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# NAME: EGHOBAMIEN NOTIEONWAN

## MATRIC NO: 2018/7089

DEPARTMENT: MECHATRONICS
COURSE: MEE 208(STRENGTH OF MATERIALS)

## SIMPLE STRESSES AND STRAIN.

When an external force acts on a body, the body tends to undergo some
deformation, due to cohesion between the molecules the body resists deformation.
This resistance by which material of the body opposes the deformation is called
"STRENGTH OF MATERIAL".

STRESS.
This is the force of resistance per unit area offered by a body against
deformation. The External force acting on the body is called "LOAD or FORCE".
The load is applied on the body while the stress is induced in the material of
the body. A loaded member remains in equilibrium when the resistance offered by
the member against the deformation and the applied load are equal
Mathematically stress = External force or load(P)/Cross sectional area
(A)
S.I unit is N/mm^2

STRAIN.
When a body is subjected to some External force, there is some change of
dimension of the body. Strain is the ratio of change in dimension of the body to
the original dimension. Strain is dimensionless and maybe
1. Tensile strain:- if there is some increase in length of a body due to
External force, then the ratio of increase of length to the original length of
the body is called "TENSILE STRAIN".
Tensile strain,e = Increase in length(dL)/Original length(L)

## 2. Compressive strain:- if there is some decrease in the length of the body,

then the ratio of decrease of the body to the original length is called
"COMPRESIVE STRAIN".
Compressive strain,e = Decrease in length(dL)/Original length(L)

## 3. Volumetric strain:- is the ratio of change of volume of the body to the

original volume.
Volumetric strain,Ev = Change in volume(dV)/Original volume(V)

## 4. Shear strain:- is the strain produced by shear stress.

TYPES OF STRESS
Stress maybe normal stress or shear stress.
Normal stress is the stress which acts in direction perpendicular to the area.
It is represented by "STIGMA( )" and is divided into two - (Tensile stress,
Compressive stress).
1. Tensile stress:- is the stress induced in a body, when subjected to two equal
and opposite pulls (fig a below) as a result of which there is an increase in
length .The Tensile stress acts normal to the area and it pulls on the area
Let P = Pull(or) Force acting on the body,
A = Cross sectional area of the body,
L = Original length of the body,
dL = Increase in the length of the body,
= Stress induced in the body.
SPACE FOR DIAGRAM
Tensile stress, = Resisting force(R)/Cross sectional area(A)
= Tensile
load(P)/A... ..... .... ..... .... ...[P=R]
= P/A

## 2. Compressive stress:- is the stress induced in a body, when subjected to two

equal and opposite pushes as a result of which there is a decrease in length of
the body. The Compressive stress acts normal to the area and it pushes on the
area.

## SPACE FOR DIAGRAM

Compressive stress, = Resisting force(R)/Cross sectional area(A)
= Push(P)/Area(A).... .... ..... .... ...[P=R]
= P/A

3. Shear stress:- is the stress induced in a body, when subjected to two equal
and opposite forces are acting tangentially across the resisting section, as a
result of which the body tends to shesr off across the section. The shear stress
acts tangential to the area and is represented by ( ).
SPACE FOR DIAGRAM
Shear stress, = Shear resistance(R)/Shear area(A)
= P/L* 1.... .... ..... .... ...[R=P &
A=L* 1]
NOTE: that Shear stress is tangential to the area over which it acts.
As the bottom face of the block is fixed, the face ABCD will be distorted
to ABC`D` through an angle \$ as a result of force P below.

## SPACE FOR DIAGRAM

& Shear strain, is given by
or
= dL/h

## ELASTICITY AND ELASTIC LIMIT

When an External force acts on a body, the body tends to undergo some
deformation. If the External force is removed and the body comes back to its
original shape and size (which means the deformation disappears completely), the
body is known as "ELASTIC BODY".
ELASTICITY is the proprty by which certain materials return back to their
original position after the external force.
ELASTIC LIMIT is the level of stress at which certain materials undergo a
greater change in strain than predicted by HOOKE's LAW, often itis followed by
breaking.
If the External force is so large that the stress exceeds the elastic
limit, the material loses to some extent its property of Elasticity. If now the
force is removed, the material will not return to its original shape and size
and there will be a residual deformation in the material.
HOOKE's LAW AND ELASTIC MODULII
Hooke's Law states that when a material is loaded within elastic limit,
the stress is proportional to the strainproduced by the stress i.e the ratio of
the stressto the corresponding strain is a constant within the Elastic Limit.
Elastic Modulii or Modulus of Rigidity or Modulus of Elasticity is the
constant.
~Modulus of ELasticity(Young's Modulus, E):- is the ratio of tensile stress or
compressive stress to the ratio of the corresponding tensile strain or
compressive strain.
E = Tensile stress/Tensile strain or Compressive stress/Compressive strain
E = /e
~Modulus of Rigidty(Shear Modulus):- is the ratio of shesr stress to the
corresponding shear strain within the Elastic limit.
C or G or N = Shear stress/Shear strain
= /\$

