research on the influence of
assessment on learning in higher education was reviewed on the basis of its context,
research methods used, sampling, reported findings, and the generalisability of
these findings. This study found that the treatment of the research reported in
frequently cited works such as Making the grade, The hidden curriculum, and Up to
the mark has often oversimplified, and thus misrepresented, the research findings,
leading to singular interpretations of complex, multi‐faceted phenomena. Other
research suggesting limitations to the capacity of assessment per se to improve
students’ approaches to learning is often misunderstood or under‐emphasised,
leading to the risk of exaggerated claims for the capacity of ‘alternative’ forms of
assessment to foster effective learning processes in students. The findings of this
review lead to a proposed agenda for empirical research to address what seem to be
serious gaps in our understanding of fundamental aspects of the interactions
between assessment and learning.

Keywords: hidden curriculum, approaches to learning, critical review, assessment and


learning, cue‐consciousness