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Business and Commuter Aviation Systems

Honeywell Inc.
Box 29000
Phoenix, Arizona 85038--9000
U.S.A.

SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated


Flight Control System

for the
Hawker 800

Pilot’s Manual

Revised February 1999


Printed in U.S.A. Pub. No. A28--1146--059--03 April 1989
PROPRIETARY NOTICE

This document and the information disclosed herein are proprietary


data of Honeywell Inc. Neither this document nor the information
contained herein shall be used, reproduced, or disclosed to others
without the written authorization of Honeywell Inc., except to the extent
required for installation or maintenance of recipient’s equipment.

NOTICE -- FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (5 USC 552) AND


DISCLOSURE OF CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION GENERALLY
(18 USC 1905)

This document is being furnished in confidence by Honeywell Inc. The


information disclosed herein falls within exemption (b) (4) of 5 USC 552
and the prohibitions of 18 USC 1905.

S99

ASSOCIATE
MEMBER

Member of GAMA

General Aviation
Manufacturer’s Association

PRIMUS is a registered trademark of Honeywell Inc.

E1999 Honeywell Inc.


SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Record of Revisions

Upon receipt of a revision, insert the latest revised pages and dispose
of superseded pages. Enter revision number and date, insertion date,
and the incorporator’s initials on this Record of Revisions. The typed
initials HI are used when Honeywell Inc. is the incorporator of the
revision.

Revision Revision Insertion


Number Date Date By

1 May 1991 May 1991 HI

2 Sep 1994 Sep 1994 HI

3 Feb 1999 Feb 1999 HI

A28--1146--059 Record of Revisions


Rev 3 RR--1/(RR--2 blank)
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Record of Temporary Revisions


Upon receipt of a temporary revision, insert the yellow temporary
revision pages according to the filing instructions on each page. Then,
enter the temporary revision number, issue date, and insertion date on
this page.

Date the
Temporary
Revision Was Insertion of Removal of
Temporary Incorporated Temporary Temporary
Revision by a Regular Revision, Revision,
No. Issue Date Revision Date/By Date/By

A28--1146--059 Record of Temporary Revisions


Rev 3 RTR--1/(RTR--2 blank)
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

List of Effective Pages


Original .. 0 .. Apr 1989
Revision .. 1 .. May 1991
Revision .. 2 .. Sep 1994
Revision .. 3 .. Feb 1999

Subheading and Page Revision Subheading and Page Revision

Title Page H 3 2--5 H 3


2--6 H 3
Record of Revisions 2--7 H 3
RR--1/RR--2 H 3 2--8 H 3
2--9 H 3
Record of Temporary Revisions
2--10 H 3
RTR--1/RTR--2 H 3
2--11 H 3
2--12 H 3
List of Effective Pages
F 2--13/2--14 H 3
LEP--1 H 3
LEP--2 H 3
Air Data Instruments
LEP--3 H 3
3--1 H 3
LEP--4 H 3
3--2 H 3
3--3 H 3
Table of Contents
3--4 H 3
TC--1 H 3
TC--2 H 3
Electronic Flight Instrument System
TC--3 H 3 (EFIS)
TC--4 H 3 4--1 H 3
TC--5 H 3 4--2 H 3
TC--6 H 3 4--3 H 3
TC--7 H 3 4--4 H 3
TC--8 H 3 4--5 H 3
TC--9 H 3 4--6 H 3
TC--10 H 3 4--7 H 3
TC--11/TC--12 H 3 4--8 H 3
F 4--9/4--10 H 3
Introduction
4--11 H 3
1--1 H 3
4--12 H 3
1--2 H 3
4--13 H 3
1--3/1--4 H 3
4--14 H 3
F 1--5/1--6 H 3
4--15 H 3
4--16 H 3
System Description
4--17 H 3
2--1 H 3
4--18 H 3
2--2 H 3
4--19 H 3
2--3 H 3
4--20 H 3
2--4 H 3

H indicates changed, added or deleted pages.


F indicates right foldout page with a blank back.

A28--1146--059 List of Effective Pages


Rev 3 LEP--1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Subheading and Page Revision Subheading and Page Revision


Electronic Flight Instrument System 4--67 H 3
(EFIS) (cont)
4--68 H 3
4--21 H 3 4--69 H 3
4--22 H 3 4--70 H 3
4--23 H 3 4--71 H 3
4--24 H 3 4--72 H 3
4--25 H 3 4--73 H 3
4--26 H 3 4--74 H 3
4--27 H 3 4--75 H 3
4--28 H 3 4--76 H 3
4--29 H 3 4--77 H 3
4--30 H 3 4--78 H 3
4--31 H 3 4--79 H 3
4--32 H 3 4--80 H 3
4--33 H 3 4--81 H 3
4--34 H 3 4--82 H 3
4--35 H 3 4--83 H 3
4--36 H 3 4--84 H 3
4--37 H 3 4--85/4--86 H 3
4--38 H 3
4--39 H 3 Multifunction Display (MFD) System
4--40 H 3 5--1 H 3
4--41 H 3 5--2 H 3
4--42 H 3 5--3 H 3
4--43 H 3 5--4 H 3
4--44 H 3 5--5 H 3
4--45 H 3 5--6 H 3
4--46 H 3 5--7 H 3
4--47 H 3 5--8 H 3
4--48 H 3 5--9 H 3
4--49 H 3 5--10 H 3
4--50 H 3 5--11 H 3
4--51 H 3 5--12 H 3
4--52 H 3 5--13 H 3
4--53 H 3 5--14 H 3
4--54 H 3 5--15 H 3
4--55 H 3 5--16 H 3
4--56 H 3 5--17 H 3
4--57 H 3 5--18 H 3
4--58 H 3 5--19 H 3
4--59 H 3 5--20 H 3
4--60 H 3 5--21 H 3
4--61 H 3 5--22 H 3
4--62 H 3 5--23 H 3
F 4--63/4--64 H 3 5--24 H 3
4--65 H 3 5--25/5--26 H 3
4--66 H 3

List of Effective Pages A28--1146--059


LEP--2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Subheading and Page Revision Subheading and Page Revision


Automatic Flight Control System 8--10 H 3
(AFCS)
8--11 H 3
6--1 H 3 8--12 H 3
6--2 H 3 8--13 H 3
6--3 H 3 8--14 H 3
6--4 H 3 8--15 H 3
6--5 H 3 8--16 H 3
6--6 H 3 8--17 H 3
6--7 H 3 8--18 H 3
6--8 H 3 8--19 H 3
6--9 H 3 8--20 H 3
6--10 H 3 8--21 H 3
6--11 H 3 8--22 H 3
6--12 H 3 8--23 H 3
6--13 H 3 8--24 H 3
6--14 H 3 8--25 H 3
6--15 H 3 8--26 H 3
6--16 H 3 8--27 H 3
6--17 H 3 8--28 H 3
6--18 H 3 8--29 H 3
6--19/6--20 H 3 8--30 H 3
8--31 H 3
System Limits 8--32 H 3
7--1 H 3 8--33 H 3
7--2 H 3 8--34 H 3
7--3 H 3 8--35 H 3
7--4 H 3 8--36 H 3
7--5 H 3 8--37 H 3
7--6 H 3 8--38 H 3
7--7 H 3 8--39 H 3
7--8 H 3 8--40 H 3
7--9 H 3 8--41 H 3
7--10 H 3 8--42 H 3
7--11/7--12 H 3 8--43 H 3
8--44 H 3
Modes of Operation
8--45 H 3
8--1 H 3
8--46 H 3
8--2 H 3
8--47 H 3
8--3 H 3
8--48 H 3
8--4 H 3
8--49 H 3
8--5 H 3
8--50 H 3
8--6 H 3
8--51 H 3
8--7 H 3
8--52 H 3
8--8 H 3
8--53 H 3
8--9 H 3
8--54 H 3

A28--1146--059 List of Effective Pages


Rev 3 LEP--3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Subheading and Page Revision Subheading and Page Revision


Troubleshooting B--6 H 3
9--1 H 3 B--7 H 3
9--2 H 3 B--8 H 3
9--3 H 3 B--9 H 3
9--4 H 3 B--10 H 3
9--5 H 3 B--11 H 3
9--6 H 3 B--12 H 3
9--7 H 3 B--13 H 3
9--8 H 3 B--14 H 3
9--9 H 3
9--10 H 3 Index
Index--1 H 3
Honeywell Product Support Index--2 H 3
10--1 H 3 Index--3 H 3
10--2 H 3 Index--4 H 3
10--3 H 3 Index--5 H 3
10--4 H 3 Index--6 H 3

Acronyms and Abbreviations


11--1 H 3
11--2 H 3
11--3 H 3
11--4 H 3
11--5/11--6 H 3

Appendix A
A--1 H 3
A--2 H 3
A--3 H 3
A--4 H 3
A--5 H 3
A--6 H 3
A--7 H 3
A--8 H 3
A--9 H 3
A--10 H 3
A--11 H 3
A--12 H 3
A--13 H 3
A--14 H 3
A--15/A--16 H 3

Appendix B
B--1 H 3
B--2 H 3
B--3 H 3
B--4 H 3
B--5 H 3

List of Effective Pages A28--1146--059


LEP--4 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Table of Contents

Section Page

1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

2. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1


Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) . . . 2-3
Air Data System (ADS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Radio Altimeter System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) . . . . . . 2-5
Multifunction Display (MFD) System . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Dual Flight Guidance System (FGS) . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Flight Management System (FMS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
PRIMUSR II Integrated Radio System . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
PRIMUSR 870 Weather Radar System . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
PRIMUSR 880 Weather Radar System (Optional) . . 2-10
Inertial Reference System (IRS) (Optional) . . . . . . 2-10
Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System
(TCAS) (Optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Lightning Sensor System (LSS) (Optional) . . . . . . . 2-11
Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System
(EGPWS) (Optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Other Switches and Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12

3. AIR DATA INSTRUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1


Barometric Altimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Indicated Airspeed (IAS) and Vertical Speed
(VS) Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Digital Air Data Computer (DADC) Self--Test
Mode Speed Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
True Airspeed/Temperature (TAS/TEMP)
Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4

4. ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT SYSTEM


(EFIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Display Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Instrument Remote Controllers (IRC) . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
EDZ--817 Electronic Flight Instrument System
(EFIS) Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI) . . . 4-6
Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator
(EHSI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-35
EFIS Self--Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-60

A28--1146--059 Table of Contents


Rev 3 TC--1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Table of Contents (cont)


Section Page

4. ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT SYSTEM


(EFIS) (CONT)
EDZ--818 Electronic Flight Instrument System
(EFIS) Series Displays (Optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-62
Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI) . . . 4-62
Typical EADI Display Presentations . . . . . . . . . . 4-66
Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator
(EHSI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-80
5. MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAY (MFD) SYSTEM . . . 5-1
MFD Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
MFD Reversionary Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Mode Selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
DIM Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Multifunction Display (MFD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
MFD Map Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
MFD Plan Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Holding Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Lightning Sensor System (LSS) Display . . . . . . 5-17
Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System
(TCAS) Traffic Display (Optional) . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
Changing a Waypoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20
MFD Weather Radar (WX) Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
MFD Checklist Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
MFD Ground Maintenance Test Display . . . . . . 5-25
Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)
Backup Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
6. AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
(AFCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Flight Control Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Flight Control Status Annunciations . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Autopilot (AP) Engagement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Flight Control Disengage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Flight Control Disengage Annunciations . . . . . . 6-4
Abnormal Disengage Annunciations . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Flight Director (FD) Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Flight Director Modes -- Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6

Table of Contents A28--1146--059


TC--2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Table of Contents (cont)


Section Page

6. AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM


(AFCS) (CONT)
Mode Engagement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Flight Guidance Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) . 6-12
AHRS Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Standard Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Reduced Performance Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Abnormal Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
7. SYSTEM LIMITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Attitude Director Indicator (ADI) Command
Cue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Glideslope (GS) Gain Programming . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Glideslope Capture (GS CAP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Glideslope Track (GS TRACK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Lateral Beam Sensor (LBS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
LOC CAP 1 and BC CAP 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
LOC CAP 2 and BC CAP 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
LOC TRACK 1 and BC TRACK 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
LOC TRACK 2 and BC TRACK 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
True Airspeed (TAS) Gain Programmer . . . . . . . 7-4
Vertical Beam Sensor (VBS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
VOR Capture (VOR CAP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
VOR Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
VOR Over Station Sensor (VOR OSS) . . . . . . . 7-5
VOR AOSS 1 and VOR AOSS 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
System Performance/Operating Limits . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
8. MODES OF OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Heading Hold and Wings Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Bank Hold Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Heading Select Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
VOR Navigation (NAV) Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
VOR Approach (VAPP) NAV Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
VOR Push Direct Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
Flight Management System (FMS) Steering . . . . . . 8-14
Localizer Navigation (NAV) Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
Back Course (BC) Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-23
Preview and Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-28
Approach (APP) Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-30

A28--1146--059 Table of Contents


Rev 3 TC--3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Table of Contents (cont)


Section Page

8. MODES OF OPERATION (CONT)


Dual Couple Approach Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-36
Category 2 (CAT 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-38
CAT 2 Pre--Approach Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-42
Pitch Attitude Hold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-43
Vertical Speed (VS) Hold Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-44
Flight Level Change (FLC) Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-45
Maximum Speed (MAX SPD) Submode . . . . . . 8-47
Altitude (ALT) Hold Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-48
Altitude Preselect (ALT SEL) Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-49
Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-53
Go--Around (GA), Wings Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-54
9. TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Pilot Write--Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Commonly Used Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
Typical Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Lateral Mode Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Vertical Mode Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
Combined Vertical and Lateral Mode
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9
Flight Fault Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9
10. HONEYWELL PRODUCT SUPPORT . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
Publication Ordering Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
11. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . 11-1

APPENDICES

A--1 PRIMUSR 870 WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM . . . . A--1


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A--1
System Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A--2
WC--870 Weather Radar (WX) Controller
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A--4
Typical Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A--12
Preliminary Control Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A--12
Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A--12
Powerup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A--13
Tilt Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A--14
Maximum Permissible Exposure Level (MPEL) . . A--15

Table of Contents A28--1146--059


TC--4 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Table of Contents (cont)

B--1 PRIMUSR 880 WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM . . . . B--1


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B--1
System Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B--2
WC--880 Weather Radar Controller Operation . . . . B--4
Tilt Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B--13
Maximum Permissible Exposure Level (MPEL) . . B--14

INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index--1

List of Illustrations
Figure Page
1--1 Hawker 800 Cockpit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5

2--1 SPZ--8000 Digital Automatic Flight Control System


Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13

3--1 Barometric Altimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1


3--2 TAS/TEMP Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4

4--1 Display Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1


4--2 Instrument Remote Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4--3 EADI Displays and Annunciators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4--4 Takeoff Using Go--Around . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
4--5 Climb to Initial Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
4--6 Enroute Cruise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
4--7 Setup For Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
4--8 Approach Capture Tracking Below DH . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
4--9 External Reversionary Select Switches . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
4--10 EADI Reversionary Source Annunciations . . . . . . . 4-21
4--11 Attitude Reversionary Annunciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22
4--12 ADC Reversionary Annunciations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
4--13 SG Reversionary Annunciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
4--14 Flight Director Reversionary Annunciation . . . . . . . 4-26
4--15 CAT2 Annunciations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27
4--16 CAT 2 Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28
4--17 Attitude and Localizer Comparison Monitors . . . . . 4-29
4--18 Attitude and Localizer Comparison Monitors
Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-30
A28--1146--059 Table of Contents
Rev 3 TC--5
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Table of Contents (cont)


List of Illustrations (cont)
Figure Page
4--19 Excessive Attitude Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-31
4--20 EADI Failure and Warning Flag Locations . . . . . . . 4-32
4--21 Attitude Failure Flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-32
4--22 Flight Director Failure Flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-33
4--23 Airspeed, Altitude Preselect, Cross--Side Data,
Glideslope, Radio Altitude, and Localizer
Failure Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-34
4--24 Symbol Generator Failure Flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-35
4--25 EHSI Displays and Annunciators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-37
4--26 HSI Display Using VOR1 Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-42
4--27 LOC Select and Course Preselect Pointer . . . . . . . 4-43
4--28 ARC Mode Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-43
4--29 EHSI ARC Mode Displays and Annunciators . . . . . 4-44
4--30 MAP Mode With VOR Selected and a FROM
Indication Given . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-45
4--31 MAP Mode With VOR Out of Display Range and
a TO Indication Given . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-46
4--32 MAP Mode Display Symbols (VOR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-46
4--33 EHSI MAP Format -- FMS Selected for Display . . . 4-48
4--34 EHSI Weather Radar Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-49
4--35 HSI Display Over KPHX Airport With Terrain
Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-54
4--36 MFD With Terrain and Map Mode Displayed . . . . . 4-54
4--37 MFD With Terrain Only Displayed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-55
4--38 EGPWS Test Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-55
4--39 EHSI Navigation Source Switching Annunciations . . 4-56
4--40 EHSI Heading Comparison Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . 4-57
4--41 EHSI Heading Failure Flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-58
4--42 EHSI NAV Source and Glideslope Failure Flags . . 4-59
4--43 Test Pattern (First 4 Seconds) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-60
4--44 Test Pattern (After 4 Seconds) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-61
4--45 EDZ--818 EADI Displays and Annunciators . . . . . . 4-63
4--46 Approach Capture Tracking Below DH . . . . . . . . . . 4-66
4--47 Attitude Reversion Annunciations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-68
4--48 ADC Reversion -- Side Requesting Transfer . . . . . . 4-68
4--49 SG Reversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-70
4--50 Flight Director Reversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-71
4--51 EADI Reversionary Source Annunciations . . . . . . . 4-72
4--52 CAT2 Annunciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-73
4--53 CAT2 Excessive Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-74

Table of Contents A28--1146--059


TC--6 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Table of Contents (cont)


List of Illustrations (cont)
Figure Page
4--54 Comparison Monitor Annunciations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-75
4--55 EADI Failure Warning Annunciations . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-77
4--56 EADI With Optional TCAS Failure Flags . . . . . . . . . 4-79
4--57 EHSI Displays and Annunciations (Full Mode) . . . . 4-80
4--58 EHSI Display Using FMS and Preview Course
Pointer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-80
4--59 EHSI Arc Display With TCAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-81
4--60 Heading Comparison Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-83
4--61 EHSI Heading and NAV Failure Flags . . . . . . . . . . . 4-84
4--62 EHSI Arc Display With TCAS Failure Messages . . . 4-85

5--1 MFD Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1


5--2 MFD Map Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5--3 Waypoint Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
5--4 FMS VOR Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
5--5 Nearby Airports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
5--6 MFD Plan Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
5--7 MFD Plan Mode Waypoint Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
5--8 MFD Plan Mode FMS VOR Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
5--9 MFD Plan Mode Nearby Airports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
5--10 Holding Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
5--11 360 Lightning Sensor System Display . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
5--12 TCAS Traffic Display on MFD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19
5--13 Waypoint Designation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20
5--14 New Flight Plan Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
5--15 Weather Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
5--16 MFD WX Only Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
5--17 Typical Checklist Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24

6--1 External Select Switches (No. 1 Side) (Typical)


and Warning Annunciators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6--2 Flight Guidance Controller Front Panel . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
6--3 AHRS Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12

8--1 Heading Hold Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1


8--2 Bank Hold Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
8--3 VOR (NAV) Mode, Plan View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
8--4 VOR (NAV) Mode Intercept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
8--5 VOR (NAV) Mode Capture, Plan View . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
8--6 VOR (NAV) Mode Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
8--7 VOR (NAV) Mode Course Cut Limiting, Plan View . . 8-9

A28--1146--059 Table of Contents


Rev 3 TC--7
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Table of Contents (cont)


List of Illustrations (cont)
Figure Page
8--8 VOR (NAV) Mode Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
8--9 Over Station Zone of Confusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
8--10 Before Selecting VOR Push Direct Function . . . . . 8-12
8--11 After Selecting VOR Push Direct Function . . . . . . . 8-13
8--12 LNAV Capture With FMS Selected, Plan View . . . . 8-14
8--13 LNAV Capture With FMS Selected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15
8--14 Localizer (NAV) Mode Intercept, Plan View . . . . . . 8-16
8--15 Localizer (NAV) Mode Intercept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18
8--16 Localizer (NAV) Mode Capture, Plan View . . . . . . . 8-19
8--17 Localizer (NAV) Mode Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20
8--18 Localizer (NAV) Mode Tracking, Plan View . . . . . . . 8-21
8--19 Localizer (NAV) Mode Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-22
8--20 Back Course Mode Intercept and Capture,
Plan View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-23
8--21 Back Course Mode Armed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-25
8--22 Back Course Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-26
8--23 Back Course Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-27
8--24 Preview and Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-29
8--25 Approach Mode Localizer Intercept and Capture,
Plan View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-30
8--26 ILS Approach Mode Intercept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-32
8--27 Approach Mode Glideslope Intercept and Capture
Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-33
8--28 ILS Approach Mode LOC Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-34
8--29 Approach Mode Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-35
8--30 Approach Mode Tracking, Profile View . . . . . . . . . . 8-36
8--31 HSI in the Dual Coupled Approach Mode . . . . . . . 8-37
8--32 CAT 2 Status Annunciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-41
8--33 Pitch Attitude Hold Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-43
8--34 Vertical Speed Hold Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-44
8--35 Flight Level Change Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-45
8--36 Altitude Hold Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-48
8--37 Altitude Preselect Mode Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-50
8--38 ASEL Arm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-51
8--39 ASEL Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-52
8--40 Go--Around Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-54

9--1 Lateral Mode Conditions/Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5


9--2 Vertical Mode Conditions/Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
9--3 98 Flight Fault Summary Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10

Table of Contents A28--1146--059


TC--8 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Table of Contents (cont)


List of Illustrations (cont)
Figure Page
A--1 Weather Radar Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A--1
A--2 Weather Radar Controller Configurations . . . . . . . . A--4
A--3 EFIS Test Pattern 1205 Scan Shown (WX) . . . . . . A--13
A--4 Radar Beam Illumination High Altitude . . . . . . . . . . A--14
A--5 Radar Beam Illumination Low Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . A--14
A--6 MPEL Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A--15

B--1 Weather Radar Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B--1


B--2 Weather Radar Controller Configurations . . . . . . . . B--4
B--3 Weather Radar Test Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B--11
B--4 Radar Beam Illumination High Altitude . . . . . . . . . . B--13
B--5 Radar Beam Illumination Low Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . B--13
B--6 MPEL Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B--14

List of Tables

Table Page
1--1 Equipment List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2

3--1 Air Data Display Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2


3--2 DADC Self--Test Data Output Values and
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3

4--1Bearing Pointer Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3


4--2System Color Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
4--3Power--up Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
4--4Autopilot Engage Annunciations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
4--5Dual AHRS Reversionary Annunciations . . . . . . . . 4-23
4--6Dual AHRS With Single IRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
4--7Reversionary Source Annunciations . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
4--8CAT 2 Excessive Deviation Thresholds . . . . . . . . . . 4-28
4--9Weather Radar Color Coding for WX and Ground
Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-50
4--10 Weather Radar Mode Annunciations on the
EHSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-50
4--11 EGPWS Terrain Display Color Definitions . . . . . . . . 4-53
4--12 EFIS Self--Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-60

A28--1146--059 Table of Contents


Rev 3 TC--9
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Table of Contents (cont)


List of Tables (cont)
Table Page
4--13 Dual Attitude Reversion Annunciations . . . . . . . . . . 4-67
4--14 Triple Attitude Reversion Annunciations . . . . . . . . . 4-67
4--15 EFIS Symbol Generator Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-69
4--16 MFD Symbol Generator Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-69
4--17 CAT2 Excessive Deviation Thresholds . . . . . . . . . . 4-74

5--1 VOR Button Toggling Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2


5--2 DAT Button Toggling Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
5--3 APT Button toggling Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
5--4 Weather Toggling Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
5--5 Inserting a Waypoint Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20

6--1 AP Engagement Engaged or Armed . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3


6--2 Abnormal Disengage Annunciations (WARNING) . . . 6-4
6--3 Normal Disengage Annunciations (CAUTION) . . . . 6-5
6--4 Mode Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
6--5 Flight Director Vertical and Lateral Modes . . . . . . . 6-7
6--6 AHRS Annunciations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13

7--1 System Performance/Operating Limits . . . . . . . . . . 7-7

8--1 VOR (NAV) Mode Select Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5


8--2 VOR Push Direct Function Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
8--3 Localizer Mode Select Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17
8--4 Back Course Automatic Intercept Procedure . . . . . 8-24
8--5 Approach Mode Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-31
8--6 Dual Couple Approach Setup Procedure . . . . . . . . 8-37
8--7 CAT 2 Approach Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-39
8--8 CAT 2 Coupled Approach Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-39
8--9 CAT 2 Pre--Approach Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . 8-42
8--10 Flight Level Change Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-46
8--11 Altitude Preselect Mode Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-51

9--1 Term Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3


9--2 Lateral Mode Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
9--3 Vertical Mode Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
9--4 Problems Common To Both Vertical and Lateral
Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9

Table of Contents A28--1146--059


TC--10 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Table of Contents (cont)


List of Tables (cont)
Table Page
A--1 Dual Control Mode Truth Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A--3
A--2 Target Alert Target Depth and Range
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A--7
A--3 Rainfall Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A--9

B--1 Dual Control Mode Truth Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B--3


B--2 Target Alert Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B--6
B--3 Rainfall Rate Color Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B--9

A28--1146--059 Table of Contents


Rev 3 TC--11/(TC--12 blank)
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

1. Introduction

This manual describes the operation, components, typical flight


applications and operating procedures for the Honeywell SPZ--8000
Digital Integrated Flight Control System (DIFCS) as installed in the
Hawker 800 aircraft and shown in figure 1--1.

Subsystems covered in this manual include:

D Dual flight guidance system


D Electronic flight instrument system (EFIS)
D Multifunction display (MFD) system
D Air data system (ADS)
D Attitude and heading reference system (AHRS)
D Radio altimeter system
D PRIMUSR 870 Weather Radar System
D PRIMUSR 880 Weather Radar System (optional)
D The PRIMUSR II Integrated Radio System
D Flight management system (FMS)
D Inertial reference system (IRS)
D Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) (optional)
D Lightning sensor system (LSS) (optional)
D Enhanced ground proximity warning system (EGPWS) (optional).

NOTE: The PRIMUSR II Integrated Radio System, FMS, IRS, TCAS,


EGPWS, and LSS are described in separate manuals.

A28--1146--059 Introduction
Rev 3 1-1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Table 1--1 lists equipment covered in this manual.

Model Unit Part No.

Cockpit--Mounted Equipment
ED--800 Electronic Display 7003110--901/--902
DC--810 Display Controller 7005819--707/--708
RI--815 Instrument Remote Controller 7011345--901/--911
/--902/--912
MC--800 Multifunction Display Controller 7007062--921
GC--810 Flight Guidance Controller 7011702--915/--916
BA--141 Barometric (BARO) Altimeter 4016341--905/--906
AC--801 Attitude and Heading Reference 7004545--901/--902
System (AHRS) Controller/
Remote Compensator
DS--125 True Airspeed/Temperature 4031609--903/--904
(TAS/TEMP) Indicator
WC--870 Weather Radar Controller 7008471--VAR
Remote Mounted Equipment
SG--817 Symbol Generator (SG) 7011674--817
MG--817 Multifunction Display Symbol 7011675--817
Generator
FZ--800 Flight Guidance Computer 7003974--713
(FGC)
AZ--810 Digital Air Data Computer 7000700--968
RT--300 Radio Altimeter 7001840--922
Receiver/Transmitter
SM--200 Servo 4006719--906/
--910/--913

Equipment List
Table 1--1 (cont)

Introduction A28--1146--059
1-2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Model Unit Part No.

AH--600 Attitude and Heading Reference 7003360--943


Unit (AHRU)
WU--870 Weather Radar 7012640--902
Receiver/Transmitter/Antenna
Optional
SG--818 Symbol Generator 7011674--118
MG--818 Multifunction Display Symbol 7011685--118
Generator
SG--818 Symbol Generator 7011674--119
(note 2)
MG--818 Multifunction Display Symbol 7011675--119
(note 2) Generator
NOTES: 1. A PC programmable checklist system, Part No. 7020400--901, and
programmable checklist module, Part No. 7008266--904, are available
from any Honeywell dealer.
2. This unit has non precision global positioning system (GPS) scaling,
TCAS 2000 compatibility, and extended range EGPWS interface.

Equipment List
Table 1--1

A28--1146--059 Introduction
Rev 3 1-3/(1-4 blank)
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Hawker 800 Cockpit


Figure 1--1

A28--1146--059 Introduction
Rev 3 1-5/(1-6 blank)
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

2. System Description
STANDARD

The SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System (DIFCS)


consists of the following subsystems:
D Attitude heading reference system (AHRS)
D Air data system (ADS)
D Radio altimeter system
D Electronic flight instrument system (EFIS)
D Multifunction display system (MFD)
D Dual flight guidance system
D Flight management system (FMS)
D PRIMUSR II Integrated Radio System
D PRIMUSR 870 Weather Radar System.

OPTIONAL
D Inertial reference system
D PRIMUSR 880 Weather Radar System
D Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)
D Lightning sensor system (LSS)
D Allied signal enhanced ground proximity warning system (EGPWS).

The DIFCS shown in figure 2--1, is a complete automatic flight control


system that executes flight director guidance, autopilot, yaw damper,
and auto--trim functions. The flight guidance computer (FGC)
generates automatic path mode commands and integrates the attitude
and heading reference, air data, and EFIS into a complete aircraft
control system. This system stabilizes and controls the aircraft to
assure optimum performance throughout the aircraft flight regime.

A central serial communications network is the inter--subsystem


communications bus within the system. The network is denoted by the
nomenclature Avionics Standard Communications Bus (ASCB). This
bus structure uses advanced communications techniques and safety
design features to assure high through--put, fail--operational data
exchange within the system. The ASCB consists of two serial
synchronous digital communications buses. Each bus is electrically
isolated from the other bus. In addition, each bus can communicate
bidirectionally.

A28--1146--059 System Description


Rev 3 2-1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The EFIS displays pitch and roll attitude, heading, course orientation,
flight path commands, weather presentations, TCAS data (optional)
and mode and source annunciations.

The ASCB interfaces the automatic flight control system (AFCS) with
the attitude/heading reference system, the digital air data system, the
EFIS, and the MFD system. Either FGC acts as the bus controller. Each
subsystem broadcasts on the ASCB when directed to transmit by the
bus controller, and returns to an off condition when its time slot expires.

The system data communication is split between the main system bus
(ASCB) and private line paths that carry specific sensitive data required
for fault isolation. These specific private line paths include the following:
D AHRS or IRS attitude and heading to EFIS (private line serial bus)
D Digital air data computer (DADC) Mach/airspeed and vertical speed
to EFIS (private line serial bus)
D DADC altitude to the barometric altimeter (analog)
D Flight guidance controller to the flight guidance computer (private
line serial bus)
D Display controller to the symbol generator (private line serial bus)
D Display controller to the MFD symbol generator (private line serial
bus)
D Symbol generator to the EFIS displays (private line parallel bus)
D MFD controller to the MFD symbol generator (private line serial bus)
D MFD symbol generator to the MFD (private line parallel bus).

The system displays the following:


D Heading
D Course
D Radio bearing
D Pitch and roll attitude
D Barometric altitude
D Vertical speed
D Airspeed
D Selected alert altitude
D Radio altitude
D Course deviation
D Glide slope deviation

System Description A28--1146--059


2-2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D VMO
D Vertical navigation (VNAV) DEV
D Track
D V--Speed bugs
D TO/FROM indications
D Distance measuring equipment (DME) indication.

Annunciators denote selected the following:


D Flight mode
D Altitude alert
D Decision height
D Vertical path (VPTH)
D Go--around mode engagement.

Pitch and roll steering commands, developed by the flight guidance


computer, in conjunction with the flight guidance controller, are
displayed by steering pointers so the pilot can reach and/or maintain the
desired flight path or attitude.

ATTITUDE AND HEADING REFERENCE SYSTEM


(AHRS)
The AHRS is consists of the following components:

D Strapdown attitude and heading reference unit (AHRU)


D Attitude and heading reference system controller/remote
compensator
D Thin flux valve.

The AHRS is a strapdown system that differs from a platform system.


A typical platform system has the following characteristics:

D It uses gimballed 2.5_ to 3_ of freedom gyros


D It has a spinning mass that is isolated from the airframe by gimbals
D It has output signals that are displacement sensitive.

A28--1146--059 System Description


Rev 3 2-3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Characteristics of a strapdown system are:

D No gimbals
D The spinning mass follows the airframe
D The output signals are rate sensitive.

The AHRS is an all attitude inertial sensor system that generates


aircraft attitude, heading, and flight dynamics information to the
Electronic Altitude Director Indicator (EADI) and Electronic Horizontal
Situation Indicator (EHSI) displays, DIFCS, weather radar antenna
platform, and other aircraft systems and instruments. The AHRS differs
from conventional vertical and directional gyro systems in that the
gyroscopic elements are rate gyros that are strapped down to the
principal aircraft axes. A digital computer contained in the strapdown
AHRU mathematically integrates the rate data to obtain heading, pitch,
and roll. The thin flux valve and three accelerometers in the
strapdown AHRU are used for long term references by the system.

The AHRS controller lets the pilot manually slew the AHRU heading to
any desired output and to make mode control inputs to the AHRU. The
controller outputs mode and warning annunciation to the AHRU. The
controller uses two serial unidirectional, digital buses to communicate
with the AHRU. Additionally, an electronic compensator is incorporated
which gives single cycle N--S, E--W compensation for the flux valve.

AIR DATA SYSTEM (ADS)


The ADS consists of the following components:
D Digital air data computer (DADC)
D Barometric altimeter
D True airspeed (TAS)/temperature indicator.

The DADC is a microprocessor based digital computer that accepts


both digital and analog inputs, performs digital computations, and
supplies both digital and analog outputs. It receives pitot--static
pressures and total air temperature (TAT) inputs for computing the
standard air data functions. The DADC outputs are suitable for driving
the EFIS air data displays, barometric altimeter indicator, transponder,
flight recorder, flight director, and autopilot, as well as other elements
of the flight control system.

System Description A28--1146--059


2-4 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

RADIO ALTIMETER SYSTEM

The radio altimeter system consists of the following components:


D Radio altimeter receiver/transmitter
D Antennas.

The radio altimeter system outputs an absolute altitude display from 0


to 2500 ft, Decision Height (DH) selection, failure annunciation, and
internal self--test.

ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT SYSTEM (EFIS)

The EFIS consists of the following components:


D Electronic display (EADI and EHSI)
D Symbol generator (SG)
D Display controller (DC)
D Instrument remote controller (IRC)

The EFIS displays pitch and roll attitude, heading, course orientation,
flight path commands, weather presentations, and mode and source
annunciations.

The EFIS is used by the flight control system for the following:
D Display integration
D Flexibility
D Redundancy.

Display information from sensor systems, and automatic flight control,


navigation, performance, and caution/warning systems is integrated
into the pilot’s prime viewing area. Each symbol generator can drive
four electronic displays. If a symbol generator fails, the remaining
symbol generator drives the displays on both sides.

In the case of a display failure, the attitude display format can be


displayed on the remaining display. The heading display format can be
switched to the multifunction display (MFD) display tube.

Attitude and navigation sensor data displays can be electronically


switched. All comparison monitoring of critical display information is
done in the EFIS.

A28--1146--059 System Description


Rev 3 2-5
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The primary attitude data from the AHRS/IRS (altitude heading


reference system/inertial reference system) is sent to the EFIS symbol
generator over a dedicated serial bus to meet the certification
requirements for isolation of the primary data to the pilot’s instruments.

The Avionics Standard Communications Bus (ASCB) extends the


capability and flexibility of the EFIS, by communicating with other
subsystems as required for display and pilot operational integration.

MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAY (MFD) SYSTEM


The MFD system consists of the following components:

D MFD symbol generator


D MFD controller
D Electronic display (MFD).

The MFD system displays data to the flight crew that enhances the
operation of the aircraft. This data includes:
D Normal and emergency checklists
D Navigation maps
D Weather radar
D TCAS (optional)
D EGPWS (optional).

In addition, the MFD symbol generator backs up the EFIS symbol


generator and EHSI display tube failures.

The symbol generator is the focal point of information flow in the MFD
system. The symbol generator performs the conversions necessary to
interface this microprocessor--based system to the sensors in the
aircraft. This information is then processed using computer techniques
to filter, scale, store, and reconvert the information to the video and
deflection signals required to control the electron beam on the
electronic display.

The MFD controller is used to select display modes and formats.

System Description A28--1146--059


2-6 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

DUAL FLIGHT GUIDANCE SYSTEM (FGS)

The dual FGS consists of the following components:

D Flight guidance computer


D Flight guidance controller
D Servo drive and bracket (aileron, elevator and rudder).

The dual FGS outputs fully fail--operational flight director, autopilot, yaw
damper, and auto--trim. Redundant flight control functions assure that
the system is fail--operational. The system uses dual attitude/heading
and air data sensors by sensor voting and redundancy management
techniques. The fail--operational characteristic includes sensor
failures.

Each servo is a single channel unit and is connected to both FGCs. Only
one computer actively controls the servos. Normally, the pilot’s side is
automatically in control. The copilot’s side can be manually selected, or
it automatically takes control if there is a disengage type failure in the
pilot’s computer. Unnecessary automatic transfer from one FGC to the
other is minimized because system performance is internally
monitored. This way, fail--operational control is achieved.

The single flight guidance controller is used to engage the system,


select the operating flight director and autopilot modes, and select the
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) and DADC being used to interface
with the FGC.

FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (FMS)

The FMS is described in a Honeywell manual whose publication


number is dependent upon the level of software installed in the aircraft.
The FMS consists of the following components:

D Control display unit (CDU) (monochrome/color)


D Navigation computer
D Data loader
D Omega or global positioning system (GPS) sensor (optional).

The FMS displays lateral and vertical navigation guidance and couples
to the DIFCS. The CDU is the primary means for pilot interface with the
system and it displays the selected flight plan data.

A28--1146--059 System Description


Rev 3 2-7
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The navigation computer can interface with three long range sensors
through ARINC 429 buses. Each navigation computer can also connect
to dual Honeywell Primus II Radio Navigation Units or Dual Collins
Proline 2 DME receivers and a single very high frequency
omnidirectional radio range (VOR) receiver. The interface to the AHRS,
air data, MFD, EFIS, and DIFCS is over the ASCB. Flight plans are also
transferred between navigation computers over the ASCB, while the
link to the CDU is over an RS--422 private line interface. The navigation
computer is designed to connect to AHRS/IRS, Omega/VLF (very low
frequency) sensors, GPS sensors, plus VOR/DME to assure the
accuracy of the system’s long range navigation (LRN). With links to the
on--board navigation sensors, the navigation computer develops an
FMS position based on a blend or mix of the sensors. The FMS does
not directly display navigation maps on the CDU. However, the FMS is
the source of map data for other cockpit displays such as EFIS or MFD.
Values for VSPEED bugs that are displayed on the EFIS are made
through the CDU. The map display data uses the internal data base and
ASCB input/output (I/O). The data loader is used to up--load a large
portion of the navigation data base is subject to updating on a 28--day
interval.

