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摘要英文

文学

Servant leadership in higher education: a case of academic leadership in a


faith-based university in Indonesia

Abstract
This thesis explores the implementation of academic servant leadership in a
faith-based university in Indonesia. The exploration includes the academic leaders’
understanding on the concept and practise of servant leadership. Their perceptions are
analysed in order to construct the theory of academic servant leadership in the HE
sector. The case study method was chosen as the methodology since it is able to
explain the academic servant leadership phenomena from the leaders’ perspective in
their context. Data was collected from thirty higher education leaders who
participated in a semi-structured interview. The analysis shows that servant leadership
is driven by three motives: service, influence and improvement. The motives for
servant leadership influence their characteristics which consist of spiritual,
intrapersonal and relational characteristics. These concentric characteristics are then
manifested into five servant leadership actions namely ‘pergumulan’, individual
meetings, institutional meetings, dealing with conflicts and fostering collaborations.
The researcher argues that academic servant leaders need to have a pure motive and
strong character in order to enact their servant leadership. The manifestation of their
characters into actions cannot be separated from three contextual matters at the case
campus, namely hierarchical academic leadership, organisational changes and
external challenges and opportunities.

Precarity and identity in the ivory tower: exploring the effects of performative
pressures in UK and French business schools

Abstract
Recent marketization trends in Higher Education trigger concerns about growing
precarity of the academic profession. Global pressures from reputational mechanisms
such as international rankings and accreditations underpin the risk of institutional
isomorphism and a possible convergence of academic career paths. This thesis draws
from a comparative empirical study of academic careers in UK and French Business
Schools and focuses on two areas of inquiry. The first study demonstrates how
context-bound career scripts, their validation mechanisms, and the margins they allow
for individual agency variously shape permeable and impermeable career boundaries
and mechanisms for precarity, and condition the agentic behaviour of academics. I
argue that the particular ways in which performance incentives and punishments are
balanced in each country under supranational competitive pressures produce different
results in terms of segregation and casualization of academics. The second study
explores identity responses of female faculty to performative pressures in the two
countries and the strategies they adopt to reconcile compliance with managerialist
requirements and their own need for recognition and meaningful work in what is
traditionally seen as a gendered professional environment. My contributions deepen
the understanding of contextual responses to international challenges and highlight the
implications for academics and institutions.

Funding mechanisms and quality assurance systems in Higher Education in


Egypt in comparative perspective

Abstract
A comparative examination was undertaken of funding mechanisms and Quality
Assurance Systems (QAS) in higher education in Egypt and the UK with the aim of
identifying implications for reform in Egypt. These issues are examined by applying
the concepts of autonomy, accountability, efficiency and equity as analytical and
evaluative tools, chosen because of their central place in the analysis of the
governance and finance of higher education. The principal sources of data are
document analysis and semi-structured interviews with 47 academic and
administrative staff in Cairo University and 29 at the University of Birmingham.

The main findings show that different forms of funding and QAS differ in their
consequence for the autonomy, accountability, efficiency and equity of universities.
There are also contested perspectives between the expectations of policy
pronouncements and the experience of those working in the sector. It was also found
that there are overlapping contextual factors of governance and culture that contribute
to the impact of funding and QAS so that they cannot be understood as stand-alone
‘objective’ phenomena because they are shaped and re-shaped by the regulatory and
cultural environment. This leads to the conclusion that changes to funding and QAS in
Egypt need to be reformed and developed in ways that address issues of governance
and culture. A set of pilot projects is proposed to test their feasibility and build
support for change. While the study has identified several fundamental systemic
problems that need to be addressed, it is argued that these are best done through
evolutionary pilot projects such as evolving a funding formula; cost-sharing; staffing;
student representation systems and capacity building and training.

Student voice: new forms of power and governance in higher education in


England (2003-2013)

Abstract
The phenomenon of student voice, namely the institutionalisation of students’
contributions to the evaluation of higher education, is embedded into the daily
business of universities. Activities relating to student voice such as national surveys,
representation, complaints and protest are subject to considerable emotional, material,
and financial investment by managers, academics and students. These developments
have had profound effects on the everyday practices and discourses of academics and
students alike, yet researchers have not yet explored their implications for the
identities and subjectivities of those who participate. Drawing on two case studies
undertaken at English universities (a pre and post-92), the thesis problematises the
narratives associated with student voice. The research found that student voice means
different things to different people and is underpinned by a range of, at times
competing imperatives. These can be empowering, but they shape, in subtle but
significant ways, the manner in which managers, academics and students come to
regard themselves, each other and the fundamental nature and purpose of higher
education. The thesis suggests that by acknowledging power, and the complex
identities that student voice shapes, activities could become more productive and
empowering. This has practical and educational implications for stakeholders in the
university sector.

