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Business Communication Report on

Solar Energy and Pakistan

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Business Communication Report on
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Table of Contents

Foreword 3
Executive summary 4
Solar Generation 5
Solar Basics 6
Solar Energy Future 9
Pakistan’s indulgence in Solar Energy 10
Solar activity in Pakistan……………….
Activities of Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy
Technologies (PCRET) 12
Pakistan’s Solar Energy Development Plan 13
Conclusion 16

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The report is a realistic outline showing that solar power is able to supplying
electricity to more than one billion people within two decades. It has become
unambiguous that energy access has become a priority if we are to enable
sustainable and fair growth for future generations.

The report highlights the global benefits and Pakistan’s Initiative in solar energy
for the climate and environment, social development, the economy and supply
chain as well as for industry and employment. Solar Generation targeted to
define the role that solar electricity will take part in in the lives of a population
born today and growing up as an important energy saving and consumption
group. We have examined how solar electricity will be perceived from both the
consumer and the solar business perspective within the timescale of this single


The global photovoltaic industry has already made great investments and to
make sure this investment continues into the future there must be a stable
political framework to support it. Solar photovoltaic (PV) can and should play a
significant role within a future sustainable energy system. PV is one of the key
technologies for generating decentralized electricity for private households
around the world, and the technology is currently maturing. The market has
grown by more than 40% a year for almost a decade and the industry is
investing large sums to increase production facilities.

The further development of PV solar electricity from a niche market to a

mainstream technology will be crucial in 2006 and 2007. For the expansion of
solar energy to be successful there must be a clear commitment from


As oil, gas and coal prices continue to rise with the supply often coming from
politically unstable countries, the question of an affordable, clean and secure
energy supply points to a need for renewable energies. Renewable energies and
energy efficiency can cover future energy needs, but a long-term strategy is
needed if this is to become reality. The shift in the energy sector will takes a

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least one generation – the ‘Solar Generation’. Security of energy supply – both
through access to fuels and price stability – is an increasingly important part of
the current global energy debate.

Large solar thermal power plants can harvest the sun’s power in dry and hot
desert-like areas; PV solar electricity can provide decentralized energy supply at
the very place it is consumed.

Renewable energies and in particular PV solar electricity have long-term

potential. The benefits of solar power are compelling: environmental protection,
economic growth, job creation, secure and distributed generation, diversity of
fuel supply and rapid deployment, as well as the global potential for technology
transfer and innovation. Most decisions on energy made today overlook solar
power as a decentralized and modular technology, which can be rapidly
deployed to generate electricity in developing areas.

Climate change is increasingly accepted as one of the biggest man-made threats
to the planet. We have now reached a point where CO2 and other greenhouse
gas emissions have already induced excessive floods, droughts and intensified
hurricanes and typhoons.

If we do not rigorously change our addiction to fossil fuels we will very soon cross
a point when not only will more floods, droughts and heavier storms occur, but
changes in ocean circulation and the melting of glaciers and arctic ice will also
produce destructive results for mankind. Fortunately, we have technologies at
hand – the portfolio of renewable energies – that could change this downward
spiral and lead to a green and sustainable future.

The solar electricity market is roaring. In 2005 the cumulative installed capacity
of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems around the world passed the landmark figure
of 5000MWp

The worldwide photovoltaic industry, particularly in Europe and Japan, is

investing heavily in new production facilities and technologies. At the same time,
political support for the development of solar electricity has led to far-reaching
promotion frameworks being put in place in a number of countries for instance

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Since the first issue of Solar Generation was formed in 2001, the worldwide
market has continued to expand at the rate then predicted. While some
countries, such as the United States, have lagged behind in their expected
development, others such as
Germany has exceeded expectations.

This the third issue of our global solar PV market forecast Solar Generation after
its first appearances in 2001 and in 2004. Since then, our estimates have been
proved to be realistic, even a little conservative, as the market grew faster.
Compared to the first market forecast, the market volume in 2005 was three
years ahead of schedule, and the market volume in 2010 is now expected to be
over 5500MW – twice our expectation in 2001. At the same time, there is a need
to transmit to as wide ambience as possible the message that solar electricity
will bring socio-economic, industrial and environmental benefits to regions which
proactively encourage its uptake.


