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A SANSKRIT MANUAL

Part II

BY

R. ANTOINE, 5J., M.A.

Fourth Revised Edition

1970

XAVIER PUBLICA nONS CALCUTTA 700016

Published by J. Brouir, S.J.

Xavier Publications

30 Park Street, Calcutta 700016

Fourth Revised Edition Reprinted 1982, 1986, 1989, 1990, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2001

Published by Sunil Sachdev and printed by Ravi Sachdev at Allied Publishers Limited. Printing Division. A·104 Mayapuri Phase II. New Delhi· 110064 2/2001

PREFACE

The Second Part of the SANSKRIT MANUAL is meant as an immediate preparation for the School Final Examination. The method is similar to that of the First Part.

The order followed in this Second Part can be modified and adapteo: according to the needs of the students and the better judgment of the teachers. The lessons dealing with the C ompounds, in particular, can usefully be taught at an earlier stage than their position in the MANUAL would seem to indicate. They have been grouped together tooiards the end of the book for the sake of a more synthetical treatment.

The Sanskrit-English and English-Sanskrit glossaries contain a vocabulary which extends beyond the scope of the Exercises. They toill prove useful to the students who have to read classical texts and train themselves in unseen. translation.

The Systematic Index given at the end of the book will help both teachers and students to find easily the references which they need.

I must express my thanks to the Nirnaya Sligar Pres: Bombay, for the permission to quote a number of stanzas. from the Kiivya-miilii.

RA., S.J.

CONTENTS
LESSON pjGJ
1. IRREcULAR NOUNS IN at AND an
INmODUCITON TO TIlE OTHER CONJUGA110NS 1
2. IRREcULAR MASC. NOUNS IN ~ AND t
THE FIFTH CONJUGATION ( ~ ) 8
3. IRREcULAR MASC. NOUNS IN ~ AND ~
THE EIGHTII CONJUGATION { ~ )
NUMERALS FROM 19 TO 99 IS
4. IRREcULAR FEM. NOUNS IN t AND Gi
THE NINTII CONJUGATION ( iIi~ )
NUMERALS FROM 100 TO 1,000 2D
5. IRREcULAR NEUTER NOUNS IN I(
THE SECOND CONJUGATION ( ~ ) 26
6. NOUNS IN lIT AND ~
THE SECOND CONJUGATION (cont.) 35
1. IBRmULAR NOUNS IN ~
THE THIRD CONJUGATION ( ~ ) 40
8. IRMXruLAR NOUNS-MISCELLANEOU~
THE SEVENTII CONJUGATION ( ~~ ) 41
9. THE ACCUSATIVE CASE
AGREEMENT OF TIlE ADJECITVE 52
10. PmMARY AND SECONDARY SUFFIXES
POTENTIAL PASS. PART. •
11. THE INSTRUMENTAL CASE
PRESENT PARTICIPLES fJS
12. THE PERFECT TENSE (ft;e_) 68
13. THE PEluPHRASTIC PERFECT
PERFECT PARTICIPLES 11 Lassos

14. THE DATIVE CASE

PluMARY SUFFIXES (coni.)

15. THE FUTURE TENSE

16. THE FUTURE TENSE (COni.) THE CONDmONAL- THE BENEDICI'IVE

17. THE CAUSATIVE ( ~_)

THE ABLATIVE CASE

18. THE DESIDERATIVE ( ViI. ) THE GENITIVE CASE 19. THE FREQUENTATIVE ( l{~)

THE LoCATIVE CASE-PRONOUNS 20. COMPOUNDS

THE DVANDVA COl\{I>OUND 117

21. THE TATPURUSA COMPOUND 123

22. THE KARMADHARAYA, DVIGU AND PRADI COMPOUND 127

23. DENOMINATIVES

THE GATI AND UPAPADA COMPOUNDS 131

24. THE BAHUVRllII COMPOUND 136

25. PluMARY SUFFIXES (cant.)

SEOONDARY SUFFIXES 142

26. THE AVYAYIBHAVA COMPOUND 148

27. THE AORIST 153

VERBAL ROOTS WITH lJ'HEiR PruNCIPAL PARTS ... 162

SANSKRIT- ENGLWH GLOSSARY 216

ENGLISH-SANSKRIT GLOSSARY 264

SYSTEMATIC INDEX OF PARTS I & II m

PAGE

81 86

104

110

LESSON 1

IRREGULAR NOUNS IN at AND anINTRODUCTION TO THE OTHER CONJUGATIONS

1. Revise the declension of ifJ and ~ (see Part I. Nos. 11 & 38).

Some masculine nouns in at, besides their regular declension. have. from the ace. pl. onward. optional forms borrowed from a stem ending with a consonant.

Thus : ~ m. (foot) - optional stem: '"

S.

D.

P.

~ -
Nom. 1i1l{: qTliH:
.-
Ace. If(~ ~ If(~q~:
Instr, ~~ ~"'~ IJT~: qfi;::
Dat. ~~~ ~~Hl. ~: ",'+lJ:
Abl. qroq_~: ~Rml.~ If(~: ",'+lJ:
Gen. ~~ ~:IJ1): Ii1l{Tifnt. ~~
Loc, ~q~ ~:IJ1): ~ '«g
Voe. 1i1l{: ~ '"~: 2. Similarly: ~ m. (tooth) - optional stem : ~ 'f"m m. (month) - optional stem: ;mr"

Ace. plur.

Instr. sing

Instr. dual

Loc, plur.

2

A MNSItRll' MANUAl. POR ~R SCHOOLS

3. There are a few maculine nouns in en. They are declined as follows:

ti'rqy m. (cowherd)

s.

D.

P.

Nom. men I~ men:
Acc. ~ mcit rftq:
Instr, 11m mqwm{_ ~:
Dat. tM ~ fflqllll:
Abl. ;iTq: ~ Ift~
Gen. fflq: riWI": fITq"l_
Loc, Iftflf Q'rq): ~
Voc. filq-r ~ men: 4. Some feminine nouns in lIT. besides their regular declension. have. from the acc. plur. onward. optional forms borrowed from a stem ending with a Consonant.

Thus: ftrvT f. (night) - optional stem: _

,

S D P

Nom • t.mT ~ t.mT:
..
Ace. fomTl{ tim fqy: f.:r~:
Instr. ~f.mT ~f.r~ r...nnt: f~nt:
Dat. ~tim f!r~~r..g~~ fil~:~:
_'--
Abl. ~T:f.r~: . f.lm~ fit~~ ~:~-~:
Gen. fif~mn: fil~: fit~~: fil~l: fit~ fiIwt
Loc. t.rm~ fir~ fir~lll: f~: r.tm§ f.r~i
Voc. f~ tom firm: IRREGULAR NOUNS IN ttt AND au

5. Similarly: ifTfec6T f. (nose j=-optional stem: iRI_ ~ [. (old age)-optional stem : ~~t

1ifU, however, takes its optional forms only before terminations beginning with a vowel, from the nom. dual onward.

Ace. sing.

Ace. plur.

Instr. dual

Loc, Plur.

iiH:rq_ iiI~@l. ~: \lR~: iilU.<ml_ ~~
ilTfooq_ ifT~CfiT: iI~: inf~~~ qlfuifil~ ;r:~ N.B. ~ (mother) is regular except in the voc. sing. which is ~.

6. In Part I, we have seen four conjugations: the first, the fourth, the sixth and the tenth. Six more remain to be learnt: the second, the third. the fifth, the seventh, the eighth and the ninth.

The division of verbs into ten conjugations does not apply to all the tenses and moods. It applies exclusively to the active voice, both parasmaipada and a trnanepada, of the present. imperfect. imperative and potential. In the passive voice and in other tenses of the active voice like the perfect and the future. all verbs are treated alike without distinction of conjugations.

The four tenses and moods to which the division of verbs into ten conjugations applies are called the conjugational tenses and moods. They are the present, imperfect, imperative and potential of th-, active voice. both parasmaipada and atmanepada.

7. The verbs of the Ist, 4th. 6th and 10th conjugations have one

common feature: they insert at before the terminations of th'e conjugational tenses and moods (see Part 1, No. 34). The verbs of the other six conjugations do not insert at before the terminations.