In search of Utopia: a study of the role of German and Romanian academic and
literary communities in the production and evaluation of Margaret Atwood’s
Utopian/Dystopian fiction

Abstract
This study investigates the contribution of Romanian and German academic and
literary communities to the formation of readerships for Margaret Atwood’s dystopian
fiction and examines various conceptualisations of the Canadian writer as a literary
celebrity in Romania and Germany by taking into account the response to and
institutionalisation of the writer’s literary dystopias in the two countries both before
and after the fall of communism in 1989. It aims to demonstrate that publishing,
translation and cultural policies complicate the cultural reception of Margaret
Atwood’s dystopian fiction in Eastern European countries and re-evaluates critical
representations of Eastern European readerships and publishing contexts as invisible
within the global literary field. By investigating the strategies which publishers,
editors and translators employed in the dissemination and institutionalisation of
Atwood’s work in Romania and Germany, this thesis examines paradigm shifts both
in translation, publishing and marketing strategies and conceptualisations of literary
celebrity as shaped by cultural state policies. To this end, the first chapter highlights
representations of literary markets and readerships in the Atwood archive, and
analyses how the Atwood literary archive values celebrity and translation. The second
chapter charts the first translation projects which were carried out in both East
Germany and communist Romania and points out how forms of censorship have
impacted upon the production, dissemination and circulation of her work in
translation. The third chapter draws upon interviews with Romanian academics and
examines teaching and reading practices employed within a post-communist context.
Finally, the study suggests how further examinations of the response to both Canadian
and dystopian fiction within Eastern European contexts might proceed.
Smiles and challenges: an ethnographically-oriented study into the experiences
of a particular group of Thai post-graduate students in UK higher education

Abstract
This ethnographically-oriented study was initiated when Thai post-graduate
scholarship students reported a variety of academic, medical and social problems to
staff working at an education office which monitors the welfare of Thai students
studying in the UK. This study is particularly timely as there was little existing
research into the experiences of Thai students studying outside Thailand.
Drawing on Holliday’s (1999) notion of ‘small cultures’, the study highlights
challenges faced by a group of Thai students as they study for a one-year Master’s
degree in the UK during 2011-2012. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and
classroom observations carried out, with four Thai scholarship Master’s students
studying at different UK universities. To expand the breadth of the study, a
questionnaire survey of sixty-four Thai scholarship Master’s students studying at
universities across the UK was administered. Additional background data were
obtained from university teachers by means of semi-structured interviews.
A picture emerges of the complex challenges and pressures faced by overseas students
on a one-year degree programme as they seek to adapt to norms and expectations in
the UK. The study highlights the individuality of international students, and resists
generalisations about national groups. The study proposes implications for the support
of international students at universities in the UK.

A genre analysis and corpus based study of university lecture introductions

Abstract
This thesis reports a study using a corpus of lecture introductions to explore the
generic features of the language used. The main research questions: What are the
main communicative functions of this sub-genre? How are the functions realised? Are
there any disciplinary differences in university lecture introductions? are explored
using two complementary methods of analysis; genre analysis and corpus analysis.
Analysis of eighty-nine lecture introductions from the BASE corpus1 resulted in a
Lecture Introduction Framework which posits a two-level classification which first
differentiates lecture content orientation (Thompson, 1994) versus listener orientation
(Dubois, 1980). This yields three main functions, with additional sub-functions
original to this study. The study reveals differences in the frequency of different
sub-functions in the four disciplinary domains, reflecting different disciplinary
cultures and knowledge. The corpus analysis generated a word frequency list for
lecture introductions, giving a rich linguistic description of the lexis used. Further
analysis on one of the three main functions; the Set Up Lecture Framework Function
uses WordSmith Tools 5 to analyse the linguistic realisations of the three subfunctions,
which are also the top three most used sub-functions in the corpus. Analysis of
pronouns and keywords further supports the finding that there are disciplinary
variations in lecture introductions.

