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# ASSIGNMENT

## Make a study on global natural gas reserves,

production, consumption and prices in the last
decade and the probable future trend/projection
10 years from now.
Your study should include statistical data and
graphical analysis of gas reserves, production,
consumption and prices in each of the gas
producing countries including Malaysia.
You may refer to tables and graphs but your
analyses (findings, results and conclusion) must
be written in your hand writing.

GAS FIELD ENGINEERING

## Gas Flow Measurement

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CONTENTS

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Measurement Fundamentals
4.3 Selection of Measurement Devices
4.4 Orifice Meters
4.5 Critical Flow Prover
4.6 Choke Nipple
4.7 Pitot Tube

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Lesson Learning Outcome

## • Understand the necessity of Gas flow measurement.

• Select the Gas Volume measurement Devices.
• Calculate Gas Volume Produced by a Gas Well or Gas
Volume transported or sold.

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Gas Flow Measurement
 It is required to determine amount of gas being produced or
sold, and also a basic parameter for almost all of the design
procedures.
 Produced gas stream is in a continuous state of flow from
the instant it leaves the reservoir until it is consumed at the
delivery end.
 Gas measurements must be done on a flowing stream of gas.
 Accuracy in measurements is obviously of prime importance:
error of only 1% for a typical pipeline delivering 300 MMscfd
(109.5 Bscf/year) can result in an error of approximately 1.1
Bscf/year of gas which, at an example gas price of
\$3.00/Mscf, would amount to a loss of \$3.3 million to the
 Gas is measured in terms of volume.
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Gas Flow Measurement

##  Base or standard pressure and temperature conditions are

defined that yield measurements in standard cubic feet.

##  Volumetric rate can be converted to mass flow rate by

multiplying with the gas density at the standard pressure
and temperature(Psc , Tsc).

##  The most common basis is the AGA and API recommended

pressure of 14.73 psia and temperature of 60oF.

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Measurement Fundamentals

##  Flow is one of the difficult variables to measure because it

cannot be measured directly like pressure and temperature.

## o Displacement rate in a measurement chamber, etc.

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Attributes of Flow Devices
• A flow-meter or measurement device is characterized using the
following parameters
Accuracy
• Measure of a flow meter’s ability to indicate the actual flow rate
within a specified flow-rate range.

## Abs [Actual rate – Measured rate]

Accuracy = x 100%
Actual rate

## For a 100 MMSCFD flow meter, a + or – 1% of full scale accuracy

means that the measured flow rate is within + or _ 1 MMSCFD of the
actual flow rate. For a measured flow rate of 10 MMSCFD, actual flow
rate is between 9 and 11 MMSCFD.

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Attributes of Flow Devices
Rangeability
• A flow meter’s rangeability is the ratio of the maximum flow rate
to the minimum flow rate at the specified accuracy.

## Maximum rate that can be measured

Rangeability =
Minimum rate that can be measured

## Reported as x:1 . If max. rate is 50 MMSCFD and min. rate is 10

MMSCFD, Rangeability is 5:1

Repeatability
• Repeatability is the ability of a meter to reproduce the same
measured readings for identical flow conditions over a period
of time.

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Selection of Measurement Devices
The selection of a measurement devices depends upon:
 Accuracy and reliability of the device.
 Range of flow rate: maximum and minimum.
 Range of flow temperature and pressure.
 Fluid to be measured: gas or liquid, their constituents and
specific gravity.
 Maintenance requirements.
 Expected life of the device, and its initial and operating
costs.
 Other considerations, such as simplicity, availability of power
or other inputs required by the devices, its
susceptibility(easily effected) to theft or vandalism, etc.
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Classes of Meters
 Measuring the gas flow rate is necessary. Results of flow rate
measurements are used in gas sales, reservoir engineering
calculations, and applications.
 Two general classes of meters: volumetric and dynamic.
 Volumetric meters usually are used to measure gas flow rates
in residential areas where flow rates are very low.
 Flow rates in fields, pipelines, and plants are high, so
volumetric meters are not effective.
 The focus is on the primary type of dynamic meter used, the
orifice meter.
 Other dynamic meters, such as critical flow provers , choke
nipples, and pitot tubes, also are covered.

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Orifice Meters

##  Orifice meter is used most commonly in the gas production and

transportation industry because of its accuracy, simplicity,
and reasonable cost.
 It has an interchangeable orifice plate with a small, circular
opening, much smaller than the pipe diameter, inserted into
the flow line.
 Taps, either pipe or flange, are used to measure pressure (Fig.
4.1).
 The orifice meter has a gauge that records the pressure and
the pressure difference between the taps, as Fig. 4.2
shows.

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Representation of the primary element of an orifice meter
Flow Pattern through an orifice and the static pressure

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Fig. 4.1-Orifice meters:
flange and pipe taps

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Fig. 4.2a – Typical orifice meter chart and recording

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Fig. 4.2b – Typical orifice meter chart and recording

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Fig. 4.2c – Typical orifice meter chart and recording

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Fig. 4.2d – Typical orifice meter chart and recording

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Fig. 4.2e – Typical orifice meter chart and recording

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Fig. 4.2f – Typical orifice meter chart and recording

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Orifice Equation Factors

##  CI , the orifice flow constant, is determined primarily from the

basic orifice flow factor, Fb.
 For routine field, pipeline and plant operations, the first eight
factors usually are adequate to determine CI.
 The last three factors (Fm, Fl, and Fa) are approximately equal
to unity and do not change CI much.
 Therefore, these three factors generally are used only for gas
sales and purchases.