8. As in the case of nouns with two or three stems. so also in the case of verbs of the 2nd. 3rd, 5th, 7th. 8th and 9th conjugations, there are strong and weak forms which must be carefully remembered.

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

The strong forms occur :

in the Ist, 2nd and 3rd pers. sing. of the present parasrn. in the Ist, 2nd and 3rd pers. sing. of the imperfect parasm.

in the 1st pers. sing" dual and plur. and in the 3rd pers. sing. ot

the imperative parasm.

in the 1st pers. sing., dual and plur. of the imperative atm. All the other forms are weak.

The following scheme gives a clear idea of the distribution of strong and weak forms (the strong forms are marked with X) :

PARASMAIPADA ATMANEPADA

PRESENT

IMPERFECT

IMPERATIVE

POTENTIAL

_I~~ P. S. D. P.
I---- I----
1 X
'_ -- ,- - 1-
2 X
3 x
1 x
2 x
3 I X
1. x x x x x X
~
2
3 x
1
2
3 IRREOULAR NOUNS IN 8f AND 811'

The difference between strong and weak forms will be shown separately for each conjugation.

9. The terminations of the Parasmaipada are the same as those given in Part I. except those of the potential and that of the second person sing. of the imperative which is f{. The terminations of the Atmanepada show the following differences:

The 3rd person plural of the present. imperfect and imperative drop the "l,: instead of -er.it. -ar.6 and -tRml.. we have ~, -emand~.

The 2nd 'and 3rd persons dual of the present, imperfect and imperative replace the initial t by '" ,

P ARASMAIPADA

Present

Imperfect

Imperative

Potential

1 2 3

-ft( ~ ~: ~ -4f "'" -enfotl -t1N I -emf ~ ~if -~
-ft{ -Wl: -'l ~. -all. -e -11 -6ll. -a ~: -~ ~
-fa -6; -8fr-~ -if.. -<mI. -8fo{ -$I -~ -8f"~ -lffil. -~mni{. 5: ATMANEPADA

Present

Imperfect

Imperative

Potential

1 2 3

-~ -q ~ -. -~ ~f{ -~ -en<it -emit -~ -t~ft -t~
-t -err~ -~ 'f(: -~ -~ -~ -8INTIl -~ ~: -W'lTll -tan{
~ -~ -'fa -a -t1Rml. -am i6T'l. -emmJ.. -Sfm'l -~I~IJ. -h"l. N.B. The terminations within heavy lines are .trong~

6

A SANSKRIT MANUAL POR HIGH SCHOOLS

EXERCiSE 1
I. Vocabulary
e{ifiS: fire ~ tooth IR5f art ~ old age
~ qy~: foot f}qf favour orrftN;r nose
minister 'I'm: month str.n neck fimT night
q: hair 'l'JT hatred
spj: heat Iitqy: cowherd f.orOT funeral 8f;iJT mother
~: jackal ~ protector pyre enrfi5: f. finger
"F: smoke ~ matted -e
of the world inlfa: f. prosperity
~: cat hair
~SJ ~suddenly lO\ir grape 'l~ f. occupation
elsewhere JfiIro: gradually ~a little ~ fortunately ~~(~fu) to deny,

to refuse ~~ (~-~) to revile,

to censure ~-i9l. (~) to approach, to begin ~~ (i3~) to occur,

to be possible

8W-~ (emRfu) to go away,

to retreat

8A-, (~) to remove,

to avert

;q~ ... (6ftcffa) to live upon

(+ acc.)

~o4Rl.l~) to perceive

II. Translate the following into English and change the voice:

(,) ~ ~, h~ ~~ P.!lltrl!~ ~ I l~) 8jqQ(dl4~l(dtg<f(ql'fl~ mr: q~(~1 (a) M~'fff¥t.i1q: q: ~)Slrotl lY) ~: ~'fT~ilfffiiqrcroa I (~) "m~;n ~ ~ ~ ~ ~f: I ( ~) fiI% ~ ~~ r.mw~~ijfq'~9m1ilffi I (,,) ~ ~ orrfu'IiT ~ Jfm ~~ ~: pur: ~ ~~( I «(;) lit .fu!f'~ftt ~ (,) lfR. ~~ ~:Pt~~ital

IIUlEGULAR NOUNS IN Elf AND err

7

III. Translate:

('I) ~~~. ~ ~ ~~: fSlll: ~ I ~~: ~«q'ft~ II

(') ~~~rilqliji1 ifilro: ~~: I

-.:>

« ~~: «~f.roT"t • :q ~ :q II

(~) uiifiii ~ ~allfTqf' ~ffi ~ifir_ I ~~ ~ilis~_~ ~ !iffi "lifir_1I

IV. Translate the following into Sanskrit :

(1) When I was learning the arts. I sat at the feet of a learned master. (2) As smoke arises from fire. so quarrel arises from hate. (3) When that wicked man is angry with his friends. his hair shakes. his feet strike the ground. his fingers threaten and his neck becomes blue. (4) Owing to the heat of the fire. the cowherds withdrew to the nearby trees. (5) The jackal looked at the grapes and said:

"Those grapes are high. Let me go elsewhere." (6) Roaming at night. two cats saw a rat. They ran to catch him and began to fight. Seeing them fighting. the rat ran away. (7) By his matted hair I know him to be a holy man. (8) Near the funeral pyre of her husband. the woman stood for two days and two nights. (9) Fortunately the minister arrived and censured the man who had refused the request (SIT~) of the poor. (10) My brother was playing with his friends when suddenly the chariot of the king arrived.

V. (1) What are the conjugational tenses and moods and why are they so called?

(2) What are the strong forms in the 2nd. 3rd. 5th. 7th. 8th and 9th conjugations?

8

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

LESSON 2

IRREGULAR MASCULINE NOUNS IN ~ AND ~ THE FIFTH CONJUGA TION (~fi\)

10. The noun qfij m. (husband. master) is declined like ijf.J (see Part I. No. 28) except in the singular from the instr. downward: instr. qOO ; dat. : ~; abl. : q~:; gen.: ~:; loco : ~ I

11. The noun ~Ri m, (companion) has the same irregularity as qfu I Besides. it is also irregular in the nom. sing .• dual and plural and in the accus. sing. and dual:

I:::'I~I:: 1= I

Sing. instr.: ~; dat.: ~; abl. : ~:; gen.:~:; loc .. : ~ I

12. There are some masculine nouns in t. They are declined, before terminations beginning with a vowel. like nouns ending in consonants. wft m. -stem : gf~; ~ m, (general) -stem : ~I

S. D. P. S. D. P.

Nom. gift: gf~ gNlJ: ijqTift: ~~ ~lJ:
Acc. gf1!p;[i{_ g~' gf1:1lJ: €r.rr~ ~~, ijonrlf:
...
Instr, gf1:1lJT ijl:ft~T+t gliftflt: «oIT~ ij-<iTil~+~", it.rJift~:
Dat. W1:1~ gl:ft+<rri{ g~~: ijojA ijonift~T+t ijqr-fl+<i:
Abl. g~: g~T,! glift+<i: ~rlf: ijq~ ijonif'T~:
Gen. gN'lr: gNll): gN~ ij-i'l'R': ij-i'lrr~it: ij-i'lTrlfTi{_
Loc. ,W'1:1ftr gf1:1l!T: glil'TlSI ijojT~TiJ,- ijojR' ijqTofi~
~
Voe. g1:fT: gf1:1lJ' gf1:1lJ: ij-i'lTiI'T: ~rm ~F"":
. IRREGULAR NOUNS IN ~ AND t THE FIFTH CONJUGATION 9

13. The fifth Conjugation {~)

(1) The verbal base is formed by adding ~ to the root. eg.: ij-~ I (2) ~ becomes ifT in the strong forms (see No.8). e.g. : ij-if) I (3) When the verbal root ends with a vowel:

the final i! of ~ is changed to ~ before. weak terminations beginning with a vowel, e.g. : i-~-~=~ I

the final ~ of ~ is optionally dropped before E!_ and 'l., e.g. : ~~: or i~: I

the f{ of the 2nd pers, sing. imperative parasm. is dropped. (4) When the verbal root ends with a consonant:

the final ~ of ~ is changed to ~ before weak terminations beginning with a vowel. e.g. : "_iJ-i~=~ I

the final a of ~ is not dropped before 'I.. and 'l.: ~: I

the f{ of the 2nd pers. sing, imperative parasm. is not dropped.

