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Judgement – Tips to Solve FIJ Questions in CAT Exam

Fact Inference Judgement – Tips to Solve

FIJ Questions in CAT Exam
Monday, June 3rd, 2019

Fact Inference Judgement (FIJ): It may seem like a very simple topic, but students often commit
mistakes here. We need to be very cautious while attempting these questions. Let us master FIJs in 15

FIJs (Fact Inference Judgement) have not been asked in CAT for a few years now, but they can be asked
again since CAT ( does not have a well-defined syllabus.

What is FIJ (Fact Inference Judgement)?

You are required to classify the statements as facts, inferences, or judgments according to the following
criteria and then choose the most appropriate option. F, I, J  stand for a fact, inference, judgment


Facts, which deal with the pieces of information that one has seen, heard or read, and which are known
matters of direct observation or existing reality

Also, a fact is something open to verification or discovery.

You need to read the words carefully here. It is a piece of information which is known to people but may
or may not be true.

Let us see an example:

“The Earth is flat” is a fact at that time, but not now.



For example, Honesty is the best policy.

Here, we are stating what society has said or believes. And, since all reported statements are facts, it is a
fact too.

Facts are :

Universal Truths
Someone else’s opinion stated by the author
Data without any opinion
Reported statements
Anything that is seen, heard or read


Inferences are conclusions or logical deductions drawn about the unknown, on the basis of the known i.e.
based on the facts. But what is this known and unknown that we are talking about?

Known – Fact which is required to prove a different proposition.

Unknown – It is something that we can use using the fact given as a premise.

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For example:

If there is a tsunami, people will be killed.

(Expectations or possibilities of something happening as a result of something else. )


An inference is  :

Based on fact
A fact can lead to many inferences
It generally has a cause and effect relationship
Perspective does not change an inference
If the fact is changed, then they do not hold true anymore and are invalid

Let us look at an example to understand the difference between a fact and an inference:

1.Prajakta attends all the lectures.

2.Prajakta is very regular when it comes to attendance.

Statement 1 is a fact whereas statement 2 is an inference.


These are opinions or anticipations of common sense or intention that imply approval or disapproval of a
person, action, situation etc.

A judgment: /
Any statement showing approval or disapproval
Does not give the logical reasoning for the same
Changes according to the perspective
It is author’s personal opinion

Some tips to tackle FIJs (Fact Inference Judgement) :

Try to figure out the essence of a statement by finding out the main clause.
Sometimes the sentences may seem connected but since they are numbered separately, you have to
consider them independent sentences.
Consider them from the author’s point of view. It’s not our fact, inference or judgment.

Some steps to follow:

1.Search for facts.

These are the statements that can not be changed and hence, are facts. Look for statements which have a
personality saying something / historical event / universal truth/ daily events etc.

2. Do not strike out any option because there is a possibility that you might have marked an inference as a

3. Look for judgment.

Check the statements where someone is showing approval or disapproval or judging a situation as good
or bad etc.

4. Search for inference

5. Check all the options with your obtained answer.

Now, let us work on some questions.


Fact Inference Judgement (FIJ) SET 1:

1. The minister said that the Midday meal is a wonderful initiative.

2. The schools of the city have adopted the project and made plans to launch a number of programs
3. With various segments of the society contributing towards it, Midday Meal initiative is going to be a
4. The Midday meal initiative will go a long way towards a better and healthier India



3. FFIJ /

Solution: 3

Let us consider all statements :

Statement 1:

The minister said that the Midday meal is a wonderful initiative.

Here, the main focus should be on the word “ the minister said”. As we learned earlier, all reported
statements are facts.

Hence, statement 1 is a fact.

Statement 2:

The schools of the city have adopted the project and made plans to launch a number of programs.

This entire statement can be verified and hence is a Fact.

Statement 3:

With various segments of the society contributing towards it, Mid-day Meal initiative is going to be a

Judgments show the approval and disapproval, and this sentence is showing approval for Mid-day meal
initiative by use of the word success. But look at the first part of the sentence- with various segments of
the society contributing towards it; this is the reason for success. Thus, this is an unknown conclusion
based on known facts and hence it is an INFERENCE.

Statement 4:

The Mid day meal initiative will go a long way towards a better and healthier India

This statement gives an approval but does not provide a reason for it hence it is a JUDGEMENT. 

Fact Inference Judgement (FIJ) SET 2:

(CAT 2006)

1. We should not be hopelessly addicted to an erroneous belief that the corruption in India is caused by
the crookedness of Indians.
2. The truth is that we have more red tape- we take eighty nine days to start a small business, Australians
take two.
3. Red tape leads to corruption and distorts a person’s character.
4. Every red tape procedure is a point of contact with an official , and such contacts have the potential to
become opportunities for money to change hands.





Solution: 5

Let us find out the fact here.

