Sie sind auf Seite 1von 22

TAJWEED RULES

PREFACE

Assalamu alaikum. Alhamdu lillah, we have finally completed the version (Dated: 6th February 2008) of this
work that provides you with charts on Rules of Tajweed. We don’’t claim to be an expert in this area but we have
tried our best to develop this tajweed material by referring to few books. We believe that this material would be
useful to those who are teaching Tajweed. Also, this can be used as a reference material. In order to develop this
material, we have referred to the following books:
1. Moulana Muhammad Ibrahim Sahib Baaqavi, Hidayathus sifyan fi tajweedil Quran, Haadi Publishers,
Chennai, India. [In Tamil]
2. Dr. Abdul-majid Khan, Tajwid: The art of recitation of the Holy Quran, Urdu Academy Sind, Karachi,
Pakistan. [In English]
.3 αΎϋΪϟ΍ ΪϴΒϋ Εΰ˷ϋ, ΪϳϮΠΘϟ΍ Ϧ
˷ ϓ, Dar Ibn Hajam, Beirut, Lebanon. [In Arabic]
4. Umm Muhammad, A Brief Introduction to Tajweed, Abul-Qasim Publishing House, Jeddah. [In English]

We ask Allah to forgive our shortcomings and accept our efforts. Please provide us with suggestions and/or
comments for further improvement. We acknowledge the help of many brothers and sisters in the preparation of
this document. May Allah reward them all, aameen.
Please remember us and our parents in your prayers.

Contact Email: mibuhari@yahoo.com


Contact Address:
M.I. Seyed Mohamed Buhari,
24-E, Mohideen Street,
Kayalpatnam –– 628 204.
Tamil Nadu. INDIA.
1
R ULES O F T AJW EE D

PLA C ES O F A R T IC ULA T I O N

R ULES O F R ULES O F
LE T T E RS ST O PPI N G

U V ULA R N ASAL C A VI T Y
C O NSO N A N TS (N ASALI Z A T I O N)
R ULES O F M A D D ASSIMILA T I O N

ST O PPI N G A N D
I N I T IA T I O N P H A R Y N GE AL
I N T E R - D E N T AL (T H R O A T)
Q AL Q ALA H C O NSO N A N TS

PU N C T U A T I O N LA BIAL (LIP)
ALV E O - D E N T AL
M USH A D D A D N O O N M A R KS C O NSO N A N TS
R ULES O F LA A M
A N D MEEM

D E N T AL PALA T AL
C O NSO N A N TS C O NSO N A N TS
R ULES O F R A A

M O LA R ALV E O LA R
N O O N SA KIN A H A N D R ULES O F MEEM T O N G UE C O NSO N A N TS
T A N W EE N SA KIN A H

2
T H E R ULES O F LE T T E RS

R ULES O F R ULES O F R ULES O F MEEM R ULES O F N O O N R ULES O F


ASSIMILA T I O N MAD D SA KIN A H SA KI N A H A N D T A N W EE N LA A M

I T H - H A A R SH A F A WI IT H - HAAR
I D E N T IC AL LA A M O F
D E RIV E D M A D D
LE T T E RS V E RB

I D G H A A M SH A F A WI IDGHAAM
N A T U R AL M A D D
SA ME PLA C E O F
A R T IC ULA T I O N
IK H F A A SH A F A WI IK H F A A LA A M JALALA H

CL OSE PLA C E O F I Q LA A B
A R T IC ULA T I O N

LA A M T A'RIF

T H E R ULES O F LE T T E RS [Contd ...]

LA A M LA A M
SH A MSIY Y A H Q A M A RIY Y A H
R ULES O F R ULES O F
R ULES O F R A A
Q AL Q ALA H M USH A D D A D N O O N
A N D MEEM

3
W A YS T O ST A R T R E CI T I N G
SU R A HS

PE R MI T T E D W A YS
T O RE CI T E

REA D , REA D SEPA R A T ELY.