From Foundation degree to Bachelor degree: exploring the identity construction


of part-time women students within one vocationally focused higher education
institution

Abstract
This thesis explores the experiences of women who study on a part-time Foundation
degree and transition on to part-time Bachelor level study. Using Foucault’s construct
of governmentality, it investigates how external and internal forms of power through
discourse influence the development of academic and personal identities.

Data collection involved a questionnaire given to all internally progressing students


followed by two stages of in-depth interviews involving five women. The first
interview involved the use of images to support the creation of narratives. The second
interview reviewed these narratives and considered transitional experiences. Finally,
two focus groups held one year apart offered collective transitional accounts.

What emerged were ways in which the women in this study responded to personal and
relational forms of power through discourse. Resilience was revealed as a personal
form of resistance to power that when linked to motives for study, interdependent
learning and the internal progression the women experienced on to the Bachelor
degree underpinned the development of strong academic and personal identities.
These identities meant the women in this study considered themselves as personally
and academically transformed through their experiences of studying on the
Foundation degree and their subsequent transition on to Bachelor level study.

The epistemic rationality of emotions: a new defence

Abstract
Emotions and epistemic rationality have been traditionally considered to be in
opposition. In the last twenty years, the role of emotions in epistemology has been
increasingly acknowledged, but there is no systematic argument for the rational
assessability of emotions that is compatible with both cognitivist and non-cognitivist
theories of emotions and fits with the epistemic rational assessability of mental states
in general. This thesis aims to fill this gap.

Using empirically informed philosophical methodology, I offer a novel account of the


rational assessability of emotions that fits with the rational assessability of other
mental states and that could in principle be accepted by cognitivist and some
prominent non-cognitivist theories of emotions. The possibility to epistemically
rationally assess emotions opens up a fresh set of questions that regards the nature of
the evaluations involved in the emotions, the epistemic norms that apply to them and
the extent to which we are epistemically responsible for our emotions. This thesis
aims to address these questions, ultimately showing that emotions and epistemic
rationality are more intertwined than we previously thought.

The reflexive voices of young people in Tottenham: youth-identity formation,


reflexivity and negative representations

Abstract
While a wide body of literature has emerged on Tottenham’s youths since the
England riots of 2011, the perceptions of the young people themselves have not been
subjected to the same level of attention and scrutiny. My thesis intends to fill this gap
by looking at the subjective experiences of youths in the north London constituency
of Tottenham (the area where a peaceful demonstration escalated into the England
riots). In particular, it investigates young people’s reflexive attitudes towards their
identities and how they deal with stereotypical and homogeneous youth
representations. By putting forward an alternative conceptualisation of reflexivity that
spells out how reflexive orientations relate to lived experiences and past engagement
in the social world, my study aims to open up novel pathways for understanding
youth-identity formation and stereotyping processes.

The study applies qualitative methods, including a version of interpretative


phenomenological analysis, to analyse identity-forming processes and how young
people reflexively deal with the harmful consequences of stigmatised identities.
Research participants (N = 16; 16–25 years of age) are drawn from various youth
organisations operating in the Tottenham wards.

In shedding light on the discrepancy between how young people see themselves and
how others—e.g., the media and politicians—view them, the study repudiates the
common misconception that Tottenham’s youths are a homogeneous entity; rather, it
concludes that these young people embody a complex ensemble of heterogeneous
identities, outlooks and reflexive capacities.

艺术

Therapeutic art concepts and practices in Britain and the United States
(1937-1946)
Abstract
This thesis provides the first analysis of occupational therapy and art therapy from an
art historical viewpoint. Based on archival material, it examines how modern artists,
art pedagogues, schools and museums theorised, implemented and publicised
therapeutic art-making practices. It focuses on four case studies in Britain and the US
(1937-1946): occupational therapy by László Moholy-Nagy at the School of Design,
founded as the New Bauhaus (Chicago); art therapy by Arthur Segal (London and
Oxford); Northfield Military Hospital (Birmingham); and The Arts in Therapy
exhibition series at the Museum of Modern Art (New York). Elucidating the concepts,
practices and display of therapeutic art across these institutions, this research presents
new intersections between modern art and medicine. It contributes to the history of art,
the history of healing, and the growing medical humanities concerned with their
entanglement. Therapeutic approaches defined art as an experiential process, shifting
emphasis away from objects, with focus on the psychological and physiological
effects on makers rather than what they produced. Consequently, this thesis expands
art historical remits by presenting narratives of art that are culturally, socially and
politically situated but that predominantly concern ideas, processes and effects on
individuals rather than objects, images and performances by them.