“The truth is “ in the second statement indicates that it is a fact.

The first statement is clearly a judgment. “ we should not “ indicates a personal opinion.

Red tape leads to corruption is clearly an opinion and is not based on any of the provided facts.  Hence, it
is a judgment.

“Potential to become: indicates that it is a conclusion. “Every red tape procedure is a point of contact with
an official “ is verifiable. Based on this, the conclusion is drawn. Hence, it is an inference.

Fact Inference Judgement (FIJ) SET 3 :

( CAT 2006)

1. So much of our day to day focus seems to be on getting things done , trudging our way  through the
tasks of living – it can feel like a treadmill that gets you nowhere; where is the childlike joy?
2. We are not doing the same things that make us happy; that which brings us joy ; the things that we
can not do because we enjoy them so much
3. This is the stuff that joyful living is made of – identifying your calling and committing yourself
wholeheartedly to it.
4. When this happens, each moment becomes a celebration of you ; there is a rush of energy that comes
with feeling completely immersed in doing what you love the most.






Solution: 4
Let us examine all the statements one by one.

In the first statement, “seems to be” indicates that it is somebody’s opinion. Hence, it is a judgment.

The second statement is again a person’s opinion.

The third statement says “this is the stuff joyful living is made of “ which is again an opinion.

“ Each moment is a celebration of you” is an opinion because when something happens, every person is
affected in a different manner. Hence, it is also a judgment,

Fact Inference Judgement (FIJ) SET 4

(CAT 2006)

1. Inequitable distribution of all kinds of resources is certainly one of the strongest and most sinister of
2. Even without war, we know that conflicts continue to trouble us – they only change in character.
3. Extensive disarmament is the only insurance of our future; imagine the number of resources that can
be released and redeployed.
4. The economies of the industrialized western world derive 20% of their income from the sale of all
kinds of arms.






Solution: 2

Let us check all the given statements.

In the first statement, use of “ one of the strongest “ suggests that there are more reasons, this being the
strongest is a person’s opinion. Hence, it is a judgment.

In the second statement, “ we know that “ indicates that conflicts continue to trouble us is a fact which is
the basis of the conclusion that they only change in character. Hence, it is an inference.

“Only insurance” in the third statement indicates that it is an opinion. Hence, it is a judgment.

In the fourth statement, the amount they can derive can be verified, hence it is a fact.

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CAT Questions related to Verbal Reasoning

All questions from CAT Exam Verbal Reasoning (
Verbal Reasoning – Summary (
       Q1 ( To
me, a “classic” means precisely the opposite of what my predecessors understood
       Q2 (
A translator of literary works needs a secure hold upon the two languages involved, supported by a good
measure        of familiarity with the two cultures.
       Q3 (
years/): For each of the past three years, temperatures have hit peaks not seen since the birth of
meteorology, and        probably not for more than 110,000 years.
       Q4 (
sphinx/): North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars (Amorpha juglandis) look like easy meals for
       Q5 (
were/): Both Socrates and Bacon were very good at asking useful questions.
       Q6 (
language/): A fundamental property of language is that it is slippery and messy and more liquid than
solid, a gelatinous mass
Verbal Reasoning – Parajumbles (
       Q1 (
down/): The process of handing down implies not a passive transfer, but some contestation in defining
what exactly is to        be handed down.
       Q2 (
time/): Scientists have for the first time managed to edit genes in a human embryo to repair a genetic
       Q3 (
the-disease/): The study suggests that the disease did not spread with such intensity, but that it may have
driven human
       Q4 ( /
media/): This visual turn in social media has merely accentuated this announcing instinct of ours
       Q5 (
retelling/): The implications of retelling of Indian stories, hence, takes on new meaning in a modern India.
       Q6 (
from-atmosphere/): Before plants can take life from atmosphere, nitrogen must undergo transformations
similar to ones that food
       Q7 (
This has huge implications for the health care system as it operates today
       Q8 (
very-practically/): Johnson treated English very practically, as a living language, with many different shades
of meaning
Verbal Reasoning – Odd One Out (
       Q1 (
childrens-language/): People who study children’s language spend a lot of time watching how babies
react to the speech they hear
       Q2 (
begun/): Neuroscientists have just begun studying exercise’s impact within brain cells — on the genes
       Q3 (
ancient-lakes/): The water that made up ancient lakes and perhaps an ocean was lost.
       Q4 (
with-the-gift-of-language/): Although we are born with the gift of language, research shows that we are
surprisingly unskilled when it comes to        communicating with others.
       Q5 (
Over the past fortnight, one of its finest champions managed to pull off a similar impression.
       Q6 (
and-aerodynamic/): Those geometric symbols and aerodynamic swooshes are more than just skin deep.

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FIJs (Fact Inference Judgement) might seem a bit daunting as you start doing the questions, but can very
easily be mastered with enough practice. Good luck!!

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