The results which have emerged from this extensive analysis point to a
technology that is going to have a significant future impact on the everyday lives
of the population born today. Clearly, this transformation will not happen by
itself. It will require the far-reaching commitment of consumers and industry, as
well as significant political will. The level of commitment needed, however, has
already been demonstrated in those countries which show the greatest growth in
their solar electricity industries. We must learn from them and adapt.

Deploy the corresponding catalysts at global level if solar electricity is to fulfil the
potential that we need it to.


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Initial growth is likely to be fastest in the grid-connected sector; by 2010 the off-
grid sector will play an increasing role. The average annual growth rate of the
worldwide PV market up to 2009 is projected to be 35% and 26% between 2010
and 2015. Between 2016 and 2025, the market will slowly consolidate at a high
level, growth rates going down to 19% until 2020 and 11% between 2021 and

Figures for the growth in universal electricity demand up to 2020 (on which
comparisons with expected PV development are based) have been taken from
projections by the International Energy Agency. These show total world power
demand increasing to 23,000 Terawatt hours (TWh) by 2025. DLR has been
asked by Greenpeace International and EREC to conduct a study on global
sustainable energy pathways up to 2050. The scenarios are based on the
reference scenario from IEA World Energy Outlook (2004). The energy demand is
split up in electricity and fuels. A low energy demand scenario has been
developed based on the IEA reference scenario: For the year 2025, the energy
efficiency scenario estimates a global electricity demand of 16.845 TWh in 2025.


Over the whole situation period it is approximate that an common of 0.6 kg of
COc would be saved per kilowatt-hour of yield from a solar generator.

In order to provide up to a billion people with solar electricity by 2025, and go on
to get a global electricity share of 20% or more by 2040, a major shift in energy
policy will be needed. Experience over the past few years has demonstrated the
effectiveness of joint industrial and political commitment to achieving greater
penetration of solar electricity into the energy mix at local, national, regional and
global levels.

The US National Solar Radiation database, for example, has logged 30 years of
solar radiation and additional meteorological data from 337 sites. There is more
than enough solar radiation available around the world to satisfy the demand for
solar power systems. The proportion of the sun’s rays that reaches the earth’s
surface is enough to provide for global energy consumption 10,000 times over.
On average, each square meter of land is exposed to enough sunlight to produce
1,700 kWh of power every year. The statistical information base for the solar
energy resource is very solid.

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The US National Solar Radiation record, for example, has logged 30 years of solar
radiation and additional meteorological data from 237 sites around the globe.

Figure 1.2 shows the estimated potential energy output from solar PV generators
in different parts of the world. The calculation used here takes into account the
average efficiency of modules and converters as well as the correct angle to the
sun required at different latitudes. In terms of final demand, the report Solar
Electricity in 2010 (European Photovoltaic Industry Association, 2001) shows that
only the market segment comprising grid-connected PV rooftop systems, the
most dynamic growth area in the market, has the potential to generate an
average of 16% of electricity consumption across the OECD (industrialized)


“Photovoltaic” is a combination of two words: “photo”, meaning= light, and
“voltaic”, meaning electricity. Photovoltaic technology, the scientific term used
to describe what we use to convert solar energy into electricity, generates
electricity from light. We use a semi-conductor material which can be adapted to
release electrons, the negatively charged particles that form the basis of
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electricity. The most common semi-conductor material used in photovoltaic (PV)
cells is silicon, an element most commonly found in sand.

All PV cells have at least two layers of such semi-conductors, one positively
charged and one negatively charged. When light shines on the semi-conductor,
the electric field across the junction between these two layers causes electricity
to flow, generates DC current. The greater the intensity of the light; the greater
the flow of electricity.

A photovoltaic system therefore does not need bright sunlight in order to

operate. It also generates electricity on cloudy days by a rationing of the energy
output that depends on the density of the clouds. Due to the reflection of
sunlight, days with slight cloud can even result in higher energy yields than days
with a completely cloudless sky. Generating energy through solar PV is quite
different from how a solar thermal system works, where the sun’s rays are used
to generate heat, usually for hot water in a house, swimming pool etc.