14. ij (to press out) : strong base ~-; weak base ~- I

PARASMAIPADA ATMANEPADA

s.

D.

P.

s

D.

P.

2 3

Im~ I
ijilTf" @:p: EPt. Fl: Pt ~
ij~
§if)~ ~: ffi1~ ~~ !P'Tq wr=~
--
ijilTfu" ~: ~ ~ ij;q,~ ~~
afWl'PI. afij~ ~~ 8i~~ ~ ~
~ 6lPf ~~ ~ft
~<i't: ~l.'r'l. ~ ~: 8fi~ 81~I;II!'l.

.q_ ~ ~ ~ 8t~'l. ~ Present

1

2 3

Imperi.

1

10

Imperat.

1

2 3

Potent.

1

2 3

A SANSKRlT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

PARASMAIPADA

ATMANEPADA



D.

D.

P.

P.

s.

~iflfit 40 ,,§iI~. ~
§ilcncf §iI~ ~q-
fi ~CIll. ~ ~ PT~ ml'CCf'l.
M ~ffill. ~~ ~ ~ffill. ~~
~ ~ ~;r i;o(T~ g-4tc(% wcft;r%
~: ~ ~~ ~qT: FitmtlTIJ. wcfi~J{
~ ~T1l ~~: wcfrn i~lfTaTIJ. g-ri('T~;r_ 15. err'!. (to obtain) : 8ro_ (to pervade) :
strong base etTtOit- strong base ~-
weak base~- weak base~-
PARASMAIPADA ATMANEPADA
S. D. P. S. D. P. Present

1

2 3

Imperf.

I

2 3

an~fir an~: ~;r: ~ ~ 1a1~
8HtilTfr:t ... ~CfTq ~~~
8J~tl: ~tl ~I!f
atTtilTfu at~a: ~C(~ ~ ~ ~
ef(tifCfil. ~C( atTt~+r ~fq et~C(% ~~
aw.crr: an~aJl.. et~ an~: an~~C(T~ ~~<Pt.
an~ atl:(~~lal~ i at~~Cffi
~TIJ. ~1fol. ~a IRREGUlAR NOUNS IN ~ AND t THE FIPTH CONJUGATION 11

P ARASMkIP ADA

S. D.

P.

ATMANEPADA

S. D. P.

potent

1

2 3

16. Irregular verb of the fifth Conjugation

The root ~ (to hear) is changed to ~ before inserting i I ~

Present : ~~: ~:, etc., like ij (see No. 14).

anwrrf.r -'l. ~ ~qcmrl
SfTtiI'qfc{ a:w:;rcmr ~i!q
-
~ ~'l. 8ff~ ~ ~ifltiTi{_ ~'l.
entiIT!l ~ ~~ ~'l. ~iffiI"TfI.. a{~CI'TfI..
~~ a{~ ~ ~~ ~rft~ ~~
~~: SfT~lfRIl{ a{T~fij a{~;;ftq'T: ~;ftm~ ~~
-e
a{~ SWI<ihm'f II{ ~
I~CI'- ~~CI'T'l. ~:
~ IlDperat

1

2 3

EXERCISE 2

I. Vocabulary

qfij: m. husband

~fur (RT) m. friend §\:ft: m. wise

~: m. foolish

~: m. generai 81JI1Ift: m. leader ~: m. village-chief IR'5I in the next world ~ thirst. desire ~ thirsty, covetous

em(~)

" to pervade

R(~Tfu-~)

\l'fi, (oofu) to be able to collect

~(>lVI)fu) to hear I s (~fu-~)

mel (<<T'Ciilftl) to shake

to accomplish ~ (~-~)

etTtt {a{Tt<flfu) to obtain to choose

ijl~ftI-~)

% (ft-frfu) to send to snri kl

. ' 0 spnn e

,;;: (ftJi!Tf~-f~ij-) to tie I ~ (~ij)

~(~fu~~) I to produce

to spread. to scatter 1ITofcI: man

fu (~fu) to destroy ~ (~.rrfu) to give pain

12

A SANSKlUT MANUAL POR HIGH SCHOOLS

II. Translate the following into English: ( 't) ~ ~f~~wf6 8'r~ l'ifiPRI ~ I ~ ~:~)ft:r IR~~ '" 'fTi{q': II

('~) !1T1JOft: ~N~ astttlCCtlg I (~) @"if~ e:a~l~T ('t) ~U~

~ ~T: It".} ~ Cf'q'fftt if ~~: I (~) my ~ ~;ftft:r I ( ,,) ~ ~f.r ij~ I~W.tOCfTat m~ (if ~~yq (~) ~ it'fT 6lFlim~ (I~T ~~UJt qy~ ta~RlI (\) cm~ ~"flI if ~~: I

('to) q;f IT(fff liflf ~~ qur~~ I (n) ~ ijT~ I ('t~) ~

~

- ~ ~<fij: ~ ~ttl

III. Conjugate.~ ... in the pres. 3rd pers. dual; fer in the imperfect

atm. 1st pers. sing. ; 8{1'q_ in the potential, 2nd pers. plur, ; m in the imperative parasm., 3rd pers, sing.; 8ro_ in the prcs., 1st pers. dual; ~ in the imperfect lItm, 3rd pers. plur. ; ! in the imperative atm. 1st pers, plur.; ~ in the potential, 2nd pers. sing.; VT"!_ in the pres., 3rd pers. sing.j 11: in the imperative, 2nd pers, sing.

VI. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) Tie the horse and do not torment ( ~) him. (2) 0 foolish boy! you are not even able to collect a little wood! (3) Those who hear the words of the wicked destroy their own happiness. (4) A wise village-chief chooses wise companions. (5) May you all obtain long life I (6) Were you to finish (m"IJ this work within five days. you might collect much money. (7) There is no saying (=one cannot say) how and when the thief came and went. (8) A leader should always send messengers to the kings whom he wishes to see. (9) Among those jewels choose that which you like. (10) As the wind shakes the leaves of trees. so anger shakes the body of the wicked. (11) Why did the girls sprinkle so much water. on the flowers! (12) The fragrance of the flowers which the girl has scattered pervades the house.

!!'JillGULAR NOUN.S IN U AND ai THE EIGHTH CONJUGATION 13

LESSON 3

IRREGULAR 1\-IASCULINE NOUNS IN ~ AND ~ THE EIGHTH CONJUGATION (~) NUMERALS FROM 19 TO 99

17. The noun ~ 71). (jackal) is declined like ~ (see Part I. No. 52) in the nom. sing., dual and plural and in the ace. sing. and dual; before terminations beginning with a vowel. except the ace. plur. and the gen. plur .. it is optionally declined like ~ •

s.

D.

Nom. I~T iP1mu ifim~:
Ace. iirm'l. ifiWif ~-t.
--
Instr, iIit~ iIi1~T ~l=11Til ~:
--
Dat. rirnit rilQ;" qIT~T'l. ifi~:
Abl. ,~T:~: qIT~,,,, ~<l':
Gen. iP1it: iIi'r~: ~<it: ifi)6~T: i!fI1~
--
Lac. r€tID ~ft ~~T: iIi1~: ~
"-
Voc. ~ID ~m iir2T(: 18. Masculine nouns in i3i are declined. before all terminations beginning with a vowel, like nouns ending with a consonant:

It. SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

mali m. (bail. guarantee) -stem : srft:t~

s.

D.

P.

Nom. ~f6~ ~'" ~~:
Ace. I srfCi~'l. SlfCl~~ !i1~:
Insrr. I:;J~T !i1fCl'~"'lT'l. !i1fdli~:
~
Dar. Sl~ !i1fu~ srfu~:
A~l. !i1fa~~ srfCl'll."CflIJ. srf~;
Gen. stftmq: srfcmcft: srft!E<mi,.
--
Loc. srffi!1for sr¥: I Sl~~
Voe. !i1ffi~ ~ I~~: 19. The eighth Conjugation (~)

(1) The verbal base is formed by adding a to the root, e g. : (r.r:~=~

(2) \; becomes eft in the strong forms (see No.8). e.g. : ijiff-

(3) The final 'i of the base

is optionally dropped before 'tand 'l.

is changed to 't before weak terminations beginning with a vowel.