The navigation part of the FMS is considered as an Area Navigation


System (RNAV). Its fundamental purpose is to calculate navigation
information relative to a selected geographically located point.
Navigation management lets the pilot define a route from the aircraft
present position to any point in the world. The system outputs advisory
information and steering signals so the pilot or DIFCS can steer the
aircraft along the desired route. Routes are defined from the aircraft
present position to a destination waypoint through a series of great
circle legs connected by intermediate waypoints.

PRIMUSR II INTEGRATED RADIO SYSTEM

The integrated radio system (described in Honeywell Manual, Pub. No.


A28--1146--050) consists of the following components:
D Integrated navigation unit
D Integrated communication unit
D Radio management unit (RMU)
D Audio panel.
D Clearance delivery controller
D Automatic direction finder (ADF) antenna
D Distance measuring equipment (DME) indicator.

System Description A28--1146--059


2-8 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The PRIMUSR II Integrated Radio System is used to control Very High


Frequency (VHF) communication, VOR/ILS/DME and marker beacon
navigation data, and ADF and ATC transponder functions to the flight
crew. The units are interconnected through the radio systems bus
(RSB) that allows for high speed, two--way exchange of data between
the units. The audio signals are transmitted from the remote units to the
audio panel through a dedicated data bus.

PRIMUSR 870 WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM


The PRIMUSR 870 Weather Radar System consists of the following
components:

D Weather radar receiver/transmitter/antenna


D Weather radar controller
D A brief description is given in Appendix A.

The PRIMUSR 870 Weather Radar System is an X--band radar


designed for weather detection and analysis. The EHSI and MFD
indicator display storm intensity levels in bright colors contrasted
against a deep black background. Areas of very heavy rainfall appear
in magenta, heavy rainfall in red, rainfall of medium intensity in yellow,
areas of weakest rainfall appear in green, and little or no rainfall in
black (background). After proper evaluation, the pilot can chart a
course around these storm areas. The radar can also be used for
ground mapping. In the MAP mode, prominent landmarks are displayed
that enable the pilot to identify coastline, hilly or mountainous regions,
cities, or even large structures.

In ground mapping mode, video levels of increasing reflectivity are


displayed as black, cyan, yellow, and magenta.

A28--1146--059 System Description


Rev 3 2-9
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

PRIMUSR 880 WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM (OPTIONAL)


The PRIMUSR 880 Weather Radar System consists of the following
components:
D Weather radar receiver/transmitter/antenna
D Weather radar controller
D A brief description is given in Appendix A.
The PRIMUS 880 is an X--band radar designed for weather detection
and analysis. The EHSI and MFD indicator display storm intensity
levels in bright colors contrasted against a deep black background.
Areas of very heavy rainfall appear in magenta, heavy rainfall in red,
rainfall of medium intensity in yellow, and areas of weakest rainfall
appear in green, and little or no rainfall appears in black (background).
After proper evaluation, the pilot can chart a course around these storm
areas. The radar can also be used for ground mapping. In the MAP
mode, prominent landmarks are displayed that enable the pilot to
identify coastline, hilly or mountainous regions, cities, or even large
structures.

In ground mapping mode, video levels of increasing reflectivity are


displayed in black, cyan, yellow, and magenta.

INERTIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM (IRS) (OPTIONAL)


The IRS (described in Honeywell Manual, Pub. No. 95--8172C) is
comprised of the following components:
D Inertial reference unit
D Mode select unit (MSU).
Both AHRS can be replaced by a dual IRS installation.
The IRS is an all--attitude inertial sensor system that outputs aircraft
attitude, heading, and flight dynamics information to the electronic
attitude director indicator (EADI) and electronic horizontal situation
indicator (EHSI) displays, digital automatic flight control system
(DIFCS), weather radar antenna platform, FMS and other aircraft
systems and instruments.
Some aircraft have an IRS installed as a third attitude and heading
source. If this is the case, when either pilot selects AHRS reversion, the
IRS is selected on that side.
NOTE: The number 3 IRS cannot outpout attitude reference data to
the FGC. It does output attitude, heading and navigation
information to the EFIS and long range navigation systems.

System Description A28--1146--059


2-10 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE


SYSTEM (TCAS) (OPTIONAL)
The TCAS 2000 consists of the following:

D Computer
D Antenna.

In addition, when TCAS is installed, the PRIMUSR II Integrated Radio


System includes a compatible mode S transponder and radio
management unit.

The TCAS is designed to act as a backup to the Air Traffic Control (ATC)
system and the see--and--avoid concept. TCAS continuously surveys
the airspace around the aircraft seeking replies from other aircraft in the
vicinity through their ATC transponders. Flightpaths are predicted
based on their tracks. When TCAS is activated through the radio
management unit and selected for display on the EHSI and MFD,
nearby traffic is displayed. When that traffic poses a collision threat, the
vertical speed display, on the EADI, includes a climb or descent vertical
speed command. The pilot manually flies the aircraft to satisfy the
displayed requirement.

LIGHTNING SENSOR SYSTEM (LSS) (OPTIONAL)


The lightning sensor system (LSS) (described in Honeywell Manual,
Pub. No. A28--1146--123) consists of the following:

D Processor
D Antenna.

The LSS is used to detect and locate areas of lightning activity, in a


100--nautical mile radius around the aircraft, and to give the operator
a visual display of its position and rate--of--occurrence. The LSS detects
both visible and high energy invisible electromagnetic and electrostatic
discharges (lightning) that indicate areas of turbulent activity. After
evaluating the LSS display, and its relation to precipitation as indicated
by the weather radar display, the operator can effectively plan a course
to avoid hazardous weather.

The LSS information can be displayed on the EFIS/MFD System. The


operator can simultaneously or singularly display precipitation data
from the weather radar and/or lightning information from the LSS.

Because the system is a passive device (it does not transmit), it can be
safely operated on the ground, even in a congested ramp area. This
allows 360_ of weather observance before starting the engines.

A28--1146--059 System Description


Rev 3 2-11
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING


SYSTEM (EGPWS) (OPTIONAL)
The Allied Signal EGPWS is described in Allied Signal publication
965--0976--601. The EGPWS is a sensing system that alerts the crew
as to the following conditions:
D Terrain proximity
D Excessive deviation from ILS glideslope
D Radio altitude callouts
D Windshear conditions.
The crew is alerted using audio warnings, EFIS message displays and
external annunciations. Terrain conflicts are shown on the ND MAP
mode display as a graphic that indicates the height of nearby terrain.
The system also has an auto pop--up feature that automatically
engages the system when an alert situation exists.
The EGPWS contains a world wide terrain data base. The system uses
the data base, and combines it with positional inputs from the FMS, and
absolute altitude data from the radio altimeter to determine the aircraft’s
position relative to the underlying terrain.

OTHER SWITCHES AND CONTROLS


D AP (Autopilot) Disconnect Switch -- When pushed, this control
wheel mounted switch disconnects the autopilot and yaw damper.
D Touch Control Steering (TCS) Switch -- When the TCS button,
located on the control wheel, is pushed, the pilot can manually
change aircraft attitude, altitude, and/or vertical speed without
disengaging the autopilot.
D Go--Around (GA) Switch -- The GA switch is a button located on
the control wheel. When pushed, it disengages the autopilot and
yaw damper and command a wings level 12_ nose up attitude.
D External EFIS Reversionary Select Switch -- Pushing a reversion
button (AHRS, ADC) on one side performs the reversion operation
on that side. Complete cross--side reversions (e.g., ADC 2 on pilot
side and ADC 1 on copilot side) are not allowed. During reversionary
mode, the pilot has priority. See figure 4--10 for the location of these
switches.
D Autopilot (AP) Transfer Select Switches -- Pushing the AP button
engages autopilot and yaw damper functions simultaneously.
Repeatedly pushing the AP button disengages only the autopilot
function. See figure 6--1 for the location of these switches.

System Description A28--1146--059


2-12 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

ED--800 EADI
ED--800 EADI
ED--800 MFD
TCAS
(OPTIONAL)
BA--141
WU--870 BAROMETRIC
BA--141 WEATHER ALTIMETER
BAROMETRIC RADAR ANT
ALTIMETER AND R/T ED--800 EHSI
NAV
ED--800 EHSI DATA WC--870 WX
CONTROLLER

MG--817/818
MFD SYMBOL
GENERATOR DC--810 DISPLAY
CONTROLLER RI--815 IRC
LP--850 LIGHTNING
SENSOR PROCESSOR RI--815 IRC
(OPTIONAL) DC--810 DISPLAY PUSH
DCT
PUSH
SYNC

CONTROLLER
ALT SEL CRS HDG

MC--800 MFD
WC--870 WX CONTROLLER CONTROLLER RT--300 RADIO
ALTIMETER R/T
RT--300 RADIO DME DME
ALTIMETER R/T
SG--817/818
SYMBOL
GENERATOR
NAV
RECEIVER
SG--817/818
NAV SYMBOL
RECEIVER GENERATOR

AT--300 AT--300
AT--300 AT--300 ATTENNA ATTENNA
ANTENNA ANTENNA DEL
CLR DEL
CLR

AH--600 CD--800 CD--800 AH--600


STRAPDOWN NZ--8XX/9XX CDU CDU NZ--8XX/9XX STRAPDOWN
AHRU (NOTE) NAV COMPUTER NAV COMPUTER AHRU (NOTE)

DG SLEW
DG SLEW

AC--801 AHRS CONTROLLER/ AC--801 AHRS CONTROLLER/


FX--600 REMOTE COMPENSATOR FX--600
COCKPIT THIN FLUX
REMOTE COMPENSATOR
THIN FLUX
AUDIO VALVE VALVE

VA--100 AZ--810
VOICE AZ--810 DIGITAL
ADVISORY DIGITAL AIR DATA
(OPTIONAL) AIR DATA GC--810 FLIGHT GUIDANCE COMPUTER
COMPUTER CONTROLLER
FZ--800 FLIGHT
GUDIANCE
DS--125 COMPUTER
TAS/TEMPERATURE FZ--800 FLIGHT
INDICATOR GUDIANCE NOTE: THE AH--600, AC--801,
COMPUTER AIRCRAFT AND FX--600 CAN BE
TRIM
SYSTEM REPLACED WITH THE
OPTIONAL IRS.

SM--200 SM--200 SM--200


ELEVATOR SERVO AILERON SERVO RUDDER SERVO AD--37113--R1@

SPZ--8000 Digital Automatic Flight Control


System Block Diagram
Figure 2--1

A28--1146--059 System Description


Rev 3 2-13/(2-14 blank)
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

3. Air Data Instruments

BAROMETRIC ALTIMETER
The barometric altimeter shown in figure 3--1 displays a servoed
counter drum/pointer display of barometrically corrected pressure
altitude. The barometric pressure is set manually with the BARO
(barometric) knob and displayed in units of inches of mercury and
millibars on BARO counters.

AD--41561--R1@

Barometric Altimeter
Figure 3--1

The altimeter displays the parameters listed below. Table 3--1 gives the
altimeter air data parameters, units, and data limits.

D Counter drum display of altitude, marked in 20--foot increments.


D Pointer display of altitude between 1000--foot levels with 20--foot
graduations.
D Altitudes below 10,000 feet are annunciated by a black and white
crosshatch on the left--hand digit position of the counter display.
D Barometric pressure counter, set by means of the BARO knob,
displays barometric pressure in inches of mercury and millibars.

A28--1146--059 Air Data Instruments


Rev 3 3-1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Failure warning flag comes into view when the error between the
altitude displayed and the altitude signal received is too great, the
ADC goes invalid, or the barometric altitude indicator loses primary
power.

D The altitude alert annunciator lights as a visual indication when the


aircraft is within 1000 feet of the preselected altitude during the
capture maneuver and extinguishes when the aircraft is within 250
feet of the selected altitude. A momentary audio alert is sounded
when the aircraft is 1000 feet of the preselected altitude or has
departed 250 feet from the selected altitude after capture.

Parameters Unit Data

Pressure Altitude ft --1000 to 60,000


BARO Corrected ALT ft --1000 to 60,000
Altitude Rate ft/min --6000 to +6000
Indicated Airspeed kts 30 to 450
True Airspeed kts 0 to 600
Total Air Temp _C --99 to +99
Static Air Temp _C --99 to +99
Preselected Altitude ft 0 to 60,000
VMO or MMO kts 30 to 450
BARO Set inHg 28 to 31
BARO Set mB 948 to 1050
Mach M 0.2 to 1.0

Air Data Display Parameters


Table 3--1

Air Data Instruments A28--1146--059


3-2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Indicated Airspeed (IAS) and Vertical Speed (VS)


Displays
These air data displays are presented on the EADI. Refer to Section 4,
Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS), for further description.

Digital Air Data Computer (DADC) Self--Test Mode


Speed Displays
The air data computer incorporates a self--test mode. When activated
through the overhead cockpit test switch, the DADC outputs static data
on the avionics standard communications bus (ASCB) and the ARINC
429 bus. The data is displayed on the altimeter, EFIS, and true
airspeed/temperature (TAS/TEMP) indicator according to table 3--2.

Parameter Data Output

Pressure Altitude 1000 ft


Altitude Rate 5000 ft/min
Indicated Airspeed -- Ventral Tank Full 290 kts
Indicated Airspeed -- Ventral Tank Empty 325 kts
Mach .790 M
Total Air Temperature -- -- --
Static Air Temperature -- -- --
VMO -- Ventral Tank Full 280 kts
VMO -- Ventral Tank Empty 335 kts
True Airspeed -- -- --

DADC Self--Test Data Output Values and Parameters


Table 3--2

NOTE: During DADC self test, the TAS/TEMP indicator TAS TEMP
indicator displays a single dash in the TAS and SAT (static air
temperature) windows.

A28--1146--059 Air Data Instruments


Rev 3 3-3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

TRUE AIRSPEED/TEMPERATURE (TAS/TEMP)


INDICATOR
The TAS/TEMP indicator shown in figure 3--2, receives true airspeed
(TAS), Static Air Temperature (SAT), and total air temperature (TAT)
signals from the air data computer. TAS is displayed from 30 to 599
knots (kts), and SAT and TAT from --99 to +50 _C . The indicator
normally displays SAT and then displays TAT when the TAT switch is
pushed. Display dimming is controlled by the DIM knob. If the air data
valid signal goes invalid, both displays are blank except for a single
dash in the middle digit of each display.

AD--41562--R1@

TAS/TEMP Indicator
Figure 3--2

Air Data Instruments A28--1146--059


3-4 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

4. Electronic Flight Instrument


System (EFIS)

DISPLAY CONTROLLER
The display controller, shown in figure 4--1, controls the electronic flight
instrument system (EFIS) display formatting. Also included on the
display controller are the bearing select knobs. See figure 4--1 for the
location of the controls described below.

AD--41563@

Display Controller
Figure 4--1

D FULL/ARC Button -- The FULL/ARC button is used to change the


electronic horizontal situation indicator (EHSI) display from full
compass to partial compass format. In the full compass mode, 360_
of heading are displayed. In the partial compass mode, 90_ of
heading are displayed. Toggling the FULL/ARC button changes the
display back--and--forth from the full compass to the partial compass
display.

D MAP Button -- By pushing the MAP button, the full compass display
can be changed to the partial compass format that displays one
waypoint for each bearing pointer and VOR/DME ground station
positions. The navaids are only displayed if they lie within the
selected range. In the weather (WX) mode, pushing the MAP button
selects the MAP format with weather radar information.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D WX (Weather Radar) Button -- The WX button is used to call up


weather radar returns on the EHSI partial compass MAP display. If
the EHSI is in the full compass MAP mode initially, pushing the WX
button changes the display to the partial compass MAP mode and
displays weather radar returns from the weather radar. If in MAP
mode, pushing the WX button super--imposes weather radar
information over the MAP information. A second push removes the
weather information.

D Low Bank Arc Display -- The arc overlaying the roll scale indicates
the 17_ low bank angle range.

D GSPD/TTG (Groundspeed/Time--To--Go) Button -- Pushing the


GSPD/TTG button toggles between the display of groundspeed or
time--to--go in the lower right corner of the EHSI. The power--up
condition is groundspeed displayed.

D ET (Elapsed Time) Button -- Pushing the ET button displays


elapsed time. ET replaces to GSPD/TTG display. The toggling
sequence is as follows:
- First push resets the displayed time to zero
- Second push starts ET
- Third push stops ET
- Fourth push resets ET.
D V/L (VHF Omni Range/Localizer) Button -- Pushing the V/L button
displays VOR/LOC information on the EHSI. This information is also
sent to the flight guidance computer. This button toggles between
NAV 1 and NAV 2. The power--up condition is the on--side NAV
source.

D FMS (Flight Management System) Button -- Pushing the FMS


button displays FMS information on the EHSI. This button toggles
between FMS 1 and FMS 2. The power--up condition is the on--side
FMS.

D BRG (Bearing) Source Select Knobs -- The EHSI can display two
independent bearing pointers. The selectable bearing sources for
each pointer are given in table 4--1.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

BRGf BRGZ

OFF OFF

VOR 1 VOR 2

ADF 1 ADF 2

FMS 1 FMS 2

Bearing Pointer Sources


Table 4--1

D DIM Controls -- The EFIS dimming system is semi--automatic. Two


inputs contribute to the overall display brightness of each Electronic
Display (ED):
- Ambient light sensed by the photo sensors on each ED
- Setting of the dimming controls.
The DIM knob sets the nominal intensity for each display. The photo
sensors located on each ED modulate the light output of each
display so the over--all intensity of the display remains constant
during varying light conditions in the cockpit.

- ADI DIM CONTROL -- The ADI DIM knob dims the raster and
stroke writing on the electronic attitude director indicator (EADI).
Turning the knob OFF blanks the tube and switches the EADI
display to the EHSI tube.

- HSI DIM CONTROL -- The HSI DIM knob dims both stroke and
raster writing on the EHSI. Turning the knob OFF blanks the
EHSI. The EHSI display can be selected on the MFD.

- WX DIM CONTROL -- The WX DIM knob dims only weather


radar information on the EHSI. Turning the knob OFF removes
the weather radar display.

D DH (Decision Height) Knob -- Rotating the inner DH knob displays


the decision height on the EADI and adjusts its value between 20
and 990 feet in 10--foot increments. When the DH knob is rotated
completely counterclockwise, the decision height display is
removed from the EADI display.

D TEST Button -- Pushing the TEST button tests the radio altimeter
and EFIS when the aircraft is on the ground or the radio altimeter
only when the aircraft is in the air, if the system is not in the glideslope
capture mode.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

INSTRUMENT REMOTE CONTROLLERS (IRC)


The pilot uses the instrument remote controllers, shown in figure 4--2,
to select heading, course, and indicated airspeed or Mach references.
The copilot can select heading, course, and altitude preselect
references. Refer to the figure for the location of the controls described
below.

AD--41564@

AD--41565@

Instrument Remote Controllers


Figure 4--2

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-4 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D HDG (Heading) Select Knob and PUSH SYNC Button -- The


HDG knob is used to select a heading reference by the positioning
of the heading bug on the pilot’s or copilot’s EHSI.

Pushing the PUSH SYNC button synchronizes the heading bug to


present heading (lubber line).

D CRS (Course) Select Knob and PUSH DCT (Direct) Button -- The
CRS knob is used to select VOR or Instrument Landing System
(ILS) course by the positioning of the course select pointer on the
pilot’s or copilot’s EHSI.

Pushing the PUSH DCT button automatically selects TO direction


desired VOR course having zero deviation.

When FMS is the selected navigation source, the pilot can set an
on--side preselected course arrow. When turning the knob, the
desired track (DTK) digital readout is replaced by the digital value
of preselected course. The digital preselected course readout is
removed from the display 5 seconds after CRS knob rotation has
stopped.

D Pilot’s IAS/MACH (Indicated Airspeed/Mach) Knob and PUSH


CHG Button -- The IAS/MACH knob is used to select EADI
displayed IAS or Mach reference speed for the flight level change
(FLC) flight director mode.

NOTE: The EFIS power up value for selected airspeed is 80 kts


IAS or 100 kts IAS depending on which series EFIS is
installed.

Toggling the PUSH CHG button alternately selects IAS and Mach.
Pushing the PUSH CHG button does not move the IAS/Mach bug,
rather it changes the readout between IAS and Mach. The
power--up state is IAS.

D Copilot’s ALT SEL (Altitude Select) Knob -- The ALT SEL knob
controls the preselect altitude displayed on the EADI. The altitude
is set in 100--foot increments.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-5
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EDZ--817 ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT


SYSTEM (EFIS) DISPLAYS

Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI)


The EADI, shown in figure 4--3, combines the familiar true sphere--type
attitude display with lateral and vertical computed steering signals to
provide the commands required to intercept and maintain a desired
flight path. The EADI has the following display information:
D Attitude display
D Excessive pitch chevrons
D Flight director command cue(s)
D Flight director mode annunciations
D HSI select annunciation
D AP engage/TCS annunciation
D Vertical deviation
D Localizer deviation and rising runway
D Radio altitude
D Decision height setting
D Decision height annunciation
D Marker beacon annunciations
D Vertical track alert
D IAS scale and readout
D IAS acceleration trend
D IAS/Mach reference bug and readout
D Max speed
D Speed bug from FMS
D Digital Mach
D Cat 2 window
D Cat 2 excessive deviation
D Reversionary annunciations
D Flags
D Altitude preselect readout
D Comparison monitors

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-6 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D VSPEED bugs
D Vertical speed scale and display
D Low bank indication
D Vertical speed target reference.

COLOR CODING

Symbols are defined with the color logic given in table 4--2.

Color Definition

Amber Reversionary information requiring special attention;


IAS caution and miscompare annunciations
Red Flags, limits, and data out of limits
White Scales, compass rose/arc, armed modes, labels, and
reversion not affecting safety; aircraft symbol on HSI;
bearing pointer 2
Green Present flight parameters; captured modes; NAV
information from on--side; transfer annunciation on the
side where the transfer is not made
Yellow Aircraft symbol on ADI; NAV information from
cross--side
Cyan Selected altitude and decision height; heading bug on
HSI; selected IAS/Mach reference bug and digits;
wind/ elapsed time; bearing pointer 1; selected VS
reference
Magenta Preselected course arrow, digits and annunciator;
associated TO waypoint data
NOTE: Flashing indicators are used to alert the pilot.

System Color Logic


Table 4--2

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-7
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

INITIALIZATION AT POWER--UP

At power--up, the initializations defined in table 4--3 are displayed.

Indicator Power--up Condition

NAV Source On--side VOR selected


Selected Source Power down value
Selected Heading Power down value
Bearing As selected
NAV Data Groundspeed
IAS/MACH Bug IAS
Decision Height Power down value
ASEL ASEL box contains dashes until the
ASEL knob is turned, then current
altitude
Reversionary Switching As selected

Power--up Settings
Table 4--3

EADI DISPLAYS AND ANNUNCIATORS

See figure 4--3 for the location of the EADI displays and annunciators
described below.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-8 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

VERTICAL CAPTURE TRACK (GREEN)


ASEL VPTH
LATERAL CAPTURE TRACK (GREEN) GS VS
FLC ALT
HDG LOC
FLIGHT FLIGHT FLIGHT VFLC GA
AZ LNV
DIRECTOR DIRECTOR LOW DIRECTOR ROLL VASL EL
ROLL SCALE VOR VAPP
MODE COUPLE BANK MODE ATTITUDE VALT
ATTITUDE BC
ANNUNCIATORS ARROW ARC ANNUNCIATORS POINTER MARKER
SOURCE
BEACON
ANNUNCIATOR
ANNUNCIATION
AUTOPILOT LATERAL ARM VERTICAL ARM
ALTITUDE (WHITE) (WHITE)
ENGAGE PRESELECT
ANNUNCIATOR DISPLAY LNV VOR GS
LOC AZ EL
DECISION DECISION BC VAPP
HEIGHT HEIGHT DISPLAY
ANNUNCIATOR
VERTICAL * ASEL ARM
V MO INDICATOR TRACK ALERT OVERSPEED TURN THE
ANNUNCIATOR ANNUNCIATOR ’ASEL’ WHITE
IAS/ MACH
REFERENCE VERTICAL
BUG SPEED SCALE
AND DISPLAY 1/2 HDG
IAS ACCEL
TREND VECTOR MODE
CAT2
MARKER
IAS SCALE GLIDESLOPE BEACON
AND DISPLAY POINTER
OM (BLUE)
PITCH AND ROLL RADIO ALTITUDE MM (AMBER)
COMMAND BARS DISPLAY IM (WHITE)
VSPEED BUGS VERTICAL
SPEED SET
FMS SPEED BUG
LOCALIZER
MACH DISPLAY POINTER AND
RISING RUNWAY
REFERENCE AIRCRAFT LOCALIZER INCLINOMETER ATTITUDE
IAS/MACH SYMBOL SCALE SPHERE
DISPLAY AD--42440@

EADI Displays and Annunciators


Figure 4--3

A28--1146--059 System Description


Rev 3 4-9/(4-10 blank)
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Flight Director Mode Annunciators -- Flight director vertical and


lateral modes are annunciated along the top of the EADI. Armed
vertical and lateral modes are annunciated in white, and captured
modes are annunciated in green. At capture, to indicate the
transitions from arm to capture specified below, the green mode
annunciation flashes for the first 5 seconds at capture or at long
range navigation (LNAV) track.

Lateral Transitions Vertical Transitions


VOR (white) to VOR ASEL (white) ASEL
LOC (white) to LOC GS (white) to GS
BC (white) to BC
LNAV (white) to LNAV
VAPP (white) to VAPP

NOTE: If the system is in the dual mode, the arrow becomes


double headed and it points to both sides. Both sides are
green.

D Flight Director Couple Arrow -- The couple arrow points toward


the EHSI and DADC side to which both flight guidance computers
(FGC) are coupled. The arrow points in the same direction as the
horizontal situation indicator (HSI) SEL switch arrow on the flight
guidance controller. The arrow is green, the HSI SEL source is from
that side and amber if the selected source is from the cross--side
EHSI/DADC.

D Low Bank Arc Display -- The arc overlaying the roll scale indicates
the 17_ low bank angle range.

D Roll Attitude Pointer and Scale -- The pointer displays actual roll
attitude when it is aligned with the fixed index reference marks at 0_,
10_, 20_, 30_, 45_, and 60_ on the roll scale.

When HDG and BNK are selected on the flight guidance controller,
the low bank annunciation is displayed.

D Marker Beacon -- Marker beacon information is displayed near the


upper right corner of the sphere. The markers are of the specified
color of blue for outer, amber for middle, and white for inner marker.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-11
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Altitude Preselect Display -- The five--digit altitude preselect


display indicates the selected altitude from 0 to 60,000 ft that is set
using the ALT SEL knob on the copilot’s instrument remote
controller (IRC). The resolution is 100 ft. The ASEL annunciation is
always cyan. The box is white, but turns yellow if altitude preselect
is controlled by the cross--side DADC as indicated by the flight
director (FD) couple arrow. Initialization at power--up is the ASEL
flag, and it remains so until the ASEL knob is turned. Then current
value of ASEL is displayed.
D Decision Height (DH) Display and Annunciator -- Decision height
is displayed as a three--digit display. The set range is from 20 to 990
feet in 10--foot increments. When the radio altitude is less than 2500
feet. the DH display is always displayed. Above 2500 feet, the DH
setting is displayed for 5 seconds if a new setting is made by turning
the DH knob on the flight guidance controller. The DH display can
be removed by setting the DH SET knob fully counterclockwise.
When at or below decision height, a DH is displayed inside the
attitude sphere. To prevent DH annunciation of the ground, the
display is inhibited and armed after climbing through the DH setting.
D Vertical Track Alert (VTA) Annunciator -- With FMS selected,
approximately 60 seconds before the aircraft reaches the vertical
waypoint, the VTA annunciator flashes.
D Vertical Speed (VS) Scale and Display -- The green vertical speed
display has a range of 9900 ft/min. The green vertical speed vector
indicates the direction of vertical speed travel. The vertical speed
scale has limits at 7000 ft/min and a 50 ft/min dead zone about
zero.
D Vertical or Glideslope (GS) Deviation Pointer -- The glideslope
pointer and scale are displayed when an ILS frequency is tuned. It
displays aircraft deviation from the glideslope beam center. The
aircraft is below glidepath if pointer is displaced upward. Each
glideslope dot represents 1_ displacement from the beam
centerline. If the VNAV mode is selected, the vertical deviation
pointer indicates the VNAV computed path center.
D Radio Altitude Display -- The green four--digit radio altitude
display indicates the aircraft’s radio altitude from 0 to 2500 ft. The
resolution is as follows:
- From 0 to 100 ft resolution is 5 ft
- From 100 to 1500 ft resolution is 10 ft
- Greater than 1500 ft resolution is 50 ft.
The display is blanked for altitudes greater than 2500 ft. When the
radio altitude data is invalid, the display is removed and a boxed RA
flag is displayed.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-12 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Vertical Speed (VS) Target Select -- The vertical speed target data
is located below the vertical speed scale and displays current
vertical speed target when the VS mode is active. The data is blue
and the arrow indicates a VS target. Range is +6000 to --8000
ft/min.

D Localizer Pointer and Rising Runway -- The localizer display is


displayed when an ILS frequency is selected. Raw localizer
displacement data from the navigation receiver is used as a
reference indicator of the aircraft position with respect to the center
of the localizer. When tuning to other than an ILS frequency, the
expanded localizer display is removed.

NOTE: When the back course (BC) mode is selected on the flight
director, or when the selected course is more than 90_
from aircraft heading, the expanded localizer deviation is
automatically reversed to show proper deviation sensing
with respect to the localizer centerline.

The pointer is green if related to the on--side navigation (NAV)


source and yellow when the cross--side NAV source is used.

At 200 ft of radio altitude, the localizer pointer is converted to a rising


runway that starts to expand linearly with radio altitude up to its
maximum size at touchdown. If the radio altitude is invalid, the
localizer deviation is still displayed, but the runway does not expand.

D Attitude Sphere -- The sphere moves with respect to symbolic


aircraft reference to display actual pitch and roll attitude. Pitch
attitude marks are in 5_ increments.

D Inclinometer -- The inclinometer gives the pilot a conventional


display of aircraft slip or skid, and is used as an aid to coordinated
maneuvers.

D Aircraft Symbol -- The symbol is a stationary representation of the


aircraft. Aircraft pitch and roll attitudes are displayed by the
relationship between the aircraft symbol and the movable sphere.
The miniature aircraft is flown to align the command cue to the
aircraft symbol in order to satisfy the commands of the selected
flight director mode.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-13
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D IAS/MACH Reference Bug and Display -- The blue IAS/MACH


reference bug moves along the scale and is controlled using the
IAS/MACH knob on the pilot’s instrument remote controller. The
value of the bug is digitally displayed at the top of the scale.
Resolution is 1 knot for IAS and 0.01 for Mach. IAS or Mach
reference can be alternately displayed by pushing the instrument
remote controller IAS/MACH PUSH CHG button. Switching from
IAS to Mach reference does not move the bug, rather it changes the
nature of the reference indication. The set range is from 80 to 335
knots and .40 to .80 M.

The power--up value for selected speed is 100 knots IAS.

NOTE: When the flight guidance system enters the MAX SPEED
airspeed hold submode from either FLC or VFLC, the
IAS/MACH reference bug and display turns amber.

D Mach Display -- When in flight, the Mach readout is displayed at


.45 M and goes out of view at .40 M. Resolution is .002 M. The color
of the Mach indication is as follows:
- Green
- Red above VMO

D Maximum Operation Velocity (VMO) Indicator -- The red VMO


indicator moves up and down the IAS scale indicating the maximum
operating velocity (airspeed) as calculated by the DADC. The
power--up value for selected speed is 80 knots IAS.

D VSPEED Bugs -- The VSPEED bugs are set through the FMS CDU.
They are displayed next to the airspeed scale.

NOTE: Normally, speed bugs are supplied from the on--side FMS.
However, if that FMS fails, the cross--side FMS then
supplies the bugs.

D Flight Director Single Cue/Cross Pointer -- The FD single


cue/cross pointer displays computed steering commands to capture
and maintain a desired flight path. The pilot flies the symbolic
miniature aircraft to the cue. The FD single cue/cross pointer is
biased out--of--view if an invalid condition occurs in the FD pitch or
roll channel.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-14 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Indicated Airspeed (IAS) Scale and Display -- The IAS scale and
digital readout is displayed anytime a valid DADC is selected. The
scale is white and the digital readout is green. It operates as follows:
- Below 40 knots: There is no digital readout
- From 40 to 450 knots: Actual IAS is displayed
- Above 450 knots: The display is parked at the 450 kt position.

The color of the IAS display is as follows:


- Green
- Amber within 10 knots of VMO (4 knots when Mach reference is
selected)
- Red above VMO/MMO

NOTES: 1. During EFIS ground test, the displayed IAS value


is 130 knots.
2. When the indicated airspeed nears VMO/MMO,
regardless of the selected flight director mode, the
over speed annunciator MAX SPD is displayed.

D IAS Acceleration Trend Vector -- The magenta acceleration trend


vector indicates IAS acceleration when airborne.

D Autopilot Engage Annunciator -- An AP is annunciated for the


conditions described in table 4--4.

Condition Annunciation

AP Engage AP 1 or AP 2
FGC Transfer AP 1 or AP 2 flashing for 5 sec
(AP remains engaged) and then goes on steadily
TCS (touch control steering) White TCS replaces the
button pressed AP 1 or AP 2

Autopilot Engage Annunciations


Table 4--4

D Attitude Source Annunciation -- The selected attitude source is


not annunciated if it is the normal on--side source. When the pilot
and copilot are using the same source the ATT1/ATT2 is displayed
to indicate a reversionary condition.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-15
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

TYPICAL EADI DISPLAY PRESENTATIONS

The figures below represent EADI presentations that the pilot typically
sees during various flight phases. They represent the more common
presentations.

TAKEOFF USING GO--AROUND MODE

For this example, assume the aircraft is at the end of the runway ready
for takeoff. Figure 4--4 shows go--around (GA) and heading (HDG)
modes have been selected. The flight director couple arrow indicates
the system is coupled to the left side EHSI and DADC. The preselected
altitude is 8000 ft mean sea level (MSL). Radio altitude is zero, and the
IAS reference is set at 124 knots. The attitude is level while the flight
director cue is displaying the wings level, 12_ nose up go--around
command.

AD--41566--R1@

Takeoff Using Go--Around


Figure 4--4

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-16 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

CLIMB TO INITIAL ALTITUDE

Figure 4--5 shows the aircraft is on climb out at 200 knots in heading
(HDG) and pitch attitude hold mode (not annunciated), and the autopilot
is engaged (AP 1). Flight director commands are satisfied. Automatic
altitude select arm is indicated by ASEL being shown in white.

AD--41567--R1@

Climb to Initial Altitude


Figure 4--5

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-17
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

ENROUTE CRUISE

Straight and level on preselected altitude of 24,000 ft is shown in figure


4--6, flying low bank heading (HDG) and altitude (ALT) hold with VOR
(white) (armed for capture). AP 1 is engaged and coupled to left side
EHSI. IAS is 250 knots which is M .590 with a speed target of 250 knots.

AD--41568--R1@

Enroute Cruise
Figure 4--6

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-18 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

SETUP FOR APPROACH

Flying heading (HDG) and flight level change (FLC) modes while armed
for localizer (LOC, white) and glideslope (GS, white) capture as shown
in figure 4--7. With approach mode selected, the glideslope and
localizer displays are displayed. The ASEL digits indicate the approach
altitude fix of 4000 ft, currently at 160 knots with a 160--knot target
airspeed. Vertical speed shows a descent of 1000 FPM (feet per
minute).

AD--41569--R1@

Setup For Approach


Figure 4--7

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-19
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

APPROACH CAPTURE TRACKING BELOW DH

Setup on final approach with LOC and GS captured, and autopilot (AP
1) still engaged is shown in figure 4--8. The radio altitude of 150 ft is
below the 200--foot decision height, therefore, the DH is displayed in the
attitude sphere. The green runway symbol is displayed at 150 ft above
ground level (AGL) and expands toward the aircraft symbol as the
aircraft descends. The aircraft is stable on the target airspeed of 132
knots IAS. Vertical speed shows a descent of 600 FPM.

AD--41570--R1@

Approach Capture Tracking Below DH


Figure 4--8

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-20 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

REVERSION OPERATION

Reversionary switches are shown in figure 4--9. Their operation is


described below. Figure 4--10 shows the location of reversionary
annunciations on the EADI.

External Reversionary Select Switches


Figure 4--9

EADI Reversionary Source Annunciations


Figure 4--10

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-21
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Dual AHRS (Attitude and Heading Reference System) (or


Inertial Reference System (IRS)) and Dual ADC (Air Data
Computer) -- Pushing a reversion button (AHRS, ADC) on one side
performs the reversion operation on that side. Complete cross--side
reversions (e.g., ADC 2 on pilot side and ADC 1 on copilot side) are
not allowed. During reversionary mode, the pilot has priority.

D Dual AHRS With Single IRS Configuration -- In this case, the pilot
could switch from AHRS 1 to IRS, and the copilot could switch from
AHRS 2 to IRS.

There is no limitation to reversion operation in this case. Both pilots


can simultaneously select IRS for display on their respective EFIS.

NOTE: As long as the No. 1 (or No. 2) AHRS (or IRS) remains
operational, the autopilot can be engaged.

D Attitude/Heading Reversionary Switching -- The attitude (ATT2)


and heading source is annunciated on the EADI and EHSI
respectively (shown in figure 4--11).

AD--41571--R1@

Attitude Reversionary Annunciation


Figure 4--11

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-22 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Dual AHRS -- Table 4--5 defines the AHRS reversionary


annunciations.

Operation Pilot Copilot

Normal None None


Pilot Reversion ATT 2 (HDG 2) ATT 2 (HDG 2)
Copilot ATT 1 (HDG 1) ATT 1 (HDG 1)
Reversion
Both Reversion ATT 2 (HDG 2) ATT 1 (HDG 2)

Dual AHRS Reversionary Annunciations


Table 4--5

D Dual AHRS with Single IRS -- Table 4--6 defines the annunciations
for dual AHRS with single IRS.

Operation Pilot Copilot

Normal None None


Pilot Reversion White ATT 3 (HDG 3) None
Copilot None White ATT 3 (HDG 3)
Reversion
Both Reversion White ATT 3 (HDG 3) Amber ATT 3 (HDG 3)
NOTE: In this configuration, the single IRS is switched for cockpit displays only.
The IRS does not interface with the flight guidance system.

