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Proceedings of the 49th European Microwave Conference

Thin Perforated A-shaped DRA for

UWB Applications
Abas Sabouni1, Abdulaziz I. Alali1, Farnoush Sabouni2, Ahmed A. Kishk3
Wilkes University, Wilkes Barre, PA, USA
Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Concordia University, Montreal, Canada
{abas.sabouni, abdulaziz.alali},,

Abstract — This paper presents a new design of a passive one- consists of two different dielectric material bonded to each
piece A-shaped dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) by other. To solve this problem, the antenna should be made of
perforating the dielectric material to provide the required only one dielectric martial. This paper presents a novel DRA
effective dielectric constant. The DRA is excited by a microstrip with only one dielectric for the DRA and the microstrip line
line over a perforated substrate. The presented antenna has
maintained the same characteristics of the regular A-shaped
using the perforation technique.
Antenna of broadside radiation and wide matching bandwidth. A
comparison between the present and the original DRA is
presented. In addition, a thin A-shaped DRA is presented, which In 2010, a novel DRA was introduced, which provided
is 50% of the original volume. The thin DRA still provides wide impedance matching bandwidth of around 93% with
wideband width characteristics. good broadside radiation characteristics and lighter weight
Keywords—Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA), ultra- than the regular rectangular dielectric resonator antenna [5].
wideband, perforation, thin DRA. This antenna was designed by having two dielectric pieces
with the DRA is an A-shaped and the microstrip line on a
different material as shown in Fig. 1 [5]. The difficulty in
Various antenna types such as dipoles, monopoles, and building the antenna is related to the ability to glue the DR
microstrip patch antennas were the traditional choices for with the microstrip substrate. The antenna provided an
antenna engineers until the Dielectric Resonator Antenna excellent characteristic that made it an excellent candidate as a
(DRA) was invented after the development of low-loss sensor for breast cancer microwave imaging after modifying
ceramics in the late 1960s [1]. Basically, any dielectric the A-shaped to H-shaped [6].
structure can become a radiator when properly excited and
resonate at a certain mode [2]. One of the excitation
techniques is the microstrip line which is considered as the =2.94 =10.2
most popular technique [3]. DRA excited by a microstrip line
usually is fabricated from two different materials, which have
two separate relative permittivities. The high-permittivity is 5.08mm
used for the DR and the low-permittivity is used to hold the
DR and for the microstrip line, which is one of the many 1mm
possible feeding methods. The size of the dielectric resonator
is usually around the one dielectric wavelength = λ /√εr, where 1.9mm 5.4mm
λ is the free space wavelength and εr is the dielectric (a) (b)
permittivity constant of the high permittivity material [4].
DRA can be obtained from a wide range of dielectric Fig. 1. Orignal A-shape (a) front (b) side view [5].
constants, which allow the designer to have control of the size
[3]. One of the most significant advantages DRA has over
other types of the antenna is its high flexibility and versatility Perforation plays a major role in the design of the present
in fabrication [1]. However, DRA with microstrip line should some cases perforation was introduced in order to
be bound to a substrate, which can be considered as a ground make DRA wideband [7]. In this design, we used perforation
plane. One of the advantages of the DRA is that the gain, to make the fabrication of A-shape easier. The perforation
bandwidth, and polarization can be controlled by changing the technique changes the effective permittivity of the dielectric
design of the antenna, for example, A-shaped DRA is a material. This makes it possible to have material of different
modified design of the rectangular DRA to enhance the permittivities made from one piece without a need for
bandwidth [5]. Even though A-shaped DRA could enhance adhesive, which cause ease the fabrication. Fig. 2 shows the
bandwidth, there is a difficulty of fabrication because it perforated substrate with effective relative permittivity εeff of

978-2-87487-055-2 © 2019 EuMA 69 1– 3 Oct 2019, Paris, France

2.94 from a dielectric material with permittivity εr of 10.2. We

Reflection coefficient (db)

used (1) and (2) to find the diameter of the circular air holes
and the distance between the center of the holes as shown in
Fig. 2.

1 (1)


Frequency (GHz)
where is the felling factor, D is a diameter of the holes and Fig. 4. Reflection coefficients for original (dotted) and perforated A-shape
S is the center to center holes separation [2].
To solve this problem, in the new design we considered the
S same thickness for the perforated substrate part and dielectric
resonator part. However, we keep the part of the substrate
which has the ground plane on the back to have the same size
D as the original DRA in Fig.1. Fig. 5 shows the geometry of the
proposed DRA. After some parametric studies, we have
optimized the microstrip line thickness to match the antenna
and keeps the result comparable to the original A-shaped DRA.
Fig. 2. Perforated substrate. The dimension of the proposed DRA is shown in Table 1. The
computed results are carried out using a commercially
IV. PERFORATED A-SHAPED DRA available software package CST.
A. Perforated DRA W
Here, for the A-shaped DRA shown in Fig. 1, we have W1
replaced the dielectric holder ( = 2.94) with a perforated
dielectric ( = 10.2) shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows the W2
structure of the perforated DRA antenna. We used Computer
Simulation Technology (CST) Software to simulated this L1
antenna. Fig. 4 shows the reflection coefficient from 5-11 GHz L L2 W4
and compared to the DRA in Fig. 1. As shown in Fig. 4 the
proposed perforated antenna has 93% of the bandwidth from
3.5-9.5GHz, which is almost the same reflection coefficient of L4
the DRA in Fig.1. This result indicated that perforation is
perfectly suitable to be applied to the A-shaped DRA. In this
antenna, the thickness of the substrate and the A-shaped DRA
are still the same as the original A-shaped DRA shown in W6
Fig. 1. (a)