(4) The ft{ of the 2nd pers, sing. of the imperative parasm. is dropped.

20. (R. (to stretch) : strong base aoft- ; weak base m1-

IRREGULAR NOUNS IN 0 AND e; THE EIGHTH CONJUGATION 15

Present

1

2

3

Imperf.

I

Imperat.

1

2 3

Potent.

1

2 3

2 3

a;ftflJ ~:a;q: o~:a~: ~ ~w~ a~if~~
oil)fq a~~: a~ ~ a;<IT~ ~
a.nm <ma: a;qfrq ~~ arm a~
amq~ 8l~e{i1;:q ~ 8lafrlf 8l~q'f~ elO~if%
am;Jf e{iFf~ i3io~fir
8li1oft: ~~ 8lo~ 8lo~: 8lG;:qr~ ~!l~"Efij_ -I
i3ioilTq_ i3i~Tij_ 8i~ 8lo~a arcrrOfTilTij_ <lm;:ija
i1iIenfif ~ iji!<rT<I~ iGil~
i1if<nCf aii<ITif oifq
~ ~~ ~ ~ a;:'filltTij_ a1~'P1,.
a;ftg ~ffiij_ ~ o~ arqTffiij_ a;:qoTij_
a~~ij_ ~q a~~ o~ a;~l<I~ I arcftiff&
~~T: a~ i11~a ~~T: o;:<ft~l~ I arOfTejij_-
I a;:'lTa _-1-- _____
~~m, o~oTij_ a~~: I a;:q'l~TOlij_ I a;:;ft~~_ 21. Irregular verb of the eigth Conjugation.

The root 'li (to do. to make) forms its weak base in ~~ and its strong base in ~) I

The final 0 of the weak base is always dropped before "t_, ~, and ~I

The parasmaipada is given in Part I. Nos. 51 & 62.

16

A SANSKIUT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

The itmanepada is as follows :

Present

1

2 3

.. I ~( ~(
!PI
... ~ ~~
Pif
--
~ ~a ",a
~~ ~ ~
~: ~~ 9i~
81!i<tRIlIl. <
~ 9i~era Imperat.

1

2 3

Imperf. 1

2 3

Potent.

1

2 3

,: ~ ~<mIt
~ ~~CflJ_
~"' ~il <
!iilffi+l.
~ !i'l1<nt: !iCffil'%
!i<ffq-r: ~~ !i<ft'cq1{~
!i<fta i.rlllialil ~
~ 22. Numerals from 19 to 99

The cardinals from 19 to 99 are formed as follows:

(1) The numbers from ~ to ~ are prefixed to the multiples of 10.

(2) %, ~ and 8fIii!"l, are changed to ~, w:r and ~ necessarily before 20 and 30.

optionally before 40. 50. 60, 70 and 90.

(3) Before 80. ft::) fsr and ~ remain unchanged.

(4) The multiples of ten are: fitm,~, ~~,~, ~, ~Hfij, amrre, ifCffu I

(5) Instead of ifcIii. prefixed to the lower multiple of ten. ~if, i31iI or ~ may be prefixed to the higher. Thus: 19: ~ or ttChl"1fci~lftr, aiifiorofu, ttCfiI"fci~lfu; 49: ifif'iI~or tt<hl"lQlijllQ«, i31iI'Nro«, ttCfiI"Q!ijI~I'i., etc.

(6) Cardinals from i3iiff.fflfu to ifcfifCrfa (from 19 to 99) are feminine nouns declined like il'ftI (see Part I, No. 50), used in the singular. The plural noun which follows is either in the same case or in the genitive. e.g. : by 38 men-~~T ~: or iRtumJ..1

IRREGULAR NOUNS IN :a AND OJ - THE EIGHTH CONJUGATION 17

23. The ordinals from 19th to 99th are formed as follows:

(1) From 19th to 29th : -~fu is changed either to -~ or to -mr~1

(2) From 29th to 59th : -~, ..... e<llf(lilt(,and ~are changed respectively either to -~l8', -~'l8' and -tNm or to -~, ~~If and -qQllil~'I I

(3) From 59th to 99th:

(a) The compound ordinals have two optional forms : -~ is changed either to ~ or to qf!C(if ; ~fu, either to ~ or to 9lttmm ; "mfa, 'either to ~ or to -amtfuC(if; iICI'fu, e i the r to if CRt 0 r to ifcffiRt'l' I

(b) The simple ordinals (multiples of 10th) have only one form; qf2ml, 9ltfffirlf, amrrnalf, "",fCrnIf I

(4) The ordinals from 19th to 99th form cheir feminine in t I

EXERCISE 3

1. Vocabulary itiT!(!; t itiTID) J a c ka 1

~

~fu~ m, bail, security ~~ m. the Supreme 'I"iIT~ m. god of love

~f.q l~~~ftI-~~) to amass

aN- f.q (i3Jqf:qiiTfa-i3Jqfq~a) to waste 8fCJ-f.q (areJfq.iTfa-i3Jqf~) (0 pluck ~_;:fq (M~fu-f.Jf~) to decide, to

ascertain arr~ (arr~ftI-~~t) to cover, to conceal 8M-"! (~)fu#a{q'l~tt) to open, zo ~hpose fif-"! (~ffi-f~l!!1~t) to reveal, to explain ~"! (Q'lVI)fu-ij~) to cover, to restrain

~: m, season Ilr..g: m. animal qf!l: m. dust

2

18

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

~(~'rfa-~)

to spread ~(~) to beg

~ (~uftfij~)

to destroy, to kill ~ (1fiUftr-~) to do ~1.li

to appropriate

anf~~ ~ t ~fu) to discover qft-~ (qfrG'Ii~)fu) to cleanse srfu-~ ~SI~fu) to remedy

f'a~~;~ lftR~)ffi) to rebuke, to eclipse ~-li (~~fu) to decorate

~-~(~~)fu) to repair. to polish, to prepare

8flt-li to do harm (+ gen. ;) ~-li to help (+ gen.)

II. Translate the following into English:

(n It q{6I1tlq!tiqfra a sw:i ~f.q;:qf;:o I (71.) tI~ q;n~lm iflfut (~ f4i;r~' ft+tlq<6?1~ ~ (~) ~~: SI+l1ci fi4~ f~1 ('t) ~'lT~ ~qr qq~ iiRr~ ~ r.r~f~ I ('-.) m: qf~T iirit ;nro~ITt~~ I (~) <3lfu~mJilT~ ~. Of~rl{ qf(E!ti4kl (\3) tim omIT ~mf~fi!i~ ~qy 'iliiOf: ~~~ ~~~f.t ~ ~~ ~ ~~~Tg I ( ~) tJf~ «f o~ if fq~!?Jlj I~(~ot ~ 1fi~ Slfu~", I ( ,) ~ ~Sj'urt ~~T~l!Rf1t(tll!OIul~.:aqr~T1l(JT~~~ I ( 9 0) [r~ ~~

'"

~: ~u:ftqlf~ I (9 9) ~ f~~;r.r ~fq fu~~Tfu I (n) filljjqf.qa

~ ~fu?+lfl ~ m~ I l 'I ~) ~ 'iffi)~ml ~~ ~ ~w:r.1 (9'1) It ~«Rf(1<!f~~'lT(lf~ ~~ ~fu~~~'iI~iifcmftm' ~~: I (9'-.) :;<NfulJT ~: ~ U!iI'T srr~ m~1

HI. Conjugate: ~-ii in (he imperative atm. ; ~w:r. in the potential parasm. ; aJtrT-~ 10 the imperfect parasm.; ~ in the present atm.

IV. Give the nom. sing. of the following cardinals: 21. 32. 43. 54. 65. 76. 87. 98.

V. Give the nom. sing. fern. of the following ordinals: 23rd.34th. 45th. 50th. 67th. 78th. 81st, 90th.

IRREGULAR NOUNS IN a AND a; - THE EIGHTH CONJUGATION 19

VI. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) Twenty-two soldiers ran to the palace and not one of them was able to open the door. (2) I have many friends. (3) A man has two hands, two feet. two eyes. two ears, one nose, one mouth and thirty-two teeth. (4) The fame of the son enhances (=spreads ~) the glory of the father. (5) Those who waste their fortune never do any good to their friends. (6) Decorate your mind with virtue; a virtuous man is like a light in the night. (7) Where have you plucked those flowers? (8) The rogue conceals his fickle mind under (by) sweet words. (9) Were you to give me 36 rupees. I would yet refuse the work. (10) Happy men should not do harm to the unfortunate. (11) When I am depressed I rebuke everybody. (12) Out of the 47 horses which I saw yesterday I have chosen the two white ones. (13) In a year there are six seasons. twelve monhts and fifty-two weeks. (14) We decided to leave our home and to roam about the wide world. (15) Do your work and do not listen to those who r ebuke you.