Dual AHRS With Single IRS


Table 4--6

D Air Data Computer (ADC) Reversions -- ADC reversion (shown in


figure 4--12) on one side (for EADI only) is indicated by displaying
a boxed ADC 1 or ADC 2 on the EADI on both sides. The side
requesting the transfer displays amber letters. The side sending the
information displays green letters.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-23
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41572--R1@

ADC Reversionary Annunciations


Figure 4--12

D Symbol Generator (SG) Reversions -- An EFIS symbol generator


can be transferred to the other side or the single multifunction
display (MFD) symbol generator can be transferred to either side.
(See figure 4--13.) Refer to table 4--7 for the reversionary source
annunciations that are displayed on both EADIs.

AD--41573--R1@

SG Reversionary Annunciation
Figure 4--13

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-24 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The basic power--up state is:


- SG 1 on pilot side
- SG 2 on copilot side.
NOTES: 1. The MFD symbol generator must be installed for
this reversionary function to operate.
2. FGC modes are dropped at time of reversion
selection if FGC was coupled to that side. After
reversion selection, FGC modes can be engaged
and maintained through the MFD.
3. The pilot must re--verify that all FD modes are as
they were before FD mode re--engagement.

Annunciation

Selection Pilot’s Side Copilot’s Side

Pilot selects Boxed SG 2 Boxed SG 2


SG REV
Copilot selects Boxed SG 1 Boxed SG 1
SG REV
Transfer Side Other Side
Transfer side selects White boxed No annunciation
SG BACK--UP (MFD) Multifunction
Generator (MG)
Other side selects Boxed MG Boxed MG
SG REV

Reversionary Source Annunciations


Table 4--7

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-25
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Flight Director Reversion -- The EHSI and DADC are coupled to


the master FGC. The couple arrow indicates the side of the FGC it
is coupled to. The arrow points in the same direction as the HSI SEL
switch arrow on the flight guidance controller. The arrow is green if
the flight director source is from the same side, and  if the flight
director source is from the cross--side FGC as shown in figure 4--14.
Flight director reversion switching is automatic in the EFIS.

AD--41574--R1@

Flight Director Reversionary Annunciation


Figure 4--14

D Comparison Monitor Reset Switch -- This panel mounted switch


is used to reset comparison monitor annunciations.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-26 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EADI CATEGORY 2 ANNUNCIATIONS

D CAT 2 Window -- The CAT 2 window is displayed on the EADI as


a green bracket next to the glideslope scale when the conditions for
CAT 2 are met, as shown in figure 4--15.

AD--41575--R1@

CAT2 Annunciations
Figure 4--15

The following are the conditions for the CAT 2 window:

- Approach mode arm, capture, or track (APP white or APP)


- DH < 160 ft (on both sides when in dual HSI mode)
- AP engaged
- RAD ALT > 80 ft.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-27
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D CAT 2 Excessive Deviation -- The AP monitors excessive


deviation when CAT 2 is active and after dual couple (HSI SEL).
When ILS deviation limits are exceeded, the deviation scale
changes to amber, as shown in figure 4--16, and flashes for the
thresholds described in table 4--8.

AD--41576--R1@

CAT 2 Deviation
Figure 4--16

Monitor Operational
Deviation Threshold Range

LOC 1/2 dot Approach Track to 300 ft


 1/3 dot 300 ft to 100 ft
Disabled 100 ft to touchdown
GS 1/2 dot Approach Track to 300 ft
1/2 dot 300 ft to 200 ft
 3/4 dot 200 ft to 100 ft
Disabled 100 ft to touchdown

CAT 2 Excessive Deviation Thresholds


Table 4--8

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-28 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EADI COMPARISON MONITORING

EADI comparison monitoring is shown in figures 4--17 and 4--18 and


includes the following:

D ATT Comparison Monitor -- On--side displayed AHRS/IRS data is


compared in the symbol generator with cross--side AHRS/IRS data.
The ATT comparison monitor is activated when there is a 6_ (3_ for
dual IRS) miscompare in pitch or roll, with on--side and cross--side
data both being valid. The ATT comparison monitor miscompare is
annunciated by a boxed ATT that flashes for 10 seconds, then goes
on steadily.
D LOC Comparison Monitor -- On--side displayed ILS data is
compared in the symbol generator with cross--side ILS data. The
LOC comparison monitor is activated when there is a half dot on
LOC data, with on--side and cross--side ILS data both valid and radio
altitude less than 1200 ft. The LOC monitor miscompare is
annunciated by a boxed LOC that flashes for 10 seconds, then
goes on steadily.

D GS Comparison Monitor -- On--side displayed ILS data is


compared with cross--side ILS data. The GS comparison monitor is
activated when there is a 2/3 dot miscompare on GS data, with
on--side and cross--side ILS data being valid and radio altitude (RA)
less than 1200 ft. The GS monitor miscompare is annunciated by
a boxed GS that flashes for 10 seconds, then goes on steadily.

AD--41577--R1@

Attitude and Localizer Comparison Monitors


Figure 4--17

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-29
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D IAS Comparison Monitor -- On--side displayed IAS is compared


with cross--side IAS. The IAS comparison monitor is actuated when
there is a 5--knot miscompare for more than 2 seconds, with on--side
and cross--side IAS both being valid, and IAS greater than 90 knots
on at least one side. The IAS comparison monitor miscompare is
annunciated by a boxed IAS that flashes for 10 seconds, then goes
on steadily.

Attitude and Localizer Comparison Monitors Location


Figure 4--18

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-30 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EADI EXCESSIVE ATTITUDE DISPLAY

Excessive attitude is when the roll attitude exceeds 65_ and the pitch
attitude exceeds 30_ up or 20_ down, as shown in figure 4--19. If the
excessive attitude condition is due to excessive pitch, excessive pitch
chevrons are displayed.

AD--41578--R1@

Excessive Attitude Display


Figure 4--19

When in an excessive attitude condition, the following functions are


removed from the display:
D FD modes and FD cue
D Marker beacon
D Vertical deviation scale, pointer, annunciator
D Localizer scale and rising runway
D IAS/Mach bugs and readout (manual and FMS)
D Radio altitude and DH set
D Vertical track alert
D All transfer annunciations except AHRS/IRS and IAS
D All flags and comparators except AHRS/IRS and IAS
D Altitude preselect.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-31
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EADI FAILURE WARNING FLAG


Figure 4--20 shows the locations of all failure and warning flags
described below. The location of each failure is shown in other figures
that follow.

AD--41579--R1@

EADI Failure and Warning Flag Locations


Figure 4--20
D Attitude Failure -- Loss of the attitude valid is indicated by:
- Removing the pitch scale and roll pointer
- Removing the FD cue/bars
- Removing sky/ground raster
- Displaying a boxed ATT flag (see figure 4--21).

Attitude Failure Flag


Figure 4--21

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-32 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Flight Director (FD) Failure -- Loss of the FD valid when ATT is


valid, is indicated by:
- Removing the FD cue/bars
- Removing the mode annunciations
- Displaying a boxed FD flag. (See figure 4--22.).

Flight Director Failure Flag


Figure 4--22

D Indicated Airspeed (IAS) Failure -- Loss of the IAS valid is


indicated by:
- Removing the IAS scale and rolling drum
- Removing the IAS trend and limits
- Removing the manual and FMS speed bugs and readouts and
VSPEED bugs
- Displaying a boxed IAS flag. (See figure 4--23.)
D Altitude Preselect (ASEL) Failure -- Loss of the ASEL valid is
indicated by:
- Removing the ASEL digits
- Displaying a boxed ASEL flag. (See figure 4--23.)
D Cross--side Data (XDTA) Failure -- Loss of a cross--side data valid
is indicated by displaying a boxed XDTA flag. (See figure 4--23.)
D Glideslope/Vertical Navigation (GS/VNAV) Failure -- Loss of the
GS/VNAV valid is indicated by:
- Removing scale and pointer
- Displaying a boxed GS flag, if in APP mode. (See figure 4--23.)
NOTE: There is no vertical navigation flag.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-33
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Radio Altitude (RA) Failure -- Loss of the RA valid is indicated by:

- Removing the digital readout


- Inhibiting DH annunciation
- Displaying a boxed RA flag. (See figure 4--23.)

D Localizer (LOC) Failure -- Loss of the LOC valid is indicated by:

- Removing scale and rising runway


- Displaying a boxed LOC flag. (See figure 4--23.)

D Vertical Speed (VS) Failure -- Invalid vertical speed is indicated by:

- Removing vertical speed scale


- Removing vertical speed window
- Displaying a boxed VS flag (See figure 4--23.)
- Removing vertical speed reference.

Airspeed, Altitude Preselect, Cross--Side Data,


Glideslope, Radio Altitude, and
Localizer Failure Flags
Figure 4--23

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-34 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Symbol Generator (SG) Internal Failure -- The following detected


internal symbol generator failures result in a blank display with a
boxed SG flag, as shown in figure 4--24:

- Failure of mailbox RAM


- Failure of watchdog counter
- Failure of analog--to--digital (A/D) hardware.

Symbol Generator Failure Flag


Figure 4--24

Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI)


The EHSI combines numerous elements to display a map--like image
of aircraft position. The indicator displays aircraft displacement relative
to VOR radials, localizer, and glideslope beam. The type of display
(FULL, ARC, WX, MAP or MAP/WX) is selected with switches on the
display controller. The EHSI displays the following information:

FULL, ARC, WX, MAP OR MAP/WX MODES

D Heading (rotating dial) and aircraft symbol


D Lubber line and MAG/TRU (magnetic/true) annunciator
D Selected heading bug
D Selected heading digital display
D FMS drift bug
D Selected course/desired track pointer

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-35
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Selected course/desired track digital display


D Course deviation
D NAV source annunciator
D TO/FROM pointer (full mode)
D TO/FROM annunciator (ARC, WX, MAP, or MAP/WX modes)
D Preselected course pointer
D Preselected course annunciator
D Vertical deviation display
D Bearing 1/2
D Distance to VOR/DME/WPT
D WPT/DME identifier and WPT alert
D NAV data (TTG/GS/ET)
D Wind vector display
D BC annunciation
D WX target annunciator
D Reversionary source annunciation
D Flags and comparators
D FMS alert message
D FMS approach annunciator
D Compare synchronization (SYNC) annunciator.

WX AND MAP/WX MODES ONLY

D WX range
D WX mode annunciator
D WX return display
D Lightning detection
D Turbulence mode.

MAP AND MAP/WX MODES ONLY

D Waypoints and track lines


D VOR/DME/VOR--DME symbol display
D Cross--track distance.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-36 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EHSI DISPLAYS AND ANNUNCIATORS IN THE ARC MODES

Figure 4--25 shows the locations of annunciators described below.

EHSI Displays and Annunciators


Figure 4--25

D Wind Vector Display -- Wind information is displayed in the form


of a single vector arrow that shows the direction of the wind relative
to the aircraft symbol. the associated digital quantity indicates the
wind velocity.

D Heading Select Bug and Display -- Heading is selected and the


bug is positioned on the rotating heading dial using the HDG knob
on the IRC. The bug rotates with the heading dial, therefore, the
difference between the bug and the fore lubber line index is the
amount of heading error applied to the flight guidance computer. a
digital heading select readout is used to accurately set the bug.

Pushing the PUSH SYNC button on the HDG knob synchronizes the
heading bug to the present heading (lubber line). For the ARC
display only, if the heading bug is off the scale, the off scale arrow
(above the compass card boundary) points toward the shortest
direction to the bug.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-37
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Heading Source Annunciator -- The selected heading source


MAG or TRU is annunciated in white at the top center of the EHSI.

D FMS Message (MSG) Annunciator -- The MSG annunciator


flashes to alert the pilot of messages, posted by the FMS on the
CDU, that require pilot attention. the MSG annunciator flashes until
the pilot clears the message on the FMS CDU.

D FMS Drift Bug -- The magenta drift bug displays the drift angle
between desired track and aircraft track, as computed by the
displayed FMS.

D Target Alert Annunciator -- When target alert is selected on the


weather radar (WX) controller, a boxed T is annunciated. If a level
3 WX return is detected, 60 to 120 nautical miles (NM) distance and
7.5_ from either side of the aircraft’s nose, the T changes to T and
flashes. in VAR mode, a V is displayed in the same area.

D AHRS/Heading Dial and Fore and Aft Lubber Lines -- AHRS/IRS


compass information is displayed on the heading dial, that rotates
with the aircraft throughout 360_. The azimuth ring is graduated in
5_ increments. fixed heading marks are at the fore and aft lubber line
positions and at 45_ bearings.

D Course Select or Desired Track Pointer -- The course pointer is


positioned on the rotating heading dial using the IRC CRS knob that
coincides with the desired VOR radial or localizer course. The
course pointer rotates with the rotating heading dial to display a
continuous readout of course error to the flight guidance computer.
Pushing the PUSH DCT button on the CRS knob synchronizes the
course pointer to the station bearing (VOR only) to indicate zero
deviation. A digital display of the course pointer position is displayed
in the lower left hand corner of the EHSI. The course pointer is green
for on--side NAV source and yellow for cross--side NAV source.

In the ARC display, if the course pointer is more than 40_ away from
the lubber line, the pointer is removed and an off scale arrow (below
the compass card boundary) indicates the shortest direction to the
course pointer position.

When FMS is selected, the course pointer becomes a desired track


pointer. The position of the desired track pointer is controlled by the
FMS. a digital display of desired track (DTK) is displayed in the lower
left hand corner. the color code for the FMS DTK pointer is the same
as for the course pointer.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-38 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Course Preselect Pointer -- When the FMS navigation mode is


displayed on the EHSI, selecting a LOC frequency on the on--side
VHF omni range/localizer (V/L) receiver and pushing the DC V/L
button displays the magenta course preselect pointer on the EHSI.
Turning the CRS knob on the IRC rotates the course preselect
pointer and displays the course preselect digital readout where the
DTK digital readout had been. The course preselect digital readout
is removed from the display 5 seconds after rotation of the course
(CRS) knob has stopped, and the DTK readout is re--displayed.

In the ARC display, if the course pointer arrow (or tail) is more than
40_ away from the lubber line, the pointer arrow (or tail) is removed
and the preselect course value is indicated by the CRS digital
readout (when turning the CRS knob).

D Glideslope (GS) Deviation Pointer -- The glideslope pointer and


scale are displayed when an ILS frequency is tuned. The pointer
displays aircraft deviation from glideslope beam center. The aircraft
is below glidepath if the pointer is displayed upward. Each glideslope
dot represents 1_ displacement from the beam centerline.

D TO/FROM Pointer/Annunciator -- In the FULL compass mode, an


arrowhead in the center of the EHSI indicates whether the selected
course is TO or FROM the station or waypoint. In the ARC mode,
the TO/FROM is annunciated by either TO or FR. The TO/FROM
pointer/annunciator is not displayed during localizer operation. The
TO/FROM pointer or annunciator is green for on--side NAV source
and yellow for the cross--side NAV source.

D Aircraft Symbol -- A fixed miniature aircraft symbol corresponds to


the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and lubber line markings. The
symbol shows aircraft position and heading with respect to the
rotating heading dial. It also shows the aircraft position in relation to
a radio course.

D Course or Course Preselect Deviation Bar -- The course bar


represents the centerline of the selected VOR or localizer course.
The aircraft symbol shows actual aircraft position in relation to this
selected course. In VOR operation, each dot on either side of the
aircraft symbol represents 5_ deviation from centerline. In ILS
operation, each dot represents 1_ deviation from centerline.

For FMS operation, each dot represents 2--1/2 miles from desired
track outside the terminal area. In the terminal area, each dot
represents 0.75 miles from desired track.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-39
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

When the back course (BC) mode is selected, or when tuned to a


localizer frequency and the selected course is more than 90_ from
aircraft heading, the course deviation is automatically reversed to
display deviation sensing with respect to the course centerline. The
course deviation bar always indicates the location of the course
centerline relative to the nose of the aircraft.

D Groundspeed (GSPD), Time--To--Go (TTG), or Elapsed Time


(ET) Display -- Pushing the DC GSPD/TTG button toggles between
the groundspeed and time--to--go readouts. The groundspeed
display range is 0 to 999 knots at 1 knot resolution, and time--to--go
display range is 0 to 399.9 minutes at .1 minute resolution.

Pushing the ET button on the DC changes the display to elapsed


time (ET). When in the elapsed time mode, the ET display can read
minutes and seconds or hours and minutes. The hour/minute mode
is distinguishable from the minute/second mode by an H on the left
of the digital display. If due to an invalid condition, the digital readout
is removed, the annunciator (GS/TTG/ET) remains.

D Course Desired Track Display -- This display is a digital readout


in degrees of the course indicated by the course select pointer. If
FMS is selected, desired track (DTK) is displayed.

D Bearing Pointer Source Annunciators -- The bearing source


annunciation located under the NAV source annunciator indicates
the current source of input to the bearing pointers. The annunciation
is A for ADF, V for VOR, and F for FMS, and is located inside the f
for bearing pointer 1 and inside the Z for bearing pointer 2.

If the heading display is in TRU and FMS magnetic variation is


invalid, the VOR bearing V annunciator flashes continuously.

D Bearing Pointers -- The bearing pointers indicate relative bearing


to the selected navaid. Two bearing pointers can be tuned to navaids
or selected off from the DC. When the bearing pointer navigation
source is invalid or a localizer frequency is chosen, the respective
bearing pointer is removed. Bearing pointer 1 is cyan and bearing
pointer 2 is white.

D Course Preselect Annunciator -- This annunciator indicates the


source of the course preselect information. The annunciation is LOC
1 for the pilot’s side and LOC 2 for the copilot’s side.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-40 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Navigation (NAV) Source Annunciator -- This annunciator


indicates the NAV source deviation information selected with the
NAV source buttons on the DC. The annunciation is VOR 1/VOR 2,
LOC 1/LOC 2, or FMS 1/FMS 2.

The BC annunciator is displayed in place of the LOC 1/LOC 2


annunciator when course/heading exceeds 100_ and LOC 1/LOC 2
is the displayed NAV source.

D Compass Sync Annunciator -- When AHRS is installed, if it is in


the heading mode, the sync annunciator indicates the direction the
the flux valve is slewing toward on the heading display.

D Waypoint/DME Identifier -- If valid, the identifier is displayed for the


FMS waypoint or the DME station, depending on whether distance
is associated to FMS or DME. For FMS only, a lateral waypoint
crossover is identified by flashing the waypoint identifier.

D Distance Display -- The distance display indicates the nautical


miles to the selected DME station or FMS waypoint. When DME is
annunciated, the display range is 0 to 399 NM. The DME display
digits are replaced by dashes in the search phase. DME hold is
annunciated by an H adjacent to the distance readout. When FMS
is annunciated, the display range is 0 to 3999 NM. For both DME and
FMS, the display resolution is 0.1 NM from 0 to 99.9 NM and 1 NM
from 100 to 3999 NM. If distance is not available or invalid, the DME
or the FMS annunciator is displayed, but the digital readout is
removed.

D FMS Approach Annunciation -- The APP annunciation indicates


the FMS is in the approach mode (track deviation has increased
sensitivity).

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-41
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

TYPICAL EHSI FULL COMPASS DISPLAY PRESENTATIONS

The following figures represent EHSI presentations that the pilot


typically sees while using the full compass display mode.

A standard HSI presentation using data from VOR 1 is shown in figure


4--26. Both selected course and bearing is to the VOR/DME tuned by
the pilot side NAV receiver.

AD--41580--R1@

HSI Display Using VOR1 Data


Figure 4--26

When the FMS navigation mode is selected for display on the EHSI,
selecting a LOC frequency on the on--side V/L receiver, and pushing the
V/L button on the on--side DC displays the magenta course preselect
pointer on the EHSI, as shown in figure 4--27. Turning the CRS knob
on the IRC rotates the course preselect pointer and displays the course
preselect digital readout in place of the present DTK digital readout. The
course preselect digital readout is removed 5 seconds after the CRS
knob has stopped rotating, and the DTK readout is re--displayed.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-42 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41581--R1@

LOC Select and Course Preselect Pointer


Figure 4--27

ARC MODE DISPLAY

The majority of ARC mode displays, shown in figure 4--28, operate


identically to their related display elements in the FULL compass mode.
The location of annunciations are shown in figure 4--29.

AD--41582--R1@

ARC Mode Display


Figure 4--28

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-43
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EHSI ARC Mode Displays and Annunciators


Figure 4--29

EHSI MAP MODE WITH VOR SELECTED FOR DISPLAY

Figures 4--30 and 4--31 show examples of the MAP mode with VOR
selected for display. Figure 4--32 gives the locations of annunciators
used in the descriptions below. In the MAP format, when VOR is
selected, the normal ARC course select display (pointer, scale, and
deviation) is removed and replaced by the following display:
D The VOR or VOR--DME station is displayed at its geographical
position with the corresponding symbol. The displayed station
locations are sometimes determined using the stored NAV data
base in the FMS.
D The course information is indicated by a digital readout (same as
ARC) and by a course line centered on the VOR station. The FROM
information is represented by a dashed line, as shown in figure
4--30. The TO information is represented by a solid line as shown
in figure 4--31.
D If the VOR station is out of the display range, an arrow, shown in
figure 4--31, is added to the course line to indicate the direction of
the selected course to be followed.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-44 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D The deviation is displayed as a digital cross--track distance readout.


D If the selected VOR bearing is the same as the VOR NAV source,
a number corresponding to the VOR bearing number is displayed to
the left of the green or yellow VOR symbol. If the selected bearing
symbol is out of MAP range, a bearing pointer is displayed.
D If the selected VOR bearing (1 or 2) is different from the VOR NAV
source (VOR 1 or VOR 2), a navaid symbol is displayed at the
geographic location. If the symbol for the selected bearing is out of
MAP range, its associated VOR bearing pointer is displayed.

AD--41583--R1@

MAP Mode With VOR Selected


and a FROM Indication Given
Figure 4--30

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-45
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41584--R1@

MAP Mode With VOR Out of Display Range


and a TO Indication Given
Figure 4--31

MAP Mode Display Symbols (VOR)


Figure 4--32

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-46 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EHSI MAP MODE WITH FMS SELECTED FOR DISPLAY

In the MAP format, when FMS is selected for display, as shown in figure
4--33, the normal ARC course select display (pointer, scale, and
deviation) is removed and replaced by the following display:

D Up to four FMS waypoints are displayed. The waypoint identifier is


displayed for the TO waypoint. Flight level is displayed for the next
two waypoints that have constraint altitude.

D The FMS legs are displayed as lines connecting each waypoint to


the next one.

D The deviation is displayed as a digital cross--track distance readout.

D If a VOR bearing is selected for display while in an FMS mode, a


cyan navaid symbol is displayed with its appropriate number
(1 or 2) at its geographic position. If the VOR symbol is out of MAP
range, the appropriate cyan bearing pointer is displayed.

D If a VOR bearing is selected for display and the station symbol is


collocated with an FMS waypoint, then the cyan waypoint symbol
is displayed with the VOR bearing number to the left.

D If the on--side FMS bearing is selected, the number (1 or 2) is located


to the left of the TO waypoint symbol. If the TO waypoint is out of
MAP range, a cyan FMS bearing pointer is displayed.

D If the cross--side FMS bearing is selected, a white FMS symbol and


bearing number (1 or 2) is displayed at the geographic location. If
the selected bearing waypoint is out of MAP range, a bearing pointer
is displayed.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-47
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41585--R1@

EHSI MAP Format -- FMS Selected for Display


Figure 4--33

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-48 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EHSI WEATHER RADAR DISPLAY

Figure 4--34 shows the locations for the annunciators described below.

AD--41586--R1@

EHSI Weather Radar Display


Figure 4--34

D Target Alert Annunciator (All Formats) -- When target alert is


selected on the weather radar controller, a boxed T is annunciated
at the location shown. If a level 3 WX return is detected, beyond the
selected range and within 7.5 of the aircraft heading, the T
annunciator changes to T and flashes. In VAR mode, a V is
displayed in the same area.

D Range Ring and Annunciator (WX, MAP, and MAP/WX formats


only) -- Range is selected on the weather radar controller. One--half
the selected range is annunciated in cyan beside the half--range
ring. If range information is not available, the range default value is
50 NM.

D WX Return Display (WX and MAP/WX formats only) --


Conventional weather radar information is displayed as described
in table 4--9.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-49
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Return Weather Radar Ground Mapping

Level 1 Green Cyan


Level 2 Yellow Yellow
Level 3 Red Magenta
Level 4 Magenta N/A
RCT Cyan N/A
TURB Soft White N/A
NOTE: If the weather radar is ON, and the weather is not displayed, a TX is
shown on the left side of the EHSI.

Weather Radar Color Coding for WX and Ground Mapping


Table 4--9

D Mode Annunciator (WR and NAV/WR formats only) -- Refer to


table 4--10 for the weather radar modes that are annunciated on the
EHSI.

Display on EHSI

Operating Feature Mode TGT Notes


Mode Selected Annunciation Area

OFF NONE WX -- -- Also if WX failed


WAIT ANY WAIT -- --
SELECTION
STANDBY -- -- STBY -- --
TEST -- -- TEST (CYAN) -- --
WX NONE WX -- -- TGT and VAR are
VAR WX V mutually exclusive -- if
TGT WX T TGT and VAR are
RCT--TGT RCT erroneously selected at
TURB WX/T T the same time, TGT
GCR GCR priority is T. If there is no
RCT & TURB R/T TGT, it is T. A flashing T is
annunciated if a target is
detected.

Weather Radar Mode Annunciations on the EHSI


Table 4--10 (cont)

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-50 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Display on EHSI

Operating Feature Mode TGT Notes


Mode Selected Annunciation Area

GMAP NONE GMAP -- --

VAR GMAP V
FP NONE FPLN

Weather Radar Mode Annunciations on the EHSI


Table 4--10

D Lightning Detection -- White and magenta lighting symbols are


located at the center of lightning activity. The annunciations for
sensor status are shown below.
- LX -- Normal LX Operation
- LX/F -- LX Fail
- LX/S -- LX in Standby
- LX/T -- LX in Test
- LX/H -- No Heading
- LX/I -- LX Transit (Microphone) Inhibit
- LX/C -- X in Auto Calibration
- LX/CL --LX Clear
- LX/L -- LX Detected Cells Outnumber Display Capabilities

ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM (EGPWS)

The EGPWS can be displayed in place of the weather radar by pushing


the EGPWS cockpit mounted button(s), however the terrain display is
shown 90. There are two system capabilities for displaying the
EGPWS, the full system, and the limited system.

The full system can display EGPWS on both HSIs and the MFD map
mode. The limited system can only display EGPWS on the MFD map
mode. In both cases, the auto pop--up feature of the EGPWS is only
displayed on the MFD.

D Limited System Operation -- When the EGPWS is displayed on


the MFD, the display automatically switches to the map mode.
Terrain (TERR) cannot be displayed in the plan mode.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-51
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The limited system is controlled using one cockpit mounted toggle


switch that controls the MFD. The switches select the EGPWS on
the MFD in the following sequences:

- SINGLE WX CONTROLLER -- Terrain with map  Terrain with


no map  Repeat

- DUAL WX CONTROLLER -- Terrain with map using left WX


controller range  Terrain with map using the left WX controller
range  Terrain with MAP using the right WX controller range 
Repeat

The terrain display is removed by selecting another mode on the


MFD controller.

- RANGE -- The terrain range on any of the selected displays is


controlled using the WX controller. If the WX controller is off, or
if it is inoperable, the default EGPWS range is 50 NM (i.e., 25 NM
half range).

If the EGPWS sends out an invalid range signal, TERR is


annunciated on the MFD, and the terrain raster is erased.

The automatic pop--up feature is enabled when a terrain threat


is detected. The pop--up range is 10 NM regardless of the range
that is set. The MFD returns to the previous display when the
terrain threat has passed.

D Full System Operation -- The MFD works the same for both full and
limited systems. When the EGPWS is selected on an HSI, the
display automatically switches to the arc mode if the HSI is not
already in the arc mode. Terrain cannot be displayed in the full
compass mode.

The HSI display is controlled using two cockpit--mounted toggle


switches: one controls the pilot’s HSI, and the other controls the
copilot’s HSI. The switches toggle the EGPWS on and off for the
display each controls. The switches toggle in the following sequence:

- SINGLE OR DUAL WX CONTROLLER -- Terrain  Terrain off.

- RANGE -- The range for any of the selected displays is controlled


using the active WX controller or controllers. On the HSI, terrain
range is always controlled by the “on--side” WX controller. If the
WX controllers are off, or if they are inoperable, the default
EGPWS range is 100 NM (i.e., 50 NM half range).

If the EGPWS sends out an invalid range signal, the TERR


annunciation is annunciated on the selected display.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-52 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EGPWS TERRAIN ANNUNCIATIONS (FULL OR LIMITED


SYSTEMS)

When EGPWS is displayed and valid, TERR is displayed in the WX tilt


angle field. If EGPWS data is not available, or if the range from the
EGPWS is invalid, TERR is displayed

The terrain raster displays areas of terrain in blends of the colors black,
green, yellow and red, depending on the above ground level (AGL)
elevation of the aircraft relative to the terrain below it. (Refer to table
4--11.) Terrain that is more than 2000 feet below the aircraft is not
displayed.

Elevation of Terrain in Feet AGL Color

2000 or more above the aircraft High Density Red dots


1000 -- 2000 above the aircraft High Density Yellow Dots
500 (250 with gear down) below to Medium Density Yellow
1000 above the aircraft Dots
500 (250 with gear down) below to Medium Density Green
1000 below the aircraft Dots
1000 -- 2000 below the aircraft Low Density Green Dots
NOTE: Caution terrain (60 second warning) is displayed as solid yellow. Warning
terrain (30 second warning) is displayed as solid red.

EGPWS Terrain Display Color Definitions


Table 4--11

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-53
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Figure 4--35 shows the EGPWS over KPHX airport at 3000 feet MSL,
heading north. The terrain shows the mountains to the north of Phoenix.

AD--57654@

HSI Display Over KPHX Airport With Terrain Display


Figure 4--35

Figure 4--36 shows the EGPWS on the HSI map mode.

AD--57653@

MFD With Terrain and Map Mode Displayed


Figure 4--36

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-54 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Figure 4--37 shows the EGPWS terrain only on the MFD.

AD--57651@

MFD With Terrain Only Displayed


Figure 4--37

When the EGPWS is selected, it can be tested. Pushing the panel


mounted EGPWS TEST button displays the test format shown in figure
4--38. The EGPWS test pattern is the same on the MFD and the HSI.

AD--57652@

EGPWS Test Display


Figure 4--38

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-55
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

NAVIGATION (NAV) SWITCHING ON EHSI

Navigation source switching is shown in figure 4--39.

AD--41587--R1@

EHSI Navigation Source Switching Annunciations


Figure 4--39

NAV SOURCE SELECTIONS

NAV source selections are made using the V/L and FMS buttons on the
display controller (DC). The NAV source selections are indicated by an
annunciation, on the EHSI, of the NAV source (VOR 1, VOR 2, LOC 1,
LOC 2, FMS 1, FMS 2) and by changing the color from green to yellow
for the following functions on the side where the transfer is performed:

NOTE: The following functions are on the EHSI, unless otherwise


specified.
D NAV source annunciator
D BC annunciation
D Rising runway pointer (EADI)
D Vertical deviation pointer (EADI and EHSI)
D CRS/DTK arrow and digital display
D TO/FROM display
D Distance to WPT/DME, FMS/DME distance annunciator, and identifier

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-56 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Time--to--go
D FMS route and WPT/VOR/DME symbols (map format)
D Cross--track distance readout (map format)

There is no annunciation or color change on the other side.

EHSI HEADING COMPARISON MONITORING

On--side displayed heading is compared with cross--side heading. The


heading comparison monitor is activated when there is a 6_
miscompare (3_ for dual IRS) in heading, with both compared data
valid, and same nature of heading (MAG/TRU) on both sides. The
heading comparison monitor miscompare is indicated by displaying a
boxed HDG shown in figure 4--40, that flashes for 10 seconds, then
goes on steadily.

AD--41588--R1@

EHSI Heading Comparison Monitoring


Figure 4--40

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-57
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EHSI FAILURE WARNING FLAGS

D Heading Failure -- Loss of heading valid is shown in figure 4--41 and


is indicated by:

- Removing the TRU/MAG annunciator


- Removing the HDG bug
- Removing the course pointer and deviation bar
- Removing MAP information (MAP and MAP/WX modes)
- Removing the TO/FROM display
- Removing the track pointer (IRS only)
- Removing the absolute bearing
- Displaying the heading card North--Up
- Displaying a boxed HDG flag.

AD--41589--R1@

EHSI Heading Failure Flag


Figure 4--41

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-58 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Navigation (NAV) Source Failure -- Navigational source failure


flags are shown in figure 4--42.

AD--41590--R1@

EHSI NAV Source and Glideslope Failure Flags


Figure 4--42

A failure of the NAV source is indicated by:

- Removing DTK pointer, deviation, and readout (FMS only)


- Removing the deviation bar and the TO/FROM display in other
cases
- Changing the color of the NAV source annunciator to a red boxed
annunciator.

D Glideslope (GS) Failure -- Loss of the glideslope valid is indicated


by:

- Removing scale and pointer


- Displaying a red boxed GS flag.

D Symbol Generator (SG) Internal Failure -- The following detected


internal symbol generator failures result in a blank display with a
boxed SG flag.

- Failure of mailbox random--access memory (RAM)


- Failure of watchdog counter
- Failure of A/D hardware.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-59
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EFIS Self--Test
Follow the procedure in table 8--5 to run the EFIS self--test. TEST
symbols on the EADI are shown in figures 4--43 and 4--44.

Step Procedure

1 Push and hold the TEST button on the DC.


2 The TEST pattern remains as long as the TEST button is
pushed.
3 The TEST pattern shows all comparators for 4 seconds, as
shown in figure 4--43.

Test Pattern (First 4 Seconds)


Figure 4--43

EFIS Self--Test Procedure


Table 4--12 (cont)

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-60 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Step Procedure

4 After 4 seconds, all comparators are removed and all flags


are displayed with their corresponding logic, as shown in
figure 4--44.

Test Pattern (After 4 Seconds)


Figure 4--44
5 Throughout the test, a TEST is annunciated on the EADI.
6 In the air, only the radio altimeter is tested.
7 When ground self--testing, the SG resets to the power--up
configuration after the test.

EFIS Self--Test Procedure


Table 4--12

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-61
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EDZ--818 ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT


SYSTEM (EFIS) SERIES DISPLAYS (OPTIONAL)
The EDZ--818 EADI and EHSI displays give the same combinations of
formats as described for the EDZ--817 Electronic Flight Instrument
System (EFIS). Listed below are some significant differences.

D TCAS information is displayed differently. Some failure flags and


comparison warning annunciators are relocated. Comparison
monitor annunciations cannot be reset.

D On the electronic attitude director indicator (EADI), annunciation of


MAX SPEED, CAT II annunciation, airspeed tape display features,
and some flight director mode annunciations are changed.

D On the EHSI, the compass sync annunciator is different. This


section describes these changes in detail.

Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI)


See figure 4--45 for location of display annunciations described below.

D TCAS Resolution Advisory (Optional) -- When activated, the


vertical speed display shows a green ”fly to” band and a red ”do not
fly” bar.

NOTE: When the aircraft rate of climb is within the red ”do not
fly” range, the digital rate of climb is shown in red.

D Mach Display -- When in flight, the Mach readout is displayed at


.45 M and goes out of view at .40 M. Resolution is .002 M. The color
of the Mach indication is as follows:
- Green
- Amber when trend vector approaches or equals VMO/MMO
- Red above VMO/MMO.
D Indicated Airspeed (IAS) Scale and Display -- The IAS scale and
digital readout is displayed anytime a valid DADC is selected. The
scale is white and the digital readout is green. IAS annunciations are
described below.

Condition Annunciation

Below 40 kt There is no digital readout


From 40 to 450 kt Actual IAS is displayed
Above 450 kt The display is parked at the 450 kt position

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-62 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

VERTICAL CAPTURE TRACK (GREEN)

LATERAL CAPTURE TRACK (GREEN) ASEL VPTH


GS VS
FLC ALT
HDG * VOR LOC VFLC GA
AZ ROL VAPP VASL GP
FLIGHT FLIGHT FLIGHT VOR LNAV BCAZ VALT PIT
DIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR BC TRK
IAS/MACH MODE COUPLE MODE CAT 2
AUTOPILOT REF ANNUNCIATORS ARROW ANNUNCIATORS ANNUNCIATOR
ENGAGE
ATTITUDE SOURCE
ANNUNCIATOR ANNUNCIATOR VERTICAL ARM
LATERAL ARM (WHITE)
MACH DISPLAY (WHITE)
ALTITUDE PRESELECT
DISPLAY GS VN
DECISION HEIGHT LNAV VAPP GP
ANNUNCIATOR LOC BCAZ
DECISION HEIGHT BC
VMO /MMO INDICATOR DISPLAY VOR ASEL ARM
AZ TURNS THE
IAS TREND VERTICAL ’ASEL’ WHITE
TRACK ALERT
PITCH AND ROLL
COMMAND CUE ROLL SCALE BANK LIMIT MARKER BEACON
DISPLAY
IAS SCALE AND VERTICAL SPEED
2 SCALE AND DISPLAY OM (BLUE)
DISPLAY MM (AMBER)
IAS / MACH GLIDESLOPE IM (WHITE)
POINTER INCLINOMETER
REFERENCE BUG
FMS SPEED BUG RADIO ALTITUDE TCAS RESOLUTION ADVISORY
DISPLAY ’FLY TO’ (GREEN)
V--SPEED BUG
VERTICAL SPEED SET TCAS RESOLUTION ADVISORY
V--SPEED REFERENCE
’DO NOT FLY’ (RED)
AIRCRAFT LOCALIZER LOCALIZER ATTITUDE
SYMBOL POINTER AND SCALE SPHERE * VOR IS DISPLAYED AS A LATERAL CAPTURE MODE WHEN OVER A VOR STATION.
RISING
RUNWAY AD--42456@

EDZ--818 EADI Displays and Annunciators


Figure 4--45

A28--1146--059 System Description


Rev 3 4-63/(4-64 blank)
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The color of the IAS display is:

- Green
- Amber when trend vector approaches or equals VMO/MMO
- Red above VMO/MMO.

D Maximum Operation Velocity (VMO) Indicator -- The red VMO


indicator moves up and down the IAS scale indicating the maximum
operating velocity (airspeed) calculated by the DADC.

NOTE: The standard IAS scale has the large numbers at the top,
small numbers at the bottom. An optional installation is to
have the large numbers at the bottom. If this is done, the
IAS trend vector is removed.

D IAS Acceleration Trend Vector -- The magenta acceleration trend


vector indicates IAS acceleration when airborne.