A provincial school of art and local industry: the Stourbridge School of Art and
its relations with the glass industry of the Stourbridge district, 1850-1905

Abstract
Founded in 1851, the Stourbridge School of Art offered instruction in drawing, art
and design to students engaged in industries, especially glass. Using social history
methodology and primary sources such as Government reports, local newspapers and
school records, this thesis explores the school’s development from 1850 to 1905 and
explicates its relationships with the local glass industry.
Within the context of political, economic, social and cultural forces, the school
contributed to the town’s civic culture and was supported by gentry, clergy and
industrialists. The governing Council held public meetings and art exhibitions and
dealt with management issues. Working class men attended evening classes. Women
from wealthy families attended morning classes.
This thesis argues that a fundamental disconnect existed between the school’s purpose
(art instruction to train designers) and its instruction (basic drawing and fine art). The
school enrolled men employed in glass decorating but few from glass manufacturing.
Classes reflected the South Kensington curriculum, and the art masters were unaware
of the design needs of industry. Glass manufacturing firms provided modest financial
support but did not encourage employees to attend, creating frustration for the
Council. In contrast, similar schools in Brierley Hill and Wordsley were
well-supported by the glass industry.
The art exchange: an investigation of the economy of art

Abstract
This essay explores the tensions outlined in the ‘market’ versus ‘gift’ debate to
examine the economy of the Bourdieuan ‘field of art’ and the emergent dualist
structure that has supposedly created two polarised ‘art-worlds’. Aspects of the
Maussian gift and the dyadic thinking of Structuralist thought are used to examine
structure and practice through economic theories, ‘art-world’ theories and artistic
practice in ‘the real art-world’ in order to articulate the possibilities for ‘alternatives’.
It is by focusing on developments in the ‘field of art’ since the 1960s to include the
‘dematerialisation of the art object’, ‘institutional critique’ and more recently the
‘do-it-yourself’ practices of so-called ‘artist-led culture’ that possibilities for
‘alternative enterprises’ can be located. These ‘alternatives’ lie within the Bourdieuan
‘field’ between the poles of cultural production on a continuum that reveals that the
economy of art works with a mixed economy of heterodoxy between the ‘market’ and
the ‘gift’, but also in the possibilities beyond it.

The Birmingham Municipal School of Art and opportunities for women's paid
work in the Art and Crafts Movement

Abstract
This thesis is the first to examine the lives and careers of professional women who
were working within the thriving Arts and Crafts Movement in Birmingham in the
late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It utilises previously unresearched
primary and secondary sources in art galleries, the Birmingham School of Art and
local studies collections to present a series of case studies of professional women
working in the fields of jewellery and metalware, stained glass, painting, book
illustration, textiles and illumination. This thesis demonstrates that women made an
important, although currently unacknowledged, professional contribution to the Arts
and Crafts Movement in the region. It argues that the Executed Design training that
the women received at the Birmingham Municipal School of Art (BMSA) was crucial
to their success in obtaining highly-skilled paid employment or setting up and running
their own business enterprises. The thesis makes an important new contribution to the
historiography of The Arts and Crafts Movement; women's work in Britain in the late
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; the history of education and the industrial
and artistic history of Birmingham.

The Birmingham Municipal School of Art and opportunities for women's paid
work in the Art and Crafts Movement

Abstract
This thesis is the first to examine the lives and careers of professional women who
were working within the thriving Arts and Crafts Movement in Birmingham in the
late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It utilises previously unresearched
primary and secondary sources in art galleries, the Birmingham School of Art and
local studies collections to present a series of case studies of professional women
working in the fields of jewellery and metalware, stained glass, painting, book
illustration, textiles and illumination. This thesis demonstrates that women made an
important, although currently unacknowledged, professional contribution to the Arts
and Crafts Movement in the region. It argues that the Executed Design training that
the women received at the Birmingham Municipal School of Art (BMSA) was crucial
to their success in obtaining highly-skilled paid employment or setting up and running
their own business enterprises. The thesis makes an important new contribution to the
historiography of The Arts and Crafts Movement; women's work in Britain in the late
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; the history of education and the industrial
and artistic history of Birmingham.