• The fuel is free.

• There are no moving parts to wear out, break down or replace.
• Only minimal maintenance is required to keep the system running.
• The systems are modular and can be quickly installed anywhere.
• It produces no noise, harmful emissions or polluting gases.

Concentrator cells: focus light from a large area onto a small area of
photovoltaic material using an optical concentrator (such as a Fresnel lens), thus
minimising the quantity of PV cells required. The

two main drawbacks with concentrator systems are that they cannot make use
of diffuse sunlight, and must always be directed towards the sun with a tracking

Spheral solar technology: uses minute silicon beads bonded to an aluminium

foil matrix. This offers a big cost advantage because of the reduced requirement
for silicon. Two companies, from Canada and Japan, are planning to
commercialize modules with Spheral solar cells, with one of them already
predicting a module efficiency of 11%. This represents an excellent example of
the rapid technical progress in photovoltaic.

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Modules: are clusters of PV cells incorporated into a unit, usually by soldering
them together under a sheet of glass. They can be adapted in size to the
proposed site, and quickly installed. They are also robust, reliable and
weatherproof. Module producers usually guarantee a power output of 80% of
the nominal power even after 20-25 years. When a PV installation is described
as having a capacity of 3 kWp(peak), this refers to the output of the system
under standard testing conditions (STC), allowing comparisons between different
modules. In central Europe a 3 kWp rated solar electricity system, with a module
area of approximately 27 square meters, would produce enough power to meet
the electricity demand of an energy-conscious household.

Inverters are used to convert the direct current (DC) power generated by a PV
generator into alternating current (AC) compatible with the local electricity
distribution network. This is essential for grid-connected PV systems. Inverters
are offered in a wide range of power classes, from a few hundred watts through
the most frequently used range of several kWp (3-6 kWp) up to central inverters
for large-scale systems with several hundred kWp.


Stand-alone (off-grid) PV systems contain a BATTERY, frequently of the lead
acid type, to store the energy for future use. New high-quality batteries designed
especially for solar applications with lifetimes of up to 15 years are now
available. However the lifetime of the battery strongly depends on the battery
management and the user’s behaviour. The battery is connected to the PV array
via a CHARGE CONTROLLER. The charge controller protects the battery from
overcharging or discharging, and can also provide information about the state of
the system or enable metering and pre-payment for the electricity used. If AC
output is needed, an INVERTER is required to convert the DC power from the


This is the most popular type of solar PV system for homes and businesses in the
developed world. Connection to the local electricity network allows any excess
power produced to be sold to the utility. Electricity is then imported from the
network outside daylight hours. An inverter is used to convert the DC power
produced by the system to AC power for running normal electrical equipment.
In countries with a premium feed-in tariff, this is considerably higher than the
usual tariff paid by the customer to the utility, so usually all electricity produced
is fed into the public grid and sold to the utility. This is the situation in countries
such as Germany or Spain.


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Completely independent of the grid, the system is connected to a battery via a
charge controller, which stores the electricity generated and acts as the main
power supply. An inverter can be used to provide AC power, enabling the use of
normal appliances without mains power. Typical off-grid applications are
industrial applications such as repeater stations for mobile phones or rural
electrification. Rural electrification means either small solar home systems (SHS)
covering basic electricity needs or solar mini grids, which are larger solar
electricity systems providing electricity for several households.

A solar system can be combined with another source of power - a biomass
generator, a solar turbine or diesel generator – to ensure a consistent supply of
electricity. A hybrid system can be grid connected, stand alone or grid support.


If PV is to have a promising future as a major energy source it must build on the
experiences of those countries that have already led the way in stimulating the
solar energy market. In this section we look forward to what solar power could
achieve - given the right market conditions and an anticipated fall in costs - over
the first two decades of the twenty-first century. As well as projections for
installed capacity and energy output we also make assessments of the level of
investment required, the number of jobs that would be created and the crucial
effect that an increased input from solar electricity will have on greenhouse gas

This scenario for 2025, together with an extended projection forwards to 2040, is
based on the following core inputs.