D IAS/Mach Reference Bug and Display -- The blue IAS/Mach


reference bug moves along the scale and is controlled using the
IAS/MACH knob on the pilot’s IRC. The digital value of the bug is
displayed at the top of the scale. Resolution is 1 knot for IAS and
0.01 for Mach. IAS or Mach reference can be alternately displayed
by pushing the IRC IAS/MACH PUSH CHG button. Switching from
IAS to Mach reference does not move the bug, rather it toggles
between IAS and Mach references. The set range is from 80 to 335
knots and .40 to .80 M (Mach).

The power--up value for selected speed is 100 knots IAS.

NOTE: When the flight guidance system enters the MAX SPEED
airspeed hold submode from either FLC or VFLC, the
IAS/Mach reference bug and display turn amber.

D Vertical Speed (VS) Scale and Display -- The green vertical speed
display has a range of 9900 feet/minute. The green vertical speed
vector indicates the direction of vertical speed travel. The vertical
speed scale has limits at 7000 feet/minute and a 50 feet/minute
dead zone about zero.

D Vertical Speed Target Select -- The vertical speed target data is


located below the vertical speed scale. It displays current vertical
speed target when the VS or VPTH (vertical path) modes are active.
The annunciation is blue and the arrow indicates a VS target.
Range is +6000 to --8000 feet/minute.

NOTE: When the flight guidance system enters the MAX SPEED
airspeed hold submode from either VS or FMS VPTH, the
vertical speed target select data turns amber.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-65
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D VSPEED Bugs and Display -- The VSPEED bugs are set through the
FMS CDU. They are displayed next to the airspeed scale. The digital
values of the V1 and VREF bugs are displayed at the lower left of the
attitude sphere. When V1 is reached, the V1 annunciator is
removed. VREF is displayed until VREF is displayed on the airspeed
tape.

Typical EADI Display Presentations


APPROACH CAPTURE TRACKING BELOW DH

Figure 4--46 shows the aircraft set up on final approach with LOC and
GS captured, and autopilot still engaged. The radio altitude of 150 feet
is below the 150--foot decision height; therefore, the DH is displayed in
the attitude sphere. The green runway symbol is displayed at 200 feet
AGL and expands toward the aircraft symbol as the aircraft descends.
The aircraft is stable on the target airspeed of 132 knots IAS. Vertical
speed shows a descent of 600 FPM.

AD--41591--R1@

Approach Capture Tracking Below DH


Figure 4--46

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-66 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

REVERSION ANNUNCIATIONS

D Attitude Reversions -- The attitude and heading source is


displayed on the EADI and EHSI respectively. Table 4--13 describes
dual attitude reversion annunciations, table 4--14 describes triple
attitude reversion annunciations. Figure 4--47 shows attitude
reversion annunciations.

NOTE: The switches that activate reversionary selections remain


unchanged.

Operation Pilot Copilot

Normal Blank Blank


Pilot Reversion ATT2 (HDG2) ATT2 (HDG2)
Copilot Reversion ATT1 (HDG1) ATT1 (HDG1)
Both Reversion ATT2 (HDG2) ATT2 (HDG2)

Dual Attitude Reversion Annunciations


Table 4--13

Operation Pilot Copilot

Normal Blank Blank


Pilot Reversion White ATT3 (HDG3) Blank
Copilot Reversion Blank White ATT3 (HDG3)
Both Reversion ATT3 (HDG3) ATT3 (HDG3)

Triple Attitude Reversion Annunciations


Table 4--14

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-67
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41592--R1@

Attitude Reversion Annunciations


Figure 4--47

D ADC Reversions -- ADC reversion shown in figure 4--48 on one side


(for EADI only) is indicated by displaying a boxed ADC1 or ADC2
on the EADI on both sides. The side requesting the transfer displays
amber letters. The side sending the information displays green
letters.

AD--41593--R1@

ADC Reversion -- Side Requesting Transfer


Figure 4--48

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-68 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D SG Reversions -- Dual EFIS symbol generators can be transferred


to the other side or the single MFD symbol generator can be
transferred to either side. Tables 4--15 and 4--16 describe
reversionary source annunciations shown on both EADIs.

Annunciation Annunciation
Selection Pilot’s Side Copilot’s Side

Pilot selects Boxed SG2 Boxed SG2


SG REV
Copilot selects Boxed SG1 Boxed SG1
SG REV

EFIS Symbol Generator Transfers


Table 4--15

Annunciation Annunciation
Selection Transfer Side Other Side

Transfer side selects Boxed MG (white) No Annunciation


SG BACK--UP (MFD)
Other side selects Boxed MG Boxed MG
SG REV

MFD Symbol Generator Transfer


Table 4--16

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-69
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Figure 4--49 shows an SG reversion.

AD--41594--R1@

SG Reversion
Figure 4--49

The basic power--up state is:

- SG1 on pilot side


- SG2 on copilot side.

NOTES: 1. The MFD symbol generator must be installed for


this reversionary function to operate.
2. FGC modes are dropped at time of reversion
selection if FGC was coupled to that side. After MG
reversion selection, FGC modes can be engaged
and maintained through the MG.
3. The pilot must verify that all FD modes are as set
before FD mode re--engagement.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-70 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Flight Director Reversion -- The couple arrow direction indicates


what side EHSI and DADC is coupled to both FGCs. The arrow
points in the same direction as the HSI SEL switch arrow on the flight
guidance controller. The arrow is green, as shown in figure 4--50,
if the flight director source is from the same side, and amber if the
flight director source is from the cross--side FGC. Flight director
reversion switching is automatic in the EFIS. This feature is also
available during resets or power--up self--tests. Figure 4--51 shows
the locations of attitude, SG and ADC reversion annunciators.

AD--41595--R1@

Flight Director Reversion


Figure 4--50

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-71
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

,EADI REVERSIONARY SOURCE ANNUNCIATORS

D Attitude, SG and ADC Reversionary Annunciators The


annunciators shown in figure 4--51, are annunciated only if a source
other than the normal one is selected. They are normally
annunciated in white, but they are annunciated in amber if both pilot
and copilot sources are the same.

EADI Reversionary Source Annunciations


Figure 4--51

EADI CATEGORY 2 ANNUNCIATIONS


D Category 2 (CAT2) Annunciator -- The CAT2 annunciation, shown
in figure 4--52, is displayed on the EADI when the conditions for CAT2
are met. The following are the conditions for the CAT2 annunciation:
- Both NAV receivers tuned to same ILS or MLS and valid
- Approach mode
- SG REV (reversionary) and ADC REV not selected
- AP engaged
- XDTA (transdata) flag not displayed on EFIS
- Independent attitude and heading displayed
- DH between 100 ft and 190 ft on both EADIs
- LOC selected for display on both EFIS
- No comparison monitor active
- Radio altimeter valid.

After establishing a CAT2 status, if any one or more of the above


conditions goes invalid, the CAT2 annunciation changes to CAT2.
The CAT2 flashes for 5 seconds then goes on steadily. The CAT2
annunciation is removed when the AP is disengaged.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-72 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41596--R1@

CAT2 Annunciation
Figure 4--52

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-73
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D CAT2 Excessive Deviation -- Excessive deviation is monitored


when CAT2 is active. When ILS deviation limits are exceeded, the
deviation scale changes to amber and flashes for the thresholds
defined in table 4--17. These annunciations are shown in figure
4--53.

Monitor
Deviation Threshold Operational Range

LOC 20 μA 600 ft to 100 ft


Disabled 100 ft to Touchdown
GS 65 μA 600 ft to 100 ft
Disabled 100 ft to Touchdown

CAT2 Excessive Deviation Thresholds


Table 4--17

AD--41597--R1@

CAT2 Excessive Deviation


Figure 4--53

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-74 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EADI COMPARISON MONITOR ANNUNCIATIONS

Refer to figure 4--54 for the locations of annunciations described below.

AD--41598--R1@

Comparison Monitor Annunciations


Figure 4--54

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-75
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D IAS (Indicated Airspeed) Comparison Monitor -- On--side


displayed IAS is compared with cross--side IAS. The IAS
comparison monitor is activated when there is a 5--knot miscompare
for more than 2 seconds, with on--side and cross--side IAS both
being valid, and IAS greater than 90 knots on at least one side, or
when cross--side is invalid. The IAS comparison monitor is
annunciated by a boxed IAS that flashes for 5 seconds, then goes
on steadily.

D ATT (Attitude) Comparison Monitor -- On--side displayed attitude


data is compared with cross--side attitude data in the symbol
generator. The ATT comparison monitor is activated when there is
a 6 (3 for IRS) miscompare in pitch or roll, with on--side and
cross--side data both being valid, or when cross--side is invalid. The
ATT comparison monitor is annunciated by a boxed ATT that
flashes for 5 seconds, then goes on steadily.

D GS (Glideslope) Comparison Monitor -- On--side displayed ILS


data is compared with cross--side ILS data. The GS comparison
monitor is activated when there is a 2/3 dot miscompare on GS data,
with on--side and cross--side ILS data being valid and RA less than
1200 feet or when cross--side is invalid. The GS comparison
monitor is annunciated by a boxed GS that flashes for 5 seconds,
then goes on steadily.

D LOC (Localizer) Comparison Monitor -- On--side displayed


instrument landing system (ILS) data is compared with cross--side
ILS data in the symbol generator. The LOC comparison monitor is
activated when one of the following conditions occur:
- When on--side and cross--side ILS data are both valid and radio
altitude is less than 1200 feet
- There is a half dot miscompare on LOC data
- When cross--side is invalid.
The LOC comparison monitor is annunciated by a boxed LOC that
flashes for 5 seconds, then goes on steadily.

D RA Comparison Monitor -- On--side RA data is compared to


cross--side RA data. The RA comparison monitor is activated when
the difference between the data is greater than 10 feet plus the
on--side data plus the cross--side data, times 0.625.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-76 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EADI FAILURE WARNING ANNUNCIATIONS

EADI failure and warning annunciations described below are shown in


figure 4--55.

AD--41599@

EADI Failure Warning Annunciations


Figure 4--55
D Attitude (ATT) Failure -- Loss of the attitude valid is indicated by:
- Removing the pitch scale and roll pointer
- Removing the FD cue/bars
- Removing sky/ground raster
- Displaying a boxed ATT flag.
D Flight Director (FD) Failure -- Loss of the FD valid when ATT is
valid is indicated by:
- Removing the FD cue/bars
- Removing the mode annunciations
- Displaying a boxed FD flag.
D Indicated Airspeed (IAS) Failure -- Loss of the IAS valid is
indicated by:
- Removing the IAS scale and rolling drum
- Removing the IAS trend and limits
- Removing the manual and FMS speed bugs and readouts and
VSPEED bugs
- Displaying a boxed IAS flag.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-77
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Altitude Preselect (ASEL) Failure -- Loss of the ASEL valid is


indicated by:

- Removing the ASEL digits


- Displaying a boxed ASEL flag.

D Autopilot (AP) Failure -- An abnormal disconnect of both autopilots


is indicated by displaying AP1 (pilot) and AP2 (copilot) flags.

D Cross--Side Data Failure -- Loss of a cross--side SG data valid is


indicated by displaying a boxed XDTA flag.

D GS/VNAV/GP Failure -- Loss of the GS/VNAV/GP


(glideslope/vertical navigation/glidepath) valid is indicated by:

- Removing scale and pointer


- Displaying a boxed GS or GP flag, if in APP mode.

NOTE: There is no vertical navigation flag.

D Radio Altitude (RA) Failure -- Loss of the RA valid is indicated by:

- Removing the digital readout


- Inhibiting DH annunciation
- Displaying a boxed RA flag.

D Localizer/Azimuth Failure -- Loss of localizer/azimuth (AZ) is


indicated by:

- Removing scale, and rising runway


- Displaying a boxed LOC or AZ flag.

D Symbol Generator (SG) Internal Failures -- Internal symbol


generator failures result in a blank display with a boxed SG flag.

D Vertical Speed (VS) Failure -- Invalid vertical speed is indicated by:

- Removing vertical speed scale


- Removing vertical speed window
- Displaying a boxed VS flag
- Removing vertical speed reference.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-78 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)


Resolution Advisory (RA) Failures -- Invalid resolution advisory
is shown in figure 4--56 and is indicated by:

- Display of various TCAS failed messages

- RA FAIL is displayed when either the vertical speed is invalid


(amber) or if errors are detected in the symbol generator
processing of RA data from the TCAS (red).

EADI With Optional TCAS Failure Flags


Figure 4--56

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-79
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI)


Figure 4--57 shows the location of annunciators located on the
electronic horizontal situation indicator. Figure 4--58 shows the EHSI
using the FMS and preview course pointer.

EHSI Displays and Annunciations (Full Mode)


Figure 4--57

AD--41600@

EHSI Display Using FMS and Preview Course Pointer


Figure 4--58

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-80 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EHSI ARC MODE WITH TCAS TRAFFIC DISPLAY

When selected with the external EHSI TCAS switch, an arc display with
TCAS traffic information, as shown in figure 4--59, is displayed. Its
range is fixed at 5 NM. All the features of the arc display apply, except
groundspeed, TTG, and elapsed time are removed.

TCAS
TRAFFIC
SYMBOLS
RESOLUTION
ADVISORY TCAS
2 NM RANGE
TRAFFIC RING
ADVISORY
PROXIMITY TCAS DISPLAY
ADVISORY SUBMODE
OTHER ABV
ADVISORY BLW
FL
DESCENDING
CLIMBING TCAS
RELATIVE NO BEARING
ALTITUDE DISPLAY
DISPLAY
ABOVE
BELOW

AD--41665--R1@

EHSI Arc Display With TCAS


Figure 4--59

The TCAS display remains until the external EHSI TCAS button or the
display controller FULL/ARC or MAP buttons are pushed.

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-81
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The following is the TCAS symbol displayed.


D Range Ring -- A 2 NM radius circle of 12 dots around the aircraft
symbol.
D Traffic Symbols -- The following traffic symbols are displayed:

- Other traffic diamond (Z


Z)
- Proximate traffic diamond (zz)
- Caution area/traffic advisory circle (F
F)
- Warning area/resolution advisory square (J
J).
- Also displayed by the aircraft symbols are the relative altitude
and climb or descent arrow.
D No Bearing Data -- This is displayed in the lower right corner when
the system has range but no bearing information to other traffic.
D TCAS Altitude Display Submodes -- The following are TCAS
submodes:

- ABV/BLW (above/below) -- TCAS relative altitude is selected


look well above or well below the normal TCAS altitude band.

- NORM (normal) -- (not annunciated) TCAS relative altitude is


selected to look at the normal TCAS altitude band.

- FL (flight level) -- The actual altitude of the traffic is displayed.

EXTERNAL SWITCH
D TCAS Display Select Switch (Optional) -- When this external
switch is pushed, the EHSI display is replaced with a combination
EHSI arc and TCAS traffic display.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-82 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EHSI HEADING COMPARISON MONITOR ANNUNCIATION

On--side displayed heading is compared with cross--side heading. The


heading comparison monitor is activated when there is a 6 (3 for IRS)
miscompare in heading, with both compared data valid, and same
nature of heading (MAG/TRU) on both sides or either side’s displayed
heading is invalid. The heading comparison monitor is indicated by
displaying a boxed HDG flashing for 5 seconds, then goes on steadily,
as shown in figure 4--60.

AD--41601@

Heading Comparison Monitor


Figure 4--60

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-83
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

EHSI FAILURE WARNING ANNUNCIATIONS

D Heading Failure -- Heading failures are illustrated in figure 4--61.


Loss of heading valid is indicated by:
- Removing the TRU/MAG annunciator
- Removing the HDG bug
- Removing the course pointer and deviation bar
- Removing map information (map and map/WX modes)
- Removing the TO/FROM display
- Removing the track pointer (IRS only)
- Removing the absolute bearing
- Displaying the heading card north up
- Displaying a boxed HDG flag.

AD--41602--R1@

EHSI Heading and NAV Failure Flags


Figure 4--61

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) A28--1146--059


4-84 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D TCAS Failures -- TCAS failures are shown in figure 4--62 and are
indicated by:
- Removal of TCAS symbol (as appropriate)
- Annunciation of failed messages.

EHSI Arc Display With TCAS Failure Messages


Figure 4--62

A28--1146--059 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)


Rev 3 4-85/(4-86 blank)
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

5. Multifunction Display (MFD)


System
MFD CONTROLLER
The MFD controller, shown in figure 5--1, is used to control the
multifunction display modes and format described below.

AD41603--R1@

MFD Controller
Figure 5--1

Navigation
D MAP/PLAN Button -- The MAP/PLAN button toggles between the
heading--up map display or the north--up plan mode for display.

If the EDZ--818 electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) series


multifunction display (MFD) and traffic alert and collision avoidance
system (TCAS) are installed, this button selects MAP, PLAN or
TCAS, in sequence.
D SRC (Source) Button -- The SRC button toggles between FMS 1
(flight management system) and FMS 2 source of long range
navigation data for mapping.

If the EDZ--818 EFIS series MFD and TCAS are installed, and TCAS
is displayed, the source button selects which EHSI the MFD
displays TCAS.

D RNG (Range) Switch -- This switch increases or decreases the


selected range from 10 to 1200 nautical miles (NM) in preset steps
if the weather radar (WX) mode is not selected. When WX is
selected, the range is controlled by the weather radar controller.

A28--1146--059 Multifunction Display (MFD) System


Rev 3 5-1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

When TCAS is installed and displayed, the range control operates


between 6, 10, 25, and 50 NM.
D VOR Button -- The VOR button is used to add VOR/DME symbols
to the map and plan displays. The toggling sequence is described
in table 5--1.

Toggling Sequence Display Result

First push Displays the tuned VOR/DMEs.


Second push Displays all VOR/DMEs within display
range, up to a maximum of 4.
Third push Removes VOR/DME symbols from the
display.

VOR Button Toggling Sequence


Table 5--1

D DAT (Data) Button -- The DAT button is used to add long range
navigation information to the map and plan displays. The toggling
sequence is described in table 5--2.

Toggling Sequence Display Result

First push The following data is added to the lower


right corner of the display:
D Waypoint identification
D Estimated time of arrival (ETA) in
Greenwich mean time (GMT) at the
TO waypoint if known; otherwise,
time--to--go (TTG) to the TO waypoint
D Distance TO waypoint
D All displayed waypoint identifiers.

DAT Button Toggling Sequence


Table 5--2 (cont)

Multifunction Display (MFD) System A28--1146--059


5-2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Toggling Sequence Display Result

Second push If no destination information is known,


this push turns the data OFF. However,
if destination identification, ETA, or TTG
is known, this push replaces the TO
waypoint data. If some destination data
is known but the waypoint identification
is not, the mnemonic DEST is displayed
in place of the waypoint identification.

DAT Button Toggling Sequence


Table 5--2

D APT (Airport) Button -- The APT button is used to add airport


locations and identifiers to the map and plan displays. The toggling
sequence is described in table 5--3.

Toggling Sequence Display Result

First push Displays the two closest airports to


present position from the data base.
Second push Displays all airports within display range,
up to a maximum of 4.

APT Button toggling Sequence


Table 5--3

D Designator Control
- RCL (RECALL) -- When the designator is not at its home
position, pushing RCL button recalls the designator to the home
position. Pushing RCL with the designator at its home position
recalls the designator to its present position (if it is not already
there).

- SKP (SKIP) -- Pushing the SKP button skips the designator’s


home position to the next displayed waypoint. When SKP is
pushed with the designator at the last displayed waypoint, the
designator returns to its present position.
- ENT (ENTER) -- When the designator is offset from the home
position or a waypoint, pushing the ENT button transmits the
LAT/LON (latitude/longitude) of the designator to the selected
LRN (long range navigation), as a requested waypoint.

A28--1146--059 Multifunction Display (MFD) System


Rev 3 5-3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

- JOYSTICK -- The joystick is used for four--directional control of


the designator: up, down, left, and right on the map display. The
course and distance to the designator from its home position is
displayed in the lower right corner of the display. On the plan
display, the joystick moves the north--up viewing circle to the
desired track line.

Weather
D WX (Weather) Button -- The WX button displays weather radar
returns on the MFD map. When weather is displayed, the map range
and weather functions are controlled by the weather radar controller.
If the optional lightning sensor system (LSS) is installed, weather
with a 360 lightning display can be selected.
Several toggling sequences can occur depending on the weather
radar configuration that is on the aircraft. (Refer to table 5--4.)

WX Button 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th


Push Push Push Push Push Push

Single WX/ WX ---- ---- ---- ----


WC--870 Map only
Controller
(no LSS)

Single WX/Map WX Only WX/LSS ---- ---- ----


WC--870
Controller
(with LSS)

Dual Pilot’s Pilot’s Copilot’s Copilot’s ---- ----


WC--870 WX/Map WX Only WX Map WX Only
Controller
(no LSS)

Dual Pilot’s Pilot’s Copilot’s Copilot’s Copilot’s Copilot’s


WC--870 WX/Map WX Only WX Map WX Only WX Only WX/LSS
Controller
(with LSS)

Weather Toggling Sequences


Table 5--4

Multifunction Display (MFD) System A28--1146--059


5-4 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Checklist
D NORM (Normal) Button -- Pushing the NORM button displays the
MFD’s normal checklist display function. The normal checklist is
arranged in the order of standard flight operations. Pushing the
button again displays the normal checklist index page. The SKP,
RCL, PAG, and ENT buttons and the joystick are used to control this
function.

NOTE: The checklist can be forced to its power--up display, and


condition, by selecting the disclaimer display from the
NORMAL menu.

D EMER (Emergency) Button -- Pushing the EMER button displays


the MFD’s emergency checklist display function. Pushing the EMER
button again displays the index from which an emergency procedure
can be selected.

D Checklist Control -- The SKP, RCL, ENT, and PAG buttons and the
joystick control of the checklists.

- RCL (RECALL) -- Pushing the RCL button displays the page that
contains the lowest order skipped item (the active item).

- SKP (SKIP) -- Pushing the SKP button skips the active item to
the next item. If the item skipped is the last item, the active item
is the lowest order skipped item.

- ENT (ENTER) -- The ENT button operation depends on the


display.
On An Index Page -- Pushing the ENT button displays the
checklist that corresponds to the active index line selection. The
checklist is displayed at the page that contains the lowest order
incomplete item with the active item at that item. If the checklist
had previously been completed, the system forces all items in
the checklist to be incomplete and displays the first page of the
checklist. The active item is the first item.

On A Checklist Page -- Pushing the ENT button forces the active


item to be completed and advances the active item to the next
uncompleted item. If ENT is pushed when the active item is the
last item in a checklist, the operation depends upon the
completion status of the checklist.

If the checklist has not been completed (one or more items


skipped), the system displays the page that contains the lowest
order incomplete item. (This item is the active item.)

A28--1146--059 Multifunction Display (MFD) System


Rev 3 5-5
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

If the checklist is complete, the system displays the index page


containing the next higher order checklist with the active item at
that checklist.

- PAG (PAGE) -- Pushing the PAG button advances the page


count. The active page is the lowest order incomplete item on
that page. If there are no incomplete items on the page, the
active selection is the first item on the page.

- JOYSTICK -- The joystick is used for additional paging and


cursor control. Each direction operates as follows:

UP -- Moves the active item to the lower order item


DOWN -- Moves the active item to the next higher order item
(same as SKP button function)
LEFT -- Displays the previous page
RIGHT -- Displays the next page (same as PAG button function).

MFD REVERSIONARY MODES

Mode Selector
This is a five--position rotary switch that selects the following MFD
modes of operation:
D MFD -- Normal MFD operation
D HSI (counterclockwise) -- Pilot electronic horizontal situation
indicator (EHSI) backup
D SG (counterclockwise) -- Pilot symbol generator backup
D HSI (clockwise) -- Copilot EHSI backup
D SG (clockwise) -- Copilot symbol generator backup.

DIM Control
The DIM knob controls overall MFD cathode ray tube (CRT) and the
electronic display automatic photoelectric dimming.

Multifunction Display (MFD) System A28--1146--059


5-6 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAY (MFD)


The multifunction display has five major functions:

D Navigation (NAV) data


D TCAS (optional)
D Weather radar (WX)
D Checklist
D EFIS reversionary.

One of the most significant of these is its ability to back up either of the
two EFIS symbol generators or one of the EHSI displays. Should one
SG fail, the pilot can select the MFD symbol generator to take over
operation of the failed side’s displays with all functions and operations
unchanged. The EFIS display controller (DC) on that side continues to
operate the display formats. The MFD can also be used as a backup
in the event of an EHSI display failure.

The MFD system expands the navigation mapping capabilities of the


EFIS. This is primarily due to the fact that the MFD display area can be
used exclusively for map formats without using essential heading and
NAV data that the EHSI also has to contain. Some of the additional
information that can be added to the MAP display of waypoint locations
includes waypoint, airport, and VOR identifiers and the TO waypoint
time--to--go (TTG) or estimated time of arrival (ETA). This additional
data is supplied by the flight management system (FMS) and it is
displayed on the MFD. The MFD system also has a north--up plan
function in addition to the usual heading--up MAP display. Both formats
use a designator that is controlled by the MFD controller joystick. The
position of the designator can be automatically transmitted to the FMS
to be used in defining a new waypoint.

The MFD can also display various weather radar information, the
optional lightning display, and the optional TCAS traffic display.

A28--1146--059 Multifunction Display (MFD) System


Rev 3 5-7
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

MFD Map Mode


Two formats of NAV mapping can be selected using the
alternate--action MAP/PLAN button on the MFD controller. The MAP
format is always oriented to the aircraft heading with the aircraft position
at lower center and the map route moving toward the aircraft. When
coupled to a compatible long range navigation (LNAV) or FMS, the NAV
route with up to six waypoints can be displayed to the range limit of 1200
miles, or the next route segment can be displayed. When weather
returns are selected, the maximum selectable range is slaved to the
radar control. With a compatible NAV source, such as the Honeywell
FMS with stored data base, other pertinent navigation data beyond
route mapping, such as VOR station locations, airports, and time--to--go
to the next waypoint can be selected and displayed. A movable
designator can aid in defining a new waypoint. When the designator is
moved from the home position, the LAT/LON display reflects the
designator position. This position can then be automatically loaded as
the next waypoint into compatible long range navigation (LRN) or FMS
sources. Figure 5--2 shows the location of the map mode displays
described below.

MFD Map Mode


Figure 5--2
D Heading (HDG) Display -- The HDG display indicates the actual
heading of the aircraft. It is the same heading information displayed
on the EHSI.
D Lubber Line -- The lubber line is a circle that is positioned at the
top of the compass, outside the azimuth ring. The compass
reading below the lubber line is the aircraft’s current heading.

Multifunction Display (MFD) System A28--1146--059


5-8 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D VOR/DME Symbols -- These symbols are added to the display


when the VOR button on the MFD controller is pushed. They
represent the nearby VOR stations that are stored in the FMS data
base.

D Selected NAV Source -- The long range navigation source is


annunciated.

D Desired Track (DTRK) Line -- The waypoints are connected by a


white track line. The desired track annunciator and a digital readout
of the desired track from past waypoint to the next waypoint are
shown in the upper left corner of the display.

D Weather Radar (WX) Mode -- Displays the status of the weather


radar system. When in standby (STBY), no weather information is
displayed. Weather is added to the display and WX is annunciated
when the WX button on the MFD controller is pushed.

D Target Alert -- The TGT symbol indicates that the target alert
function has been selected for display. Normally TGT is displayed,
but it changes to TGT when a target has been detected 7.5 of the
nose of the aircraft.

D Waypoint and Waypoint Altitude Constraint Data -- The number


of available waypoints is dependent upon the LRN, while the
selected range determines the number of displayed waypoints. The
waypoint to which the aircraft is flying is magenta. All other
waypoints are white. The DAT button on the MFD controller adds
information to the display as described above. Waypoint identifiers
accompany the waypoint symbol if it is known.

If there is an altitude constraint at a waypoint, it is digitally displayed


below the waypoint identifier.

D Aircraft Symbol -- The aircraft symbol is a visual cue that shows the
aircraft’s position relative to the desired track.

D Distance to the TO Waypoint -- The distance to the designated


waypoint is displayed in nautical miles.

D ETA or TTG -- The estimated time of arrival is displayed in universal


coordinated time, and time--to--go is displayed in HR:MIN format.

D Displacement Line -- Indicates the position of the designator


relative to the nose of the aircraft.

D Crosstrack Deviation -- Indicates the deviation in nautical miles to


the right (R) or left (L) of the desired track.

A28--1146--059 Multifunction Display (MFD) System


Rev 3 5-9
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Designator -- The power--up home position of the designator is the


aircraft’s present position. The designator’s latitude and longitude is
continuously displayed in the lower left corner of the display. The
designator is controlled by the joystick and the SKP, RCL, and ENT
buttons on the MFD controller.

D Designator Annunciations -- Displays the course and distance to


the designator from present position or from the waypoint that is
attached to the designator.

D Range Rings -- Range rings are displayed to aid in the use of radar
returns and position of navaids. If WX mode is selected, the outer
range ring is the compass card boundary and represents the
selected range on the radar. The range annunciation on the inner
ring represents one--half the range setting of the weather radar. The
increase/decrease (INC/DEC) switch on the MFD controller
increases or decreases the range if WX mode is not selected. If WX
mode is selected, the weather radar controller selects range.

D Airport Symbol and Identifier -- Airport symbols and their letter


identifications are added to the MAP display when the APT button
on the MFD controller is pushed.

D Airport (APT) Symbols -- These symbols are added to the display


when the APT button on the MFD controller is pushed. Up to four of
the closest airports can be displayed.

D Tuned VOR/DME Symbols -- These symbols are added when the


VOR button on the MFD Controller is pushed. There are three
possible VOR symbols:

- VOR/DME
- DME only
- VOR only

NOTE: Airport and VOR/DME symbols cannot be displayed at the


same time. Selecting one removes the other.

D Waypoint (WPT) and Waypoint Data -- Four waypoints can be


displayed. The selected range determines the number of displayed
waypoints. The waypoint to which the aircraft is flying is magenta.
All other waypoints are white. When the DAT button on the MFD
controller is pushed, the following information is added to the display
(if it is available from the LNAV system):

- Waypoint identification (either number or name)


- ETA in GMT at the TO waypoint, if available, or TTG.

Multifunction Display (MFD) System A28--1146--059


5-10 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

MFD MAP MODE FLIGHT PLAN DATA

In figure 5--3, the flight plan from Dallas/Fort Worth shows first waypoint
data. Figure 5--4 shows the VOR data and figure 5--5 shows airports
along the flight path. This data can be shown individually, as in these
figures, or it can be displayed simultaneously.

AD--41605--R1@

AD--41604--R1@

Waypoint Data
Figure 5--3

A28--1146--059 Multifunction Display (MFD) System


Rev 3 5-11
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41605--R1@

FMS VOR Data


Figure 5--4

AD--41606--R1@

Nearby Airports
Figure 5--5

Multifunction Display (MFD) System A28--1146--059


5-12 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

MFD Plan Mode


The NAV PLAN format, shown in figure 5--6, features a north--up
orientation in which the aircraft is positioned with respect to the NAV
route and progresses along the route. The maximum range is shown
as a circle around the outer perimeter. The north--up orientation
enhances the flight planning function and further clarifies the aircraft
relationship to the programmed route. In this display, the designator is
homed to the TO waypoint and both are shown in the center of the
display. The aircraft symbol is still plotted at present position (if present
position is on the display) and is oriented with respect to heading. As
many as six waypoints can be depicted.

SKP, RCL, and ENT buttons control the designator. However, in this
view, the primary use of the joystick and designator is to position the
circular viewing ring so that either the route being flown or the
maneuvering aircraft can be better observed. This feature maintains
position orientation in the terminal area, while the aircraft is being
vectored for the final approach.

MFD Plan Mode


Figure 5--6

A28--1146--059 Multifunction Display (MFD) System


Rev 3 5-13
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

MFD PLAN MODE FLIGHT PLAN DATA

As in the MAP mode, the flight plan can be displayed with waypoint
shown in figure 5--7, VOR shown in figure 5--8, or airport data shown
in figure 5--9, or any combination of the three. The same flight plan is
shown in the three figures to compare the types of displays.

AD--41607--R1@

MFD Plan Mode Waypoint Data


Figure 5--7

Multifunction Display (MFD) System A28--1146--059


5-14 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41608--R1@

MFD Plan Mode FMS VOR Data


Figure 5--8

AD--41609--R1@

MFD Plan Mode Nearby Airports


Figure 5--9

A28--1146--059 Multifunction Display (MFD) System


Rev 3 5-15
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Holding Pattern
A holding pattern can be set up using the FMS. An example of a holding
pattern displayed in the PLAN mode is shown in figure 5--10.

AD--41610--R1@

Holding Pattern
Figure 5--10

NOTE: In the PLAN view, holding patterns are shown in the selected
map scale (actual size). In the MFD map view and on the
EHSI, the holding patterns are shown as a holding pattern
symbol, that is, not to scale.

Multifunction Display (MFD) System A28--1146--059


5-16 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Lightning Sensor System (LSS) Display


A 360 lightning sensor system is incorporated into the PLAN mode
display, as shown in figure 5--11.

AD--41611--R1@

360 Lightning Sensor System Display


Figure 5--11

If the optional LSS is installed, a 360 lightning display can be selected.


In addition, weather radar data can be combined in this view.

Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)


Traffic Display (Optional)
The TCAS display is displayed on the MFD in one of two ways:
D Pilot selected TCAS with the MAP/PLAN button on the MFD
controller
D Automatically displayed when the TCAS is in AUTO and detects a
traffic advisory (TA) or resolution advisory (RA) traffic condition.
When selected, AUTO is annunciated on the display in white.

NOTES: 1. Automatic display of TCAS on the MFD is shown at


the last selected TCAS range. However, the first
selection of TCAS on the MFD after power--up
always presents the 6 NM range.
2. MFD TCAS auto display does not override a
checklist display.

A28--1146--059 Multifunction Display (MFD) System


Rev 3 5-17
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The MFD TCAS display range is controlled with the MFD range
controller at 6, 10, 25, and 50 NM range. The display is similar to the
plan format, as shown in figure 5--12, with the following specific
symbols:
D 2 NM TCAS range ring

NOTE: When a display range greater than 10 NM is selected, the


2 NM range ring is removed.
D Traffic symbols
- Other traffic diamond (Z
Z)
- Proximate traffic diamond (zz)
- Caution area/traffic advisory circle (F
F)
- Warning area/resolution advisory square (J
J).

D Target relative altitude with greater than a 500--foot per minute


climb/descent arrow (if applicable)
D No bearing data when system has range but not bearing information
D TCAS submodes annunciations
- ABV/BLW (Above/Below)
- NORM (not annunciated)
- FL (flight level).

D TCAS arrow indicates which radio management unit’s ATC/TCAS


is controlling the MFD TCAS display.

Multifunction Display (MFD) System A28--1146--059


5-18 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41612--R1@

TCAS Traffic Display on MFD


Figure 5--12

A28--1146--059 Multifunction Display (MFD) System


Rev 3 5-19
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Changing a Waypoint
When the MFD is operating with a compatible LRN or FMS, waypoints
can be added, deleted, or moved. The procedure in table 5--5 describes
how to add a new waypoint between VELMA and PER.

Step Procedure

1 Move the designator to the location of the new waypoint,


using the joystick on the MFD controller. The LAT/LON of
the designator is always shown in the lower left corner of
the display, as shown in figure 5--13.

AD--41613--R1@

Waypoint Designation
Figure 5--13
2 Push the ENT button on the MFD controller to send the
designator position to the LRN or FMS control display unit.
Then use the proper procedure for the installed LRN or
FMS system to insert the new waypoint.

Inserting a Waypoint Procedure


Table 5--5 (cont)

Multifunction Display (MFD) System A28--1146--059


5-20 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Step Procedure

3 On the FMS CDU, the designator position is shown in the


scratch pad at the bottom of the screen. Push the line
select key adjacent to PER to insert this position in the
flight plan. Then delete the existing IRW waypoint from the
flight plan using the DELETE key. The FMS recomputes
the flightpath and the new flight plan is displayed, as
shown in figure 5--14.

AD--41614--R1@

New Flight Plan Layout


Figure 5--14

Inserting a Waypoint Procedure


Table 5--5

A28--1146--059 Multifunction Display (MFD) System


Rev 3 5-21
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

MFD Weather Radar (WX) Mode

The weather only radar data display is shown in figure 5--15. The display
is the same as the weather radar data display on the EHSI partial
compass display.

AD--41615--R1@

Weather Only
Figure 5--15

Color weather radar information from the weather radar receiver


transmitter is displayed as an overlay on the stroke written display. The
display has a white outer range ring. The inner range ring is labeled in
white characters on the right side of the display. Weather intensity levels
are annunciated by the standard convention of magenta, red, yellow,
green, and black (most intense to least intense rainfall) areas.

A blue field is generated by the rain echo attenuation compensation


circuitry to warn the pilot that the weather levels in this area cannot be
calibrated and therefore are of unknown intensity. Ground mapping can
be displayed using the standard convention of magenta, yellow, and
cyan (most intense to least intense rainfall) areas. The radar mode is
annunciated on the right side of the display.

A target alert annunciator is displayed below the mode annunciator to


warn of level 3 targets 7.5 on either side of the aircraft flight path. TGT
annunciates this feature. It changes TGT when it is active. When the
gain is not calibrated, VAR is displayed in the target alert area.

Multifunction Display (MFD) System A28--1146--059


5-22 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

A weather radar failure removes the raster weather display and forces
the mode annunciator to display WX.

A TX is displayed where WX is annunciated when the radar is ON and


weather is not selected for MFD.

A green arrow ( <-------- ) under the WX annunciation indicates which


weather radar controller controls the weather display on the center
tube.

Figure 5--16 shows the location of weather annunciators.

MFD WX Only Mode


Figure 5--16

MFD Checklist Display


The MFD symbol generator (SG) can store and display 200, 400, or 800
pages of text. These pages are stored in controlled internal PROM with
content as defined by the aircraft operator. Page composition is shown
in figure 5--17. It consists of 12 lines with a maximum of 24 characters
per line. All text is stroke written for sunlight readability.

A28--1146--059 Multifunction Display (MFD) System


Rev 3 5-23
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--59688@

Typical Checklist Displays


Figure 5--17

Pushing the NORM button on the MFD controller displays the normal
checklist. The normal checklists are arranged in the order of standard
flight operations. Pushing the NORM button displays the normal
checklist index page that contains the lowest order incomplete and
unskipped checklist with the active selection at that checklist.

The MFD controller SKP, RCL, PAG, and ENT buttons and the joystick
control this function.

Pushing the EMER button on the MFD controller displays the


emergency checklist and the emergency master index. When a
selection is made, an index, arranged by aircraft systems, is displayed.
The crew can select the listing for the malfunctioning system area that
in turn accesses the specific malfunction checklist. Therefore, the
format of the MFD checklist very closely follows the aircraft’s approved
abbreviated checklist.