Samuel Lines and sons: rediscovering Birmingham’s artistic dynasty 1794 – 1898
through works on paper at the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists

Abstract
This thesis is the first academic study of nineteenth-century artist and drawing master
Samuel Lines (1778-1863) and his five sons: Henry Harris Lines (1800-1889),
William Rostill Lines (1802-1846), Samuel Rostill Lines (1804-1833), Edward
Ashcroft Lines (1807-1875) and Frederick Thomas Lines (1809-1898). The thesis,
with its catalogue, has been a result of a collaborative study focusing on a collection
of works on paper by the sons of Samuel Lines, from the Permanent Collection of the
Royal Birmingham Society of Artists (RBSA). Both the thesis and catalogue aim to
re-instate the family’s position as one of Birmingham’s most prominent and
distinguished artistic dynasties. The thesis is divided into three chapters and includes
a complete and comprehensive catalogue of 56 works on paper by the Lines family in
the RBSA Permanent Collection. The catalogue also includes discursive information
on the family’s careers otherwise not mentioned in the main thesis itself. The first
chapter explores the family’s role in the establishment of the Birmingham Society of
Arts (later the RBSA). It also explores the influence of art institutions and industry on
the production of the fine and manufactured arts in Birmingham during the nineteenth
century. The second chapter discusses the Lines family’s landscape imagery, in
relation to prevailing landscape aesthetics and the physically changing landscape of
the Midlands. Henry Harris Lines is the main focus of the last chapter which reveals
the extent of his skills as archaeologist, antiquarian and artist.

The cultural value of Shakespeare in twenty-first-century publicly-funded


theatre in England

Abstract
This thesis argues that in the plural cultural context of the twenty-first century the
value of Shakespeare resides in his identity as a free and flexible resource. This
adaptable Shakespeare is valuable to theatres because they are dialectical spaces.
Free-resource Shakespeare is able to contain a range of different cultural values and
theatres provide a space for producers and consumers of culture to negotiate between
them. It has been established that tensions of cultural value, for example
innovation/tradition or commercial/non-commercial govern the production,
dissemination and critique of culture. Building on this idea, this work shows that
when tensions are dealt with as negotiations rather than confrontations, new cultural
value is generated. It identifies Shakespeare as a site for the debate of value tensions
and contends that he can be simultaneously commercial and non-commercial,
traditional and innovative. Cultural value is thus created because Shakespeare is
reinvigorated and redefined through a process which negotiates between tensions. In
publicly-funded theatre this process manifests itself in an ambiguous relationship to
the market, myriad adaptations and a move towards event-theatre. The cultural value
of Shakespeare in publicly-funded theatre mirrors the continual redefinition of the
Shakespearean object and, rather than being a concrete ‘thing’, is better defined as a
constant process.

Modern art from Kuwait: Khalifa Qattan and Circulism

Abstract
This thesis explores the life and work of the Kuwaiti artist Khalifa Qattan
(1934-2003). The first chapter views Qattan in the context of twentieth-century visual
culture in Kuwait. It also shows the European influence on his work, as he lived and
studied in Britain in the 1950s. A second chapter is dedicated to Qattan's aesthetic
theory called Circulism; it shows that it is a philosophy and a style, and situates
Circulism between western and Arabic sources. The third chapter deals with the Gulf
War of 1991 as a particular topic in Qattan's work, and compares his work about the
war with the work of John Keane, the British artist who was commissioned by the
Imperial War Museum as an official recorder to cover that war. Considering western
and Arabic writings on the war, this chapter argues that different visual interpretations
of the war are rooted in an 'insider' and 'outsider' experience. A conclusion discusses
the general problems involved when viewing non-western visual cultures with
western eyes. An appendix, a bibliography and a list of illustrations followed by 61
illustrations conclude the thesis.

Still looking for Pieter Bruegel the Elder

Abstract
Pieter Bruegel the Elder (c.1526-69) is one of the most renowned sixteenth-century
Netherlandish artists. Paradoxically, however, he is also one of the most mysterious
and our dearth of known historical information about Bruegel has generated much
debate about how his art relates to the religious and political conflicts raging in the
Low Countries during the 1560s. Most previous scholarship has attempted to place
Bruegel’s allegiances on one side or the other of a Catholic versus Protestant binary,
and attempted to demonstrate that Bruegel’s art was conceived and understood as
partisan propaganda. By taking a reception-focused approach, this thesis seeks to
address this shortcoming in Bruegel scholarship. Chapter 1 is primarily concerned
with the intended audience for Bruegel’s art, their beliefs and the ways in which they
displayed and interpreted art. Chapters 2 and 3 each then focus on a single painting by
Bruegel, the Carrying of the Cross (1564) and the Blind Leading the Blind (1568),
which are treated as case-studies for the ways in which Bruegel’s imagery was
originally understood and interpreted. I will argue that Bruegel’s paintings were
originally set-up as discussion pieces, designed to stimulate tolerant discussion in the
domestic environment with a view to promoting Christian morality.