REA D , AND REA D , AND
JO I N T LY A N D T HEN AND
SEPA R A T ELY JO I N T LY
SEPA R A T ELY JO I N T LY

W A YS O F R E CI T I N G SU R A HS
C O N T I N U O USLY

WAY NO T
PE R MI T T E D W A YS
PE R MI T T E D T O
T O RE CI T E
R E CI T E

REA D CURREN T , REA D CURREN T ,


REA D CURREN T , REA D CURREN T
AN D NEX T JO IN T LY A N D
AN D NEX T SEPA R A T ELY. T H E N
JO I N T LY NEX T
SEPA R A T ELY AN D NEX T JO I N T LY
SEPA R A T ELY

4
R ULES F O R R E A D I N G C H A R A C T E RS T H A T APPE A R A F T E R N O O N SA KI N A H O R T A N W EE N

,
N O O N SA KI N A H O R T A N W EE N

IT H - HAAR IK H F A A I Q LA A B IDGHAAM

(USE N OSE) (C O N V E R T O R
(R E A D CLE A RLY) (Assimilation of one
T A N W EE N T O )
letter into another)

, , ,
OR

Exceptions in Idghaam:
1. Idghaam does not apply in one word [ and ]
(With Stress)
(Without Stress)

2. Idghaam does not apply if there is sakta between the words

3. If O R appears in same word after , Read clearly ( ) Ϣ˲ ϴ˸ ˶Σ˴έ έ˲ Ϯ˸ ϔ˵ ˴Ϗ, Ϛ


˴ ϧ˸ Ϊ˵ ϟ˴ Ϧ
˸ ϣ˶
, ,
5
R ULES F O R RE A D I N G C H A R A C T E RS T H A T APPE A R A F T E R MEEM SA KI N A H

MEEM SA KI N A H

I T H - H A A R SH A F A WI IK H F A A SH A F A WI I D G H A A M SH A F A WI

(R E A D CLE A RLY) (USE N OSE, WI T H


ST R ESS) (With Stress)
O T H E R LE T T E RS
E X C EP T &

R ULES O F M USH A D D A D N O O N
A N D MEEM

R E A D A N D WI T H ST R ESS,
E V E N W H ILE ST O PPI N G

For Noon Shaddah: ,

For Meem Shaddah: ,


6
R ULES F O R R E A D I N G Q AL Q ALA H C H A R A C T E RS T H A T APPE A R WI T H
SU K U N: R E A D WI T H E C H O SO U N D

Q AL Q ALA H

[ST R O N G E C H O]
[W E A K E C H O]
IF A N Y O N E O F T H E Q AL Q ALA H
IF A N Y O N E O F T H E Q AL Q ALA H
C H A R A C T E RS WI T H SU K U N
C H A R A C T E RS WI T H SU K U N APPE A RS
APPE A RS A T T H E E N D O F A W O R D
I N T H E MI D D LE O F A W O R D
A N D W H E N W E ST O P A T I T

7
R ULES O F I D G H A A M

IDGHAAM

IF SU K U N IS F O LL O W E D
BY - O R - O R -

M U T A M A A T H ILAI N M U T A Q A RIB AI N M U T AJA NISAI N

IF T H E SU K U N LE T T E R IF T H E SU K U N LE T T E R
IF T H E SU K U N LE T T E R
A N D T H E N E X T LE T T E R A N D T H E N E X T LE T T E R
A N D T H E N E X T LE T T E R
A R E D IFFE R E N T BU T A R E D IFFE R E N T BU T
A R E SA ME
WI T H CL OSE - B Y O RIGI N WI T H SA ME O RIGI N