Multifunction Display (MFD) System A28--1146--059


5-24 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The SKP, RCL, PAG, and ENT buttons and the joystick control the
checklists. Under EMER, these controls perform as described for
NORM with the exception of the action taken when the emergency
checklist is completed. All checklist items are removed from the page
and EMERGENCY PROCEDURE COMPLETE is written below the
amber checklist title. This is cleared when the NORM or EMER index
is selected.
NOTE: The above example of an electronic checklist reflects some
of its capability and one of the many combinations possible.
The aircraft operator can develop a checklist to meet
operational requirements by contacting Honeywell Product
Support. The operator can also program their own using the
programmable checklist system.

MFD Ground Maintenance Test Display


The MFD display is also used to display information pertaining to the
built--in ground maintenance test. For information on how to call up the
flight fault summary, refer to Section 9, Troubleshooting, in this manual.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) Backup


Modes
EFIS is backed up by the MFD as an addition to the existing EFIS
reversionary modes. This method has the following advantages:
D The pilot can manage EFIS failures through the EFIS reversionary
controls and maintain the MFD for checklists, weather radar, and
enhanced mapping. Or, the pilot can meet dispatch requirements for
some flight regimes through MFD backup of the EFIS failures, and,
in this instance, forego the normal MFD functions.
D The MFD itself does not become a dispatch item.
Selecting EFIS backup by the MFD is done using the rotary MODE
selector switch on the MFD controller. Normal MFD functions are
available in the MFD position, and EFIS backup modes are selected
using the HSI or SG positions. For dual installation, the HSI and SG
positions are oriented to the side of the cockpit concerned.
D HSI (Horizontal Situation Indicator) -- Selecting this position
displays an HSI on the MFD. The format of the HSI is set on the
EFIS display controller.
D SG (Symbol Generator) -- Selecting this position replaces the
EFIS symbol generator with the MFD symbol generator for the
EFIS displays. In this case the MFD CRT is blanked. The format of
the EFIS displays is set using the EFIS display controller.

A28--1146--059 Multifunction Display (MFD) System


Rev 3 5-25/(5-26 blank)
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

6. Automatic Flight Control


System (AFCS)

INTRODUCTION
The basic flight control functions are autopilot (AP) and yaw damper
(YD). The single flight guidance controller is used to engage flight
control functions.

Refer to figure 6--1 for the location of external switches and


annunciators used for engagement and disengagement procedures.

External Select Switches (No. 1 Side) (Typical)


and Warning Annunciators
Figure 6--1

FLIGHT CONTROL FUNCTIONS


D AP (Autopilot) Button -- Pushing the AP button engages autopilot
and yaw damper functions simultaneously. Pushing the AP button
again disengages only the autopilot function.

D YD (Yaw Damper) -- Pushing the YD button engages the yaw


damper function. Pushing the YD button again disengages the yaw
damper function. If the autopilot is engaged, toggling the YD button
disengages yaw damper and autopilot functions simultaneously.

A28--1146--059 Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)


Rev 3 6-1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Flight Control Status Annunciations


D FGC (Flight Guidance Computer) Annunciation -- For each of
the AP and YD buttons, two pointers are located at either side of the
button. When a function is selected, the selected function and active
channel are annunciated by lighting the pointer that corresponds to
the function and selected side.

For example, if the AP and YD are lit, the system status is:
- AP engaged
- YD engaged.
When AP and YD are engaged, the system automatically selects the
high priority (master) side automatic flight control system (AFCS)
and lights the engaged function pointers for that side.

If the master autopilot is invalid when the AP is engaged, the system


automatically selects the cross--side AP and lights the cross--side
flight guidance controller pointers for the engaged functions.

D EFIS (Electronic Flight Instrument System) Annunciation -- AP


engage annunciation is located on the upper left hand corner of the
EADI as an AP 1 or AP 2. Pushing the TCS on the control wheel
replaces the AP 1 or AP 2 annunciation with a white touch control
steering (TCS). Certain abnormal autopilot disconnects result in an
AP 1 or AP 2 display.

All modes on the flight guidance controller are displayed on the EADI
and on the flight guidance controller annunciated buttons.

D External Annunciators -- After initial autopilot engagement, some


failures of the master flight guidance computer (normally left side)
may cause the system to automatically transfer to the other flight
guidance computer. When the transfer occurs, the left automatic
flight control system (L AFCS) annunciator extinguishes and the
right automatic flight control system (R AFCS) annunciator lights.

The system determines if the condition that caused the transfer is


significant enough to warrant lighting the L FAIL (for example)
annunciator. This could take up to 1 minute. If the monitors
determine the left flight guidance computer is operational, only the
R AFCS annunciator is lit. If the left flight guidance computer has
failed, the L FAIL and R AFCS annunciators both light. The pilot
does have the option to reselect L AFCS with the switch and force
the system to attempt to return to the left flight guidance computer
(FGC). The annunciator goes out, but if the failure is detected again,
it lights again.

Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) A28--1146--059


6-2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Autopilot (AP) Engagement


D AP Engagement With No Lateral FD Mode Engaged or Armed
-- The autopilot engages, and depending on the bank angle at the
moment of engagement, flies the modes described in table 6--1 .

Mode Operation

Bank < 6_ The autopilot first goes to WINGS


LEVEL and then flies HEADING
HOLD.
Bank > 6_ but < 35_ The autopilot maintains the bank angle
and flies BANK HOLD.
Bank > 35_ The autopilot reduces bank angle to
35_ and flies BANK HOLD. The bank
angle is selected using TCS.

AP Engagement
Engaged or Armed
Table 6--1

D AP Engagement With No Vertical FD Mode Engaged -- The


autopilot automatically flies PITCH HOLD (the basic vertical
guidance mode). The pitch wheel on the flight guidance controller
commands the pitch angle.

D AP Engagement With a Lateral and/or Vertical FD Mode Active


-- The active FD mode is maintained and the autopilot maneuvers
to fly the flight director command.

Flight Control Disengage


D Automatic Disengage -- Automatic disengage includes the
following types:

- AP auto disengage
- YD auto disengage or any combination of AP and YD
- Pilot overpower
- Stick shaker.

A28--1146--059 Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)


Rev 3 6-3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Manual Disengage -- AP can be manually disengage by pushing


the following:

- AP button (deactivates AP function only)


- YD button (deactivates AP/YD)
- AP disconnect (deactivates AP/YD)
- Go--around button (deactivates AP/YD)
- Selecting electric trim (deactivates AP function only).
NOTE: YD can only be manually disengaged by pushing the YD
button.

Flight Control Disengage Annunciations

All automatic flight control disengages are annunciated by a flashing


disengage annunciation on the EADI. The flight guidance computer
drives the aircraft warning lamps (AP DISC, YD OFF).

Abnormal Disengage Annunciations

Table 6--2 gives the abnormal disengage warning annunciations and


table 6--3 gives the normal disengage caution annunciations.

Annunciation AP DISC YD DISC

Abnormal Disengage Steady Steady


Annunciations (Note) (Note)
Action Required:
Push the AP Disconnect OFF OFF
Abnormal disengage (WARNING) is caused by:
D Auto disengage
D Pilot overpower.

NOTE: Resettable by AP disconnect switch.

Abnormal Disengage Annunciations (WARNING)


Table 6--2

Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) A28--1146--059


6-4 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Annunciation AP DISC YD DISC

Normal Disengage Steady Steady


Annunciations 2 Sec 2 Sec
Normal disengage (CAUTION) is caused by:
D AP -- disconnect, manual electric trim or AP button
D A/YD -- YD button, go--around (GA) button
D YD -- YD button, AP disconnect.

Normal Disengage Annunciations (CAUTION)


Table 6--3

FLIGHT DIRECTOR (FD) COMMANDS


The flight director computes steering commands for the autopilot and
the flight director commands bars on the EADI. The following lateral and
vertical mode capabilities are included in table 6--4 :

Mode Capabilities

Lateral Modes
HDG HeadIng Select
NAV Navigation Mode
BC Back Course Localizer
APP Lateral Guidance for Approach
BANK HI/LO Bank Angle Select (for
HDG Select Mode Only)
ROL Flashing for 5 Seconds When
Lateral Mode Dropped

Mode Capabilities
Table 6--4 (cont)

A28--1146--059 Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)


Rev 3 6-5
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Mode Capabilities

Vertical Modes
Air Data ALT SEL
ALT
VS
FLC
PIT Flashing for 5 Seconds When
Vertical Mode Dropped
VNAV VerticaL Navigation Mode
APP VerticaL Guidance for Approach

Mode Capabilities
Table 6--4

Flight Director Modes -- Overview


Flight director modes are selected using the flight guidance controller
buttons and include:

D FD vertical modes
D FD lateral modes.

If all pitch and/or roll flight director active modes are dropped, the flight
director is in a pitch and/or roll standby mode. If the autopilot is
engaged, the system flies basic autopilot modes.

Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) A28--1146--059


6-6 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Mode Engagement
Table 6--5 describes the engagement of the FD vertical and lateral
modes.

Button EFIS Transition


Pushed FD Mode Message (Flashing -- EFIS)

Vertical Modes
Automatic ALT SEL ARM ---- ----
---- ALT SEL CAP ASEL Yes (5 Seconds)
---- ALT HOLD ALT No
ALT ALT HOLD ALT No
VS VS HOLD VS No
FLC FLC FLC No
VALT CAP VASL Yes (5 Seconds)
VNAV VNAV TRK VFLC No
VALT No
VPTH No
APP GS ARM GS ----
---- GS CAP GS Yes (5 Seconds)
---- GS TRK GS No
APP EL ARM EL ----
---- EL CAP EL Yes (5 Seconds)
---- EL TRK EL No
GA GO--AROUND GA No

Flight Director Vertical and Lateral Modes


Table 6--5 (cont)

A28--1146--059 Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)


Rev 3 6-7
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Button EFIS Transition


Pushed FD Mode Message (Flashing -- EFIS)

Lateral Modes
NAV VOR ARM VOR ----
---- VOR CAP VOR Yes (5 Sec)
---- VOR TRK VOR No
---- VOR AFTER VOR Yes
OVERSTATIO
N
NAV VAPP ARM VAPP ----
VAPP CAP VAPP Yes 5 Sec)
VAPP TRK VAPP No
VAPP AFTER VAPP Yes
OVERSTATIO
N
NAV LNAV ARM LNAV ----
---- LNAV TRK LNAV Yes (5 Sec)
NAV (OR) LOC ARM LOC ----
APP
---- LOC CAP LOC Yes (5 Sec)
---- LOC TRK LOC No
BC BC ARM BC ----
---- BC CAP BC Yes (5 Seconds)
---- BC TRK BC No
NAV (OR) AZ ARM AZ ----
APP AZ CAP AZ Yes (5 Sec)
---- AZ TRK AZ No

Flight Director Vertical and Lateral Modes


Table 6--5

D Engaging Armed Modes -- Armed modes can be engaged with the


following limits:

- One lateral mode armed with one lateral mode engaged


- One vertical armed mode engaged, plus ASEL ARM (altitude
select).

D Engaging Active Modes -- Only one lateral and one vertical active
mode can be engaged simultaneously.

Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) A28--1146--059


6-8 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Invalid Engage Condition -- If an invalid engage condition is


detected, the mode does not engage or it is dropped if the invalid
engage condition is detected after the mode is engaged. The
reversion mode is then engaged.

D Improper Navigation (NAV) Source -- The flight director always


uses data displayed on the EHSI selected side. Therefore, if the pilot
tries to engage a navigation mode (NAV, BC, or APP) when the
displayed NAV source on the selected EHSI is improper, the mode
does not engage.

D Approach (APP) Mode Cancellation -- If LOC CAP (localizer


capture) or APP CAP any lateral or vertical approach mode is
canceled, either manually or automatically. After LOC capture, the
entire approach mode is canceled. This includes both armed and
active modes.

FLIGHT GUIDANCE CONTROLLER

The flight guidance controller is used to engage the system, select the
operating modes, and select the electronic horizontal situation indicator
(EHSI) and the digital air data computer (DADC) that are used to
interface with the flight guidance computer. The function of each switch
or control, shown in figure 6--2, is described in the following paragraphs.

AD--41620@

Flight Guidance Controller Front Panel


Figure 6--2

D HDG (Heading) Button -- Pushing the HDG button activates the


lateral guidance to compute steering commands based on the
selected heading displayed on the active EHSI.

A28--1146--059 Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)


Rev 3 6-9
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D NAV (Navigation) Button -- Pushing the NAV button arms the


lateral guidance for capture of the selected navigation course or
desired track that is displayed on the active EHSI.

D APP (Approach) Button -- Pushing the APP button arms the lateral
guidance for localizer capture and vertical guidance for glideslope
capture. Glideslope capture is inhibited until localizer capture is
achieved.

D BC (Back Course) Button -- Pushing the BC button selects


approach mode guidance for capture and tracking of back course
instrument landing system (ILS) data. There is no glideslope
capture during the BC mode.

D BNK (Bank) Button -- The BNK button is used to manually select


the bank angle limit in the HDG select mode. Pushing this button
toggles between a 27 high bank limit and a 17 low bank limit. At
power--up, high bank is selected. The bank limit selected remains
the same (high or low) even when the HDG mode is deselected.

Climbing through 29,500 ft with bank angle < 6_ automatically


selects the low bank angle limit, if it is not already selected. The high
bank angle limit can be reselected by pushing the BNK button.

Descending through 28,500 ft with bank angle < 6_ automatically


selects the high bank angle limit, if it is not already selected. The low
bank angle limit can be reselected by pushing the BNK button.

D FLC (Flight Level Change) Button -- Pushing the FLC button


engages the flight level change mode and overrides all active
vertical modes, except vertical navigation.

D VS (Vertical Speed) Button -- Pushing the VS button engages


vertical guidance so it holds a vertical speed reference.

D VNAV (Vertical Navigation) Button -- Pushing the VNAV button


selects the vertical navigation mode and the AFCS tracks the
vertical flight profile of the FMS.

D ALT (Altitude) Button -- Pushing the ALT button selects vertical


guidance to hold a barometric altitude reference.

D PITCH Wheel -- Turning the PITCH wheel changes pitch attitude


proportional to the rotation of the wheel and in the direction of wheel
movement. The PITCH wheel supplies either rate limited pitch
commands in pitch mode, or alters vertical reference for vertical
flight guidance modes (referred to as the air data command
function). The PITCH thumb wheel has dual tachometer outputs
that are applied to both flight guidance computers.

Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) A28--1146--059


6-10 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Moving the PITCH wheel, when the system is flying VS or PITCH


HOLD, increments the command reference without disengaging the
mode. ALT SEL CAPTURE. ALT HOLD, FLC, or VNAV modes are
dropped if the PITCH wheel is moved. The PITCH wheel is inhibited
in GS CAP or TRK (track) modes.

D AP (Autopilot) and YD (Yaw Damper) Button -- Pushing the AP


button engages autopilot and yaw damper (YD) simultaneously.
However, the second push disengages only the autopilot function.
The YD button engages the yaw damper only, and disengages the
yaw damper and autopilot functions. The active channel is
annunciated by the lighted pointers located on either side of the AP
and YD buttons. When the autopilot and yaw damper systems are
in a normal no failure condition, the pilot channel is automatically
selected as the active channel and the left pointers on the AP and
YD engage switches are lit. The pilot can select the copilot channel
as the active channel, by pushing R AFCS button on the instrument
panel. When the system engages, the right pointers on the AP and
YD switches are lit to indicate that the right channel is active. The
R AFCS or L AFCS buttons on the instrument panel can be used to
select the active channel.

D HSI SEL (Horizontal Situation Indicator Select) Button --


Pushing the HSI SEL button alternately selects either the pilot or
copilot EHSI and DADC data for lateral and vertical guidance to both
flight guidance computers. The system power--up logic selects the
data from the pilot side. When the system is transferred to the
alternate side, all flight director modes are canceled. Operating
modes must be again selected. The pointer on the right or left side
of the HSI SEL button lights to indicate which EHSI and DADC has
been selected.

During an ILS approach, the system automatically selects both the


pilot and copilot EHSI and DADC data, and both HSI SEL switch
pointers are lit. If one ILS receiver fails, the system automatically
selects the data from the remaining receiver.

D TCS (Touch control Steering) Button -- Pushing the TCS button


on the pilot’s or copilot’s column turns temporary manual control of
the aircraft over to the pilot. When the button is released, the flight
director system synchronizes and maintains the new attitude.
During TCS operation, the flight guidance controller AP ENGAGE
arrow annunciations go out.

A28--1146--059 Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)


Rev 3 6-11
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

ATTITUDE AND HEADING REFERENCE SYSTEM


(AHRS)

AHRS Controller
The AHRS controller controls and monitors the system’s performance.
The AHRS controller functions are described below. Figure 6--3 shows
the location of switches and buttons on the front panel described below.

AD--41621@

AHRS Controller
Figure 6--3

D DG (Directional Gyro) Slew Button -- When DG mode is selected,


the pilot can manually slew the compass display.

D HDG/DG (Heading/Directional Gyro) Button -- This button


toggles the HSI heading display between magnetic flux valve slaved
heading (HDG) and pilot controlled directional gyro heading.

D VG (Vertical Gyro) Erect Button -- During power--up, before the


AHRS is valid, pushing this button automatically slews the compass
card to 180 (south) and, during the 3--minute AHRS align time, it
moves to 360 (north).

During flight, when the vertical gyro (VG) button is pushed, the
AHRS vertically aligns itself to match the present aircraft attitude.

D TEST Button -- When pushed, the five annunciators light, the


attitude display is sequenced to test display values, and the
compass card rotates.

D Annunciators (Annunciator Color) -- The AHRS annunciations


and colors are given in table 6--6.

Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) A28--1146--059


6-12 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Annunciation Meaning

DG HDG/DG has been selected to DG mode.


FAST VG ERECT has been selected.
AUX PR The AHRS is being powered by its secondary
(Auxiliary Power) power input.
SLAVE The flux valve input to the controller is
inoperative.
Basic The DADC supplied input of TAS is not being
received. The on--side DADC supplies true
airspeed (TAS) on the ground; either DADC
supplies TAS in the air.

AHRS Annunciations
Table 6--6

Standard Operation
The standard AHRS operating modes are the NORMAL mode for
attitude and the SLAVED mode for heading. The AHRS enters these
modes automatically following the initialization if all system
components and signals are valid. In the NORMAL mode, true airspeed
from the air data computer is used to compensate for acceleration
induced error sources normally encountered in a vertical gyro (VG)
system. In the SLAVED heading mode, the flux valve is used to
establish the magnetic heading reference. System operation in this
mode is similar to that of a conventional gyroscopically stabilized
magnetic compass.

In the SLAVED mode, a loss of valid flux valve data annunciates a HDG
flag on the heading instruments and lights the SLAVE failure
annunciator on the AHRS controller. The HDG flag clears when the DG
mode is entered, however, the SLAVE failure annunciator remains lit.

When exiting the DG mode, the AHRS performs an automatic


synchronization of the heading outputs to the present flux valve
magnetic heading. This feature can be used if a heading error develops
while in the SLAVED mode. The error is removed by momentarily
entering the DG mode and returning to the SLAVED mode. This is done
by pushing the HDG/DG button on the AHRS controller twice.

A28--1146--059 Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)


Rev 3 6-13
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

In the SLAVED mode, the difference between the indicated heading


and the flux valve heading is displayed on the slave error indicator
(heading sync indicator) located on the HSI. The card has two symbols:
a cross (+) and a dot (D). During straight and level flight the indicator is
generally centered with excursions toward the cross or dot occurring
over a 20-- to 30--second time period. This activity is normal and
indicative of good magnetic heading data. During turns, the display may
show a steady dot or cross. Following return to straight and level flight,
the indicator returns to the centered condition within 2 minutes.

The verticality of the AHRS can be checked or corrected during


unaccelerated flight by pushing and holding the VG/ERECT button on
the AHRS controller for a minimum of 10 seconds. The ATT flag is
displayed on the ADI while the VG/ERECT button is held. The FAST
annunciator on the AHRS controller lights to annunciate the FAST
ERECT mode. When the VG/ERECT button is released, the ATT flag
clears, roll attitude becomes active, and the FAST annunciator
extinguishes.

The AHRS has two power source inputs. On the pilot’s side, the primary
and auxiliary power inputs are both from the primary electrical (PE) bus.
On the copilot’s side, primary power comes from the power source 2
(PS2) bus, and the auxiliary power from the PS1 bus. Separate circuit
breakers are installed for each of these power circuits. AHRS shutdown
in flight due to power load or bus switching transients is prevented by
automatic power transfer within the AHRS to the auxiliary input. When
primary power is restored, the AHRS switches back to the primary
power source. While operating from the auxiliary power input, the AUX
PWR annunciator on the AHRS controller lights 2 seconds after the
power transfer occurs. The annunciator goes out when the AHRS
returns to the primary power source.

NOTES: 1. For AHRS No. 1, if the PE bus is lost, its auxiliary bus
reverts to a back--up battery for approximately 3
minutes.
2. For AHRS No. 2, if both PS1 and PS2 are lost, its
auxiliary bus reverts to the PE bus for 3 minutes.

Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) A28--1146--059


6-14 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Reduced Performance Operation


The AHRS has two reduced performance modes, BASIC mode for
attitude, and directional gyro (DG) mode for heading. The BASIC mode
is annunciated and entered automatically when true airspeed (TAS)
becomes invalid from the air data computer (ADC). The BASIC mode
is indicated by the BASIC annunciator on the AHRS controller. AHRS
operation in the BASIC mode behaves similarly to a conventional
vertical gyro (VG) with pitch and roll erection cutoffs, and which is
subject to drift and acceleration errors. For this reason, AHRS operation
in the BASIC mode results in reduced attitude accuracy.

NOTE: During BASIC mode, the VG/ERECT function should be used


frequently to correct for drift and acceleration errors.

The DG mode disables the automatic slaving of the heading outputs.


The DG mode is entered by momentarily pushing the HDG/DG button
on the AHRS controller. The DG mode is entered when the button is
released and it is confirmed when DG annunciator on the AHRS
controller lights. AHRS operation in the DG mode is similar to a free
directional gyro. It is subject to drift and turn error. For this reason,
AHRS operation in the DG mode results in reduced heading accuracy.

While in the DG mode, the heading card can be manually set to any
heading using the DG SLEW knob on the AHRS controller. The control
is inactive in the SLAVED mode. There are two slew speeds for each
direction. The SLOW slew position is located at the mechanical detent
and is used for fine heading card adjustments. The FAST slew position
is located at the mechanical limits of the control knob and is used for
large heading card adjustments. The knob automatically centers to the
OFF position when it is released.

Turning the DG SLEW knob clockwise increases the heading card to


indicate increasing headings. The HDG flag on the HSI is displayed
when initiating a slew command and it clears when the knob is released.
In the DG mode, without a SLAVE fail indication on the AHRS controller,
the system can be manually slaved using the DG SLEW knob and the
slave error indicator. This is done by turning the DG SLEW knob in the
direction that causes the slave error indicator to center between the
cross and dot.

A28--1146--059 Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)


Rev 3 6-15
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AHRS SELF--TEST

The AHRS is equipped with automatic self--test that is performed when


power is first applied. The test lasts 5 seconds and displays the
following outputs on the ADI and HSI:
D 10_ pitch up
D 20_ right wing down
D North heading, turning at 3_/sec toward east
D All AHRS controller annunciators ON
D ATT flag valid for 2.5 seconds, then invalid
D HDG flag valid for 2.5 seconds, then invalid.

NOTE: During an AHRS ground initialization sequence, the flags are


displayed until the 3--minute period has been completed.

The test sequence can also be initiated manually anytime (including in


flight or during ground initialization) by momentarily pushing the TEST
button on the AHRS controller. The indications on the displays are
similar to those seen during the automatic power--up test, except the
pitch, roll, and heading test values are added to the existing aircraft
flight conditions.

For example, with the standard instruments, if the present aircraft flight
conditions are:

D 3_ nose up,
D 2_ left wing down
D Heading 047_.

The test values are:

D 13_ nose up
D 18_ right wing down
D Heading 047_, turning at 3.0_/sec right turn (regardless of actual
turn rate)
D All AHRS controller annunciators ON
D ATT flag valid for 2.5 seconds, then invalid
D HDG flag valid for 2.5 seconds, then invalid.

Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) A28--1146--059


6-16 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The system returns the correct values, clears the flags, and
extinguishes the annunciators after the 5--second test sequence is
over. System modes (e.g., BASIC or DG) are not affected by the TEST
sequence.

The test function can be extended beyond 5 seconds by pushing and


holding the TEST button for longer than 5 seconds. The test ends when
the button is released. The valid flags clear when the test is completed,
if they are valid.

NOTE: If the test buttons of both AHRS controllers are pushed while
the aircraft is on the ground, it is not possible to engage the
yaw damper for 30 seconds after the ADI and HSI flags are
valid. This is normal operation because the AHRS ground test
is not complete even though the ADI and HSI flags are valid.
The full 30--second ground test sequence is disabled in the
air.

GROUND INITIALIZATION

The AHRS system requires approximately 3 minutes to initialize after


power is applied. The initialization is complete when the ATT and HDG
flags clear on the ADI and HSI. During the initialization, the aircraft must
remain stationary. Wind gusts and aircraft buffeting do not affect the
initialization. Similarly, all normal preflight operations, including engine
starts and passenger loading, can be carried out while the AHRS is
initializing. If the initialization requires more than 3 minutes, the AHRS
probably detects excessive aircraft motion. If aircraft movement occurs
during initialization, the AHRS must be recycled and a new initialization
commenced. The initialization time out is observed if the VG ERECT
button on the AHRS controller is pushed after power is applied and the
AHRS lights are extinguished. The HSI heading card slews to
approximately 180_ and the FAST annunciator lights. The heading
decreases at the rate of 1_/sec until the heading card indicates north
(360_). At this time, the 3--minute initialization period is complete and
all indications return to normal.

If the heading card stops and does not step to an indication of 360_, the
initialization of that AHRS has not been completed satisfactorily. The
main and auxiliary dc power to that AHRS should be cycled by pulling
the appropriate circuit breakers and then reapplying them to restart the
initialization. Push the VG ERECT button and observe the time out
sequence.

NOTE: Both circuit breakers (primary and AUX) must be pulled out.
Resetting each breaker individually does not reset the AHRS.

A28--1146--059 Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)


Rev 3 6-17
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

To increase the likelihood of a satisfactory ground initialization, consider


the following:

D The aircraft must remain stationary on the ground until the attitude
and heading flags are pulled out of view. Normal passenger and
cargo loading, engine start, and engine run--up procedures can be
performed during the initialization. Wind buffeting does not affect
initilization. The aircraft cannot be taxied or towed during AHRS
initialization.

D Verify that 3 minutes after power has been connected to the dc


buses, and the attitude and heading flags are out of view. If they are
not, push the VG ERECT button and verify the time out sequence
on the HSI. If the timer has stopped, the AHRS is not serviceable
and should be re--initialized. With the aircraft stationary, push the
TEST button on the AHRS controller and then release it. If the flags
do not pull after 5 seconds, re--initialize that AHRS.

D Verify proper AHRS and display functions by watching the AHRS


test sequence. Proper display movement, flag operation, and
controller lamp operation must occur. These tests are performed
automatically after power is applied (The pilot can push the TEST
button on each AHRS controller to initiate the test sequence anytime
including during AHRS initialization.).

D Normal preflight taxi checks of pitch, roll, heading, and rate--of--turn


must be made on each system.

D If the aircraft is moved during AHRS initialization, both AHRS must


be re--initialized. This is done by pulling all four AHRS circuit
breakers and verifying that the AUX PWR annunciators on the two
AHRS controllers are OFF. The four circuit breakers are then reset
to their normal position.

Abnormal Operations

TAKE--OFF IN BASIC MODE

Take--off with one AHRS in BASIC mode is prohibited, per the Aircraft
Flight Manual. Verify that both DADCs are operating.

NOTE: If a third attitude source is available, it can be used as the


primary data in place of the AHRS in BASIC mode.

Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) A28--1146--059


6-18 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

TAKE--OFF IN DG MODE
Take--off with one AHRS in the DG mode is prohibited, per the Aircraft
Flight Manual. Return the system to the normal slaved mode by pushing
the HDG/DG button.

NOTE: If a third heading source is available, it can be used as the


primary data in place of the AHRS if the AHRS cannot be
slaved.

FLIGHT OPERATIONS IN BASIC MODE


If, due to a malfunction, the AHRS reverts to the BASIC mode, it is
annunciated on the AHRS controller. Normal flight operations can be
continued in the BASIC mode subject to the limitations of the Aircraft
Flight Manual.
After AHRS goes into the BASIC mode, the pilot must avoid sustained,
shallow banked turns of less than 6_ (e.g., a constant turn to hold DME
arc). In addition, the pilot must maintain correct aircraft trim. If an
attitude error should develop, it can be removed by pushing the VG
ERECT button for 10 seconds while the aircraft is in straight and level
unaccelerated flight.
FLIGHT OPERATIONS IN DG MODE

If a HDG flag is displayed during a flight and the SLAVE annunciator on


the AHRS controller is lit, the DG mode can be selected by momentarily
pushing the HDG/DG button.

The AHRS heading must be checked every 5 minutes with reference


to a known accurate heading source. Errors can be removed, using the
DG SLEW knob on the AHRS controller to set the heading card to agree
with the known reference.

ABNORMAL ADI OR HSI INDICATION

If an abnormal indication is displayed on the attitude director indicator


(ADI) or horizontal situation indicator (HSI), correct operation of the
AHRS can be confirmed by pushing the TEST button on the AHRS
controller.

NOTE: The autopilot may disengage when activating the AHRS


TEST function.

IN--AIR INITIALIZATION
In--air initialization is not recommended. If it is necessary to perform an
in--air initialization, the aircraft should be maintained in wings level
unaccelerated flight during the alignment.

A28--1146--059 Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)


Rev 3 6-19/(6-20 blank)
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

7. System Limits

GLOSSARY OF TERMS
This glossary gives a brief description of the flight guidance computer
control laws. These terms are used throughout this section and Section
8, Modes of Operation. The performance and operating limits for these
items are defined in table 7--1. The terms, in alphabetical order,
included in this glossary are:
D Attitude Director Indicator (ADI) Command Cue
D Glideslope Gain Programming
D Glideslope Capture (GS CAP)
D Glideslope Track (GS TRACK)
D Lateral Beam Sensor (LBS)
D Localizer Capture 1, Back Course Capture 1
(LOC CAP 1, BC CAP 1)
D Localizer Capture 2, Back Course Capture 2
(LOC CAP 2, BC CAP 2)
D Localizer Track 1, Back Course Track 1
(LOC TRACK 1, BC TRACK 1)
D Localizer Track 2, Back Course Track 2
(LOC TRACK 2, BC TRACK 2)
D True Airspeed (TAS) Gain Programmer
D Vertical Beam Sensor (VBS)
D VOR Capture (VOR CAP)
D VOR Track
D VOR Over Station Sensor (VOR OSS)
D VOR After Over Station Sensor 1/2 (VOR AOSS 1/VOR AOSS 2)

A28--1146--059 System Limits


Rev 3 7-1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Attitude Director Indicator (ADI) Command Cue


When a command signal is applied to the cue input, the cue moves L
or R (roll) or up or down (pitch). This displays the visual command that
the pilot can follow to maneuver the aircraft in the direction to reach the
desired flight path. If the information required to fly the desired flight
path becomes invalid, the command cue is biased from view.

Glideslope (GS) Gain Programming


Gain programming starts after the VBS trips. The gain is programmed
as a function of radio altitude and vertical speed. If the radio altimeter
is invalid, gain programming occurs at GS capture and is controlled by
a runway height estimator. The value estimated is a function of GS
capture, GS track, and middle marker. At GS capture, the height is
estimated at 1500 ft. At GS track and middle marker not passed, the
height is 300 ft. At GS track and middle marker passed, the height is
100 ft. If the digital air data computer (DADC) is not valid, vertical speed
is a preprogrammed fixed rate.

Glideslope Capture (GS CAP)


The following conditions are necessary for glideslope capture:
D Glideslope mode is armed plus 3 seconds
D The localizer mode is captured or in the track phase
D Glideslope deviation is less than 2 dots
D Either of the following conditions is satisfied:
- The VBS trips
- GS deviation is less than 1/4 dot.

Glideslope Track (GS TRACK)


Glideslope track occurs after the aircraft captures the glideslope and is
tracking the beam. The track phase flies the beam tighter. The following
conditions are necessary for the track mode to be satisfied:

D GS capture plus is 15 seconds


D Localizer has gone into track 1 or track 2
D GS deviation must be less than 1/2 dot
D The vertical deviation must be changing at a rate of less than
10 feet/second
D Radio altitude (RA) or height above the runway is less than 1550
feet.

System Limits A28--1146--059


7-2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Lateral Beam Sensor (LBS)


When flying to intercept the VOR or LOC beam, the LBS is tripped as
a function of beam deviation, course error, TAS, and DME. In the LOC
mode, the course error is compared with the beam deviation signal and
rate of crossing the beam to determine the LBS trip point. When the LBS
trips, the flight director commands a turn toward the VOR radial or
runway to capture the beam. If the intercept angle to the beam center
is very shallow, the LBS does not trip until the aircraft is near beam
center. For this reason, an override on the LBS occurs when the beam
deviation reaches a specified minimum. The minimum beam sensor trip
point for the VOR mode is 1/4 dot. In the LOC mode, the minimum trip
point is 1/2 dot. The maximum LBS trip points are 2--1/2 dots for VOR
and 2--2/3 dots for LOC.

Localizer Capture 1, Back Capture 1 (LOC CAP 1,


BC CAP 1)
Localizer and back course capture 1 are the initial capture phases of
their respective modes. Localizer capture 1 and back course capture 1
occur when the following conditions are all satisfied:
D LOC armed plus 3 seconds
D Either of the following occurs:
- LBS trips
- Beam deviation less than 1/2 dot.

Localizer Capture 2, Back Capture 2 (LOC CAP 2,


BC CAP 2)
Localizer and back course capture 2 are capture phases that indicate
the aircraft is flying closer to the center of the beam. The capture 2
phase occurs at the center of the beam. The capture 2 phase occurs
for each mode when the following conditions are all satisfied:

D LOC CAP 1 plus 3 seconds


D Course error less than 35_
D Beam deviation less than 1--1/2 dots.

A28--1146--059 System Limits


Rev 3 7-3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Localizer Track 1, Back Course Track 1 (LOC TRACK 1,


BC TRACK 1)
Localizer track 1 and back course track 1 signify that the aircraft is on
beam center and the roll rate limit is decreased from 7.0/sec during the
capture phase down to 5.5/sec in the track submode. When the track
submode occurs, the course error is eliminated from the control signal,
leaving beam deviation and lateral acceleration from the attitude
heading reference system/inertial reference system (AHRS/IRS) to
maintain the aircraft on beam center.
The track 1 phase occurs when the following conditions are satisfied:
D LOC CAP 2 plus 30 seconds
D Lateral beam rate less than 30 feet/second
D Localizer beam deviation less than 1/4 dot
D Aircraft bank angle less than 6_.
There is no visual indication in the cockpit that the LOC track 1 of BC
track 1 submode has occurred.

Localizer Track 2, Back Course Track 2 (LOC TRACK 2,


BC TRACK 2)
The track 2 submode occurs only after track 1 has been completed.
There is no visual indication to the pilot that the track 2 mode has been
activated. Radio altitude, distance to the transmitter, and a vertical
velocity indicating the aircraft is descending determine the track 2
conditions. When these conditions reach certain levels, track 2 is
tripped to give the flight director tighter control during the final stages
of an approach.
The track 2 phase occurs when the following conditions are all satisfied:
D LOC track 1 has been tripped
D The aircraft is descending at a vertical speed that indicates a
runway approach
D Either of the following conditions has occurred:
- Distance to the transmitter is less than approximately 5 miles and
the radio altimeter is invalid
- Radio altitude is less than 1200 feet with the radio altimeter valid.

True Airspeed (TAS) Gain Programmer


TAS gain programming is used to program heading select/track error,
course select error, PITCH wheel commands, air data commands, and
glideslope deviation to maintain the same aircraft response regardless
of the aircraft’s airspeed and altitude. The TAS computation is derived
from airspeed, altitude, and outside air temperature.

System Limits A28--1146--059


7-4 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Vertical Beam Sensor (VBS)

The VBS determines the point of glideslope capture using a number of


inputs. The VBS is armed when NAV radio is tuned to a LOC frequency,
the LOC receiver is valid, and the LBS has tripped. The VBS trips as
a function of vertical speed, TAS, and glide slope deviation. The VBS
trips when vertical deviation is less than 2 dots and a capture sensor is
satisfied. The capture sensor combines airspeed, rate of beam
deviation change, and acceleration to determine the optimum capture
point. If the aircraft is paralleling the beam, i.e., no beam closure rate,
the VBS trips at a vertical deviation less than 1/4 dot. This resets the
previously selected pitch mode and change aircraft attitude to capture
the glideslope beam.

VOR Capture (VOR CAP)

VOR capture occurs when the following conditions are satisfied:

D The VOR mode has been armed plus 3 seconds of elapsed time
D The LBS has tripped.

VOR Track

VOR track occurs as the aircraft is established on beam center and the
following conditions are satisfied:

D The VOR mode is captured or AOSS 2 occurs


D Thirty seconds of time has elapsed since capture
D Lateral deviation rate is less than 50 feet/second, roll rate is less
than 0.5_/second, and the aircraft bank angle is less than 6_.

At this time, course error is eliminated from the command signal,


leaving beam deviation and lateral acceleration from the AHRS/IRS to
maintain the aircraft on beam center. There is no visual indication in the
cockpit that the VOR track submode has occurred.

VOR Over Station Sensor (VOR OSS)

The over station sensor (OSS) is used to detect the erratic radio signals
encountered in the area above the VOR transmitter. When these radio
signals reach a certain level of deviation, they no longer are useful and
the OSS eliminates them from the control signal.

A28--1146--059 System Limits


Rev 3 7-5
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The VOR OSS trips when the following conditions are satisfied:
D VOR track or VOR arm has occurred plus 3 seconds of elapsed time
D Either of the following occurs:

- Distance to the station is less than 1/4 of the barometric altitude


and distance measuring equipment (DME) is present

- Lateral deviation is greater than 1 dot and the rate of deviation


is greater than 1/9 dot per second and the DME is not present.

VOR AOSS 1 and VOR AOSS 2

When the aircraft is flying in the OSS state, beam deviation is monitored
to determine when it is again useful to include in the command signal.
The AOSS monitors beam deviation. When certain beam deviation
conditions are satisfied, the AOSS trips. There are two stages to the
AOSS. The first stage is AOSS 1, and AOSS 2 is the second stage.
AOSS 2 does not trip until AOSS 1 has tripped. These sensors ensure
that when beam deviation is included in the control signal, it is usable
information.