Self-ordering creativity and an independent work space: Edna Clarke Hall’s


poem pictures in the early 1920s

Abstract
This thesis argues that the Poem Pictures made by Edna Clarke Hall (1879-1979) in
the early 1920s signify new approaches to the treatment of ‘neuroses’ in British
psychiatry following World War One, and contends that the artist’s biography is
pertinent to understanding the production and meaning of these works. These
hypotheses are demonstrated by considering Dr Henry Head’s responses to Clarke
Hall when she sought his aid in 1920, following a period of emotional imbalance and
physical illness. The thesis proposes that the philosophies underlying Head’s advice
can be traced, via his acquaintance with psychiatrist Dr W.H.R. Rivers, to the unique
psychotherapies practiced at Edinburgh’s Craiglockhart War Hospital from c.1916-17.
Analysing archival holdings, it suggests that the Poem Pictures are Clark Hall’s
creative manifestation of Head’s use of autognosis, by which a patient repeatedly
verbalizes their subjective position. In relation to Craiglockhart’s ‘ergotherapy’,
particular significance is placed on Head’s advice that Clarke Hall purchase a studio,
and it is proposed that this space was imperative to the artist’s recovery and
burgeoning career in the 1920s. In turn, this thesis situates the Poem Pictures and their
author within the context of middle-class women’s participation in the arts in the
inter-war decade.

科学

In defense of provisory methodological naturalism

Abstract
Methodological naturalists generally believe that science is the best and only method
for discovering the properties of reality and what exists. A central tenet of
methodological naturalism is that science is limited to evaluating only natural things.
Science cannot allow for the possibility of supernatural objects because doing so
would irreparably damage the scientific method. Or, it may be that evaluating the
supernatural is beyond the capabilities of science. In this thesis, I challenge these
assumptions. I defend a form of naturalism known as Provisory Methodological
Naturalism which holds that science can, at least theoretically, evaluate supernatural
claims. Provisory methodological naturalists believe the notion that science only
evaluates natural things is provisional and subject to being overruled. Should
supernatural objects exist, science would be able to observe them .

Modern science and the environmental crisis: the traditional Islamic response of
Seyyed Hossein Nasr

Abstract
In the 1960s, Seyyed Hossein Nasr was the first to articulate in contemporary
language the vision of an Islamic environmentalism. Ever since, in a number of
articles and interviews Nasr has elaborated his vision further. As the ultimate solution
to the environmental crisis, he has persistently argued the need to substitute the
prevalent scientific worldview with a religious worldview. However, there has not
been any systematic and comprehensive presentation of Nasr’s approach that
discusses his ideas in the context of the intellectual currents which have shaped his
thought.

This thesis attempts to address the gaps in the presentation of Nasr’s religious
perspectives on environmentalism. The research has been guided by two questions: 1)
what do we need to know to best appreciate Nasr’s vision? And 2) how does Nasr’s
vision adhere to traditional Islamic thought? The thesis has demonstrated that Nasr’s
arguments are rooted in metaphysical principles of reality, found in the perennial
philosophy as well as in traditional Islamic metaphysics, Sufism, philosophy and
sciences, as represented by the key authorities of those areas. The thesis hopefully
contributes to scholarship in an important dimension of Islamic environmentalism and
on the environmental aspects of the relevant intellectual currents.