FACTORY OF SAFETY
This is the ratio of ultimate tensile stress to the working (or
permissible stress).
Factory of Safety = Ultimate stress/Permissible stress

PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION
When a number of loads are acting on a body, the resulting strain,
according to the principle of superposition, will be the algebraic sum of
Ex 1.
A brass bar, having cross sectional area of 1000mm^2, is subjected to axial
brass as shown below.

## SPACE FOR DIAGRAM

Find the total elongation of the bar[E = 1.05*10^5 N/mm^2]
Solution
A = 1000mm^2
E = 1.05*10^5 N/mm^2
dL = ?

## SPACE FOR DIAGRAM

AB( )increase in length = [(P`/AE) * L`]
= [(50 * 1000)/(1000 * 1.05*10^5) * 600] = 0.2857
BC( )decrease in length = [(P``/AE) * L``]
= [(20 * 1000)/(1000 * 1.05*10^5) * 1000] = 0.1904
CD( )decrease in length = [(P```/AE) * L```]
= [(10 * 1000)/(1000 * 1.05*10^5) * 1000+1200] = 0.2095
therefore, Total elongation of bar = 0.2857 - 0.1904 - 0.2095
= -0.1142{+ve; increase in length & -ve; decrease in
length}.

THERMAL STRESS
This is the stress induced in a body due to the change in temperature.
Thermal stress is setup in a body when the temperature of the body is raised or
lowered and the body is not allowed to expand or contact freely. But if the body
is allowed to expand or contact freely, no stress will be setup in the body.
Consider a body which is heated to a certain temperature,
L = Original length of the body,
T = Rise in temperature,
E = Young's Modulus,
& = Coefficient of linear expansion,
dL = &. TL (Extension of rod due to rise in temperature).

## SPACE FOR DIAGRAM

Thermal stress, = Thermal strain * E
Thermal strain, e = Extension prevented/Original length
= dL/L
= (&. T. L)/L
= &. T
therefore, Thermal stress, = (&. T) * E

LONGITUDINAL STRAIN
When a body is subjected to an axial tensile or compressive load, there is
an axial deformation in the length of the body. The ratio of the axial
deformation to the original length of the body is called "LONGITUDINAL STRAIN".
It is also the deformation of the body per unit length in the direction of the
L = Length of the body,
P = Tensile force acting on the body,
dL = Increase in the length of the body in the direction of P
therefore, Longitudinal strain = dL/L

LATERAL STRAIN
This is the strain at right angle to its direction of applied load. Let a
rectangular bar of length L, breadth b and depth d be subjected to an axial
tensile load P as below. The length of the bar will increase while the breadth
and depth will decrease.
dL = Increase in length,
dd = decrease in depth.
therefore, Lateral strain = db/b
or
= dd/d

## SPACE FOR DIAGRAM

NOTE; If longitudinal strain is tensile the lateral strain will be compressive.
If longitudinal strain is compressive the lateral strain will be
tensile.
Longitudinal strain in the direction of load is accompanied by
lateral strain of opposite kind in all directions perpendicular to the load.

POISSON's RATIO
The ratio of lateral strain to the longitudinal strain is a constant for a
given material, when the material is stressed within the elastic limit. This
ratio is called "POISSON's RATIO ( )"
= Lateral strain/Longitudinal strain
Lateral strain = * Longitudinal strain.
As lateral strain is opposite in sign to Longitudinal strain, hence
algebraically, the Lateral strain is written as
Lateral strain = - * Longitudinal strain
"The value of poisson's ratio varies from 0.25 to 0.33. For rubber, its value
ranges from 0.45 to 0.50".

BULK MODULUS
When a body is subjected to the perpendicular like and equal direct
stresses, the ratio of direct stress to the correponding volumetric strain is
found to be constant for a given material when the deformation is within a
certain limit. Thiss ratio is called "BULK MODULUS (K)"
K = Direct stress/Volumetric stress
= /(dV/V)

## PRINCIPLE OF COMPLEMENTARY SHEAR STRESS

This states that a set of shear stresses across a plane is always
accompained by a set of balancing sheaer stresses (i.e of the same intensity
across the plane and normal to it).