D VOR AOSS 1 occurs when the following conditions are satisfied:

- VOR OSS has occurred dependent on the active lateral mode

- A calculated period of time has elapsed since the last TO/FROM


transition on the horizontal situation indicator (HSI) in order for
AOSS 1 to trip. The period of time elapsed is calculated using
ground speed altitude. The higher the altitude, the longer it takes
to get through the cone of erratic radio information, and
therefore, the longer the time period must be. Likewise, the lower
the aircraft altitude, the smaller the cone of erratic radio
information, and the shorter the time period must be to trip AOSS
1. The required elapsed time period is also affected by the
aircraft’s ground speed. The faster the ground speed, the quicker
the aircraft travels through the cone. The slower the ground
speed, the longer it takes to pass through the cone, and a longer
time period is required to trip AOSS 1.

D VOR AOSS 2 occurs when the following conditions are all satisfied:
- VOR AOSS 1 has tripped plus 3 seconds
- Beam deviation is less than 2 dots.
Once VOR AOSS 2 trips, beam deviation is again part of the control
signal.

System Limits A28--1146--059


7-6 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

SYSTEM PERFORMANCE/OPERATING LIMITS

Table 7--1 lists the system performance and operating limits.

Control or
Mode Sensor Parameter Value

A/P A/P Engage Engage Limit Roll: Up to 35_


(Autopilot) Pitch: Up to 20_

Basic A/P TCS Roll Control Limit Up to 35_ Roll

Pitch Control Limit Up to 20_ Pitch

Pitch Angle Limit 20_ Pitch

Pitch ”g” Command Limit Preset

Heading Heading SEL Roll Angle Limit 27_


Select Knob 17_ low bank switched
Track on FGC or
automatically

Roll Rate Limit 4.0_/sec

VOR Course Knob VOR Capture:


and Beam Intercept Angle Up to 90_
NAV Receiver (HDG SEL)

Capture Point Function of Beam,


Beam Closure Rate,
and Course Error
Min Trip Point
1/4 Dot
Max Trip Point
2--1/2 Dots

Roll angle Limit 24_

Roll Rate Limit 4.0_/Sec

Course Cut Limit During 45_ Course


Capture

VOR Track:
Roll Angle Limit 24_

Roll Rate Limit 4.0_/Sec

Crosswind Correction Up to 45_ Course

System Performance/Operating Limits


Table 7--1 (cont)

A28--1146--059 System Limits


Rev 3 7-7
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Control or
Mode Sensor Parameter Value

VOR Over Station:


(cont) Course Change Up to 30_

Roll Angle Limit 24_

VOR Same as VOR Same as VOR and


APP flaps  0

Roll Angle Limit 30_ Fixed


Low Bank Inhibited

Roll Rate Limit 7.0_/

APR or Course Knob LOC Capture:


BC and Beam Intercept Angle Up to 90_
NAV Receiver (HDG SEL)

Capture Point Function of Beam,


Beam Closure Rate,
and Course Error
Min Trip Point
1/2 dot
Max Trip Point
2--2/3 Dots

Roll Angle Limit 30_

Roll Rate Limit 7.0_/Sec

Course Cut Limit 45_ Course


During Capture

LOC Track:
Roll Angle Limit 24_

Roll Rate Limit 5.5 _/sec

Crosswind Correction Up to 45_ Course


Error

LOC Gain Programming Function of Radio


Altitude TAS and
Vertical Speed

System Performance/Operating Limits


Table 7--1 (cont)

System Limits A28--1146--059


7-8 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Control or
Mode Sensor Parameter Value

APP NAV Receiver Glideslope Capture:


(Approach) Capture Point 2 Dots GS Beam
Deviation TAS, and VS

Pitch Command Limit +10_, --15_

Glideslope Damping Vertical Acceleration

Pitch Rate Limit .2g Maximum

GS Gain Programming Function of Radio


Altitude TAS, and
Vertical Speed

GA (Go-- Control Switches Fixed Flight Director 12_ Nose Up


Around) on control Wheel Pitch--Up Command;
(Disengage A/P Wings Level in Roll
and YD)

Pitch TCS Switch Pitch Attitude 20_ Maximum


Hold Depressed Command

ALT DADC ALT Hold Engage 0 to 50,000 ft


(Altitude) Range
Hold
ALT Hold Engage Error 60 ft

Pitch Limit 20_

Pitch Rate Limit .1g* Maximum

VS (Vertical DADC VERT Speed Engage 0 to +6000 ft/min


Speed) --8000 ft/min
Hold
VERT Speed Hold 100 ft/min
Engage Error

Pitch Limit 20_

Pitch Rate Limit .1g* Maximum

System Performance/Operating Limits


Table 7--1 (cont)

A28--1146--059 System Limits


Rev 3 7-9
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Control or
Mode Sensor Parameter Value

FLC DADC Mach Engage Range 0.4 to 0.8 M


(Flight
Level Mach Hold Error 0.01 M
Change)
Pitch Limit 20_

Pitch Rate Limit .3g Maximum

IAS (Indicated Airspeed) 80 to 335 kts


Engage Range
5 kts
IAS Hold Engage Range
20_
Pitch Limit
.3g Maximum
Pitch Rate Limit

ALT DADC and Preselect Capture Range 0 to 60,000 ft


(Altitude) ALT Control
Preselect Maximum Vertical Speed 6000 ft/min
for Capture

Capture Maneuver Complemented


Damping Vertical Acceleration

Pitch Limit 20_

Pitch Rate Limit at .2g


Capture

Maximum Altitude 25 ft


Capture Error

VALT FMS ALT Hold Engage Range 0 to 60,000 ft


Hold
ALT Hold Engage Error 60 ft

Pitch Limit 20_

Pitch Rate Limit .1g* Maximum

System Performance/Operating Limits


Table 7--1 (cont)

System Limits A28--1146--059


7-10 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Control or
Mode Sensor Parameter Value

VALT FMS Preselect Capture Range 0 to 60,000 ft


Preselect
Maximum Vertical Speed 6000 ft/min
for Capture

Capture Maneuver Complemented


Dumping Vertical Acceleration

Pitch Limit 20_

Pitch Rate Limit at .2g maximum


Capture

Maximum Altitude 25 ft


Capture Error

VFLC FMS Mach Engage Range 0.4 to 0.8 M

Mach Hold Error 0.01 M

Pitch Limit 20_

Pitch Rate Limit .3g maximum

IAS Engage Range 80 to 335 kts

IAS Hold Engage Error 5 kts

Pitch Limit 20_

Pitch Rate Limit .3g maximum


0 to 60,000 ft
0_ to --6_

VPTH FMS Altitude Range 0 to 60,000 ft

Angle Range 0_ to --6_

BIAS Range f(FMS Waypoint)

Pitch Limit 20_

Pitch Rate Limit .3g maximum

NOTE: *.3g when in overspeed protection active (MAXSPD).

System Performance/Operating Limits


Table 7--1

A28--1146--059 System Limits


Rev 3 7-11/(7-12 blank)
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

8. Modes of Operation

HEADING HOLD AND WINGS LEVEL

NOTE: The figures in this section use the electronic flight instrument
system (EFIS). If EFIS is installed, the function is the same,
unless otherwise noted.

The basic lateral mode of the autopilot is heading hold. Heading hold
is defined as:

D Autopilot (AP1) engaged


D No lateral flight director (FD) mode selected
D Bank angle less than 6_.

If the above conditions are satisfied, the autopilot rolls the aircraft to a
wings level attitude as shown in figure 8--1. When the aircraft’s bank
angle is less than 3_ plus 10 seconds, the heading hold mode is
automatically engaged. The heading hold mode is not annunciated on
the EADI as it is the default lateral mode when no other lateral steering
mode is selected.

AD--41622--R1@

Heading Hold Mode


Figure 8--1

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

BANK HOLD MODE


The autopilot recognizes that the bank hold mode is operational, shown
in figure 8--2, when the following conditions are satisfied:

D No lateral flight director mode is selected


D The aircraft’s bank angle is greater than 6_, but less than 35_
D Touch control steering (TCS) was used to initiate the roll maneuver.

When these conditions are satisfied, the autopilot maintains the desired
bank angle. If TCS is released at bank angles greater than 35_, the
autopilot rolls the aircraft to 35_ of bank angle and maintains. When the
TCS button is used, the AP1 engage annunciation on the flight
guidance controller goes out, and a white TCS replaces the AP1
annunciation on the EADI shown in figure 8--2.

AD--41623--R1@

Bank Hold Mode


Figure 8--2

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

HEADING SELECT MODE

The heading select mode is used to intercept and maintain a magnetic


heading. The mode is engaged by pushing the HDG button on the flight
guidance controller. The heading select mode is automatically selected
if a short range navigation (SRN NAV) source is selected and the NAV
mode is armed on the flight guidance controller. HDG is annunciated on
the electronic attitude director indicator (EADI). Engaging the heading
select mode resets all previously selected lateral modes.

The heading cursor on the electronic heading situation indicator (EHSI)


can be positioned around the compass card to make intercepts using
the HDG knob on the instrument remote controller (IRC). The heading
select signal from the IRC to the EFIS symbol generator (SG)
represents the desired aircraft heading. In the symbol generator, the
desired aircraft heading is compared against actual aircraft heading
and the resultant heading error signal is routed to the flight guidance
computer.

The flight guidance computer generates a roll command to bank the


aircraft to intercept and maintain the pilot selected heading.

The BNK (bank) button on the flight guidance controller manually


controls the bank angle limit in the HDG SEL mode. Toggling the BNK
button alternately selects a high bank angle limit (27_) and a low bank
angle limit (17_). The power--up state is high bank angle unless altitude
is greater than 29,500 ft at power--up. Once a bank angle limit is
selected, either manually or automatically, it is retained in memory (i.e.,
deselecting HDG SEL mode does not deselect or re--initialize the bank
angle value stored in memory).

Climbing through 29,500 ft. automatically selects the low bank angle
limit if it is not already selected and the bank angle is < 6_. The high bank
angle limit can be reselected by pushing the BNK button.

Descending through 28,500 feet automatically selects the high bank


angle limit if it is not already selected and the bank angle is < 6_. The
low bank angle limit can be reselected by pushing the BNK button.

The heading select mode is cancelled by:


D Pushing the HDG (heading) button on the flight guidance controller
D Selecting go--around (GA) mode
D Automatic capture of any other lateral steering mode
D Coupling to the cross--side EHSI.

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

VOR NAVIGATION (NAV) MODE


The VOR mode automatically intercepts, captures and tracks a
selected VOR radial, as shown in figure 8--3, using the selected
navigation source displayed on the EHSI. The navigation source
displayed on the EHSI is a function of the VOR/localizer (V/L) source
buttons located on the display controller (DC). Before the mode is
engaged, the pilot performs the procedure in table 8--1.

VOR (NAV) Mode, Plan View


Figure 8--3

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-4 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Step Procedure

1 Tune the navigation receiver to the VOR frequency.


2 Select V/L as the navigation source on the display
controller.
3 Set the course pointer on the EHSI for the course to be
flown TO or FROM the station.
4 Set the heading bug on the EHSI for the heading intercept
for the selected course.
NOTE: VOR capture can occur while flying towards, away from, or over
the VOR station.

5 With the aircraft outside of the normal capture range of the


VOR signal (typically the course deviation indicator (CDI)
on the EHSI is greater than 2 dots), the pilot selects the
NAV button on the flight guidance controller. (See figure
8--4.)
The EADI annunciates VOR in white and HDG. The flight
guidance computer is armed to capture the VOR signal
and it generates a roll command to fly the heading select
mode.

VOR (NAV) Mode Select Procedure


Table 8--1

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-5
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41625--R1@

AD--41626--R1@

VOR (NAV) Mode Intercept


Figure 8--4

When the lateral beam sensor (LBS) trip point is reached, the system
automatically drops the heading select mode and switches to the VOR
capture phase. The following is observed on the EADI:
D The white VOR annunciator goes out
D The HDG annunciator gos out
D VOR is annunciated and flashes for 5 seconds to emphasize the
capture phase of operation.

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-6 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The flight guidance computer generates a roll command to bank the


aircraft to capture and track the selected VOR radial, as shown in figure
8--5.

VOR (NAV) Mode Capture, Plan View


Figure 8--5

The course select error signal is established when the course select
pointer is set on the EHSI with the CRS knob on the IRC . This signal
represents the difference between the actual aircraft heading and the
desired aircraft course. The course error signal is then sent from the
EFIS symbol generator to the flight guidance computer.

The radio deviation signal is routed from the navigation receiver to the
symbol generator. From the symbol generator, the radio deviation
signal is routed to the flight guidance computer where the signal is
lateral gain programmed.

The lateral gain programming is performed as a function of distance


measuring equipment (DME) distance to the station and barometric
altitude. This gain programming adjusts for the aircraft either coming
toward or moving away from the VOR station. The DME compensation
circuit approximates ground range to the station for more accurate gain
programming and to help calculate over station sensing (OSS). Figure
8--6 shows the VOR capture phase.

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-7
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41627--R1@

AD--41628--R1@

VOR (NAV) Mode Capture


Figure 8--6

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-8 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

When flying a VOR intercept, the optimum intercept angle should be


less than 45_. If the intercept angle is greater than 45_, course cut
limiting may occur, as shown in figure 8--7.

The course cut limiter functions primarily when approaching the desired
VOR radial at an intercept angle greater than 45_ and at high speed.
Its function is to limit steering commands to 45_. This forces a flight path
to get on the selected radial sooner to prevent overshooting beam
center. Typically, the roll command makes an initial heading change,
then levels out and flies toward the beam, then makes a second
heading change to get lined up on the center of the selected radial.

VOR (NAV) Mode Course Cut Limiting, Plan View


Figure 8--7

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-9
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

When the aircraft satisfies VOR track conditions, the course error signal
is removed from the lateral steering command. This leaves radio
deviation, roll attitude, and lateral acceleration to track the VOR signal
and to compensate for beam standoff in the presence of a crosswind.
The system automatically compensates for a crosswind of up to 45_
course error. Figure 8--8 gives the VOR tracking mode readouts.

AD--41629--R1@

AD--41630--R1@

VOR (NAV) Mode Tracking


Figure 8--8

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-10 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

As the aircraft approaches the VOR station, it enters a zone of unstable


radio signal. This zone of confusion, shown in figure 8--9, radiates
upward from the station in the shape of a truncated cone. In this area,
the radio signal becomes erratic and it must be removed from the roll
command. The over station sensor determines when the aircraft enters
the zone of confusion and removes radio deviation from the roll
command.

When over the VOR station, the system accepts and follows a course
change of up to 90_.

NOTE: When the EFIS series is installed, VOR over station is


annunciated. The flight director mode is shown as *VOR.

Over Station Zone of Confusion


Figure 8--9

VOR APPROACH (VAPP) NAV MODE


The VAPP mode is used when setting up an approach to land using a
VOR rather than an ILS reference.

The mode is set up by the pilot the same way as for a standard VOR
intercept. The flight guidance computer recognizes VOR approach
logic as being identical to VOR plus flap position is other than zero. The
computer generates steering commands identical to the VOR mode,
with increased bank angle and roll rate limits.

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-11
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

VOR PUSH DIRECT FUNCTION


Another option the pilot has when flying a VOR intercept, is to fly a zero
deviation approach to the VOR station. This procedure is given in table
8--2.

Step Procedure

1 Establish the VOR intercept.


2 On the display controller, set the bearing selector to the
NAV source that is being used for the VOR intercept.
The EHSI displays the following, shown in figure 8--10:

D The course pointer displays the pilot selected course to


the VOR station.
D The bearing pointer displays a zero deviation course to
the VOR station.

AD--41631--R1@

Before Selecting VOR Push Direct Function


Figure 8--10

VOR Push Direct Function Procedure


Table 8--2 (cont)

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-12 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Step Procedure

3 To fly the zero deviation course to the station, push the


PUSH DCT button on the IRC CRS knob. This causes the
course select pointer to align with the bearing pointer and
provide for a zero deviation course to be flown to the VOR
station (see figure 8--11).

NOTE: When flying with VOR capture or track and not over station, a
pilot initiated course change can cause the mode to sense that it
is over station. Should this occur, the recommended pilot action is
to deselect, and then reselect the NAV mode on the flight
guidance controller.

AD--41632--R1@

After Selecting VOR Push Direct Function


Figure 8--11

VOR Push Direct Function Procedure


Table 8--2

The VOR NAV mode is cancelled by:


D Selecting go--around (GA) mode
D Selecting the heading lateral steering mode
D Coupling to the cross--side EHSI
D Pushing the NAV button on the flight guidance controller
D Course change greater than 3_ (except over station)
D Selecting a different NAV frequency or source.

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-13
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (FMS) STEERING


When the pilot selects FMS as the navigation source on the display
controller (DC), the NAV mode is flown as described previously, with the
following differences (figure 8--12 shows a plan view of the FMS
steering mode):

D Instead of using course error and radio deviation from the symbol
generator, a composite lateral steering command is used from the
FMS navigation computer.

D This lateral steering command is lateral gain programmed in the


FMS navigation computer and therefore is not gain programmed
again in the flight guidance computer.

D When FMS is selected as the navigation source to perform the NAV


intercept, the mode annunciation on the EADI is LNV (lateral
navigation (LNAV)).

D LNV is displayed in white during the arm phase of operation. At


capture, LNV is displayed and it flashes for 5 seconds to emphasize
the capture mode, as shown in figure 8--13.

LNAV Capture With FMS Selected, Plan View


Figure 8--12

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-14 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41633--R1@

AD--41634--R1@

LNAV Capture With FMS Selected


Figure 8--13

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-15
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

With FMS selected as the navigation source, LNV capture occurs


when:

D The aircraft is within 2.5 miles of the desired track and moving away
from it
OR
D at a calculated point, as a function of track error and ground speed,
the aircraft is flying toward the desired track.

The FMS LNV mode is cancelled by:


D Pushing the NAV button on the flight guidance controller
D Selecting go--around (GA) mode
D Selecting the heading lateral steering mode
D Coupling to the cross--side EHSI
D Selecting a different NAV source.

LOCALIZER NAVIGATION (NAV) MODE

The localizer mode automatically intercepts, captures, and tracks the


front course localizer beam, to line up on the centerline of the runway
in use, as shown in figure 8--14 in the plan view. Before the to mode is
engaged, pilot performs the procedure in table 8--3.

Localizer (NAV) Mode Intercept, Plan View


Figure 8--14

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-16 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Step Procedure

1 Tune the navigation receiver to the published front course


localizer frequency for the runway in use.
2 Set the course pointer on the EHSI for inbound runway
heading using the CRS knob on the IRC.
3 Set the heading cursor on the EHSI for the desired
heading to perform a course intercept, using the HDG
knob on the IRC.
4 Select V/L as the navigation source on the DC.

Localizer Mode Select Procedure


Table 8--3

The EHSI displays the relative position of the aircraft to the center of
the localizer beam and the inbound course. With the heading bug set
for course intercept, the heading select mode is used to perform the
intercept. Outside the normal capture range of the localizer signal
(between one and two dots on the EHSI), pushing the NAV button on
the flight guidance controller displays as shown in figure 8--15:
D LOC in white
D HDG.

The aircraft flies the heading intercept and the system is armed for
automatic localizer beam capture.

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-17
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41635--R1@

AD--41636--R1@

Localizer (NAV) Mode Intercept


Figure 8--15

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-18 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

With the aircraft approaching the selected course intercept, as shown


in figure 8--16, the LBS monitors localizer beam deviation, beam rate,
and TAS. At the computed time, the LBS trips and captures the localizer
signal. The flight guidance computer drops the heading select mode
and generates a roll command to bank the aircraft toward localizer
beam center. When the LBS trips, the EADI displays LOC, shown in
figure 8--17. The annunciation flashes for 5 seconds to emphasize that
the capture phase has occurred.

Localizer (NAV) Mode Capture, Plan View


Figure 8--16

As the aircraft continues toward localizer beam center, the computer


enters the LOC CAP 2 submode. With the aircraft almost lined up on
localizer beam center, the computer automatically changes to the LOC
track 1 and the LOC track 2 submodes. The LOC CAP 2 and LOC track
submodes apply tighter control law programming on the localizer signal
to better maintain a true flight path along the localizer beam. There are
no visual indications in the cockpit that these submodes have occurred.

NOTE: When flying a localizer intercept, the optimum intercept angle


is 45_. If the intercept angle is greater than 45_, course cut
limiting may occur as previously described in the VOR mode
of operation.

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-19
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41637--R1@

AD--41638--R1@

Localizer (NAV) Mode Capture


Figure 8--17

When the course select pointer was set on the EHSI using the CRS
knob on the IRC, the course select error signal was established. This
signal represents the difference between actual aircraft heading and
aircraft course.

The course select error signal is routed to the flight guidance computer
(FGC) from the symbol generator through the avionics standard
communications bus (ASCB).

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-20 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The radio deviation signal is routed from the navigation receiver to the
symbol generator. From the symbol generator, the radio deviation
signal is routed to the FGC where the signal is lateral gain programmed.

Lateral gain programming is required to adjust the gain applied to the


localizer signal due to the aircraft approaching the localizer transmitter
(TX) and beam convergence caused by the directional qualities of the
localizer transmitter. The lateral gain programmer is controlled by a
distance from transmitter estimator.

See figure 8--18. If both radio altitude and glideslope deviation are valid,
then distance is calculated using radio altitude and glideslope deviation
data. If only radio altitude is valid, distance is first estimated for capture
and then, when in the final track 2 mode, the system is programmed to
assume that an approach to the runway is being made without
glideslope, and distance is calculated based on radio altitude only.

Localizer (NAV) Mode Tracking, Plan View


Figure 8--18

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-21
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

If radio altitude information is not valid, then distance is estimated as


a function of glideslope deviation and TAS. If neither radio altitude nor
glideslope data is valid, then distance is estimated as a function of TAS
and time. Figure 8--19 shows the cockpit readout for localizer mode
tracking.

AD--41639--R1@

AD--41640--R1@

Localizer (NAV) Mode Tracking


Figure 8--19

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-22 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The localizer mode is cancelled by:


D Pushing the NAV button on the flight guidance controller
D Selecting go--around mode
D Selecting the heading lateral steering mode
D Selecting the back course lateral steering mode
D Coupling to the cross--side EHSI
D Tuning another NAV frequency or source.
When the aircraft satisfies the localizer track conditions, the course
error signal is removed from the lateral steering command. This leaves
radio deviation, roll attitude, and lateral acceleration to track the
localizer signal, and to compensate for localizer beam standoff in the
presence of a crosswind. The system automatically compensates for
a crosswind of up to 45_ course error.

BACK COURSE (BC) MODE


The BC mode automatically intercepts, captures, and tracks the back
course localizer signal, as shown in figure 8--20. When flying a BC
localizer approach, glideslope capture is automatically inhibited. The
BC mode is set up and flown as described in table 8--4.

Back Course Mode Intercept and Capture, Plan View


Figure 8--20

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-23
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Step Procedure

1 Tune the navigation receiver to the published front


course localizer frequency.
2 Set the course pointer on the EHSI for the inbound runway
heading, using the IRC CRS (course) knob.
3 Set the heading or track bug on the EHSI for the heading
or track to perform course intercept, using the IRC HDG
knob.
4 Push the BC button on the flight guidance controller.
(See figure 8--21.) With the aircraft outside the normal
localizer capture limits, the EADI annunciates:
D BC in white
D HDG.

At localizer capture, the EADI annunciates:

D BC as shown in figure 8--22. The annunciation flashes


for 5 seconds to emphasize that the capture phase has
occurred.

Back Course Automatic Intercept Procedure


Table 8--4

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-24 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41641--R1@

AD--41642--R1@

Back Course Mode Armed


Figure 8--21

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-25
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41643--R1@

AD--41644--R1@

Back Course Capture


Figure 8--22

When the BC button on the flight guidance controller is pushed, logic


in the flight guidance computer is established to internally reverse the
polarity of the course error and localizer signals. A gain change takes
place in the computer when BC is selected, since the aircraft is now
closer to the localizer transmitter by the length of the runway plus 1000
feet.

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-26 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

At back course capture, the flight guidance computer generates a roll


command to capture and track the back course localizer signal. Figure
8--23 shows the cockpit readout during back course tracking.

AD--41645--R1@

AD--41646--R1@

Back Course Tracking


Figure 8--23

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-27
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The back course mode is cancelled by:


D Pushing the BC button on the flight guidance controller
D Selecting the heading or go--around modes
D Coupling to the cross--side EHSI
D Selecting the APP (approach) or NAV modes
D Tuning to a different NAV frequency or source.

PREVIEW AND TRANSITION


When FMS 1 or FMS 2 is selected for display on the EHSI, selecting
a LOC frequency on the on--side V/L receiver and pushing the V/L
button on the DC, displays the preview course pointer on the EHSI, as
shown in figure 8--24.

The flight director is still based on FMS data, but the preview course
lateral deviation is read into the FGC.

The pilot then has two options:


D Pushing the V/L button on the DC transitions the preview course
display to the normal ILS course select display and the flight director
mode to reverts to heading hold. The pilot can then shoot for a
standard approach by arming the approach mode.
D The pilot arms approach. The system stays in the FMS guidance
mode but selects LOC ARM and GS ARM, while still monitoring the
preview course deviation. When the conditions for capture are met,
the system transitions to V/L source guidance and drops FMS
guidance as the source LOC capture and the preview course display
transitions to the normal instrument landing system (ILS) course
select display.

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-28 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41647--R1@

AD--41648--R1@

Preview and Transition


Figure 8--24

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-29
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

APPROACH (APP) MODE


The approach mode automatically intercepts, captures, and tracks the
front course localizer and glideslope signals, as shown in figure 8--25.
This allows the pilot to fly a fully coupled ILS approach. The mode is set
up and flown as described in table 8--5.

Approach Mode Localizer Intercept and Capture, Plan View


Figure 8--25

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-30 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Step Procedure

1 Tune the navigation receiver to the published front course


localizer frequency.
2 Set the course pointer on the EHSI for the inbound runway
heading, using the CRS knob on the IRC.
3 Set the heading or track cursor on the EHSI for the
heading or track to perform a course intercept, using the
HDG knob on the instrument remote controller (IRC).
4 Push the APP button on the flight guidance controller.

With the aircraft outside the normal localizer capture limits,


the EADI annunciates as shown in figure 8--26:
D LOC in white
D HDG
D GS in white.
Any other vertical mode in use at this time also is
annunciated on the EADI. At localizer capture, the EADI
annunciates, as shown in figure 8--28:
D LOC
D GS in white
D Any other vertical mode in use at the time
D The LOC annunciation flashes for 5 seconds to
emphasize the capture phase.

Approach Mode Procedure


Table 8--5

The flight guidance computer generates a roll command to capture and


track the localizer signal.

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-31
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41649--R1@

AD--41650--R1@

ILS Approach Mode Intercept


Figure 8--26

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-32 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The glideslope portion of the approach mode is used for the automatic
intercept, capture and tracking of the glideslope beam, as shown in
figure 8--27. The beam is used to guide the aircraft down to the runway
in a linear descent. Typical glideslope beam angles vary between 2
and 3, dependent on local terrain. When the glideslope mode is used
as the vertical portion of the localizer approach mode, it allows the pilot
to fly a fully coupled ILS approach. The mode is interlocked, so that
glideslope capture is inhibited until localizer capture has occurred.

Approach Mode Glideslope Intercept and Capture Profile


Figure 8--27

With the localizer captured, and outside the normal glideslope capture
limits, the EADI annunciates the following modes, as shown in figure
8--28:

D LOC
D GS in white.

Any other vertical mode in use is also displayed.

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-33
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

AD--41651--R1@

AD--41652--R1@

ILS Approach Mode LOC Capture


Figure 8--28

As the aircraft approaches the glideslope beam, the vertical beam


sensor (VBS) monitors TAS, vertical speed, and glideslope deviation in
determining the correct capture point. At glideslope capture, the
computer drops any other vertical mode that is in use, and automatically
generates a pitch command to smoothly track the glideslope beam.

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-34 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

At this time, the EADI annunciates as shown in figure 8--29:


D LOC
D GS flashing for 5 seconds to emphasize that the capture phase has
occurred, and then goes on steadily.

AD--41653--R1@

AD--41654--R1@

Approach Mode Tracking


Figure 8--29

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-35
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Gain programming is performed on the glideslope signal to compensate


for the aircraft closing on the glideslope transmitter, and beam
convergence caused by the directional properties of the glideslope
antenna, shown in figure 8--30. Glideslope programming is normally
done as a function of radio altitude and vertical speed.

Approach Mode Tracking, Profile View


Figure 8--30

If the radio altimeter is not valid, GS gain programming is accomplished


as a function of preset height above runway estimates and run down as
a function of true airspeed and time. The approach mode is cancelled
by:
D Pushing the APP, NAV, or HDG buttons on the FGC
D Selecting go--around mode
D Coupling to the cross--side EHSI
D Tuning to a different NAV frequency or source.

DUAL COUPLE APPROACH MODE


During the tracking phase of an instrument landing system (ILS)
approach, the system uses landing aid flight path information from both
the pilot and copilot EHSI. This dual phase uses sensor fail--operational
performance through sensor redundancy management for the safety
critical segment of the approach. This flight segment of the approach
phase is initiated automatically.

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-36 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The dual couple approach mode is set up as described in table 8--6.

Step Procedure

1 Tune both NAV receivers to the ILS frequency for the


approach runway.
2 Set the selected course on both EHSIs to the same values
using the IRCs CRS knobs.

Dual Couple Approach Setup Procedure


Table 8--6

When both the localizer and glideslope signals are on track, as shown
in figure 8--31, radio altitude is below 1200 ft and both navigation
receivers are valid, the system transitions to the dual HSI mode of
operation. When this mode is active, both HSI SEL arrows on the flight
guidance controller light. In this mode, both FGCs use information from
both navigation receivers. This allows the approach to be continued in
the event of a failure of one navigation receiver. Should one receiver fail,
the arrow associated with that receiver on the flight guidance controller
goes out and the approach mode remains active.

AD--41653--R1@

HSI in the Dual Coupled Approach Mode


Figure 8--31

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-37
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

In dual couple approach mode, both FGCs use averaged ILS data,
perform the same computations, and therefore, send identical flight
director commands to their respective sides of EADIs.

Although the FGC uses averaged ILS data for guidance, each EFIS
symbol generator monitors for excessive deviation on non--averaged
data. Therefore, the excessive deviation monitor on one side is related
to that side’s displayed ILS data.

Dual CPL cancellation can occur for two reasons:

D Automatic Cancellation:

- Whenever invalid data from one ILS receiver is detected, the


FGC selects the remaining side ILS data for guidance.

- When an unflagged ILS data mismatch occurs, the FGC


performs an automatic sensor voting and selection.

- In both cases, the system automatically reverts to single CPL on


the side selected by the FGC.

D Manual Cancellation of the Approach (APP) Mode -- The flight


director couples to the side it was coupled to before dual CPL.

Category 2 (CAT 2)
The aircraft is certified for CAT 2 coupled ILS approaches, if the
following systems are installed and operable:
D Dual air data systems
D Dual attitude heading reference system (AHRS) or dual inertial
reference system (IRS) and one standby horizon
D Dual electronic flight instrument systems (EFIS)
D Autopilot (AP) portion of the flight guidance system (FGS)
D Instrument landing system (ILS) receiver portion of the dual
navigation (NAV) unit.

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-38 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The autopilot must be coupled for category 2 approaches on a category


2 ILS system installation within the limits shown in table 8--7 .

CAT 2 Approaches Limits

Runway Visual Range (RVR) 1200 ft minimum


Decision Height (DH) 100 ft minimum
Headwind 20 kts
Crosswind 10 kts
Tailwinds 10 kts
Autopilot must be disengaged 80 ft
below
NOTES: 1. Flight director manual approaches are limited to category 1 minimums.
2. Category 2 approaches are authorized if both the specific aircraft and
air crew are certified for them. The pilot in command must verify these
authorizations before commencing the approach.

CAT 2 Approach Limits


Table 8--7

To initiate a category 2 approach and bring the CAT 2 window into view
on the glideslope scale of the EADI, the pilot performs the procedure
in table 8--8.

Step Procedure

1 Engage the approach mode (arm, capture, or track).


2 Set decision height (DH) below 160 ft (both sides for dual
couple approach).
3 Engage the autopilot.
NOTE: Steps 1 and 2 only display the CAT 2 window.

4 Tune both navigation receivers to the localizer frequency


and verify the aural station identifier.
5 Select HDG and desired vertical mode on the flight
guidance controller.

CAT 2 Coupled Approach Procedure


Table 8--8 (cont)

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-39
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Step Procedure

6 Set the course arrow on both EHSIs to the published


inbound course using the IRC CRS knob.
7 Set the pilot’s and copilot’s heading bugs to the intercept
heading. Intercept should be 75_ or less. Plan to be
established on the localizer, 2 to 3 miles outside the outer
marker.
8 Set decision height (DH).
9 Push the APP button on the flight guidance controller.
10 After localizer capture, the heading bug can be set to the
missed approach heading.
11 After glideslope capture, the aircraft must be in the
landing configuration and the pilot must maintain
stabilized approach airspeed.
12 The autopilot must be disengaged when decision height
is reached. If runway environment is visible at DH,
complete normal landing procedures.
13 If runway environment is not in view when DH is reached,
execute a missed approach. Push GA button on the
control and establish go--around power settings. After
aircraft clean--up and proper airspeed is established, the
heading mode can be used and the V--bar commands the
previously selected missed approach heading.

CAT 2 Coupled Approach Procedure


Table 8--8

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-40 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

All pertinent information must be closely monitored during a category 2


coupled approach. (See figure 8--32.) Most system malfunctions are
displayed as flags, annunciators, or loss of displayed data. However,
continuous monitoring and cross--checking of the dual instrumentation
throughout the approach is imperative.

AD--41656--R1@

CAT 2 Status Annunciation


Figure 8--32

A category 2 approach should be terminated under the following


conditions:
D Any of the comparator monitors light
D Display of GS, LOC, ATT, or FD
D Display of HDG, GS, LOC 1, or LOC 2 flags on EHSI
D The MISTRIM annunciator, located in pilot’s and copilot’s
annunciator panel, lights
D Autopilot malfunction/disengagement below 1000 ft radio altitude.
(AP lights in pilot’s and copilot’s glare shield.)

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-41
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

CAT 2 Pre--Approach Test


The function tests in table 8--9 must be completed prior to beginning a
category 2 approach.

Step Procedure

1 With the autopilot disengaged and NAV 1 and NAV 2


selected on the EFIS, operate the NAV 1 -- NAV 2 TEST
switches located on the NAV tuning controls. These
switches test the navigation receivers, glideslope,
localizer, and marker information. Observe the pilot’s and
copilot’s course indicators for proper flag and pointer
operation. The marker lights located in the EFIS attitude
indicators should sequence and proper marker audio
should be heard when the marker lights sequence.
2 Push the RA TEST button on the EFIS control panel.
Both the radio altitude and the DH set value are displayed
on the ADI. The DH annunciator is displayed if the DH set
value is greater than the test altitude.
3 Verify the compass heading indications. The maximum
error between the two compass systems should not
exceed 4_.
4 Verify the attitude displayed on the pilot’s and copilot’s
flight instruments.
5 Push the annunciator test switch. Verify that all
comparator monitor annunciator lights are operable.
Verify that autopilot mode annunciator lights are operable.

CAT 2 Pre--Approach Test Procedure


Table 8--9

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-42 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

PITCH ATTITUDE HOLD


The pitch attitude hold mode is the basic vertical flight director mode.
It is active when a flight director roll mode is engaged without an
accompanying pitch mode. However, there is no permanent mode
annunciation. When pitch hold is active, PIT flashes at the top of the
EADI for 5 seconds. Pitch attitude hold is also the basic vertical mode
of the autopilot when it is engaged without an active vertical flight
director mode.

The pitch command on the EADI, shown in figure 8--33, corresponds


to the existing pitch attitude at the time the roll mode was engaged. The
pitch attitude reference can be changed using the TCS button located
on the pilot’s and copilot’s control wheels, or with the PITCH wheel on
the flight guidance controller.

Pitch attitude hold is cancelled by selecting any pitch flight director


mode active.

AD--41657--R1@

Pitch Attitude Hold Mode


Figure 8--33

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-43
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

VERTICAL SPEED (VS) HOLD MODE

The vertical speed hold mode is used to automatically maintain the


aircraft at a pilot selected vertical speed reference. To initiate the mode,
the pilot maneuvers the aircraft to the climb or descent attitude,
establishes the vertical reference, and engages the mode by pushing
the VS button on the flight guidance controller. The reference vertical
speed can be changed by pushing the TCS button on the control wheel
and maneuvering the aircraft to a new vertical speed reference, and
then releasing the touch control steering (TCS) button. The vertical
speed reference can also be changed using the PITCH wheel on the
flight guidance controller.

When the vertical speed mode is engaged, the display on the EADI
annunciates, as shown in figure 8--34.
D VS
D FPM and the target vertical speed reference are displayed.

AD--41658--R1@

Vertical Speed Hold Mode


Figure 8--34

When the VS reference is changed using the PITCH wheel on the flight
guidance controller, the EADI indicates the commanded VS reference.
When the VS button on the flight guidance controller is pushed, it resets
all previously selected vertical modes. The VS mode is cancelled by
pushing the VS button again, by selecting another vertical mode, or by
selecting go--around (GA).

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-44 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE (FLC) MODE


Pushing the FLC button on the flight guidance controller engages the
FLC mode that overrides all active pitch flight director modes, except
vertical navigation (VNAV). When VNAV is engaged, pushing the FLC
button selects the VNAV submode VFLC. The IAS/Mach reference bug
on the EADI is synchronized to present IAS/Mach at mode engagement
as shown in figure 8--35. When a new reference is manually selected
using the IAS/Mach reference knob on the IRC, the system flies to new
reference.

AD--41659--R1@

Flight Level Change Mode


Figure 8--35

The IAS/Mach speed target comes from the coupled side EADI.
Depending on whether the reference bug is identified as IAS or Mach
(controlled on the IRC), the system flies the IAS bug reference or the
Mach bug reference. Switching from IAS to Mach (or Mach to IAS)
reference does not move the bug, it simply changes the EADI readout
from Mach to IAS or IAS to Mach. Therefore, the aircraft does not
change its configuration when the reference is switched.

The FLC mode is basically a speed mode. However, it differs from a


standard IAS or Mach mode in the following respects:

D Although the FLC mode, in the long term, tracks the speed reference
bug, short term emphasis is on vertical speed. This minimizes
vertical speed excursions due to disturbances or large airspeed
changes.