20

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

LESSONS 4

IRREGULAR FEMININE NOUNS IN t AND ~ THE NINTH CONJUGATION (~) NUMERALS FROM 100 TO 1.000

25. Monosyllabic feminine stems in t and i3i are declined. before terminations beginning with a vowel. like stems ending with a consonant. They may. however. take optionally the terminations 01 ~ and "'i (see Part I. Nos. 38 & 58) from the dar. sing. onward.

'=it f. (thought) -stem : N~

~ f. (earth) -stem: ..

,

s.

D.

P.

s.

D.

P.

Nom. ,;fi: ~ ~: ~ ~ !F':
Ace. ~ ~ f\F.r: ~ ~ !F':
Instr. ~ ~Il. ,;fiftt: ~ ~ l!,ftt:
Dat. M~ ~ ~: ~'# ~1flIl. ~:
Abl. Nll: f"tllT: ~ ~: ~: ~lfT: ~ ~:
Gen. f1:'R: ntllT: ~: f~ ~:~: ~: !JCI11l
~ ~
Loc. N~~ f\Wt: ~ ~r..~ ~: ~
Voc. 1ft: ~ m: ~ ~ ~: IRREGULAR NOUNS IN t AND 6i - THE NINTH CONJUGATION 21

25. The feminine noun ~ (woman) (stem ~) has no visarga in the nom. sing., and takes the terminations of ~. I t has optional forms in the ace. sing. and plural.

Nom. ~ ~ ~:
Ace. ~~ ~ ~:,~:
Instr, ~ ~Rml ~ftl:
Dat. mil- ~ ~l=ll:
Abl. ftiRry: ~ ~:
Gen. ftit;ry: ~: ~
Loc, ~II. ~: ~
Voc. ftir ~ ~: 26. The feminine nouns ~ {goddess of wealth), ~ {lute} and otr {boat} are declined like iI~ but have visarga in the nom. sing.:

Nom. sing.

Ace. plur.

Instr. sing.

Instr. plur.

Gen. plur.

~: ~: ~ ~flt: ~
a;;r'h ~: (I;:?Zff a.sftfu: a;sft VI I'l.
att: ott: ~ ~: ~ 27. The ninth Conjugation {ili~)

( 1) The verbal base is formed by adding ;ft' to the root, e.g, am,,-ciT I

( 2) eft becomes ill in the strong forms, e.g. : am;iIT I

22

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

(3) Roots having a penultimate nasal drop it before taking oft and ar, e,g.: W~, ~~·SI~- I

(4) ;ft becomes st before weak terminations beginning with a vowel.

(5) Roots ending with a consonant form their 2nd pers. sing. irnperat, parasm. in i3lTif instead of ~, without the addition of oft, e.g.: ~or I

28. "IlT (to buy) : strong base 1i6t0fT- ; weak base ~uft-

Present

1

lmperf.

1

2 3

Imperat.

1

2

3

Potent.

1

2 3

PARASMAIPADA

ATMANEPADA

s.

D.

P.

s.

D.

P.

3

iIftOTTflr ~uftq: ilituftl1: i!itUt ~ufi~ iflTor'l~
~urrfu' i€tuft~: ~or'l~ sfilor'lq. ttorTiJ ilituft'c~
iilTorTfa sfiluJ1cr: ~frcr ilftuftij iIftOTTij ~ij
~ ~or'r.l arsttuftif ~fUT ars€tuftq~ Sfttuft~
• .r.itorT: ars€torTQif~ arsttuficr Sfttuft~: eJiIftOfT~ arsituft'<ont
-~~
8Ji!iTurnt etifiTuftffi+r. 6ffll1UT"l. arsitorYcr 8JqiTorrnT'l SfttUTcr
iIftorTfol ~ l ttOTT;r I ttot ifiT~ tturrl1l
Ittuft~ ttor'ffi+[, ~cr iflT~ i!ftvrT~Tif~ iIftorT"'l+[_
~ tt~ ttor;g r€tvfTffi'l sfiTUJlffiif __ stfIUlQlJL
illTuft~ ~~ r€tor~ r€tuft~ ilftut'tq~ ilftuft~
I ilftuft'qy: IIfi uftlllQ'l i1ftuft~ i€tuft~: ~'l ttufiliqlf e-,
I" ~ r6Tuft~ ttuft~: ilitvITa sttu~lIlalil ~
ro'U'I~ Itt.. IRREGt::1LAR NOUNS IN t AND i3i - THE NINTH CONJUGATION 23

29. Irregular verbs of the ninth Conjugation

lJT (to know) changes to \ifT-i:;fliIl'l1f \ifTcftq: \ifTofh:r:, etc.

mn (to grow old) changes to fGf-f\lfinflr f.: ~.mr:, etc. ~!~ (to seize) changes to ~~ft:r ~q: W'I":, etc.

2nd pers. sing. imperat. parasm. : ~~T1Jf [see No. 27(5)]. g~ (to tremble) does not follow the rule ordering the change of iJ, to VL (see Part I, No. 17) ~fi:r g+<ft<i: ~iI":, etc.

Several roots ending with long vowels shorten their final vowel : ~ (to adhere) ~TRr; Ii. (to sake) ~i!Tfa; 'l. (to purify) !JifTfu ; ~ (to cut) ~ ; ~ (to tear) ~Tffi ; ~ (to hurt) ~fa ; WI'

. ~ '~

(to spread) ~fij ,

30. Numerals from 100 to 1.000

Thz cardinals from 100 to 1,000 are formed as follows:

(a) The multiples of 10D are : ~, ft;:~crt{ or ~ ~, ~ or ~TfUr ~ffifir, '<ig:~ or '<ifcfT~ ~ijTf.:r, ~Q1l. or IN ~; ~il. or ~ ~ffifif ; ~ or ~ ~fir ; at~crt{ or am ~ffit.r ; ~'l. or ifCI' ~mf.r; ~, ~~~'l. or ~ ~cnfir ,

(b) Th'e, intermediary cardinals are formed with the help of atfl:T'6, e.g. 121 : ~'lif.t~~fl:Tcli ~ail. or ~b~~~fl:T'Ii~crt{ ,

313 : ~«fTR~~fl:rc6 fSJ~crt{ or fSJ'<iC<iTRm:fl:T'6f5r~+t.' 785 : 'Nrmfl:Tcli ~~'l. or qQ'TW~f<T~ij'l'

(c) The cardinals from 100 to 1,000 are neuter nouns. The plural noun which follows is either in the same case or in the genitive, e.g, : in 526 villages=~cm~fl:T~ lN~a ~ or stOO1JfTil"_'

31. The ordinals from 100th to 1000th are formed with ~Rm'l" and ~~ij'l"' The feminine is in ~,

e.g. : the 356th daY=If~~fl:T'lif3r~ijijm ~«: , the 291st night=~1fiiI~N1fif~ijij"," ~: ,

24

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

EXERCISE 4

I. Vocabulary
~ female ~ (~) earth ~ (~'lTfu~~t)
companion ~'" (~) eyebrow to cut
'l. (S"lTfij-~a)
~ young woman ~ (a1'~mr) to eat to purify
~ wife ~J~mfa) 1 (~fij) to tear
to torment ~ (~fu) to tear.
~ "- ..
~ (~:) beauty. ~_ (§+'i!Tfd) to mjure
~ (~vrTftHQ.ufRt)
prosperity to disturb ~
to strew
'" (~:) shame S'iI_ (~OO) ~ (lifTilTfa-lifTofta)
to nourish to know
~ woman q' ('lVfOO) to fill tI&_(wfu~)
a to seize
11ft (lift:) thought ~ (iil'cifTfu) to bind \RfT (~)
~: goddess of ~ ("~Tfu) to grow old
wealth to churn ~~_ only
SU formerly
a;sft: lute ~_ (~Tfu) to steal .". .".
~:~: slowly
~ (~i1Tfu) to shake ~ falsely. in vain
~: boat ~ (fwiIlfu) to adhere ~_rather The twelve months and the six seasons:

~~: (April-May)} !ftqr: <6'lffi<n: (Oct.-Nov.) l ~~: (May-June) summer a1'JI~P1Qf: (Nov.-Dec.) f ~: (June-July) } om: f. pl. qtq'; (Dec.-Jan.) }

~ (July-Aug.) monsoon iIT~: (Jan.-Feb.)