Exceptions in Idhgaam:There will be no merger


1. If both identical letters are with harakah
If the letters of Madd are Leen letters [ or
preceeded by fathah], then there will be a complete
2. If both letters are letters of Madd [ and ] merger without nasalization

is pronounced as

3. If there is a sakta between two identical letters

8
R ULES F O R R E A D I N G 'R A A' D UE T O C H A R A C T E RS O R H A R A K A H T H A T APPE A R
O N O R BEF O R E O R A F T E R I T

R ULES O F 'R A A'

B O T H T YPE
ST R O N G &
ST R O N G SO F T
SO F T

1. R A A WI T H K ASR A H O R K ASR A T AI N [ , ]
1. R A A WI T H F A T H A H O R D H A M M A H O R F A T H A T AI N O R
D H A M M A T AI N [ ] 2. SA ME AS 1ST P O I N T BU T WI T H SH A D D A H [ , ]
2. SA ME AS 1ST P O I N T BU T WI T H SH A D D A H [ ]
3. R A A WI T H SU K U N A N D T H E LE T T E R BEF O R E IS EI T H E R 3. R A A WI T H SU K U N A N D T H E LE T T E R BEF O R E IS WI T H
WI T H D H A M M A H O R F A T H A H [ , ] K ASR A H [ ]
4. R A A WI T H SU K U N A N D T H E LE T T E R BEF O R E IS WI T H
SU K U N A N D T H E LE T T E R BEF O R E T H A T IS WI T H F A T H A H 4. R A A WI T H SU K U N A N D T H E LE T T E R BEF O R E IS WI T H
O R D H AMMA H [ , ] SU K U N A N D T H E LE T T E R BEF O R E T H A T IS WI T H
5. R A A WI T H SU K U N A N D T H E LE T T E R BEF O R E IS WI T H K ASR A H [ ]
T R UE K ASR A H A N D T H E LE T T E R A F T E R R A A IS A N Y O N E O F
T H ESE C H A R A C T E RS ( ) C ALLE D AS 5. R A A WI T H SU K U N A N D T H E LE T T E R BEF O R E IS
6. R A A WI T H SU K U N A N D T H E LE T T E R BEF O R E IS WI T H WI T H SU K U N A N D T H E LE T T E R BEF O R E T H A T IS WI T H
T EMP O R A R Y K ASR A H [ ] FA T H A H [ ]
6. T H E W O R D

1. - - PR EFE R SO F T
, , ,
2. - - PR EFE R SO F T
, , , , ,
9
3. - - PR EFE R ST R O N G
R ULES F O R R E A D I N G LA A M

LA A M IN T H E W O R D LA A M I N W O R DS
O T HER T H A N

SO F T

ST R O N G SO F T

OR ,

IF F A T H A H O R D H A M M A H IF K ASR A H APPE A RS
APPE A RS BEF O R E BEF O R E

, ,
LA A M O F V E RB

LA A M T A'RIF

R E A D IN G LA A M WI T H O T H E R
C H A R A C T E RS Pronounced as , if at Pronounced as , if
the beginning or middle of followed by raa or laam
the verb

LA A M SH A MSIY Y A H LA A M Q A M A RIY Y A H
LA A M IS N O T LA A M IS is pronounced as
PR O N O U N C E D PR O N O U N C E D
,

Exception: No Idghaam if
there is sakata

10
R ULES F O R R E A D I N G ALIF

R E A D IN G ALIF

ST R O N G SO F T

IF C H A R A C T E RS O T H E R
IF A N Y O N E O F T H E
THAN
C H A R A C T E RS ( )
C H A R A C T E RS APPE A R
APPE A R BEF O R E ALIF, R E A D
BEF O R E ALIF, R E A D ALIF
ALIF ST R O N GLY
SO F T LY

11
R ULES F O R R E A D I N G M A D D C H A R A C T E RS [1]

, ,

R ULES O F M A D D

1. M A D D SH O UL D N O T BE
F O LL O W E D B Y SU K U N [ ]
OR HAMZ AH [ ]
2. R E A D AS O N E ALIF N A T U R AL M A D D D E RIV E D M A D D
3. O T H E R N A MES: 'JA A T I'
O R 'T A B A YI'