UK legal approach to disease causation: examining the role for epidemiological


evidence

Abstract
The main aim of this thesis is to advocate a more scientifically informed approach
towards epidemiological evidence in disease litigation. It analyses the judicial
scepticism about epidemiology in UK tort law, and finds that the myth of scientific
certainty lies at the heart of the devaluation of epidemiology as proof of specific
causation. It traces misconceptions about epidemiology to broader misconceptions
about science as a whole (including medical science and disease), and confused legal
approaches to causation. To explain why legal objections to epidemiology are
erroneous, the thesis clarifies fundamental aspects of science and disease causation
that lawyers need to better grasp. Scientific reasoning is inherently probabilistic.
Further, medical research indicates that disease causation is usually multifactorial and
stochastic. Rigid and deterministic ‘but for’ questions are thus fundamentally unsuited
for assessing disease causation. The mismatch between legal and medical causal
models makes courts resort to normative, ‘backwards’ causal reasoning or haphazard
exceptional approaches to disease causation, where the most difficult dilemmas
around causation arise. This thesis argues that courts need a better test for causation
for disease that can take account of probabilistic scientific and epidemiological
evidence, and suggests one such principled approach. Epidemiology can be invaluable
in such an assessment of disease causation.

Knowledge: the Qur'anic discourse concerning reason and revelation and its
impact

Abstract
This thesis is a study of the Qur'ānic discourse on knowledge and its impact on the
Muslim world. It focuses in particular on the division of knowledge into the Revealed
or Religious sciences and the Rational sciences. The thesis asks whether both
Revealed knowledge and Rational knowledge are considered religiously praiseworthy
and questions what the purpose is in acquiring knowledge. The thesis then examines
the impact of the Qur’anic discourse on the Muslim community through the
development of the revealed and the rational sciences and through the development of
educational institutions. Finally it asks why it is that in the present day the two
branches are isolated from each other when there was clearly a great deal of overlap
and cross-fertilisation during the medieval period.

The findings were that the purpose of acquiring knowledge in Islam is to understand
God and oneself. It found that within the Qur'ānic discourse the revealed sciences and
the rational sciences enjoy a symbiotic relationship. This relationship did not however
always manifest in society. The educational institutions did incorporate the rational
sciences during times of prosperity but when under political or economic pressure
they regressed back to only teaching the revealed sciences.

The discipline of Qur'an recitation in Britain and, its history and status in the
Islamic curriculum

Abstract
This thesis aims to determine whether the teaching of Tajwid science in the UK is of a
sufficient standard. This stems from the author’s experience in professional studies
and teaching experiments performed in Britain in this field, which have indicated that
current instruction is substandard. The research aim is to contribute to developing
Tajwid teaching in Britain. To conduct this research, the author evaluated Tajwid
teaching using a series of methods. A pedagogical study was applied; specifically, a
questionnaire with Tajwid students from different UK Islamic organisations. She then
engaged in two group meetings with Tajwid teachers, conducted close-ended
telephone interviews with Islamic organisations based in the UK, reviewed five
English-language resources, and suggested alternative sources for Tajwid instruction
that explain the subject through al-Shāṭibiyyah, which features the most well-known
form of recitation among Muslims. Finally, she hosted a series of free Tajwid classes
to examine research-recommended sources and their effects on learners’ attitudes.
The findings proved that different approaches are required to develop Tajwid teaching
in the UK; furthermore, they helped to establish the criteria required to develop
effective Tajwid teaching, and clarified the importance of incorporating new sources
that use topics comprehensibly and provide solutions to related problems.

A genre analysis and corpus based study of university lecture introductions

Abstract
This thesis reports a study using a corpus of lecture introductions to explore the
generic features of the language used. The main research questions: What are the
main communicative functions of this sub-genre? How are the functions realised? Are
there any disciplinary differences in university lecture introductions? are explored
using two complementary methods of analysis; genre analysis and corpus analysis.
Analysis of eighty-nine lecture introductions from the BASE corpus1 resulted in a
Lecture Introduction Framework which posits a two-level classification which first
differentiates lecture content orientation (Thompson, 1994) versus listener orientation
(Dubois, 1980). This yields three main functions, with additional sub-functions
original to this study. The study reveals differences in the frequency of different
sub-functions in the four disciplinary domains, reflecting different disciplinary
cultures and knowledge. The corpus analysis generated a word frequency list for
lecture introductions, giving a rich linguistic description of the lexis used. Further
analysis on one of the three main functions; the Set Up Lecture Framework Function
uses WordSmith Tools 5 to analyse the linguistic realisations of the three subfunctions,
which are also the top three most used sub-functions in the corpus. Analysis of
pronouns and keywords further supports the finding that there are disciplinary
variations in lecture introductions.

Food and healthy eating: progression in the curriculum

Abstract
The study examined pupils’ and teachers’ experiences of the food and healthy eating
topic within the Science curriculum, including documentary analysis of the National
Curriculum, schemes of work and pupils’ exercise books, and direct consultation with
pupils and teachers. Pupils were consulted using questionnaires and focus groups,
teachers with interviews.