(a) (b)
Fig. 3. Perforated A-shaped DRA (a) front view, and (b) side view.
(b) (c)
B. Perforated DRA with same thickness in dielectric Fig. 5. The geometry of the perforated A-shaped (a) front view, (b) side view,
resonator and dielectric holder and (c) isometric.
Even though, the result of the perforated A-shaped DRA is
similar to the original A-shaped DRA, Fig. 1, the thickness of Fig. 6 compares the reflection coefficient of the new
the A-shaped DRA and the dielectric holder are different, perforated DRA and the original DRA in Fig. 1. It shows that
which makes the fabrication process to be a bit complicated. this new design has 90% fractional bandwidth from 3.5 – 8.8

GHz. Table 2 shows the directivity, gain and total efficiency at
4, 6.5 and 9 GHz.
Figs. 7 and 8 compare the radiation patterns (E-plane and
H-plane) Co-pole and X-pole for both antennas at 4, 6.5 and 9
GHz. As the results show for the perforated A-shaped the
radiation patterns stay almost similar to those of the original
A-shaped DRA (Fig. 1). This proposed antenna has overcome
the problem of bounding the dielectric martial with the
substrate as well as it kept the same result of the original A-
shaped DRA Fig.1.
Reflection coefficient (db)

Frequency GHz
Fig. 6. Reflection coefficients of the original A-shaped (dotted-line) in Fig. 1
and, the perforated A-shaped DRA (dashed-line).

Fig. 8. H- plane for original A-shape (left) and H-plane for perforated A-shape
(a) (right) radiation patterns at (a) 4 GHz (b) 6.5 GHz (c) 9 GHz.

Table 1. Size of the antenna structure in Fig. 5.

Parameter Value (mm)
L 30
W 30
L1 18.3
W1 14
W2 6
L2 6.7
W3 2.45
(b) L3 8
W4 3
L4 7
W5 1
L5 4
W6 1.9
T1 5.07
T2 0.762
L ground 11
Ls 19

(c) Table 2. Antena parameters for the proposed DRA In Fig. 5.

Fig. 7. E-plane for original A-shaped (left) and E-plane for perforated A- Parameter Value Value Value
shaped (right) radiation patterns at (a) 4 GHz (b) 6.5 GHz (c) 9 GHz. Frequency 4 GHz 6.5 GHz 9 GHz
Directivity 2.535 dB 4.121 dB 4.21 dB
Gain 2.332 dB 4.038 dB 3.654 dB
Total -0.3617 db -0.0754db -0.6229 db
efficiency 92% 98.2% 87%

C. Thin Perforated A-shaped DRA
Here, we have optimized the thickness of the perforated
DRA and reduce the volume of the DRA with 50% less
compared to the original DRA in Fig. 1 while keeping the
antenna parameters to be the same. In this section, we have
designed the A-shaped perforated DRA with = 10.2, and the
same thickness for dielectric resonator and substrate part. We
have optimized the thickness in order to decrease the size of
the antenna while keeping the performance of the antenna to
(a) (b)
be close to original A-shaped antenna. Fig. 9 shows the new
design of the perforated DRA. Fig.11. E- plane for perforated A-shaped with reduced thickness (a) 6.5 GHz
and (b) 9 GHz.



W5 T2

L5 W6
(a) (b)
(a) (b) (c) Fig.12. H- plane for perforated A-shaped with a reduced thickness (a) 6.5
Fig. 9. (a) Front view, (b) side view, and (c) isometric view. GHz and (b) 9 GHz.

As can be seen in this Fig. 9 both the resonator and the V. CONCLUSION
substrate have the same thickness. The microstrip line A perforated A-shaped DRA has been designed to simplify
thickness and length have also been optimized to make the the fabrication of the A-shaped DRA. The design of this
antenna matched at the resonance frequencies. Table 3 shows antenna has been made of one dielectric material instead of
the dimensions of the microstrip lines. two dielectric materials using the perforation technique. The
Table 3. Size of the antenna structure in Fig. 9.
new design of the perforated A-shaped DRA has overcome the
problem of bonding the dielectric resonator (A) to the
T1 0.762mm
T2 0.762mm
substrate, and in this design, the dielectric resonator and the
W4 2mm substrate are having the same thickness, which made the
W5 1mm antenna more stable and rigid.
L3 8.7mm
L5 4.7mm
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