M A D D B A D AL M A D D IW A D H M A D D SH O UL D BE
F O LL O W E D B Y SU K U N
M A D D LE T T E R IS ALIF R EPLA C ES [ ] OR HAMZ AH [ ]
PR E C EE D E D B Y F A T H A T AI N W H E N
HAM Z AH O N E ST O PS O N I T

, , IS R E A D AS

M A D D M U T T ASIL M A D D M U N F ASIL M A D D LA A Z IM M A D D A A RI D H

1.M A D D IS F O LL O W E D 1. M A D D IS F O LL O W E D B Y 1. M A D D IS F O LL O W E D
B Y H A M Z A H I N SA ME H A M Z A H I N D IFFE R E N T 1. M A D D IS F O LL O W E D
B Y T EMP O R A R Y SU K U N
WORD WORD B Y SU K U N ASLI [R E AL
2. R E A D AS A N Y O N E O F
2. R E A D AS 4 T O 5 ALIF 2. R E A D AS 2 T O 4 ALIF SU K U N]
T H REE T YPES [Refer next
3. O T H E R N A ME: 'M A D D 3. O T H E R N A ME: 'M A D D 2. R E A D AS 3 T O 5 ALIF
page]
W AJIB' JAI Z '

Contd ... 12
R ULES F O R R E A D IN G M A D D C H A R A C T E RS [2]

M A D D LA A Z IM

K ALIM A M U T H A Q Q AL K ALIM A M U K H A FF A F H A R FI M U T H A Q Q AL H A R FI M U K H A FF A F

SU K U N APPE A RS SH A D D A H APPE A RS O N SU K U N APPE A RS O N


SH A D D A H APPE A RS
AFTER IN O NE IN O NE C H ARAC TER IN O NE C H ARAC TER
AFTER IN O NE
WORD -
WORD -

O N LY PLA C E

M A D D A A RI D H
R E A D I N G I N A N Y O N E T YPE IS
O U R C H O IC E [BE C O NSIST E N T]

Exception: The word in


C H A N GE TO can be read with or without

Q ASR T A W ASSU T T O OL

R E A D AS O N E ALIF R E A D AS 2 O R 3 ALIF R E A D AS 5 ALIF


13
R ULES F O R R E A D I N G M A D D C H A R A C T E RS First 14 Madd types are called as

Elongation in
Examples Explanation Name of Madd S. No.
Counts (ΔϛήΣ)

, , , 5 ‫ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﺪ‬and ‫ ﺀ‬appear adjacently in one word 1

‫ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﺪ‬and ‫ ﺀ‬appear adjacently but in two


2 to 5 2
words
Convert the fatha or kasra or dammah or kasratain or
is changed to 2 to 6 dammathain at the end to sukun, while stopping
3

, 2 ‫ ﺀ‬is followed by ‫ ﺍ‬or ‫ ﻭ‬or ‫ﻱ‬ 4

Convert fathathain at the end to Alif, while


is changed to 2 5
stopping

is actually 6 ‫ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﺪ‬is followed by sukun [ ] 6

, 6 ‫ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﺪ‬is followed by saddha in one word 7

, , 6 ‫ﻧﻘﺺ ﻋﺴﻠﻜﻢ‬ 8

, 2 ‫ﺣﻲ ﻃﻬﺮ‬ 9

is changed to 2 to 6 , 10

6 Haa Dameer (ϩ) is followed by ˯ 11

Haa Dameer (ϩ) is followed by any character


2 12
other than ˯

, 6 Hamzah Isthifham (΃) is followed by Shaddah 13

, 2  is followed by ‫ﻱ‬
‫ﻱ‬  14

Madd (΍ , ϭ , ϱ) should not be followed by


, , 2 ˸ ό˶˸ϴ˶Βσ Ϊ˷ϣ
ϰ 15 14
sukun or Hamzah
R ULES O F H U R UF LEE N

H U R UF LEE N
N O O N Q U T NI
,

IF SU K U N APPE A RS A F T E R
T A N W EE N, T H E N:
M A D D LEE N M A D D LEE N 1. C H A N GE T A N W EE N T O K ASR A H
LA A Z IM A A RI D H 2. A D D A N O O N WI T H K ASR A H
BE T W EE N T H EM