• PV market development over recent years both globally and in specific regions.
• National and regional market support programmers.
• National targets for PV installations and manufacturing capacity.
• The potential for PV in terms of solar irradiation, the availability of suitable roof
space and the demand for electricity in areas not connected to the grid.

The global installed capacity of solar power systems would reach 433 GWp by
2025. About two thirds of this would be in the grid-connected market, mainly in
industrialized countries. Assuming that 80% of these systems are installed on
residential buildings, and their average size is 3 kWp, each serving the needs of
three people, the total number of people by then generating their own electricity
from a grid-connected solar system would reach 290 million. In Europe alone

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there would be roughly 41 million people receiving their supply from grid-
connected solar electricity.

In the non-industrialized world approximately 40

GWp of solar capacity is expected to have been
installed by 2020 in the rural electrification
sector. Here the assumption is that on average a
100 Wp stand-alone system will cover the basic
electricity needs of 3-4 persons per dwelling.
Since system sizes are much smaller and the
population density greater, this means that UP
than 1.6 billion people could get electricity from
off grid photovoltaic systems. This would
represent a major breakthrough for the
technology from its present emerging status

More jobs are created in the installation and
servicing of PV systems than in their manufacture.
Based on information provided by the industry, it
has been assumed that, up to 2010, 20 jobs will be
created per MW of capacity during manufacture,
decreasing to 10 jobs per MW between 2010 and
2020. About 30 jobs per MW will be created during
the process of installation, retailing and providing
other local services up to 2010, reducing to 27 jobs
per MW between 2010 and 2020. As far as
maintenance is concerned it is assumed that with
the more efficient business structures and larger
systems in the industrialized world, about one job
will be created per installed MW. Since developing world markets will play a
more significant role beyond 2010, however, the proportion of maintenance work
is assumed to steadily increase up to two jobs per MW by 2020. The result is that
of those would be in the installation and marketing of systems.

Pakistan’s indulgence in solar energy

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ISLAMABAD, April 29-2010 - President Asif Ali Zardari has asked for an early
adoption and utilization of modern solar and geothermal technologies including
solar cookers, geothermal heat pumps, solar water heaters and solar water
pumping etc. to take full advantage of the available natural energy resources, on
one hand and to meet the energy requirements of the country, on the other.
“The energy crisis has forced upon a vigorous search for out of box, imaginative
and bold solutions,” the President said during a briefing given to him on alternate

Pakistan on industrial grid linked electricity production program, the Government

of Pakistan has determined to establish 100 MW Solar Power Farm by June 2011.
This program initiated by the Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB),
involves financing through private sector, land from Government of Sindh and
power purchase by NTDC for HESCO. The Government of Pakistan guarantees
are backed through NEPRA. The Board has recently issued LOIs to 30 national
and international companies for generation of 1500 MW power through solar

Solar activity in Pakistan

(2x50) MW Solar Power Generation Project at Gharo, Sindh:
A solar corridor at Gharo-Keti Bandar, Sindh has been identified with an actual
potential of 50,000 MW. The pre-feasibility study of the site has been done by
AEDB. AEDB drafted the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) and the
Implementation Agreement. 8 companies with financial and technical viability
have been short-listed. OEMs/Suppliers like GE, VESTAS and GAMESA have been
short-listed for the project. Three companies have submitted applications to
NEPRA for obtaining Generation License. NTDC has submitted the request for
Power Acquisition Permission to NEPRA for procuring power from the proposed
solar plants. HESCO has agreed to purchase the initial 100 MW Solar Power
generated through this project. Private investors have entered the PPA
negotiations with NTDC/WAPDA. Sindh Government has leased out
approximately 5000 Acres of land for the project. AEDB has allocated 1000 acres
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of land each to five (5) investors, namely M/s New Park Energy Ltd., M/s Green
Power, M/s Zephyr Ltd., M/s Win Power Ltd. and M/s Tenaga. Tariff would be
determined by NEPRA in consultation with the IPP and the Power Purchaser i.e.
NTDC, as per Government of Pakistan’s Policy for Power Generation 2002.