Data collected illustrated that, although the National Curriculum outlined what should
be taught in each key stage, demonstrating progression, errors of interpretation
appeared in the schemes of work. Some concepts were introduced earlier than
intended and revisited without progression at later times in the pupils’ education.
Pupils felt elements of the topic were repetitive due to content being covered in other
school subjects and that lessons lacked preferred teaching and learning activities.
Teachers were unclear about pupils’ prior learning and although they knew what
teaching and learning activities engaged the pupils they did not have the time to
include them. Some teachers included concepts earlier than the National Curriculum
intended to increase progression.

The study recommends clearer specification and guidance of when concepts should be
taught, along with less frequent revisiting, supported by assessment of pupils’ prior
knowledge and the inclusion of a greater variety of teaching and learning activities.

Cataloguing and prioritizing crop wild relatives as a baseline for their


conservation and utilization

Abstract
The value of wild plant species related to crops (crop wild relatives, or CWR) as
sources of traits for pest and disease resistance, tolerance of environmental conditions,
yield enhancement, improved nutrition, and a range of other agronomic characteristics,
has been recognized since the early 20th century. However, these species are
inadequately conserved, which in turn is limiting their utilization potential. In this
thesis, based on the published definition of a CWR, a systematic, practical and
replicable method for creating a comprehensive CWR checklist and an approach to
identifying priority taxa for conservation action are proposed. The process of
evaluating the threat status of CWR to inform conservation planning is also elaborated.
These methodologies are presented and discussed in the broader context of CWR
conservation planning at national and regional scales, and illustrated with China and
Europe as case studies. While the CWR checklist methodology results in a large
number of included taxa, it provides a comprehensive foundation for conservation
planning. The identification of priority taxa as those related to crops of high
socio-economic importance, and of those, taxa of greatest utilization potential and/or
known to be under threat of genetic erosion, provides a pragmatic means of directing
limited conservation resources.

An exploration of the experiences of critical incident negotiators

Abstract
Negotiation is an established strategy utilised by the police and Her Majesty’s Prison
and Probation Service to manage critical incidents. Whilst the literature acknowledges
the role of the negotiator to be stressful, little is known about the experience of stress
and the coping strategies adopted by negotiators. This thesis aimed to address this gap
in knowledge. Chapter 1 introduces the literature on critical incident negotiation and
the key constructs relevant to the thesis. Chapter 2 presents a systematic review of the
literature examining negotiator stress, coping, and mechanisms of support. The
findings highlighted a dearth of knowledge in this area, particularly regarding the
experience of negotiators working in a prison setting. To advance current knowledge,
Chapter 3 presents an empirical study exploring the sources and experiences of stress
for prison officer negotiators; how they cope with the pressure of the role; and their
views of available support mechanisms. Chapter 4 examines the psychometric
properties of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Adult Version) (Endler &
Parker, 1999) and considers the utility of the questionnaire in respect to research and
practice. Chapter 5 concludes the thesis with a summary of the main findings and
provides recommendations for practice and further research.

A risk assessment framework for quantifying drought impacts on thermal and


water extremes

Abstract
By deploying Fibre-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing, this thesis aims to
improve understanding of the influences of drought-induced low flows, surface water
warmings, shifts between up- and downwelling flows, and hydroclimatological
controls on surface water and streambed temperature dynamics. First, the potential
drought impacts on surface water and streambed temperature patterns of lowland
streams are quantified. Second, high-resolution streambed sediments temperature
distributions following altered groundwater-surface water exchange under distinct
increased surface water temperatures are analysed. Third, the hyporheic refuge
hypothesis is tested at high spatio-temporal resolution under different
groundwater-surface water exchange and warming scenarios. Fourth, high-resolution
seasonal variability in streambed sediments temperature distributions of a forested
stream reach is quantified. The main outcomes are: 1) surface water and streambed
temperature patterns in co-evolved vegetated artificial lowland streams varied with
water level; 2) the direction of groundwater-surface water exchange impacted on the
transfer of thermal stress into gravel streambeds under different warming scenarios; 3)
alterations of the direction of groundwater-surface water exchange influenced the
potential of the hyporheic zone of gravel streambeds to provide a refuge under
warming; 4) seasonal variations of streambed temperatures in a forested stream reach
are primarily driven by hydroclimatological conditions.