1. H U R UF LEE N IS F O LL O W E D
1. H U R UF LEE N IS F O LL O W E D
B Y T R UE SU K U N
B Y T EMP O R A R Y SU K U N
2. R E A D AS OR OR .
2. R E A D AS OR OR
BU T IS BE T T E R
Exception:
1. IF W E ST O P A T T A N W EE N,
O N LY T W O PLA C ES , T H E R E IS N O N O O N Q U T NI
,
2. IN , ST O PPI N G IS
BE T T E R

15
R ULES O F SILA H

Exception: IF WI T H SU K U N
Exception: N O BE C A USE T H E Y APPE A RS BEF O R E , RE A D WI T H
A R E N O T BU T PA R T O F T H E K ASR A H BU T WI T H O U T
W O R D I TSELF EL O N G A T I O N
SILA H ME A NS R E A D I N G
I N SU R A H EL O N G A T E D LY LIKE
I N SU R A H
IN SU R A H BU T RE A D WI T H EL O N G A T I O N

SILA H BIL Y A H SILA H BIL W A V

Exception: IF APPE A RS
Exception: D H A M M A H O F BEF O R E , T H E N A T T H E
IS N O T EL O N G A T E D IF K ASR A H C O MES E N D WILL BE R EM O V E D.
IF F A T H A H O R
BEF O R E , R E A D SO , T H E R E IS N O
D H A M M A H C O MES
LIKE O F EL O N G A T I O N
BEF O R E , R E A D LIKE
I N SU R A H OF
IS R E A D AS

Exception: IF A N Y T H I N G E X C EP T Exception: SU K U N APPE A RS Exception: D H A M M A H APPE A RS O N


WI T H SU K U N APPE A RS BEF O R E , O N I NST E A D O F K ASR A H I NST E A D O F K ASR A H
R E A D WI T H D H A M M A H
IN SU R A H I N SU R A H
I N SU R A H
IN SU R A H

GE N E R AL R ULE: IF A LE T T ER WI T H SU K U N APPE A RS BEF O R E , T H E N W E W O N'T R E A D


EL O N G A T E D LY
16
R ULES O F H A M Z A H

R ULES O F H A M Z A H

H A M Z A H W ASL HAMZ AH Q AT H

1. IF A W O R D ST A R TS WI T H SU K U N, W E 1. T H IS H A M Z A H IS PA R T O F T H E
AD D A HAM Z AH T O IT WORD
2. T H IS H A M Z A H IS T EMP O R A R Y H A M Z A H 2. IF T H IS H A M Z A H APPE A RS
3. IF T H IS H A M Z A H APPE A RS BE T W EE N BE T W EE N T W O W O R DS, I T WILL BE
T W O W O R DS, T H E N I T WILL N O T BE R E A D REA D

IF BEGI NS WI T H AND IF T H E W O R D BEGI NS WI T H IF BEGI NS WI T H


IF BEGI NS WI T H AND
T H IR D LE T T E R O F T H E W O R D D EFI NI T E A R T ICLE , T H E N , T HEN
T H IR D LE T T E R O F T H E W O R D IS
IS F A T H A H O R K ASR A H, T H E N F A T H A H IS GIV E N T O K ASR A H IS GIV E N
D H A M M A H, T H E N D H A M M A H IS
K ASR A H IS GIV E N T O HAM Z AH T O HAMZ AH
GIV E N T O H A M Z A H
HAM Z AH

is read as
is read as is read as
is read as
17
A M O N G T W O W O R DS, IF
T H E FIRST W O R D E N DS
WI T H SU K U N A N D T H E
SE C O N D W O R D ST A R TS
WI T H SU K U N