Once the initial target of generating 100 MW through Solar Energy is achieved, it
will be upgraded to 700 MW by the year 2010 and 9700 MW by the year 2030.

100 Solar Homes Program Narian Khorian, Islamabad

The project was successfully executed and implemented by AEDB. The
Honorable Prime Minister of Pakistan inaugurated it on 19th June 2005. Each of
the 100 households has been provided with 88-Watt Solar Panels, 4 LED lights, a
12 Volt DC fan and a TV socket. In addition, a Solar Geyser and a Solar Cooker
have also been provided to each household.

As part of the community welfare, a Solar Water Desalination Plant has also been
installed and commissioned at the village ensuring the availability of clean
drinking water to the villagers. A Children’s Playground with Solar Powered Lights
has also been developed at the Village. Two Solar Powered Computers have
been provided to the village Mosque/Community Center, which has been air-
conditioned using Solar Energy as well. In addition, an electric vehicle has also
been developed which will act as the first ever Electric Rickshaw in Pakistan. The
batteries of this vehicle are charged with Solar Energy.

100 Solar Homes Program per Province:

The project was executed and implemented in the following villages:

1. Allah Baksh Bazar Dandar, District Kech, Balochistan,

2. Bharo Mal, District Thar, Sindh,
3. Janak, District Kohat, N.W.F.P.,
4. Lakhi Bher, Distrcit D.G. Khan, Punjab.

Each of the 100 households in each village has been provided with 88-Watt Solar
Panels, 4 LED lights, a 12 Volt DC fan and a TV socket. In addition, a Solar
Disinfecting Unit and a Solar Cooker have also been provided to each household.

Pilot Project for Development and Installation of 02 Micro Hydro Kaplan

A 40 kW Kaplan type micro hydel Turbine has been imported from China to
reverse engineer the technology. An R&D lab is being setup for this purpose.

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Another 40 kW Kaplan type micro hydel turbine has been indigenously
manufactured and installed at the Khanpur Dam Canal near the village of Mohra
Morado, Taxila. This turbine is being used to provide electricity to the village

Pilot Project for Installation of Indigenously Developed Micro Solar

A total of 140 Micro Solar Pannel have been installed at various sites within Sindh
and Balochistan, for providing electricity to the rural households,

Innovative Lighting Systems: LED Lights, Solar Lanterns, Pedal

Generators, Hand Generators and Solar Mobile Phone Chargers have been
indigenously developed by the private sector with AEDB’s facilitation. These
products have also been provided to the rural areas that have been electrified
with Solar Energy.

Activities of Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies


Photovoltaic (PV) Technology

○ Solar-Solar-Diesel High hybrid system installed to provide electricity to
two villages in Balochistan through M/s Empower International, New
○ Two other villages in Balochistan were electrified using PV system.
○ 3000 Laser Detectors were designed and fabricated for incorporating in
the laser land leveling system of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
○ 4000 Solar Cells and 300 Solar Modules of different sizes were
fabricated indigenously.

Solar Thermal Appliances

A number of appliances including solar water heaters, solar fruit and vegetable
dryers, solar distillation stills for producing clean water, solar room heating
systems and solar cookers have been developed and disseminated for domestic
and commercial applications.

Electrification through Micro Solar Panel:

○ 600 houses have been electrified in the remote coastal areas of Sindh
and Balochistan through installation of small solar panel (stand alone)
○ 4 Coast Guard Check Posts at Lasbela have been electrified.
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○ 5 villages have been provided with battery charging facilities through a
solar-powered battery-charging center.
○ 500-Watts Solar Turbine has been manufactured locally. The second
(improved) model is under field test.
○ A reverse osmosis unit is being installed near village Mubarak, Kemari
Town, Karachi for desalination of brackish water.