~: (Aug.-Sept.) } ~f. ~: (Feb.-March) }

~: (Sept.-Oct.) autumn ~sr: (March-April)

f~:~: cold season f~~:

winter

~:

spring

IRREGULAR NOUNS IN t AND a; - THE NINTH CONJUGATION 25

II. Translate the following into English: (,,) ~ .. ,,~ .. JftllJlT om: ~: I ~ «(m~f ~ ;nmfir ~ II

(~) 'Ii • ~~ I (~) ~T qatltfDlffi iI~Tif I ('t) t m~, ~CfTWI~.n<t d SI~ ~m:~1 ('-.) ~:fwi~~:;:~ I (,) Clmftfilfu RPt ;{1P(ft sp:j't~~ q~~ IN 'if ~S{1JffiJ_ I ( " ) ~fi!f ~ ~ ft;5;jTfu ijttf q;rifu ~~ ~~ I (~) iI~ ~ ~ fW-nfa m", ~:~ if ftfjm I (\) ~ ijal(~"'q~ wr~ (['IT ~~~ ~ \lI'ifTiff ~: ~ I

(" 0 ) ciTs~: ~ ~ ~T WI fcm:m "J1fir<6: I 'ilUtcr ~ fit 'IT ~: tfti" ~~_ II (",,) ~~~ ~~~WuaTr.r 'if I ~ ~ij- ~qj~f;a WI ~ II

t~Tif=cau~e ; en-fit~_=to assail)

Ill. Conjugate: ~ in the pres. parasm. ; q in the potential ; fJj~ in the imperfect; ~ in the imperative" atm. ; R{_ in the pres~nt parasm,

IV. Give the nom. of the following cardinals: 235.348.579.888.777.

V. Give the nom. sing. masc. of the following ordinals: 467th. 600th. 915th. 521st. 793rd.

VI. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) 1 did not know that the guests had arrived. (2) Seize the rascal by the hair and bind him with a rope. (3) A man had two sons. One day. the younger son told his father: "I want to seek prosperity in another country. 1 know that you have amassed much money. Give me my share (~:) so that (lIWf) 1 may be able to see the world." The father gave him his share and the boy went away. While leaving the house. he thought: "With the 500 rupees which my father gave me. 1 can live for many months." As the months passed (,"!:), he slowly squandered (9N-f?q) his wealth. Then. overwhelmed with shame. he decided (fim.,:R) to go back

26

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

~ ~ home. His old father was on the road. As soon as (~~Cf-~ii) he

saw him. he seize a him in his arms and said: "My son! sorrow filled my heart when you left me. I knew that your path was strewn with dangers. Seeking prosperity you found misery and shame. Come, open the door of your father's house and let us all rejoice! For my son was dead and he lives again."

LESSON 5

IRREGULAR NEUTER NOUNS IN ~ THE SECOND CONJUGATION (~~)

32. Four neuter nouns in ~ borrow a stem in -~ (like iITJR.) before terminations beginning with a vowel from the i~strumental sing. onward. For the rest, they are declined like crrR: (see Part I. No. 64).

a:rf~ (eye) e{M (bone) ~f1:T (curd) ~fefq (thigh)

Nom. sing. a:rf%r a:rf~ ~f}:r uf<fq
Ace. plur. a:r~ e{~'Tfif ~mfir ~f.l
Instr, sing. ~'1IJ'T ~~ ~~'ifT ~~T
Dat. sing. ~it ~ ~'4 ~
Abl. sing. ~ur: ~: ~\:.,: ~~if:
Gen. sing. ~'1IJ': ~: ~\:.,: ~:
-
Gen. dual. ~'tIJT: ~: ~I:...rr: ~.rt:
Gen. plur, ~'UfT~ ~ZiITi{__ ~i{_ ~~TI{_
Loc. sing. 6{~'1IJ' 8l~fUr a:r~ e{~qf.l ~fwr ~1:Tfit ~~'if~fiI
Loc. dual ~m: i e:{~~): ~I;if): ~ifT: IRREGULAR NEUTER NOUNS IN ~ -THE SECOND CONJUGATION t*T~) 27

33. The second Conjugation. (~Tf~) Preliminary remarks.

In the fifth. eighth and ninth conjugations the terminations are easily added because the verbal base ends with a vowel. In the second. third and seventh Conjugations difficulties arise because. in many cases. the terminations are added to a verbal base ending in a consonant.

34. In the second. third and seventh conjugations. the fi{ of the 2nd pers, sing. imperat. parasm. is changed to f1:l when the verbal base ends with a consonant except a nasal or a semi-vowel.

35. Besides the sandhi rules given in Part I. No. 72 special attention should be paid to the following:

36. Before weak terminations beginning with a vowel. the final ~ and ~. short or long. of a verbal base are changed respectively to ~ and ~Cf_J

e.g.: CJT+8if>'ra=fcIlJr.:a; 8i~+~=~il~ I

37. Before terminations beginning with a nasal or a semi-vowel. the consonant sandhi offers no special difficulty.

38. The terminations ~L and Q.. of the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing. imperf. parasm. are dropped after a vetbc! base ending with a consonant. The final consonant of the base is then treated according to the rule given in Part 1. No. 72(3).

e.g.: ~_+~=~_=~'t; 8f~+Q..=8ii{or.l

The final ~ of a verbal root is optionally changed to visaJ ga in the 2nd pets. sing. itnpet], par£1sm.

e.g.: ~+~L=8f~ijor~:; 8f~"l+ij'~=aHiUJ't.+~t=8f'l1lfQ..or~: I The final ij'_ of a verbal root is always changed to Q.. in the 3rd pets. sing. imperf. parasm. and is optionally changed to {{ in the 2nd pers,

e.g.: aroT~+Q..'-8fmQ..; 8fm~.+~=aror: or ~I

39. Before terminations beginning with a consonant except a nasal or a semi-vowel:

28

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

(1) The final aspirate of a verbal base loses its aspiration, e.g.: ~1Jf't+ftr= qur~-m=~ I

(2) A soft aspirate, after losing its aspiration, throws it back, if possible, on the previoHs syLlable,

e.g. : ~&~+~_=~=at~=a{~; ~~+~=~_ ~=~=~ I (3) The previous rule does not apply before the termination f"r of the 2nd pers. sing. imperat. parasm.,

e.g.: ~&_+~= ~fh11

(4) It does not apply either before terminations beginning with Q.. or t!., in which case the lost aspiration is thrown forward on the foUowin, Q.. or q which are softened,

.... e.g. : ~_+ftr=~_+ftr=!{tfu;r; ~_+q=~ I

40. Before terminations beginning with a consonant except a nasal or a semi-vowel. the final ~ of a verbal base is changed to G..:, When, however, the verbal root begins with ~, the final & .... is changed to ff •

"'

41. Before terminations beginning with ~ [i,e. before ftf, ~, and

~) G and q are changed to !iii,

.... e.g~: ~~ + ftf=~ "+ ftf=~~ ; ~ + ~=~ I

42. Before terminations beginning with <t, q and I;J, the final G of a verbal root is dropped, while the follo~illg Q.., ~ and I;J ar;

changed to G u.nd a preceding short vowel is lengthened, ..... "-

e.g. : fu& + o:=~:=~:=~:; fi;s& + f"r=~=~=etft: I

-.. '"' .....-..