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-45
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D The FLC mode is set up to change flight level from present altitude
to the preselected altitude. It tries to prevent flying away from the
preselected altitude target. For example, if the throttle is retarded
during a climb toward a preselected altitude target the system tries
to maintain a positive vertical speed. Therefore it decelerates
instead of descending after the vertical speed reaches zero.

The FLC mode is annunciated on the EADI by FLC at the vertical


capture location.

If the TCS button is pushed and held, the pilot can change the reference
airspeed without disengaging the mode. Pushing the TCS button
re--synchronizes to the new value of the IAS/Mach reference bug.

To fly the FLC mode in a climb or descent to a preselected altitude from


a straight and level condition, follow the procedure in table 8--10.

Step Procedure

1 Push the FLC button on the flight guidance controller.


2 Set the speed bug on the EADI for the reference IAS, or
Mach number.
3 Reduce throttle position to achieve a descent rate, or
increase throttle for a climb.

Flight Level Change Procedure


Table 8--10

The system climbs/descends toward the preselected altitude,


maintaining the speed reference. The amount of throttle position
change varies the rate of climb/descent.

In FLC, all armed pitch flight director modes can be used; however
capturing any armed pitch mode overrides the FLC mode.

The FLC mode is cancelled by:


D Pushing the FLC button on the flight guidance controller
D Moving the PITCH wheel on the flight guidance controller
D Selecting any other vertical mode on, or captured
D Selecting go--around mode
D Coupling to the cross--side EHSI.

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-46 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

NOTE: The FLC mode target speed is initially in IAS below 29,000 feet
and Mach above 29,000 feet. If the target speed is changed
from IAS to Mach (or vice versa) the FLC mode remains
engaged and flies to the appropriate new speed target.

When the aircraft is in a climb toward a higher preselect altitude


and transitions from .62 to .63 Mach or is above .62 Mach as
it climbs through 29,000 feet, the IAS/Mach reference
automatically changes from IAS to Mach. The switching is
initiated by EFIS. When the aircraft is in a descent toward a
lower preselect altitude and transitions from 285 to 286 kts or
is above 286 kts as it descends through 29,000 feet, the
IAS/Mach reference automatically changes from Mach to IAS.
The IAS/Mach PUSH CHG button on the IRC can override the
reference.

Maximum Speed (MAX SPD) Submode

While in FLC, VS, VFLC, and VPTH, the AFCS cannot fly to an airspeed
reference outside the normal aircraft flight envelope. The AFCS limits
the airspeed to the maximum allowable speed of the aircraft. This is
indicated by changing the speed digital readout and pointer to yellow
when in FLC and VNAV flight level change (VFLC) modes and setting
vertical speed digital readout to yellow when in VS and VNAV path
(VPTH) modes. In either case, the MAX SPD annunciation is
displayed.

D FLC/VFLC -- Turns the IAS/Mach reference bug and display amber.

D VS -- Turns the vertical speed target select data amber.

D VPTH -- Turns the vertical speed target select data and vertical
deviation pointer amber.

When the maximum speed condition is corrected, the AFCS returns to


the original, selected, mode.

NOTES: 1. The original mode remains annunciated.

2. If the original mode was VPTH, the AFCS usually


transitions to VFLC when leaving the MAX SPEED
condition.

3. The operation of this submode is the same as with the


EFIS series. However, in addition to the above, a MAX
SPD annunciation is displayed on the EADI.

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-47
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

ALTITUDE (ALT) HOLD MODE


The altitude hold mode is a vertical axis flight director mode used to
maintain a barometric altitude reference. The vertical command for
altitude hold is displayed on the flight director pitch command cue on
the EADI. To fly using altitude hold, the pilot must:
D Be in any lateral flight director mode
D Push the ALT button on the flight guidance controller.

When the mode is engaged, ALT is displayed on the EADI while altitude
hold is active, as shown in figure 8--36. The vertical axis of the flight
director maintains the barometric altitude at the time the mode was
engaged. The reference altitude can be changed by pushing the TCS
button on the control wheel, maneuvering to a new altitude and
releasing the TCS button. When the ALT mode is engaged, any other
previously selected vertical mode is cancelled.

AD--41660--R1@

Altitude Hold Mode


Figure 8--36

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-48 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The ALT Hold mode is cancelled by:


D Moving the PITCH wheel on the flight guidance controller
D Pushing the ALT button on the flight guidance controller
D Selecting any other vertical mode on, or captured
D Selecting go--around mode
D Coupling to the cross--side EHSI.

ALTITUDE PRESELECT (ALT SEL) MODE


The ALT SEL mode is used in conjunction with another vertical mode
to automatically capture, flare, and level off onto a preselected altitude.

The ALT SEL mode is automatically armed when the aircraft climbs or
descends toward the selected altitude and the autopilot is engaged, or
a flight director mode is active. The ALT SEL knob on the IRC is used
to select altitudes. The selected altitude is digitally displayed in the
EADI ASEL box. The ALT SEL armed mode is cancelled during ALT
SEL CAP, ALT HOLD, and after GS CAP.

The ALT SEL ARM mode is armed as described above but is not
annunciated on the EADI. VS HOLD, FLC, or PITCH HOLD can be
used to fly to the selected altitude. When reaching the bracket altitude,
the system automatically switches to the ALT SEL CAP mode, and the
previous pitch mode is cancelled. At bracket, the system captures the
selected altitude.

ALT SEL CAP is annunciated on the EADI as ASEL at the vertical mode
location. To indicate the transition to capture, ASEL flashes for 5 sec.

The aircraft remains in the ALT SEL CAP mode until the following
conditions exist simultaneously:
D ALT SEL CAP
D ALT error is less than 25 feet
D ALT rate is less than 5 ft/second.

When these conditions are satisfied, the ALT SEL mode is dropped and
the system is automatically placed in the altitude hold mode.

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-49
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The ALT HOLD mode is dropped if the PITCH wheel is moved, and ALT
SEL ARM is automatically selected if the aircraft is 250 ft away from the
ALT SEL setting and has a vertical speed component in the direction
of the selected altitude.

The numbers in figure 8--37, correspond to the step numbers in table


8--10.

Altitude Preselect Mode Profile


Figure 8--37

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-50 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

To fly to a preselected altitude, using the ASEL mode, follow the


procedures in table 8--11.

Step Procedure

1 Set selected altitude on EADI and engage the FLC mode


to descend toward the selected altitude.
2 The ASEL mode is automatically armed when the
following conditions exist (see figure 8--38):
D Alert altitude more than 250 ft from preset altitude
D Vertical speed (VS) is in the direction toward alert
altitude and greater than 1.3 ft/sec for 5 secs
D AP engaged or a flight director mode active
D Glideslope not capture or track.

AD--41662--R1@

ASEL Arm
Figure 8--38
3 The altitude flare point (ASEL CAP) is a non--linear
function, dependent on vertical speed.

Altitude Preselect Mode Procedure


Table 8--11 (cont)

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-51
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Step Procedure

4 ASEL CAP is dropped and ALT hold is automatically


engaged, as shown in figure 8--39.

AD--41663--R1@

ASEL Capture
Figure 8--39

Altitude Preselect Mode Procedure


Table 8--11

The ASEL CAP (capture) submode is cancelled by:


D Moving the ALT set knob
D Moving the PITCH wheel on the flight guidance controller
D Any other vertical mode selected on, or captured
D Selecting go--around mode
D Coupling to the cross--side EHSI.

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-52 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNAV) MODE


Pushing the VNAV button on the flight guidance controller engages the
vertical navigation mode and overrides all active pitch flight director
modes. In the VNAV mode, the system tracks the vertical flight profile
of the FMS with the following submodes possible:

D Vertical Flight Level Change (VFLC) -- VFLC operates the same


as FLC except the target speed and altitude from the FMS are used
for climb or descent. VFLC also engages if VALT is engaged and the
FMS initiates a climb or descent. A third way to engage the VFLC
mode is when VALT or VPTH arm is engaged, and the FLC button
on the flight guidance controller is pushed. The FMS FLC mode is
annunciated on the EADI by a VFLC.

NOTE: The FMS works with the flight guidance system so that a
flight level change cannot be commanded past the alert
altitude set on the EADI.

D Vertical Altitude Select (VASL) -- VASL operates the same way as


ALT SEL. VASL arms as soon as VFLC or VPTH is engaged. When
the mode captures, VASL is displayed on the EADI. The mode
annunciation flashes for 5 sec to indicate the transition from arm to
capture. VASL is cancelled whenever VALT mode engages.

D Vertical Altitude Hold (VALT) -- VALT operates the same way as


ALT. VALT engages automatically after VASL has captured the
target altitude. VALT also engages whenever the VNAV button on
the flight guidance controller is pushed and the aircraft is within 250
ft of the FMS target altitude. The FMS ALT mode is annunciated on
the EADI as VALT.

D Vertical Path (VPTH) Mode -- VPTH mode is used to fly a fixed flight
path angle to a vertical altitude constraint waypoint during descent.
The VPTH mode engages whenever the FMS initiates a path
descent which can occur while in VFLC or VALT modes. When the
mode captures, VPTH is displayed on the EADI. The mode
annunciation flashes for 5 sec to indicate the transition from arm to
capture. The VPTH mode is cancelled by VASL mode capture.

On the FMS CDU, the pilot enters the following parameters to fly a
VPTH descent:

- Desired altitude at one or more waypoints


- FMS selected for display and LNAV mode captured
- FMS performance initialization completed.
The FMS navigation computer performs computations that insure
the vertical descent path is tracked.

A28--1146--059 Modes of Operation


Rev 3 8-53
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

GO--AROUND (GA), WINGS LEVEL


The go--around mode is normally used to transition from an ILS
approach to a climb out condition when a missed approach has
occurred. The either pilot can select the go--around mode by pushing
the GA button on their control wheel. With go--around selected, all flight
director modes are cancelled, and the autopilot is disengaged shown
in figure 8--40. Laterally, the pilot sees a wings level command on the
EADI. GA annunciates that the mode is engaged.

Vertically, a 12 climb angle is presented on the EADI.

NOTE: Figure 8--40 shows the EDZ--818 Electronic Flight Instrument


System (EFIS).

AD--41661--R1@

Go--Around Mode
Figure 8--40

Modes of Operation A28--1146--059


8-54 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

9. Troubleshooting

This section is written to increase pilot awareness of conditions


associated with suspected malfunctions in the flight control system.
Proper awareness helps the pilot make write--ups that convey the
information required for maintenance. As a result, unnecessary and
expensive flight time to verify pilot squawks can be reduced.

It is not the intent of this section to have the pilot troubleshoot the
system down to the black box level. This section has information that
the pilot can use to write a complete description of system problems.

CAUTION

THE FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM HAS BEEN DESIGNED TO EX-


HIBIT A HIGH DEGREE OF FUNCTIONAL INTEGRITY. NEVER-
THELESS, THE PILOT MUST RECOGNIZE THAT IT IS NOT PRAC-
TICAL TO MONITOR AND/OR SELF--TEST FOR ALL
CONCEIVABLE SYSTEM FAILURES, THEREFORE, ALTHOUGH IT
IS UNLIKELY, IT IS POSSIBLE THAT ERRONEOUS OPERATION
COULD OCCUR WITHOUT A FAULT INDICATION. IT IS THE RE-
SPONSIBILITY OF THE PILOT TO DETECT SUCH AN OCCUR-
RENCE BY MEANS OF CROSS--CHECKS WITH REDUNDANT OR
CORRELATED INFORMATION AVAILABLE IN THE COCKPIT.

PILOT WRITE--UP
The following paragraphs describe general guidelines for making pilot
write--ups in the logbook. As a guideline, the following two rules should
be considered:

RULE 1 -- Before making an entry, determine conditions under which


the problem exists.

RULE 2 -- When making an entry, make sure the description is


complete.

A28--1146--059 Troubleshooting
Rev 3 9-1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Rule 1 states that the conditions of the system must be considered


before making a write--up. The following type of questions should be
answered.

D Are any flags showing or fault annunciators lit? (Obvious problems.)

D Is problem in pitch, roll, or yaw axis, or a combination thereof?

D Is problem present in all modes or only under specific conditions,


such as:

- Flaps or gear up or down, or speed brakes in or out


- Certain aircraft power configuration
- Certain speed
- Certain altitude
- Two or more modes
- Certain sequence in mode selection
- Specific radio frequencies (NAV or COM)
- When a transmitter is being keyed
- When weather radar is operating
- Certain electrical configurations. (Are all circuit breakers in?)
D Does the autopilot follow the commands shown by the flight director
command cue and horizontal situation indicator lateral deviation
bar?
D Are the flight director commands flyable with autopilot disconnected?
D Does some problem exist with autopilot engaged in a heading hold
and pitch hold mode?
D In radio modes, are certain conditions, such as another aircraft in
front of localizer (LOC) or glideslope (GS) transmitter (overflight
disturbances), VOR beam scallops, etc., present?

Rule 2 states that a complete description be written. The description


must define the problem (see following paragraphs) and should always
include the specific conditions under which the problem exists, such as:
D Flags showing (which ones, if any)
D Mode or modes selected
D The IAS or Mach present when problem occurs
D Period and magnitude of any oscillations
D Do any inputs fail to work (such as heading marker when in HDG
mode)?

NOTE: The preceding paragraphs do not cover every possible


system problem. They should be used as guides in preparing
a pilot write--up.

Troubleshooting A28--1146--059
9-2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

COMMONLY USED TERMS


Phrases or terms the pilot can use in write--ups are defined in table 9--1.

Term Definition

Autopilot Active Controls continually moving in still air with small


command errors.
Autopilot Loose Autopilot does not null command bars
satisfactorily in most modes.
Porpoising Low frequency oscillation in pitch axis, typically
10--second period or longer.
Pumping Control wheel moves back and forth, usually
with a low frequency, and typically for a 1 to 10
second period.
Stick Bump Controls give a quick moderate movement,
usually with virtually no aircraft movement,
mostly associated with autopilot engagement or
during mode changes.
Stick Buzz With autopilot engaged, a high--frequency,
small movement of control wheel can be felt
without aircraft movement.

Term Definition
Table 9--1

A28--1146--059 Troubleshooting
Rev 3 9-3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

TYPICAL PROBLEMS
Some of the typical problems associated with flight control systems are
listed below. The list assumes the A/P is engaged and is broken down
into lateral mode problems, vertical mode problems, and problems that
are common to both vertical and lateral modes. Illustrations that show
the most common lateral and vertical mode problems are included. The
list of problems and the illustrations are not all inclusive, but are typical
of the problems most often encountered.

Lateral Mode Problems


Refer to table 9--2 and see figure 9--1 for an in--flight graphic
representation of lateral mode problems.

Mode Problems

HDG Mode a. Tails


b. Oscillates
c. Does not hold
NAV, BC or VOR APR a. Undershoots capture
mode, also localizer b. Overshoots capture
portion of APR Mode c. Missed capture
d. Stand--off
e. Oscillates

Lateral Mode Problems


Table 9--2

Troubleshooting A28--1146--059
9-4 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Lateral Mode Conditions/Problems


Figure 9--1 (cont)

A28--1146--059 Troubleshooting
Rev 3 9-5
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Lateral Mode Conditions/Problems


Figure 9--1

Troubleshooting A28--1146--059
9-6 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Vertical Mode Problems


Refer to table 9--3 and see figure 9--2 for an in--flight pattern graphic
representation of vertical mode problems.

Mode Problems

Air Data Hold Modes (ALT, a. Oscillates


VS, IAS, MACH) b. Porpoising
c. Does not hold reference
Altitude Preselect a. Misses capture
(ASEL) b. Undershoots capture
c. Overshoots capture
d. Standoff
GS Mode (Vertical Portion of a. Captures early
APR Mode) b. Stand--off
c. Oscillates

Vertical Mode Problems


Table 9--3

Vertical Mode Conditions/Problems


Figure 9--2 (cont)

A28--1146--059 Troubleshooting
Rev 3 9-7
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Vertical Mode Conditions/Problems


Figure 9--2

Troubleshooting A28--1146--059
9-8 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Combined Vertical and Lateral Mode Problems


Refer to table 9--4 for combined vertical and lateral mode problems.

Modes Problems

Mode Logic Problems a. Modes do not engage


b. Modes do not clear
Autopilot Problems a. Does not engage
b. Does not follow commands
c. Stick bump
d. Stick buzz

Problems Common To Both Vertical and Lateral Modes


Table 9--4

FLIGHT FAULT SUMMARY


The flight fault summary, that is part of the built in ground maintenance
test, is normally checked at the end of each flight, before power is shut
down. It is important for both the flight crew and maintenance personnel
to log any automatic transfer of flight guidance control that has occurred
in flight. It also aids maintenance personnel in troubleshooting other
subsystems within the digital integrated flight control system (DIFCS)
framework.

The flight fault summary information is displayed on the multifunction


display (MFD), and is selected through the ground maintenance test.
The touch control steering (TCS), right R AFCS and L AFCS buttons
are used to display flight fault summary information.

To initiate the ground maintenance test, the pilot should verify the
following conditions:

D Aircraft power is on to all avionics equipment


D Airspeed is less than 50 knots
D Weight--on--wheels (WOW) switch engaged
D Yaw damper (YD) is not engaged
D Ground maintenance test switch is on.

With these conditions set, the MFD should now display:

01 L FGC TEST?

A28--1146--059 Troubleshooting
Rev 3 9-9
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

By pushing the R AFCS button on the upper instrument panel, the pilot
can scroll forward through the test menu until 98 FLIGHT FAULT
SUMMARY? is displayed, as shown in figure 9--3. Pushing the L AFCS
button on the upper instrument panel scrolls backwards through the test
menu.

Pushing the TCS button displays the flight fault summary. This
information is first displayed for the left flight guidance computer and
then it can be displayed for the right flight guidance computer.

A typical display is shown in figure 9--3.

98 Flight Fault Summary Display


Figure 9--3

All zeros indicate that the system is good. Should numbers other than
zero appear, the pilot must copy them down and pass them on to the
maintenance personnel.

After the flight fault summary is complete, return the ground


maintenance test switch to the flight position, then shut down aircraft
power.

Troubleshooting A28--1146--059
9-10 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

10. Honeywell Product Support

Honeywell SPEX program for corporate operators provides an


extensive Exchange and Rental service that complements a worldwide
network of support centers. An inventory of more than 9000 spare
components assures that your Honeywell equipped aircraft will be
returned to service promptly and economically. This service is available
both during and after warranty.

The aircraft owner/operator is required to ensure that units provided


through this program have been approved in accordance with their
specific maintenance requirements.

All articles are returned to Reconditioned Specifications limits when


they are processed through a Honeywell repair facility. All articles are
inspected by quality control personnel to verify proper workmanship
and conformity to Type Design and to certify that the article meets all
controlling documentation. Reconditioned Specification criteria are on
file at Honeywell facilities and are available for review. All Exchange
units are updated with the latest performance reliability MODs on an
attrition basis while in the repair cycle.

When contacting a Honeywell Dealer or Customer Support Center for


service under the SPEX program, the following information regarding
the unit and the aircraft are required:
D Complete part number with dash number of faulty unit
D Complete serial number of faulty unit
D Aircraft type, serial number and registration number
D Aircraft Owner
D Reported complaint with faulty unit
D Service requested (Exchange or Rental)
D If faulty unit is IN WARRANTY
- Type of warranty (NEW PRODUCT, MAINTENANCE
CONTRACT, or SPEX)
- Date warranty started
- Warranty ID number (if applicable)
D If faulty unit is NOT IN WARRANTY, provide billing address
D Purchase order number.

A28--1146--059 Honeywell Product Support


Rev 3 10-1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The Honeywell Support Centers listed below will assist with processing
exchange/rental orders.

24--HOUR EXCHANGE/RENTAL SUPPORT CENTERS

U.S.A. -- DALLAS CANADA -- OTTAWA


800--USA--SPEX 800--267--9947
(800--872--7739)

ENGLAND -- BASINGSTOKE AUSTRALIA -- TULLAMARINE


44--256--51111 61--3--330--1411

FRANCE -- TOULOUSE FRANCE -- DFS


33--6171--9662 33--1--4934--5050

SINGAPORE GERMANY -- AOA GAUTING


65--542--1313 49--89--89317--0
49--89--850--3695(After Hours AOG)

CUSTOMER SUPPORT CENTERS -- NORTH AMERICA

Dallas Support Center Canada Support Center


Honeywell Inc. Honeywell Inc.
Commercial Aviation Systems Commercial Aviation Systems
7825 Ridge Point 3 Hamilton Avenue North
IRVING, TX 75063 OTTAWA, ONTARIO, K1Y 4J4
Telephone: 972--402--4300 Telephone: 613--728--4681
Telex: 795539 Telex: 0533637
Fax: 972--402--4999 Fax: 613--728--7084
Minneapolis Support Center Ohio Support Center
Honeywell Inc. Honeywell Inc.
Commercial Aviation Systems Commercial Aviation Systems
8840 Evergreen Boulevard 8370 Dow Circle
MINNEAPOLIS, MN 55433--6040 STRONGVILLE, OH 44136
Telephone: 612--957--4015 Telephone: 216--243--8877
Telex: MN51CFS Telex: 985441
Fax: 612--957--4080 Fax: 216--243--1954
Central Support Center Northwest Support Center
Honeywell Inc. Honeywell Inc.
Commercial Aviation Systems Commercial Aviation Systems
1830 Industrial Avenue 4150 Lind Avenue Southwest
WICHITA, KS 67216 RENTON, WA 98055
Telephone: 316--522--8172 Telephone: 206--251--9511
Telex: 417444 Telex: 985441
Fax: 316--522--2693 Fax: 216--243--1954

Honeywell Product Support A28--1146--059


10-2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

CUSTOMER SUPPORT CENTERS -- REST OF THE WORLD

United Kingdom Support France Support Center


Center Honeywell Aerospace Ltd
Honeywell Avionics Systems Ltd 1, Rue Marcel--Doret, B.P.14
Edison Road, Ringway North 31700 TOULOUSE--BLAGNAC
BASINGSTOKE, HANTS, FRANCE
RG 21 2QD Telephone:33--5--6212--1500
ENGLAND Fax: 33--5--6130--0258
Telephone:44--1256--72--2200 AOG: 33--5--6171--9662
Fax:44--1256--72--2201 Telex: 521635
AOG: 44--1256--72--2200
Telex: 51--858067
Singapore Support Center Australia Support Center
Honeywell Pty Ltd Honeywell Ltd
2 Loyang Crescent Trade Park Drive
SINGAPORE 1750 TULLAMARINE, VICTORIA 3043
Telephone: 65--542--1313 AUSTRALIA
Fax: 65--542--1212 Telephone: 61--3--9330--1411
AOG: 65--542--1313 Fax: 61--3--9330--3042
Telex: RS 56969 HWLSSC AOG: 61--3--9330--1411
Telex: 37586 HWLTUL
Germany Support Center
Apparatebau Gauting Gmbh
Ammerseestrasse 45--49
D 8035 Gauting
GERMANY
Telephone: 49--89--89317--0
Telex: 0521702
Fax: 49--89--89317--183

A28--1146--059 Honeywell Product Support


Rev 3 10-3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Publication Ordering Information


Additional copies of this manual can be obtained by contacting:
Honeywell Inc.
P.O. Box 29000
Business and Commuter Aviation Systems
Phoenix, Arizona 85038--9000
Attention: Publication Distribution, Dept. M/S V19A1

Telephone No.: (602) 436--6900


FAX: (602) 436--1588

Honeywell Product Support A28--1146--059


10-4 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

11. Acronyms and Abbreviations


Abbreviations used in this manual are defined as follows:

TERMS DEFINITION
A/D Analog--to--Digital
A/P Autopilot
ABV Above
ADC Air Data Computer
ADF Automatic Direction Finder
ADI Attitude Director Indicator
ADS Air Data System
AFCS Automatic Flight Control System
AGL Above Ground Level
AHRS Attitude and Heading Reference System
AHRU Attitude and Heading Reference Unit
ALT Altitude
ALT SEL, ASEL Altitude Preselect, Altitude Select
ANSI American National Standards Institute
AOSS After Over Station Sensor
APP Approach
APT Airport
ASCB Avionics Standard Communications Bus
ATC Air Traffic Control
ATT Attitude
AUTO Autotilt
AZ Azimuth

BARO Barometric
BC Back Course
BLW Below
BNK Bank
BRG Bearing

CAP Capture
CAT Category
ccw Counterclockwise
CDI Course Deviation Indicator
CDU Control Display Unit
CHG Change
CLR Clear

A28--1146--059 Acronyms and Abbreviations


Rev 3 11-1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

TERMS DEFINITION
CRS Course
CRT Cathode Ray Tube
cw Clockwise

DADC Digital Air Data Computer


DAFCS Digital Automatic Flight Control System
DAT Data
DC Display Controller
DCT Direct
DEC Decrease
DG Directional Gyro
DH Decision Height
DME Distance Measuring Equipment
DTK Desired Track

EADI Electronic Altitude Director Indicator


ED Electronic Display
EFIS Electronic Flight Instrument System
EGPWS Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System
EHS Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator
EHSI Electronic Heading Situation Indicator
ENT Enter
ET Elapsed Time
ETA Estimated Time of Arrival

FD Flight Director
FGC Flight Guidance Computer
FGS Flight Guidance System
FL Flight Level
FLC Flight Level Change
FLTPLN, FP, Flight Plan
FPLN
FMS Flight Management System
FPM Feet Per Minute

GA Go--Around
GCR Ground Clutter Reduction
GMAP Ground Mapping
GMT Greenwich Mean Time
GP Glidepath
GPS Global Positioning System

Acronyms and Abbreviations A28--1146--059


11-2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

TERMS DEFINITION
GS Glideslope
GSPD Groundspeed

HDG Heading
HSI Horizontal Situation Indicator

I/O Input/Output
IAS Indicated Airspeed
ILS Instrument Landing System
INC Increase
IRC Instrument Remote Controller
IRS Inertial Reference System

kts Knots

L Left, Localizer
LAT Latitude
LBS Lateral Beam Sensor
LNAV, LNV Lateral Navigation
LOC Localizer
LON Longitude
LRN Long Range Navigation
LSS, LX Lightning Sensor System

M Mach
MAG Magnetic
MAXSPD Maximum Speed
MFD Multifunction Display
MG Multifunction Generator
MIN Minimum
MPEL Maximum Permissible Exposure Level
MSG Message
MSL Mean Sea Level
MSU Mode Select Unit

NAV Navigation
NM Nautical Miles
NORM Normal

OSS Over Station Sensor

A28--1146--059 Acronyms and Abbreviations


Rev 3 11-3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

TERMS DEFINITION
PE Primary Electrical
PIT Pitch
PS Power Source
PWR Power

R Right
R/T/A Receiver/Transmitter/Antenna
RA Radio Altitude, Resolution Advisory (TCAS
only)
RAD Radio
RAM Random--Access Memory
RCL Recall
RCT Rain Echo Attenuation Compensation Technique
REV Reversionary
RMU Radio Management Unit
RNAV Area Navigation System
RNG Range
ROL Roll
RSB Radio Systems Bus
RVR Runway Visual Range

SAT Static Air Temperature


SBY, STBY Standby
sec Second
SECT Sector
SEL Select
SG Symbol Generator
SKP Skip
SLV Slave
SRC Source
SRN Short Range Navigation
STB Stabilization
STC Sensitivity Time Control
SYNC Synchronization

TA Traffic Advisory
TAS True Airspeed
TAT Total Air Temperature
TCAS Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System
TCS Touch Control Steering

Acronyms and Abbreviations A28--1146--059


11-4 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

TERMS DEFINITION
TEMP Temperature
TERR Terrain
TGT Target
TRB Turbulence
TRK Track
TRU True
TST Test
TTG Time--to--Go
TX Transmitter

V Vertical
V/L VHF Omni Range/Localizer
VALT Vertical Altitude
VAPP VOR Approach
VBS Vertical Beam Sensor
VFLC VNAV Flight Level Change
VG Vertical Gyro
VHF Very High Frequency
VLF Very Low Frequency
VNAV Vertical Navigation
VOR VHF Omnidirectional Range
VPTH Vertical Path
VS Vertical Speed
VTA Vertical Track Alert

WOW Weight--on--Wheels
WPT Waypoint
WX Weather

XDTA Cross--Side Data, Transdata

YD Yaw Damper

A28--1146--059 Acronyms and Abbreviations


Rev 3 11-5/(11-6 blank)
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Appendix A
PRIMUSR 870 Weather Radar
System
INTRODUCTION
This abbreviated operational description is a summary of this radar
system as installed in the Hawker 800 aircraft. For complete operating
instructions on the PRIMUSR 870 Weather Radar System, shown in
figure B--1. Refer to Honeywell Inc., Business and Commuter Aviation
Systems, Pub. No. A28--1146--056.

AD--41586--R1@

Weather Radar Display


Figure A--1

A28--1146--059 PRIMUS R 870 Weather Radar System


Rev 3 A--1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The PRIMUSR 870 Weather Radar System is a lightweight, X--band


digital radar with alphanumerics designed for weather detection and
ground mapping.

The primary purpose of the system is to detect storms along the flight
path and give the pilot a visual color indication of rainfall intensity and
turbulence content. After proper evaluation, the pilot can chart a course
to avoid these storm areas.

WARNING

THE SYSTEM PERFORMS ONLY THE FUNCTIONS OF WEATHER


DETECTION OR GROUND MAPPING. IT SHOULD NOT BE USED
OR RELIED UPON FOR PROXIMITY WARNING OR ANTI--COLLI-
SION PROTECTION.

In weather detection mode, storm intensity levels are displayed in four


bright colors contrasted against a deep black background. Areas of
very heavy rainfall are displayed in magenta, heavy rainfall in red, less
severe rainfall in yellow, moderate rainfall in green, and little or no
rainfall in black (background). Areas of detected turbulence are
displayed in soft white.

Range marks and identifying numerics, displayed in contrasting colors


are used to facilitate evaluation of storm cells.

Selecting the GMAP function changes system parameters to improve


resolution and enhance identification of small targets at short ranges.
The reflected signal from various ground surfaces is displayed as
magenta, yellow, or cyan (most to least reflective).

Some installations have the optional lightning sensor system that is


controlled from one switch on the weather radar controller.

SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS
The system configuration uses a receiver/transmitter/antenna (R/T/A),
and one or two controllers. Radar information is displayed on the
electronic horizontal situation indicator (EHSI) or multifunction display
(MFD).

PRIMUS R 870 Weather Radar System A28--1146--059


A--2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The pilot and copilot use the dual controllers to each select independent
radar mode, range, tilt, and gain settings for display on their respective
EHSI. This is done by time sharing the receiver/transmitter/ antenna.
On the right--to--left antenna scan, the system switches to the mode,
range, tilt, and gain selected by the left controller and updates the left
EHSI. On the reverse antenna scan, the system switches to the mode,
range, tilt, and gain setting selected by the right controller and updates
the right EHSI. Also, either controller can be slaved to the other
controller. This results in identical displays on both EHSIs. Dual mode
gives the appearance of having two radar systems on the aircraft. Refer
to table A--1 for the dual control mode truth summary.

NOTE: The weather radar data displayed on the MFD is a function


of the selected weather radar controller. Refer to Section 5,
Multifunction Display System.

Left Right Left Right


Controller Controller EHSI EHSI R/T/A
Mode Mode (Note 1) (Note 1) Mode

OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF


OFF(SLV) STBY STBY STBY STBY
STBY OFF(SLV) STBY STBY STBY
OFF(SLV) WX WX WX WX
WX OFF(SLV) WX WX WX
STBY WX STBY/2 STBY/2 WX/2
WX STBY STBY/2 STBY/2 WX/2
WX WX WX/2 WX/2 WX
STBY STBY STBY STBY STBY
NOTES: 1. Applies only to radar function as displayed on the EHSI.
2. SLV means that displayed data is controlled by opposite side controller.
3. XXX/2 means that the on--side display is controlled by appropriate
on--side control for the antenna sweep direction associated with that
control. (/2 implies two controllers are on.)
4. In standby, R/T/A antenna is centered in azimuth with 15 degrees
upward tilt, video data is suppressed, and transmitter is inhibited.

Dual Control Mode Truth Table


Table A--1

A28--1146--059 PRIMUS R 870 Weather Radar System


Rev 3 A--3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

WC--870 WEATHER RADAR (WX) CONTROLLER


OPERATION
All controls used to operate the system are located on the controllers
in figure A--2. These controls are numerically identified in the figure. The
numbers refer to the numbered definitions of the controls and indicators
listed below. Lighting for all legends and controls are controlled by the
dimming bus for the aircraft panel.

Weather Radar Controller Configurations


Figure A--2

1 RANGE Button

RANGE is a button control used to select one of six ranges (10, 25, 50,
100, 200, and 300 NM). The up button () increases range and the
down button () decreases it.

PRIMUS R 870 Weather Radar System A28--1146--059


A--4 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

2 TRB (Turbulence) Button

The TRB momentary--contact switch toggles between the turbulence


detection mode being on or off. The TRB mode can only be selected if
the MODE switch is in the WX position and the selected range is 50
miles or less. The weather/turbulence mode is annunciated in the mode
field with the WX/T legend. Areas of at least moderate turbulence are
shown in soft white.

CAUTION

TURBULENCE CAN ONLY BE DETECTED WITHIN AREAS OF


RAINFALL. THE PRIMUSR 870 WEATHER RADAR DOES NOT DE-
TECT CLEAR AIR TURBULENCE.

WARNING

UNDETECTED TURBULENCE MAY EXIST WITHIN ANY STORM


CELL.

Selecting the 100--, 200--, or 300--mile range turns off the turbulence
detection. The /T is deleted from the mode annunciation and variable
gain is engaged if previously selected. Subsequent selection of ranges
of 50 miles or less re--engages turbulence detection.

3 GCR (Ground Clutter Reduction) Button

The GCR button toggles between the GCR mode of operation being on
and off. The GCR mode is annunciated above the mode field with the
GCR legend. The GCR mode can only be selected if the FUNCTION
switch is in the WX position and the selected range is 50 miles or less.
GCR is an advisory mode that reduces the display of ground clutter.
Targets remaining on the display are probably weather targets.

WARNING

DO NOT LEAVE THE RADAR IN THE GCR MODE.

A28--1146--059 PRIMUS R 870 Weather Radar System


Rev 3 A--5
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

CAUTION

EVEN THOUGH THE GCR CIRCUITS REMOVE GROUND TAR-


GETS FROM THE DISPLAY, THE GROUND IS STILL PRESENT, IT
IS SIMPLY NOT BEING DISPLAYED.

WARNING

GCR REMOVES MOST OF THE GROUND TARGETS FROM THE


DISPLAY; BUT AT THE SAME TIME, IT REMOVES SOME OF THE
WEATHER TARGETS.

The GCR feature has the following limitations: It does not remove all of
the ground and it does remove some of the weather. It is most effective
dead ahead and its effectivity is reduced as the antenna scans away
from dead ahead. The circuitry assumes reasonable tilt settings for
proper operation. (Looking down 15 and turning on the GCR does not
eliminate the ground return)

Selecting the 100--, 200--, or 300--mile range or turbulence (TRB)


detection mode turns off ground clutter reduction. The GCR legend is
deleted from the mode annunciation and variable gain engages if
previously selected. Subsequent selection of ranges of 50 miles or less
re--engages GCR. If not already selected, GCR forces the radar into
preset gain.

4 TGT (Target Alert) Button

When the TGT button is pushed, the target alert function is toggled on
and off. Target alert is selectable in all but the 300--mile range. When
selected, target alert monitors beyond the selected range and 7.5 on
each side of the aircraft heading. If a return with characteristics that are
defined in table A--2, is detected in the monitored area, the target alert
changes from T condition to T. This advises the pilot that a potentially
hazardous target lies directly in front of and outside the selected range.
When the warning T is displayed, the pilot should select longer ranges
to view the questionable target. The target alert is inactive within the
selected range.

Selecting target alert forces the system into preset gain. Target alert
can be selected in the weather radar (WX) and flight plan (FPLN)
modes.

PRIMUS R 870 Weather Radar System A28--1146--059


A--6 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Selected Target Minimum Target


Range (NM) Depth (NM) Range (NM)

10 2 10--50
25 4 25--75
50 4 50--100
100 6 100--150
200 6 200--250
300 Inactive
Flight Plan 2 5--55
(FPLN)

Target Alert Target Depth and Range Characteristics


Table A--2

5 SECT (Sector) Button


Pushing the SECT button toggles between 120 and 60 of displayed
radar returns. The 60 sector mode is updated faster, but the viewing
angle is limited.
NOTE: In dual controller installation, the SECT made on one side of
the cockpit is displayed on both sides.

6 TILT Rotary Control Knob


A rotary control knob used to select tilt angle of antenna beam with
relation to earth plane. Clockwise rotation tilts beam upward to +15;
counterclockwise rotation tilts beam downward to 15.
A digital readout of the antenna tilt angle is displayed on the EHSI.
D PULL AUTO (Autotilt) -- Pulling out on the TILT control knob
causes the system to enter the autotilt mode. In autotilt the antenna
tilt is automatically adjusted with regard to the selected range and
barometric altitude. The antenna tilt automatically readjusts with
changes in altitude and/or selected range. In autotilt, the tilt control
can fine--tune the tilt setting by 2.
Autotilt is annunciated by adding a letter A suffix to the tilt readout.
The digital tilt readout always shows the actual tilt of the antenna
regardless of the tilt command source (autotilt command or manual
tilt command).

A28--1146--059 PRIMUS R 870 Weather Radar System


Rev 3 A--7
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

WARNING

1. TO AVOID FLYING UNDER OR OVER STORMS,


FREQUENTLY SELECT MANUAL TILT TO SCAN BOTH
ABOVE AND BELOW YOUR FLIGHT LEVEL.
2. ALWAYS USE MANUAL TILT FOR WEATHER
ANALYSIS.

D STABILIZATION -- This radar is normally attitude stabilized, and


automatically compensates for roll and pitch maneuvers. Attitude
stabilization may be deselected by pushing the TGT switch four
times within 3 seconds. Stabilization is turned back on by again
pushing TGT four times within 3 seconds.

NOTE: Small antenna mounting misalignments or roll


stabilization input offsets can be compensated for
electrically. See radar pilot’s manual.

7 LSS (Lightning Sensor System) Rotary Switch (Optional)

The LSS switch is an optional four--position rotary switch that selects


the LSS operating modes.

D OFF -- In this position, all power is removed from the lightning sensor
system.

D SBY (Standby) -- In this position data from the lightning sensor


system inhibited, but the system is accumulating data.

D LX (Lightning Sensor System) -- In this position the LSS is fully


operational and displaying data on the indicator.

D CLR/TST (Clear/Test) -- In this position, accumulated data is


cleared from the memory of the lightning sensor system. After 3
seconds, the test mode is initiated in the lightning sensor system.