Pakistan’s Solar Energy Development Plans


Year Capaci Cumulative MW of Solar

ty Energy Installed by Year
Install End

700 Short Term Plan (2005-2010)


2011 100 800

2012 100 900

2013 150 1,050

2014 200 1,250

2015 250 1,500

2016 250 1,750

2017 300 2,050

2018 300 2,350

2019 350 2,700

2020 300 3,000

Source: Board of Investment, Government of Pakistan

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SINDH - District Thatta

S.No Name of Village Homes Pannel
Electrified Installed
1 Goth Gul Muhammad Khaskheli – 16 04
Thakani, Mirpur Sakro
2 Goth Haji Jumo Khaskheli – Thakani, 23 06
Mirpur Sakro
3 Goth Ismail Khaskheli 1 – Thakani 15 04
4 Goth Ismail Khaskheli 2 – Thakani 05 01
5 Goth Mohd Hasan Khaskheli – Thakani, 18 05
Mirpur Sakro
6 Goth Haji Abdullah Channo – Thakani, 07 02
Mirpur Sakro
7 Goth Jamot Hussain Khaskheli – Thakani, 11 03
Mirpur Sakro
8 Goth Baboo Pahwar – Thakani, Mirpur 06 02
9 Goth Sher Muhammad Hamaiti – Gujjo 40 10
10 Goth Daandaari – Ghorabari, U.C. Udaasi 250 40
11 Goth Lukman – Ghorabari, U.C. Udaasi 16 04
12 Goth Sammo – Ghorabari, U.C. Udaasi 14 03
Total 356 85

13 Daandaari – Ghorabari, U.C. Udaasi 01 (10 kilo Watts) – Water

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Source: Board of Investment, Government of Pakistan

BALOCHISTAN - Kund Malir, District Lasbela

S.No Name of Village Homes Pannel
Electrified Installed
1 Goth Meer Isa – Kund Malir, Lasbela 03 01
2 Goth Ramzan – Kund Malir, Lasbela 15 02
3 Goth Haji Sher Muhammad – Kund Malir, 35 05
4 Goth Yaaqoob – Kund Malir, Lasbela 18 02
5 Goth Mir Abdullah – Kund Malir, Lasbela 08 01
6 Goth Haji Washi / Daghari – Kund Malir, 32 04
Totals 111 15
Source: Board of Investment, Government of Pakistan
S.No Name of Recipient Location Pannel Current Status
7 Governor Balochistan F.C. 39 To be installed as per the
on behalf of the Warehou direction and advice of the
Government of se Irrigation & Power
Balochistan Quetta Department Balochistan
Source: Board of Investment, Government of



Village Name District Province No. of

Narian Rawalpindi Punjab 53
Khorian Rawalpindi Punjab 57
Allah Baksh Bazar Turbat Balochista 121
Lakhi Bhair D.G. Khan Punjab 135
Bharomal Chachro Sindh 115
Jhanak Kohat N.W.F.P 120

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Total 601
Source: Board of Investment, Government of Pakistan


Village name District Province No. of
Khirzaan Khuzdar Balochista 100
Basti Bugha D.G. Khan Punjab 100
Pinpario Chachro Sindh 100
Shnow Garri Kohat N.W.F.P 100
Total 400


No. Project Title

1. Roshan Pakistan: National Rural Electrification Programe

through Alternative / Renewable Energy Technologies

2. Solar Homes Project in Each Province

3. Development of Supply Chain Mechanism for Pedal

Generators, Hand Generators and LED Lanterns

4. Pilot Project of Production Plant of Bio-Diesel

5. Research on Development of 1 kW Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle in

Pakistan using Existing Fuel Cell

6. Solar Water Pumping & Desalination

7. Solar Thermal Power Plant Technologies (Demonstration


8. Electrification of Villages through Micro Solar Pannel

9. Pilot project for Development and Installation of 02 Micro

Hydro Kaplan Pannel

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10. Pilot project for Emerging Alternative Energy Technologies
Demonstration in Pakistan

Reports are a helpful channel, but it is people’s behaviour that really changes
things. We encourage politicians and policymakers, global citizens, energy
officials, companies, investors and other interested parties to support solar
power. Solar energy is very useful, particularly in a time when we are concerned
about greenhouse gas emissions from other energy sources. By taking the
crucial steps to help ensure that more than a billion people obtain electricity
from the sun in the future we can harness the full potential of solar power for our
common good.

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