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11 Factors in the Orifice Flow Constant
 The 11 factors in the orifice flow constant are defined as
follows:
 Fb is the basic orifice flow factor. It depends on the pipe and
orifice diameters and on the location of the pressure taps.
The value of Fb may be found in Table 3.1 for flange taps
and Table 3.2 for pipe taps.
 Fpb = 14.73/psc (pressure base factor), corrects to the
proper pressure base.
 FTb = Tsc/520 (temperature base factor), corrects to the
proper temperature base.
 Fg = 0.5 (specific gravity factor), corrects to the proper

specific gravity.

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 FTf = (520/Tf)0.5 (flowing temperature factor), corrects to the
proper flowing temperature.
 Fpv = (1/zf) 0.5 (gas deviation factor), corrects to the proper
z factor.
 FRe = 1 + b/(hwpf) 0.5 (Reynolds number factor), corrects for
the variation of the discharge coefficient with Reynolds
number.
 Y (expansion factor) corrects for the change in gas density
as the pressure changes across the orifice. The value of Y
may be found in Tables 3.5 through 3.9 for different taps
and tap locations.
 The final three factors, Fm, Fl, and Fa, are more likely to be
used in gas sales than in well testing. Fm, manometer
factor, corrects for the slight error in measurement.

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 Fl, gauge location factor, corrects Fm for elevations other
than sea level and latitudes other than 450.
 Fa, thermal expansion factor, corrects for expansion or
contraction of the orifice opening when the operating
temperature is substantially different from that at which

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Example 4.1 – Orifice Meter Calculation

Calculate the gas flow rate through an orifice meter for the
following conditions.

Solution
1. Determine the factors for the orifice constant. We use the
abbreviated form here, ignoring the last three factors.

## Consider Table 4.1

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Consider Table 4.5
2. Calculate C/

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QUIZZ 3
 Calculate the gas flow rate through an orifice meter for the
following condition.
 h=75 in. of water
 Pf = 250 psia(measured upstream)
 Tf=90 ° F
 Psc=14.7psia
 Tsc= 60 ° F
 d= 5.761
 do = 2.5 in.
 sp. gravity of gas = 0.7
 Y=0.9971
 z= 0.97
 Taps= flange type
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Orifice Meter Installation
 Orifice meters most commonly are located downstream from a
gas/liquid separator to ensure that liquid has been removed
from the flow stream and to provide a lower operating
pressure.
 Pipe and flange taps are the standard taps used in the industry
and differ from each other in their location on the flow line.
 Flange taps are located so that the centers of the taps are 1
in. from the respective orifice plate surfaces.
 Standard pipe taps are located so that the upstream tap is 2.5
pipe diameters from the orifice plate surface and the
downstream tap is 8.0 pipe diameters away.

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Critical Flow Prover

##  A critical flow prover is a special pipe nipple with an orifice

flange on the end.
 Unlike that for an orifice meter, the orifice plate is thicker and
has a rounded edge facing upstream (see Fig. 4.3)
 A critical flow prover can be used if the gas is vented to the
atmosphere or if the pressure drop across the device is large.
 The critical flow prover is not as accurate as an orifice meter
but sometimes is convenient when reasonable accuracy is
sufficient.

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Figure. 4.3 Design of 2 in. Critical Flow Prover

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Critical Flow Prover Calculation
Calculate the gas flow rate through a critical prover.

d= 2 in.
do=0.875 in.
pf = 150 psia.
Tf =70 ° F
g = 0.7
Solution
1. Determine the factors to calculate q gh
C= 309.3 (from table 3.10)

## 3. q gh =(309.3)(150)/(0.7)(70+460) **0.5= 2,408.7 scf/hr

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Choke Nipples
 Choke nipples sometimes are used to control gas flow rates.
 Fig 4.4 shows a sketch of a choke nipple.
 A more common choke is the bean choke in which a cylinder,
similar to a choke nipple, is inserted into a choke assembly.
 For estimating flow rate, bean chokes can be treated the same
as choke nipples.

## Figure. 4.4 Choke Nipple 32

Choke Nipples Calculation
• Calculate the gas flow rate through a choke nipple.

do=0.250 in.
• pf =305 psia.
• Tf =80 ° F
•  g  0.77

• Solution
• 1. Determine the factors to calculate q gh

• C= 26.51 (from table 3.10) q gh  Cp f / gT f (3.13)
• 2. Calculate qgh
• qgh= (26.51)(305)/((0.77)(80+460))**0.5 =396.5 scf/hr

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Pitot Tube

##  A pitot tube also is used to measure gas flow rate by indirectly

measuring the velocity head of the gas flow rate.
 Pitot tubes are used commonly on airplanes to determine
velocity.
 Their use in the gas industry is uncommon.
 They usually are limited to certain laboratory purposes. Fig. 4.5
is a sketch of a pitot tube.

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Figure. 4.5 Pitot Tube 35
Thank You

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Q&A

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