IF T H E LE T T E R WI T H SU K U N
IF T H E LE T T ER WI T H IF T H E LE T T ER WI T H IF T H E LE T T ER WI T H
IN T H E FIRST W O R D IS N O T
SU K U N IN T H E FIRST SU K U N IN T H E FIRST SU K U N IN T H E FIRST
MA D D A N D N O T FR O M
W O R D IS A M A D D W O R D IS N O T A M A D D W O R D IS F R O M
[ Z A R], T H E N R E A D T H E
LE T T E R, T H IS M A D D LE T T E R, T H E N R E A D [ Z A R], R E A D T H E
SU K U N LE T T E R WI T H
LE T T E R IS R EM O V E D O R WI T H D H A M M A H WI T H F A T H A H
K ASR A H

E X C EP T I O N:
IN SH O UL D BE
R E A D WI T H F A T H A H

18
R ULES O F ST O PPI N G

R ULES F O R E N D I N G A
SE N T E N C E

C H A N GE F A T H A H O R C H A N GE F A T H A T AIN
D H A M M A H O R K ASR A H C H A N GE TO
T O ALIF
O R D H A M M A T AIN O R
K ASR A T AI N T O SU K U N

ST O P AS ST O P AS ST O P AS

ST O P AS
N O T A T I O NS I N H O LY
QURAN

1. ST O P A T O N E :. ST O P A N D O BSE R V E AS
PR EFE R R E D
M UST ST O P M UST N O T PR EFE R R E D AND NOT AT N O N -ST O P PR E VI O US
N O N -ST O P
ST O P T O ST O P A N O T H E R :. A R E SA ME SY MB O L I N
O or or or 2. D IFFE R E N T T HE AAYAH
or - or or
or or O PI NI O N PE RSISTS or or [
or
FOR above O or ]

GENERAL RULE:
1. ST O PPE D A T 1. WE MUST STOP AT ϡ . IF NOT, THE MEANING WILL CHANGE.
2. PR EFE R ST O PPI N G A T 2. FOR NOTATIONS OTHER THAN ϡ: IF YOU ARE NOT ABLE TO READ CONTINUOUSLY,
YOU CAN STOP AT ANY PLACE. BUT WHILE CONTINUING, WE SHOULD REPEAT ONE OR
3. PR EFE R N O N -ST O P A T TWO WORDS PRECEEDING THE PLACE AT WHICH WE STOPPED.
19
R ULES O F SA K T A

SA K T A: ST O P T H E SO U N D BU T
D O N'T BR E A K T H E BR E A T H

I N SU R A H

I N SU R A H

I N SU R A H

I N SU R A H

A C C O R D I N G T O SO ME
SC H O LA RS

I N SU R A H

GENERAL RULE: THERE IS NO SAKTA


AT THE POINT OF STOPPING

20
T H E PLA C ES O F A R T IC ULA T I O N

T H E PLA C ES O F A R T IC ULA T I O N

M O LA R PALA T AL U V ULA R N ASAL C A VI T Y O R AL C A VI T Y


P H A R Y N GE AL
C O NSO N A N T C O NSO N A N TS C O NSO N A N TS (N ASALI Z A T I O N) (V O W ELS)
(T H R O A T)
C O NSO N A N TS

LO WER T H R O A T MI D D LE T H R O A T UPPE R T H R O A T

LA BIAL (LIP) I N T E R - D E N T AL ALV E O - D E N T AL D E N T AL ALV E O LA R


C O NSO N A N TS C O NSO N A N TS C O NSO N A N TS C O NSO N A N TS C O NSO N A N TS

21
22