8 SLV (Slave) Annunciator

The SLV annunciator is only used in dual controller installations. With


dual controllers, one controller can be slaved to the other by selecting
OFF with the radar MODE switch. This slaved condition is annunciated
with the SLV annunciator.

Note that both controllers must be off before the radar system turns off.

PRIMUS R 870 Weather Radar System A28--1146--059


A--8 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

9 RADAR Rotary Switch

A rotary switch used to select one of the following functions:

D OFF -- Turns the radar system off. WX is displayed in the mode field.

D STBY (Standby) -- The radar system is placed in standby, a ready


state, with the antenna scan stopped, the transmitter inhibited, and
the display memory erased. STBY is displayed in the mode field. If
SBY is selected before the initial R/T/A warm--up period is over
(approximately 45 seconds), the WAIT legend is displayed in the
mode field. When the warm--up period is over, the system
automatically switches to standby mode.

D WX (Weather Radar) -- Selecting WX places the radar system in the


weather detection mode. The system is fully operational and all
internal parameters are set for enroute weather detection.

If WX is selected before the initial R/T/A warm--up period is over


(approximately 45 seconds), the WAIT legend is displayed. In WAIT
mode, the transmitter and antenna scan are inhibited and the
memory is erased. When the warm--up period is completed, the
system automatically switches to WX mode.

In preset gain, the system, is calibrated as defined in table A--3. WX


is displayed in mode field.

Rainfall Rate* Color

1 -- 4 mm/hr* Green
4 -- 12 mm/hr Yellow
12 -- 50 mm/hr Red
Greater than 50 mm/hr Magenta
*millimeters per hour

Rainfall Calibration
Table A--3

A28--1146--059 PRIMUS R 870 Weather Radar System


Rev 3 A--9
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D RCT (Rain Echo Attenuation Compensation Technique) --


Setting this position adds the RCT feature to the WX display. RCT
is a submode of the WX mode. Selecting RCT forces the system to
preset gain. When RCT is selected, the RCT legend is displayed in
the mode field. The RCT circuitry compensates for attenuation of
the radar signal as it passes through rainfall. The cyan field
indicates areas where further compensation is not possible. Any
target detected within the cyan field cannot be calibrated and should
be considered dangerous. All targets in the cyan field are displayed
as 4th level precipitation, magenta.

D GMAP (Ground Mapping) -- Selecting GMAP places the radar


system in the ground mapping mode. The system is fully operational
and all internal parameters are set to enhance returns from ground
targets. RCT compensation is inactive.

CAUTION

WEATHER--TYPE TARGETS ARE NOT CALIBRATED WHEN


THE RADAR IS IN THE GMAP MODE. BECAUSE OF THIS, THE
PILOT SHOULD NOT USE THE GMAP MODE FOR WEATHER
DETECTION.

As a constant reminder that GMAP is selected, the GMAP legend


is displayed and the color scheme is changed to cyan, yellow, and
magenta. Cyan represents the least reflective return, yellow is a
moderate return, and magenta is a strong return.

If GMAP is selected before the initial R/T/A warm--up period is over


(approximately 45 seconds), the WAIT legend is displayed. In
WAIT mode, the transmitter and antenna scan are inhibited and the
memory is erased. When the warm--up is completed, the system
automatically switches to the GMAP mode.

D FP (Flight Plan) -- Flight plan places the WX transmitter in standby


and allows the EHSI or MFD map range to be selected up to 1000
NM.

D TST (Test) -- Selects the radar test mode. A special test pattern is
displayed to allow verification of system operation. The TEST
legend is displayed in the mode field.

PRIMUS R 870 Weather Radar System A28--1146--059


A--10 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

WARNINGS
1. THE TRANSMITTER IS ON AND RADIATING X--BAND
MICROWAVE ENERGY IN TEST MODE. REFER TO
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVEL (MPEL) AT
THE END OF THIS APPENDIX.
2. THE SYSTEM PERFORMS ONLY THE FUNCTIONS OF
WEATHER DETECTION OR GROUND MAPPING. IT
SHOULD NOT BE USED OR RELIED UPON FOR
PROXIMITY WARNING OR ANTI--COLLISION
PROTECTION.

D FORCED STANDBY -- Forced standby is an automatic,


nonselectable radar mode. The controllers are wired to the
Weight--on--wheels (WOW) switch. The R/T/A is in forced standby
mode when the aircraft is on the ground. In the forced standby
mode, the transmitter and antenna scan are both inhibited, the
memory is erased, and the STBY legend is displayed in the mode
field. When in the forced standby mode, pressing both range buttons
simultaneously restores normal operation.

NOTE: When dual weather radar controllers are installed, both


controller’s range buttons must be simultaneously pushed
to restore normal operation

Forced standby mode is a safety feature that inhibits the transmitter


on the ground to eliminate the X--band microwave radiation hazard.

10 GAIN Rotary Knob


The GAIN control is a rotary knob that has a push/pull switch that
controls the receiver gain. Pushing in on the GAIN switch selects the
preset, calibrated gain mode. Calibrated gain is the normal mode and
is used for weather avoidance. In calibrated gain, the rotary portion of
the GAIN control does nothing.

Pulling out on the GAIN switch selects the variable gain mode. Variable
gain is useful for additional weather analysis and for ground mapping.
In WX mode, variable gain can increase receiver sensitivity over the
calibrated level to show very weak targets or it can be reduced below
the calibrated level to eliminate weak returns.

WARNING

HAZARDOUS TARGETS MAY BE ELIMINATED FROM THE DIS-


PLAY WITH LOW SETTINGS OF VARIABLE GAIN.

A28--1146--059 PRIMUS R 870 Weather Radar System


Rev 3 A--11
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

In GMAP mode, variable gain is used to reduce the level of the typically
very strong returns from ground targets.

Minimum gain is with the control at its fully counterclockwise (ccw)


position. Gain increases as the control is rotated in a clockwise (cw)
direction from fully ccw to the 12:00 o’clock position. At the 12:00
o’clock position, both the gain and the sensitivity time control (STC) are
at their maximum values. Additional cw rotation removes STC. At the
fully cw position, the gain is at maximum and the STC is at minimum.

NOTE: STC reduces the receiver gain at the start of the trace, and
then increases it as the more distant returns are received.
Thus, with STC a uniform display of cell strength is displayed
for both near and distant cells.

The V legend annunciates variable gain. Selecting RCT, target (TGT),


or ground clutter reduction (GCR) forces the system into preset gain.
Preset gain is not annunciated.

TYPICAL OPERATION

Preliminary Control Settings


Place the system controls in the following positions before applying
power from the aircraft electrical system:

Position Setting
MODE Control Off
GAIN Control Preset Position
TILT Control +15

Precautions
To operate the radar system in any mode other than standby, the
following considerations must be made while the aircraft is on the
ground:

D Direct nose of aircraft so that antenna scan sector is free of large


metallic objects, such as hangars or other aircraft, for a minimum
distance of 100 feet, and tilt antenna fully upwards

D Avoid operation during refueling of aircraft or during refueling


operations within 100 feet

PRIMUS R 870 Weather Radar System A28--1146--059


A--12 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Avoid operation if personnel are standing too close to the 270


forward sector of aircraft. (Refer to Maximum Permissible Exposure
Level in this Appendix.)

D Operating personnel should be familiar with FAA Advisory Circular


AC No. 20--68B, which is provided in Honeywell Pub. No.
A28--1146--056 for reference.

Powerup
On powerup, select either standby or test mode. When power is first
applied, the radar goes into the WAIT mode for 45 seconds to allow the
magnetron to warm up. Power sequences ON--OFF--ON lasting less
than the initial 45--second wait result in a 6--second wait period.

After warm--up, select test mode and verify that the test pattern appears
as shown in figure A--3. Check the function of the TGT control.

AD--41664--R1@

EFIS Test Pattern 120 Scan Shown (WX)


Figure A--3

A28--1146--059 PRIMUS R 870 Weather Radar System


Rev 3 A--13
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Tilt Management
Figures A--4 and A--5 are examples that show the relationship between
tilt angle, flight altitude, and selected range. The figures show the
distance above and below aircraft altitude that is illuminated by the
flat--plate radiator during level flight with 0_ tilt and shows a
representative low altitude situation, with antenna adjusted for 2.8_
up--tilt.

NOTE: The examples in figure A--4 and A--5 are based on 12--inch
antennas. Similar results are found with the installed 18--inch
antenna.

Radar Beam Illumination High Altitude


Figure A--4

Radar Beam Illumination Low Altitude


Figure A--5

PRIMUS R 870 Weather Radar System A28--1146--059


A--14 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Maximum Permissible Exposure Level (MPEL)


Heating and radiation effects of weather radar can be hazardous to life.
Personnel should remain at a distance greater than ”R” from
the radiating antenna in order to be outside the envelope in which
radiation exposure levels equal or exceed 10 mW/cm2, the limit
recommended in FAA Advisory Circular AC No. 20--68B, August 8,
1980, Subject: Recommended Radiation Safety Precautions for
Ground Operation of Airborne Weather Radar. The radius, ”R”,
distance to the maximum permissible exposure level boundary is
calculated for the radar system on the basis of radiator diameter, rated
peak--power output, and duty cycle. The greater of the distances
calculated for either the far--field or near--field is based on the
recommendations outlined in AC No. 20--68B.

The American National Standards Institute, in their document ANSI


C95.1--1982, recommends an exposure level of no more than
5 mW/cm2.

Honeywell Inc. recommends that operators follow the 5 mW/cm2


standard. As an example, figure A--6 shows the MPEL for the 12--inch
antenna.

MPEL Boundaries
Figure A--6

A28--1146--059 PRIMUS R 870 Weather Radar System


Rev 3 A--15/(A--16 blank)
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Appendix B
PRIMUSR 880 Weather Radar
System
INTRODUCTION
This abbreviated operational description is a summary of this radar
system as installed in the Hawker 800 aircraft. For complete operating
instructions on the PRIMUSR 880 Weather Radar System, shown in
figure B--1 refer to Honeywell Pub. No. A28--1146--102.

AD--41586--R1@

Weather Radar Display


Figure B--1

A28--1146--059 PRIMUS R 880 Weather Radar System


Rev 3 B--1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The PRIMUSR 880 Weather Radar System is a lightweight, X--band


digital radar with alphanumerics designed for weather detection and
ground mapping.

The primary purpose of the system is to detect storms along the flight
path and give the pilot a visual color indication of rainfall intensity and
turbulence content. After proper evaluation, the pilot can chart a course
to avoid these storm areas.

WARNING

THE SYSTEM PERFORMS ONLY THE FUNCTIONS OF WEATHER


DETECTION OR GROUND MAPPING. IT SHOULD NOT BE USED
OR RELIED UPON FOR PROXIMITY WARNING OR ANTI--COLLI-
SION PROTECTION.

In weather detection mode, storm intensity levels are displayed in four


bright colors contrasted against a deep black background. Areas of
very heavy rainfall are displayed in magenta, heavy rainfall in red, less
severe rainfall in yellow, moderate rainfall in green, and little or no
rainfall in black (background). Areas of detected turbulence are
displayed in soft white.

Range marks and identifying numerics, displayed in contrasting colors


are used to facilitate evaluation of storm cells.

Selecting the groundmap (GMAP) function changes system


parameters to improve resolution and enhance identification of small
targets at short ranges. The reflected signal from various ground
surfaces is displayed as magenta, yellow, or cyan (most to least
reflective).

Some installations have the optional lightning sensor system that is


controlled from one switch on the weather radar controller.

SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS
The system configuration uses a receiver/transmitter/antenna (R/T/A),
and one or two controllers. Radar information is displayed on the
electronic horizontal situation indicator (EHSI) or multifunction display
(MFD).

PRIMUS R 880 Weather Radar System A28--1146--059


B--2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The pilot and copilot use the dual controllers to each select independent
radar mode, range, tilt, and gain settings for display on their respective
EHSI. This is done by time sharing the receiver/transmitter/ antenna.
On the right--to--left antenna scan, the system switches to the mode,
range, tilt, and gain selected by the left controller and updates the left
EHSI. On the reverse antenna scan, the system switches to the mode,
range, tilt, and gain setting selected by the right controller and updates
the right EHSI. Also, either controller can be slaved to the other
controller, which results in identical displays on both EHSIs. Dual mode
gives the appearance of having two radar systems on the aircraft. Refer
to table B--1 for the dual control mode truth summary.

NOTE: The weather radar data displayed on the MFD is a function


of the selected weather radar controller. Refer to Section 5,
Multifunction Display System.

Left Right
Controller Controller Left Side Right Side RTA
Mode Mode (NOTE 1) (NOTE 1) Mode

OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF


OFF Standby ”SLV” Standby Standby
Standby
Standby OFF Standby ”SLV” Standby
Standby
OFF ON ”SLV” ON ON ON
ON OFF ON ”SLV” ON ON
Standby ON Standby/ ON/2 ON
2
ON Standby ON/2 Standby/2 ON
ON ON ON/2 ON/2 ON
Standby Standby Standby Standby Standby

Dual Control Mode Truth Table


Table B--1

A28--1146--059 PRIMUS R 880 Weather Radar System


Rev 3 B--3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

WC--880 WEATHER RADAR CONTROLLER


OPERATION
The controls and display features of the WC--880 Weather Radar
Controller are indexed and identified in figure B--2. Brightness levels for
all legend and controls on the indicator are controlled by the dimming
bus for the aircraft panel.

Weather Radar Controller Configurations


Figure B--2

PRIMUS R 880 Weather Radar System A28--1146--059


B--4 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

1 RANGE Button

The RANGE buttons are two momentary contact buttons that are used
to select the operating range of the radar (and LSS if installed). The
system permits selection of ranges in WX mode from 5 to 300 NM full
scale. In the flight plan (FPLN) mode, additional ranges of 500 and
1000 miles are permitted. The up arrow selects increasing ranges,
while the down arrow selects decreasing ranges. One--half the
selected range is annunciated at the one--half scale range mark on the
EHSI.

2 TRB (Turbulence Detection) Button

TRB is a button used to select the turbulence detection mode of


operation. The TRB mode can only be selected if the FUNCTION
switch is in the WX or RCT positions and the selected range is 50 miles
or less. The weather/turbulence mode is annunciated in the mode field
with the WX/T legend. Areas of at least moderate turbulence are shown
in soft white. The turbulence threshold is five meters per second.

WARNINGS

1. TURBULENCE CAN ONLY BE DETECTED WITHIN AREAS


OF RAINFALL. THE WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM CANNOT
DETECT CLEAR AIR TURBULENCE.
2. UNDETECTED TURBULENCE CAN EXIST WITHIN ANY
STORM CELL.

Selecting the 100, 200, or 300 mile range turns off the turbulence
detection. The /T is deleted from the mode annunciation and variable
gain is engaged if previously selected. Subsequent selection of ranges
of 50 miles or less re--engages turbulence detection.

3 STB (Stabilization) Button

The STB button turns the pitch and roll stability ON and OFF. It is also
used with the STB adjust mode and to override forced standby.

NOTE: Some controllers annunciate OFF when stabilization is OFF.

A28--1146--059 PRIMUS R 880 Weather Radar System


Rev 3 B--5
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

4 TGT (Target Alert) Button

The TGT button is an alternate--action button that enables and disables


the radar target alert feature. Target alert is selectable in all but the 300
mile range. When selected, target alert monitors beyond the selected
range and 7.5_ on each side of the aircraft heading. If a return with
certain characteristics is detected in the monitored area, the target alert
changes from the TGT armed condition to the TGT warning condition.
This annunciation advises the pilot that a potentially hazardous target
lies directly in front and outside of the selected range. When this
warning is received, the pilot should select longer ranges to view the
questionable target. Note that target alert is inactive within the selected
range.

Selecting target alert forces the system to preset gain. Target alert can
only be selected in the WX and FP modes.

In order to activate target alert, the target must have the depth and
range characteristics described in table B--2:

Selected Range Minimum Target


(NM) Depth (NM) Target Range (NM)

5 5 5--55
10 5 10--60
25 5 25--75
50 5 50--100
100 5 100--150
200 5 200--250
300 N/A N/A
FP (Flight Plan) 5 5--55

Target Alert Characteristics


Table B--2

PRIMUS R 880 Weather Radar System A28--1146--059


B--6 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

5 SECT (Scan Sector) Button


The SECT button is an alternate--action button that is used to select
either the normal 12 looks/minute 120_ scan or the faster update 24
looks/minute 60_ sector scan.

6 TILT Rotary Control Knob

The TILT switch is a rotary control that is used to select the tilt angle of
antenna beam with relation to the horizon. cw rotation tilts beam upward
0_ to 15_; ccw rotation tilts beam downward 0_ to --15_. The range
between +5_ and --5_ is expanded for ease of setting. A digital
readout of the antenna tilt angle is displayed on the EFIS.

D PULL ACT (Altitude Compensated Tilt) Function -- When the


TILT control knob is pulled out, the system engages the ACT
(optional). In ACT, the antenna tilt is automatically adjusted with
regard to the selected range and barometric altitude. The antenna
tilt automatically readjusts with changes in altitude and/or selected
range. In ACT, the tilt control can fine tune the tilt setting by 2.

ACT is annunciated with an A following the digital tilt readout. The


digital tilt readout always shows the commanded tilt of the antenna
regardless of the tilt command source (ACT command or manual tilt
command).

WARNINGS
1. TO AVOID FLYING UNDER OR OVER STORMS,
FREQUENTLY SELECT MANUAL TILT TO SCAN BOTH
ABOVE AND BELOW YOUR FLIGHT LEVEL.
2. ALWAYS USE MANUAL TILT FOR WEATHER ANALYSIS.

7 LSS (Lightning Sensor System) Rotary Switch (Optional)


The LSS switch is an optional four--position rotary switch that selects
the LSS operating modes described below:

D OFF -- In this position all power is removed from the LSS.

D SBY --In this position the display of LSS data is inhibited, but the LSS
still accumulates data.

D LX --In this position the LSS is fully operational and it displays LSS
data on the indicator.

A28--1146--059 PRIMUS R 880 Weather Radar System


Rev 3 B--7
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

D Maximum Permissible Exposure Level (MPEL)CLR/TST


(Clear/Test) -- In this position, accumulated data is cleared from the
memory of the LSS. After 3 seconds, the test mode is initiated in the
LSS.

8 SLV (Slave) Annunciator

The SLV annunciator is only used in dual controller installations. With


dual controllers, one controller can be slaved to the other by selecting
OFF on that controller only, with the RADAR mode switch. This slaved
condition is annunciated with the SLV annunciator.

NOTE: In the slaved condition, both controllers must be off before the
radar system turns off.

9 RADAR Rotary Switch

This rotary switch is used to select one of the following functions.

D OFF -- This position turns the radar system off.

D SBY (Standby) -- This position places the radar system in standby;


a ready state, with the antenna scan stopped, the transmitter
inhibited, and the display memory erased. STBY is displayed on the
EFIS/MFD.

D WX (Weather) -- This position selects the weather detection mode.


The system is fully operational and all internal parameters are set
for enroute weather detection.

If WX is selected before the initial RTA warmup period is complete


(approximately 45 to 90 seconds), the WAIT legend is displayed on the
EFIS/MFD. In WAIT mode, the transmitter and antenna scan are
inhibited and the display memory is erased. When the warmup is
complete, the system automatically switches to the WX mode.

PRIMUS R 880 Weather Radar System A28--1146--059


B--8 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The system, in preset gain, is calibrated as described in table B--3.

Rainfall Rate
Color
in/hr mm/hr

.04--.16 1--4 Green


.16--.47 4--12 Yellow
.47--2 12--50 Red
>2 >50 Magenta

Rainfall Rate Color Coding


Table B--3

D RCT (Rain Echo Attenuation Compensation Technique) -- This


switch position turns on RCT.

The RCT circuitry compensates for attenuation of the radar signal


as it passes through rainfall. The cyan field indicates areas where
further compensation is not possible. Any target detected within the
cyan field cannot be calibrated and should be considered
dangerous. All targets in the cyan field are displayed as 4th level
precipitation, magenta.

RCT is a submode of the WX mode and selecting RCT forces the


system to preset gain. When RCT is selected, the RCT legend is
displayed on the EFIS/MFD.

NOTE: RCT’s three functions (attenuation compensation, cyan


field, and forcing targets to magenta) are switched on and
off with the RCT switch.

D GMAP (Ground Mapping) -- The GMAP position puts the radar


system in the ground mapping mode. The system is fully
operational and all parameters are set to enhance returns from
ground targets.

NOTE: RCT (react), TGT (target), or TRB (turbulence) modes are


not selectable in GMAP.

WARNING

WEATHER TYPE TARGETS ARE NOT CALIBRATED WHEN THE


RADAR IS IN THE GMAP MODE. BECAUSE OF THIS, DO NOT USE
THE GMAP MODE FOR WEATHER DETECTION.

A28--1146--059 PRIMUS R 880 Weather Radar System


Rev 3 B--9
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

As a constant reminder that GMAP is selected, the alphanumerics


are changed to green, the GMAP legend is displayed in the mode
field, and the color scheme is changed to cyan, yellow, and
magenta. Cyan represents the least reflective return, yellow is a
moderate return, and magenta is a strong return.

If GMAP is selected before the initial RTA warmup period is


complete (approximately 45 to 90 seconds), the white WAIT legend
is displayed in the mode field. In wait mode, the transmitter and
antenna scan are inhibited and the memory is erased. When the
warmup period is complete, the system automatically switches to
the GMAP mode.

D FP (Flight Plan)-- The FP position puts the radar system in the flight
plan mode. This mode clears the screen of radar data so ancillary
data can be displayed. Examples of this data are:
- Navigation displays
- Electrical discharge (lightning) data.
NOTE: In the FP mode, the radar RTA is put in standby, the
alphanumerics are changed to cyan, and the flight plan
(FLTPLN) legend is displayed in the mode field.

The target alert mode can be used in the FP mode. With target alert
on and the FP mode selected, the target alert armed annunciation
(TGT) is displayed. The RTA searches for a hazardous target from
5 to 55 miles and 7.5 of dead ahead. No radar targets are displayed.
If a hazardous target is detected, the target alert armed
annunciation switches to the alert annunciation (TGT). This advises
the pilot that a hazardous target is in the flightpath and the WX mode
must be selected to view it.

NOTE: When displaying checklist, the TGT function is


inoperative.

D TST (Test) -- The TST position selects the radar test mode. A
special test pattern, shown in figure B--3, is displayed to verify
system operation. The TEST legend is displayed in the mode field.

PRIMUS R 880 Weather Radar System A28--1146--059


B--10 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Weather Radar Test Pattern


Figure B--3

WARNING

UNLESS THE SYSTEM IS IN FORCED STANDBY, THE TRANSMIT-


TER IS ON AND RADIATING X--BAND MICROWAVE ENERGY IN
TEST MODE. REFER TO MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE
LEVEL (MPEL) AT THE END OF THIS APPENDIX.

D FSBY (Forced Standby) -- FSBY is an automatic, nonselectable


radar mode. As an installation option, the indicator can be wired to
the weight--on--wheels (WOW) squat switch. When wired, the RTA
is in the FSBY mode when the aircraft is on the ground. In FSBY
mode, the transmitter and antenna scan are both inhibited, the
display memory is erased, and the FSBY legend is displayed in the
mode field. When in the FSBY mode, pushing the STAB button 4
times in 3 seconds restores normal operation.

A28--1146--059 PRIMUS R 880 Weather Radar System


Rev 3 B--11
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

The FSBY mode is a safety feature that inhibits the transmitter on


the ground to eliminate the X--band microwave radiation hazard.
Refer to MPEL in this section.

WARNING

FORCED STANDBY MODE MUST BE VERIFIED BY THE OPERA-


TOR TO ENSURE SAFETY FOR GROUND PERSONNEL.

In installations with two radar controllers, it is only necessary to


override forced standby from one controller.

If either controller is returned to standby mode while weight is on


wheels, the system returns to the forced standby mode.

10 GAIN Rotary Control Knob

The GAIN is a single turn rotary control and push/pull switch that is used
to control the receiver gain. When the GAIN switch is pushed, the
system enters the preset, calibrated gain mode. Calibrated gain is the
normal mode and is used for weather avoidance. In calibrated gain, the
rotary portion of the GAIN control does nothing.

When the GAIN switch is pulled out, the system enters the variable
gain mode. Variable gain is useful for additional weather analysis and
for ground mapping. In WX mode, variable gain can increase receiver
sensitivity over the calibrated level to show weak targets or it can
be reduced below the calibrated level to eliminate weak returns.

WARNING

LOW VARIABLE GAIN SETTINGS CAN ELIMINATE HAZARDOUS


TARGETS FROM THE DISPLAY.

In GMAP mode, variable gain reduces the level of strong returns from
ground targets.

Minimum gain is attained with the control at its full ccw position. Gain
increases as the control is rotated in a cw direction from full ccw at full
cw position, the gain is at maximum.

The VAR! legend annunciates variable gain. Selecting RCT or TGT


forces the system into calibrated gain.

PRIMUS R 880 Weather Radar System A28--1146--059


B--12 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Tilt Management
Figures B--4 and B--5 are examples that show the relationship between
tilt angle, flight altitude, and selected range. The figures show the
stance above and below aircraft altitude that is illuminated by the
flat--plate radiator during level flight with 0_ tilt and shows a
representative low altitude situation, with antenna adjusted for 2.8_
up--tilt.

NOTE: The examples in figures B--4 and B--5 are based on 12--inch
antennas. Similar results are found with the installed 18--inch
antenna.

Radar Beam Illumination High Altitude


Figure B--4

Radar Beam Illumination Low Altitude


Figure B--5

A28--1146--059 PRIMUS R 880 Weather Radar System


Rev 3 B--13
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Maximum Permissible Exposure Level (MPEL)


Heating and radiation effects of weather radar can be hazardous to life.
Personnel should remain at a distance greater than R from the radiating
antenna in order to be outside of the envelope in which radiation
exposure levels equal or exceed 10 mW/cm2, the limit recommended
in FAA Advisory Circular AC No. 20--68B, August 8, 1980, Subject:
Recommended Radiation Safety Precautions for Ground Operation of
Airborne Weather Radar. The radius, R, to the maximum permissible
exposure level boundary is calculated for the radar system on the basis
of radiator diameter, rated peak--power output, and duty cycle. The
greater of the distances calculated for either the far--field or near--field
is based on the recommendations outlined in AC No. 20--68B.

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI), in their document


ANSI C95.1--1982, recommends an exposure level of no more than
5 mW/cm2.

Honeywell Inc. recommends that operators follow the 5 mW/cm2


standard. Figure B--6 shows MPEL for both exposure levels.

MPEL Boundaries
Figure B--6

PRIMUS R 880 Weather Radar System A28--1146--059


B--14 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Index
A B
Back course (BC) mode, 8-23
Acronyms and abbreviations, 11-1 Bank hold mode, 8-2
Air data system (ADS), 2-4 Barometric altimeter, 3-1
air data instruments, 3-1, 3-2 DADC self--test mode speed
barometric altimeter, 3-1 displays, 3-3
TAS/TEMP indicator, 3-4 IAS and VS displays, 3-3
Altitude (ALT) hold mode, 8-48
Altitude preselect (ALT SEL)
mode, 8-49 C
Approach (APP) mode, 8-30
Attitude and heading reference Combined vertical and lateral mode
system (AHRS), 2-3, 6-12 problems, 9-9
abnormal operations, 6-18 Controllers
abnormal ADI or HSI attitude and heading reference
indication, 6-19 system controller, 6-12
flight operations in basic display controller, 4-1
mode, 6-19 flight guidance controller, 6-9
flight operations in DG instrument remote controllers, 4-4
mode, 6-19 multifunction display (MFD)
in--air initialization, 6-19 controller, 5-1
take--off in basic mode, 6-18 checklist, 5-5
take--off in DG mode, 6-19 navigation, 5-1
controller, 6-12 weather, 5-4
reduced performance WC--870 Weather Radar
operation, 6-15 Controller operation, A--4
ground initialization, 6-17 GAIN rotary knob, A--11
self--test, 6-16 GCR button, A--5
standard operation, 6-13 LSS rotary switch
Automatic flight control system (optional), A--8
(AFCS), 6-1 RADAR rotary switch, A--9
flight control functions, 6-1 RANGE button, A--4
abnormal disengage SECT button, A--7
annunciations, 6-4 SLV annunciator, A--8
autopilot engagement, 6-3 TGT button, A--6
disengage, 6-3 TILT rotary control knob, A--7
disengage annunciations, 6-4 TRB button, A--5
status annunciations, 6-2 WC--880 Weather Radar
flight director commands, 6-5 Controller, B--4
FD modes -- overview, 6-6 GAIN rotary knob, B--12
mode engagement, 6-7 LSS rotary switch
flight guidance controller, 6-9 (optional), B--7

A28--1146--059 Index
Rev 3 Index--1
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Index (cont)
RADAR rotary switch, B--8 electronic horizontal situation
RANGE button, B--5 indicator (EHSI), 4-35
SECT button, B--7 arc mode display, 4-43
SLV annunciator, B--8 arc mode displays and
STB button, B--5 annunciators, 4-37
TGT button, B--6 failure warning flags, 4-58
TILT rotary control knob, B--7 full compass display
TRB button, B--5 presentations, 4-42
Customer support centers, 10-2 full, arc, WX, map or map/WX
North America, 10-2 modes, 4-35
Rest of the world, 10-3 heading comparison
monitoring, 4-57
map and map/WX modes
D only, 4-36
map mode with FMS selected
Display controller, 4-1
for display, 4-47
Dual couple approach mode, 8-36
map mode with VOR selected
CAT 2 coupled ILS
for display, 4-44
approaches, 8-38
NAV source selections, 4-56
CAT 2 pre--approach test, 8-42
navigation (NAV) switching on
EHSI, 4-56
E weather radar display, 4-49
WX and map/WX modes
EDZ--817 Electronic Flight only, 4-36
Instrument System (EFIS) enhanced ground
Displays, 4-6 proximity warning system
display controller, 4-1 (EGPWS), 2--12, 4-51
electronic attitude director full system operation, 4-52
indicator (EADI), 4-6 limited system operation, 4-51
approach capture tracking terrain annunciations (full or
below DH, 4-20 limited systems), 4-53
CAT 2 annunciations, 4-27 instrument remote controllers, 4-4
climb to initial altitude, 4-17 self--test, 4-60
color coding, 4-7 EDZ--818 Electronic Flight
comparison monitoring, 4-29 Instrument System (EFIS) series
displays and annunciators, 4-8 displays (optional), 4-62
enroute cruise, 4-18 display controller, 4-1
excessive attitude display, 4-31 electronic attitude director
failure warning flag, 4-32 indicator (EADI), 4-62
initialization at power--up, 4-8 approach capture tracking
reversion operation, 4-21 below DH, 4-66
setup for approach, 4-19 CAT2 annunciations, 4-72
takeoff using go--around comparison monitor
mode, 4-16 annunciations, 4-75

Index A28--1146--059
Index--2 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Index (cont)
failure warning Flight fault summary, 9-9
annunciations, 4-77 Flight level change (FLC) mode, 8-45
reversion annunciations, 4-67 maximum speed (MAX SPD)
reversionary source submode, 8-47
annunciators, 4-72 Flight management system
electronic horizontal situation (FMS), 2-7
indicator (EHSI), 4-80 FMS steering, 8-14
arc mode with TCAS traffic
display, 4-81
external switch, 4-82 G
failure warning
annunciations, 4-84 Glossary of terms, 7-1
heading comparison monitor Go--around (GA) mode, 8-54
annunciation, 4-83
enhanced ground
proximity warning system H
(EGPWS), 2--12, 4-51
full system operation, 4-52 Heading hold and wings level, 8-1
limited system operation, 4-51 Heading select mode, 8-3
terrain annunciations (full or Honeywell product support, 10-1
limited systems), 4-53 24--hour exchange/rental support
instrument remote controllers, 4-4 centers, 10-2
Equipment list, 1-3 Customer support centers, 10-2
Publication ordering
information, 10-4
F
Flight guidance system (FGS), 2-7 I
Flight control system (FCS), 6-1
attitude and heading reference Inertial reference system (IRS)
system (AHRS), 6-12 (optional), 2-10
controllers, 6-12 Instrument remote controllers
reduced performance (IRC), 4-4
operation, 6-15 Introduction, 1-1
standard operation, 6-13 equipment list, 1-2
flight control functions, 6-1
autopilot engagement, 6-3
disengage, 6-3 L
disengage annunciations, 6-4
status annunciations, 6-2 Lateral mode problems, 9-4
flight director commands, 6-5 Lightning sensor system (LSS)
FD modes -- overview, 6-6 (optional), 2-11
mode engagement, 6-7 Localizer navigation (NAV)
flight guidance controller, 6-9 mode, 8-16

A28--1146--059 Index
Rev 3 Index--3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Index (cont)
M ground maintenance test
display, 5-25
lightning sensor system (LSS)
Modes of operation, 8-1
display, 5-17
altitude (ALT) hold mode, 8-48
map mode, 5-8
altitude preselect (ALT SEL)
flight plan data, 5-11
mode, 8-49
plan mode, 5-13
approach (APP) mode, 8-30
flight plan data, 5-14
back course (BC) mode, 8-23
holding pattern, 5-16
bank hold mode, 8-2
reversionary modes , 5-6
dual couple approach mode, 8-36
DIM knob controls, 5-6
CAT 2 coupled ILS
mode selector, 5-6
approaches, 8-38
TCAS traffic display (optional), 5-17
CAT 2 pre--approach
weather radar (WX) mode, 5-22
test, 8-42
pitch attitude hold, 8-43
flight level change (FLC) P
mode, 8-45
maximum speed (MAX SPD) Pilot write--up, 9-1
submode, 8-47 Pitch attitude hold, 8-45
flight management system (FMS) PRIMUSR 870 Weather Radar
steering, 8-14 System, 2-9, A--1
go--around (GA), 8-54 system configurations, A--2
heading hold and wings level, 8-1 typical operation, A--12
heading select mode, 8-3 maximum permissible
localizer navigation (NAV) exposure level
mode, 8-16 (MPEL), A--15
preview and transition, 8-28 powerup, A--13
vertical navigation (VNAV) precautions, A--12
mode, 8-53 preliminary control
vertical speed (VS) hold settings, A--12
mode, 8-44 tilt management, A--14
VOR approach NAV mode, 8-11 weather radar controller
VOR navigation (NAV) mode, 8-4 operation, A--4
VOR push direct function, 8-12 GAIN rotary knob, A--11
Multifunction display (MFD) GCR button, A--5
system, 2-6, 5-1, 5--7 LSS rotary switch
changing a waypoint, 5-20 (optional), A--8
checklist display, 5-23 RADAR rotary switch, A--9
controller RANGE button, A--4
checklist, 5-5 SECT button, A--7
navigation, 5-1 SLV annunciator, A--8
weather, 5-4 TGT button, A--6
EFIS backup modes, 5-25 TILT rotary control knob, A--7

Index A28--1146--059
Index--4 Rev 3
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Index (cont)
TRB button, A--5 S
PRIMUSR 880 Weather Radar
System, 2--10, B--1 System description, 2-1
maximum permissible exposure air data system (ADS), 2-4
level (MPEL), B--14 attitude and heading reference
system configurations, B--2 system (AHRS), 2-3
tilt management, B--13 electronic flight instrument
weather radar controller system, 2-5
operation, B--4 enhanced ground proximity
GAIN rotary knob, B--12 warning system (EGPWS)
LSS rotary switch (optional), 2-12
(optional), B--7 flight guidance system (FGS), 2-7
RADAR rotary switch, B--8 flight management system
RANGE button, B--5 (FMS), 2-7
SECT button, B--7 inertial reference system (IRS)
SLV annunciator, B--8 (optional), 2-10
STB button, B--5 lightning sensor system (LSS)
TGT button, B--6 (optional), 2-11
TILT rotary control knob, B--7 multifunction display (MFD)
TRB button, B--5 system, 2-6
PRIMUSR II Integrated Radio other switches and controls, 2-12
System, 2-8 PRIMUSR 870 Weather Radar
Procedures System, 2-9
altitude preselect mode, 8-51 PRIMUSR 880 Weather Radar
approach mode, 8-31 System (Optional), 2-10
back course automatic PRIMUSR II Integrated Radio
intercept, 8-24 System, 2-8
CAT 2 coupled approach, 8-39 radio altimeter system, 2-5
CAT 2 pre--approach test, 8-42 traffic alert and collision
dual couple approach setup, 8-37 avoidance system (TCAS)
EFIS self--test, 4-60 (optional), 2-11
flight level change, 8-46 System limits, 7-1
inserting a waypoint, 5--20 glossary of terms, 7-1
localizer mode select, 8-17 system performance/operating
VOR (NAV) mode select, 8-5 limits, 7-7
VOR push direct function, 8-11
Publication ordering information, 10-4
T
R Traffic alert and collision avoidance
system (TCAS) (optional), 2-11
Radio altimeter system, 2-5 traffic display (optional), 5-17
Reversionary modes, 5-6 Troubleshooting, 9-1
DIM knob controls, 5-6 commonly used terms, 9-3
mode selector, 5-6 flight fault summary, 9-9

A28--1146--059 Index
Rev 3 Index--5
SPZ--8000 Digital Integrated Flight Control System

Index (cont)
pilot write--up, 9-1 Weather radar system (PRIMUSR
typical problems, 9-4 880), 2--10, B--1
combined vertical and lateral maximum permissible exposure
mode problems, 9-9 level (MPEL), B--14
lateral mode problems, 9-4 system configurations, B--2
vertical mode problems, 9-7 tilt management, B--13
True airspeed/temperature weather radar controller
(TAS/TEMP) indicator, 3-4 operation, B--4
GAIN rotary knob, B--12
V LSS rotary switch
(optional), B--7
Vertical mode problems, 9-7 RADAR rotary switch, B--8
Vertical navigation (VNAV) RANGE button, B--5
mode, 8-53 SECT button, B--7
Vertical speed (VS) hold mode, 8-44 SLV annunciator, B--8
VOR STB button, B--5
approach NAV mode, 8-11 TGT (button, B--6
navigation (NAV) mode, 8-4 TILT rotary control knob, B--7
push direct function, 8-12 TRB button, B--5

W
Weather radar system (PRIMUSR
870), 2--9, A--1
maximum permissible exposure
level (MPEL), A--15
powerup, A--13
precautions, A--12
preliminary control settings, A--12
tilt management, A--14
weather radar controller
operation, A--4
GAIN rotary knob, A--11
GCR button, A--5
LSS rotary switch
(optional), A--8
RADAR rotary switch, A--9
RANGE button, A--4
SECT button, A--7
SLV annunciator, A--8
TGT button, A--6
TILT rotary control knob, A--7
TRB button, A--5

Index A28--1146--059
Index--6 Rev 3