43. The final ~ of d. verbal base is dropped before soft dentals, e.g~ : mq_ + fl;J=mf"r I

44. When a verbal root ends with a conjunct consonant having !iii or ~

.... ....

for its first member, it drops that !iii .... and ~_ before a termination

beginning with a consonant except a nasal or a semi-vowel,

e.g.: ~; ~I

IRREGULAR NEUTER NOUNS IN~ -THE SEOOND OONJUGATION (~~~) 29

45. In the second Conjugation (~~~)

(1) The terminations are added directly to the verbal root. (2) Final and short medial vowels takes guna in the strong forms.

(3) f!:T replaces ~ in the 2nd sing. imperat. parasm. when the verbal root ends with a consonant.

46. ~~"' (to milk) : strong base ~"'; weak base !il,

Present

1

2 3

Imperf.

1

2

3

Imperat,

1

2 3

Potent.

1

2

3

PARASMAIPADA

ATMANEPADA

s.

D.

P.

s.

D.

P.

eJ~ ~U: ~: ~ ~ !~~
~fu ~ijt "' ~~
~I:f: ~l!:T !~q
~!:T !i!:T: ~~ ~ ~ij ~
8R)&ll_ ~~ ~ 8l!~ ~~~ ~~
~l:1Tcf;~ ~ 8l~ 8l!~: ~rotml_ ~
8l~~ ~f!:TT1t ~ ~!:T ~~~'l ~
~Tf.r ~~cr ~l{tii ~l eJ~~ ~~1Il
~ft!:T ~ ~nt ~~~ ~~tm! ~
~ !~ ~~;:g ~ ~~it ~it
~8nJJ.. ~ ~ !it~ ~cr~ ~~
~: !~- !8lffi !~'JT: !{m~ ~~IiOf1J",
~ !mffiit ~~: ~ !tr~RrTit ~~~ 30

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

47. f~\ (to lick) strong base ~i{_; weak base ~ gives a good illustration of the sandhi rules explained above lsee Nos. 34-42)

(1) Before terminations beginning with a vowel. a nasal or a semi-vowel. no difficulty : ft;5i{~, ~iUfir, ft;5~:, e{~qJlf-! ft;smiJ.., ~{tll', etc.

(2) In the 2nd & 3rd pers. sing. imperf. parasm, : eW5iL + ~t=~; eW5i{_+q_=eW5<?:.,_;

(3) Before terminations beginning with a consonant except a nasal or a semi-vowel:

(a) Before fu, ij- and ~-~i{_ + f~=~~+fu=~f~ ; similarly: ~, f~~1

(b) Before terminations beginning with Q,_, ~ and "l_: ~G_+fu=~+fG=~~; ~_+~=ft;s+G=~; e{ful~_+ \:"qil = e{R? + ~ =e{~lG.~if_1

48. Irregular verbs of the second Conjugation

The second conjugation counts many irregular verbs. The most important are given here below and in the next lesson.

Verbs ending in -an

They keep su all through; the termination of the 3rd pers. plur, imperf. is optionally ~", before which the an is dropped.

lIT (to go)

PRESENT

IMPERFECT

1 2 :3

lITfif lIT,,: I lITq: e{lJTil atlI'TCf sr:mr
lITfu ~: llT~ e{lJT: e{!ffifif_ e{lJT;:f
litre lila: lI'TFra e{lI'Hi. e{lj'lffi'l e{lI'Fl. ~: IRREGULAR NEUTER NOUNS IN _-THE SEOOND CONJUGATION (~) 31

IMPERATIVE

l'OTENTIAL

1 2 2

~ ~ vm ~~ ~ 2Wmr
~~ lffiPl. lfrn ?TFI1: ~ ;mrRf
-
~g ~ i ~ m~ ~ffi'I. ~: 49. ~ (to go) is regular except for the 3rd pers. plur, of the present and imperat .. which are respectively ;rfio and ~ I

Remember that the augment of the imperf, forms vriddhi with the vowel ~ [see Part I, No. 47(3)] e{+q+~=S{ + ~=8frlIll.1

Imperat.: ~ + atTf.r=~ I

50. Sffl:t-~ atm. (Sflft) (to study) is regular-Remember the sandhi rule given in No. 36 : The final ~ of a base is changed

to ~~t before a termination beginning with a vowel.

Present : arl\-t + ~ + q=e{f\;r + ~~=~~ I

Imperf. : atfl:t+at+~+~=e{f"1+at +~ftr=atfl:T+~=~f'<f I Imperat. : atf\T+q+~=atft1+~=at~ I

Potential: atf\T+~+~=e{fI:T+~l1 =atl:ft~~ I

51. Verbs ending in ~

The final G takes vrddhi before a strong termination beginning

with a consonant.

S (to praise) strong base before consonant : ~ strong base before vowel: cIT

weak base: S

Present : ;ftft:{ ijCr. ~, etc.

Imperf. : e{+cIT+8Pl=~; 8i+;ft-+~=eIil\: ; etc.

32

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

Imperat. : ifr+arrr.r=crcrtfif ; ",,+Q=;{tSl; ; ~+~=~ I

Potential : ~, etc.

The 3 verbs ~ (to praise), ij (to grow) and ~ (to sound) are conjugated like ~ but they optionally insert t before all terminations beginning with a consonant.

Present : ~f1:r or ~ ; ~ ~q I Imperf. : ~or~m..; ~or~~' Imperat. : ~ or ~ ; ~ or ~61i I Potential : ~ or ~~~ I

52. ~ atm. (to lie down) takes guna all through. The 3rd pers. plur. of the pres., imperf. and imperat. are respectively : ~«t,

em~,~1

Present : ~+~=~;~, etc. Imperf. : 81'+~+~=em~ ; aWcI~, etc. Imperat. : ~+T(=~ ; ~, etc. Potential : iU+~=~, etc.

53. if (to speak) inserts t before strong terminations beginning

'"

with a consonant.

Present : ii't+t+f1l=ifCftfiI ; ifCf: ; iI1l:, etc.

'" '"

Imperf. : amr+e{J{-81iI'<nl.; eJii!+~=~; 81'iIIl+t+(l=~.

Imperat. : ii't+T(=PR; ii't+t+~=~ I

Potential: ~,etc.;~, etc. (see No. 36) .

....

IRREGULAR NEUTER NOUNS IN ~ -THE SECOND OONJUGAnON (~,_) 33

EXERCISE 5

I. Vocabulary

~ eye ~ ( ~-~ ) to lick !J (~ ) to praise

~ bone ~ ( ~ ) to tell ~ ( ~~ )

~ curds ~ ( ~fu ) to cut to praise

~ thigh ill ( ~) to shine ~ ( ~) to cry.

u~: f. prosperity liT ( IlTftr ) to measure to yell. to sound

51-an'!. { ~ ) lfT ( lfTfu ) to go SI ( ffifu )

to obtain lil ( orrftf) to blow to increase. to grow

~-stT'!. ( O1fTtiITftr ) 'ill ( 'iITfu) to bathe ~ ( ~ ) to lie down

to pervade ~." { 8G~-8I!J- i!. ( JfIftft:r~) to tell

8fc(-" ( ~ftt) ~a) to allow am", (~) to be

to despise "ifilTf6~ ( 'IiIimft ) srfu-" { Slfal'illdla )

~~ t ~ ) forest-dweller to promise

elephant ~ cheat

~ ( ~_~ ) ~ ( ~ ) to go ~ proper

to milk I atN~ ( atl(r6) to read SI~: belief. trust

II. Translate the following into English:

~ ~ ~~ oml ~ I 64t .. ~1<flf ~ ~ a{f'",~~

~ <ti1I'1iql~ot ~ di(~I~d~ ~ ~ ~ ~I ~ R~:

SK~ - ~ ~if ~ ~fta;ft ~ ur-nfftfa I ercr.:m: U Cjfi: ~-

MMUt:ftq ~ srurwn. - ~ {~_ ~ I ~~ ~- ~ 2 !iij:

~( C\.

UJmmf ~fu I «rSCf« -1'iI'~ifITs~ I U .... ij .. IRff~: ~f.:jrqf'Aecll ~ f'ircl:i1!f1'

SR~: (deputed) I fcr;rr {l6IToi 'Ili 1iiT~ if ~~: I ~~ ~ Ul'ilTifllTJ'lit I 4t'lJT u, ~~m:lffif ~ I mr: ~~: ~i1'T "1lCI~ ~ fir~: I mr: u ~~nt. ~ filqfffi1Tst fl;pt I ~ t1W.~ ~~ I ~ q'f&~I"i('eiJlnw: -~~ "" ~~ ~ I "" ... ~ftr ~ Sl(lJ1J: !id~\4tIi(!J~Qr,,~aj ~:~'ll (1m ,,~ttri fifJlIIT ~~cft ~~~: I ri ~ ~ Cfltm ~F.ir~~0{ I

3

34

A SA.NSKIUT MANUAL FOR mOB SCHOOLS

III. Conjugate:!t... in the pres. parasm.; ~ in the imperf, atm. ; ill in the imperative; 8{fl;r~ in the potential; ~ in the present ; ~ in the imperfect parasm.

e,

IV. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) We read the w hole day and our eyes were giving us pain. (2) Collect those scattered bones. (3) We should lie down in the grass. (4) A sweet fragrance pervaded the forest as the traveller began to roam among the trees. (5) May prosperity shine in your life! (6) It is not proper to put your trust {~~) in the words of a cheat. (7) When you told me that you despised me, my eyes quivered. (8) While the cowherd was milking the cows, we sat down and ate curds. (9) You should measure the place where the well is to be dug. (10) Standing at the gate of the city, the hero with his powerful thighs and his strong arms did not allow the enemy to enter. (11) While the sweet breeze of spring is blowing, let us bathe in the river. (12) We praise thee, 0 Lord. for thy splendour pervades the universe. (13) A woman cried in the night and we ran outside the house to see where she lay.

NOUNS IN eft AND eft--5ECOND CONJUGATION (cont.) 85

LESSON 6

NOUNS IN en AND an-SECOND CONJUGATION (cont.:

s.

D.

P.

s.

err f. (ship) D.

P.

54. m m. & f. (bull, cow)

Nom. ~: 'JTC7t 'M': ~: ;rrcft ifTCf:
Acc. "lit ~ ITT: ilmt ;rM en<f:
Instr. iJCtT .rr~ .rr~: ifTCfT ~ ~:
Dat. .rcr ~ ml<l: ;n~ ~ ilM:
Abl. ITt: ~~ ~: ifTC(: ~ ~
Gen. ~: ~: IfCITlt en<f: ifr<fr: iIT'm[_
Loc. tTfci 1lCi't: ~1iI wrrfcr ilM: 01\"
-e I -e
Voc. I m: trrcIT ITfcJ: oft: ilT;ft iffcJ: 55. Irregular verbs of the second Conjugation (cant.)

8til (to eat) is regular except in the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing. imperf. where it inserts 8{ before the terminations ~ and a_ I

Imperf. : ~ ~: ~I

56. 8ffi_ (to be) drops 8{ before weak terminations and drops~_ before terminations beginning with !!it and 'Cf{. It inserts t beore the ~t and <lof the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing. irnperf., and its 2nd pers, sing. imperat, is It~. For the conjugation of am (see Part I

- ,

No. 63).

57. a{T~t atm. (to sit) drops its final \l.._be£ore 'iii' (see No. 43).

36 A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR. HIGH SOHOOL'J

58. ~ (to hate) optionally takes the termination ~ in the 3rd pers. plur. imperf. parasm,

Present : ~+ft{=~=(see No. 37) ; l'l+ftI=tm;

fttt+tI=~ I

Imperf. : 81~_+~=81~ ~; ~ or 81%,: I Imperat- : fr;:'t+f\,t=~_+R=~~ I

Potential : ~, etc. ; ft;:tfilf, etc.

59. ~ (to cleanse) takes vrddhi in its strong forms.r--Strong

- .

t

stem: 'fI3f_1

It optionally takes v~ddhi before weak terminations beginning with a vowel, i.e, in the 3rd pers. plur, pres., imperf. and imperat, Present : ~ ~~: ~: ; 3{iirRf or ~~ I

Imperf. : ~_+«_-8I'fIt; ~ or ~~I

.A_ A. A. t ~ •

Imperat. : ~_+lq=~_+le=~~e; 1IT3f_+~='"'?$; ~~Cj or~ I

60. ~ (to kill) drops its ~ before weak terminations beginning with tJ. and 'i; it drops its 81 and changes its (_ to tt in the 3rd pers. plur. pres. imperf. and imperat. Its 2nd per. sing. imperat is \lffll

PRESENT

IMPERFECT

1 2 3

(~ ~: ~: 8I(""l 81~Ef 81~"
~f« ('I: (ij: ~ ~ 81fIa
~r~ (ij: ~a ~ e:mmf_ ~ IMPERATIVE

POTENTIAL

1 2 3

&ifTfif ~q ~ fI;m~ ~lfTq ~
i'i(~ (o~ ((f ~: ~- ~lfTq
&"rg &ijT~ ~ (~ &"rlfRm{ ~: NOU~~ IN ~rt AND err-SECOND CONJUGATION (cont.) 37

61. 8R. (to breathe), ~ (to sigh), m~ (to sleep) and ~ (to weep) insert ~ before all terminations beginning with a consonant except ~; they insert t or at before the ~L and (f" of the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing. imperfect.

SR. PRESENT

1 2 3

-
atfirf'l etf.t<r: Q: ~
~ etfij'l: atfil'l ~: ~.~:
etrcffu atfiRr: etilf;a ~~ emdT(f" ~ IMPERATIVE

~~ POTENTIAL

1 2 3

00f.r 00cI U~'l ~ ~~T" ~
~~ ~ ~~ ~: ~'t ~1O
~~ ~~aTil
~ ~QffiI.. ~~Iijl'l ~: 62. Five verbs belonging to the second conjugation have some

characteristics of the third conjugation ; ~<rnl (to shine), ~ (to be awake), ~_ (to eat), ~fuu (to be poor) and 'Uffi~ (to order) drop the ~ of the terminations atRi and ~ and take the termination e~_ in the 3rd. pers. plur. imperf.

~'iiRf~ Pres. : 3rd pers. plur. : 'i(~~fa I

Imperf. : 2nd pers. sing. : 8l'i(~: or at'i('fjm_ (see No. 34); 3rd pers. plur; : 8i~: I

Imperat. . 2nd pers. sing. ~Tf~ or ~~; 3rd. pers. plur. : 'fil~ I

~ The final ~ take guna before the ;;~L of the 3rd pers. plur, imperf.: 81VIr~: I

38

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

~inseTts ~ before all terminations beginning with a consonant except • and t or 8{ in the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing. imperf. It is,

"'

therefore. conjugated like ~ (see No. 58) except for the 3rd pers.

plur. pers .• imperf. and imperat. : ~~, 8{~:, ~g I

~fUO' drops its final 8lT before weak terminations beginning with a vowel, and changes it to ~ before weak terminations beginning with a consonant.

Pres. : 3rd pers, : ~ftil:lfa ~MQ: ~~fa I

~ changes its 8lT to ~ before. weak terminations beginning with a consonant. The second pers. sing. imperat. is =mf\11

PL~S.: 3rd pers. : ~m fue: m~Rr I

EXERCISE 6

I. Vocabulary

tit ( m: ) m. f. I 8lT-lIl ( awrmr )

bull. ('ow to come

m ( ill: ) f. boat ~ ( affi:J ) to eat

an~_ ( arna ) to sit ~(: flood, current

~ fWt ( [rn-fui )

~ digit of the to hate

moon I .

~ ( 'TIm) to Wipe

~~ ( ~ ) man ftil ( ~Rr) to kill

~~ youth ar-r ( 6{firfu )

Eiif: arm to breathe

~I:'fIU shower ~{i{_ sky

"eN... ( ~f~fa) to sigh iI~: fire ~ ( ~fqft:r ) to sleep I 6{CfiIi{ bowed. bent ~ ( Uf~Rr) to weep ei~ garment

~Et ("AiT~) to shine ~;z ( ~ ) to wake ~ ( ~~fa ) to eat ~iU ( ~ftiUfij )

to be poor

~ ( mf~ ) to rule ;

to instruct

f.f.~ ( fcNf~fa) to confide in. to rely on ( +loc.) f.iiWi: tree with red flowers

NOUNS IN err AND ah -SECOND CONJUGATION (cont.) 39

II. Translate the following into English: ( 'I) 'iU ~iJt !FJrfVr 'ref'1It ~fuif: '6WT: ·f ~vnf.r ~~f.ij ~,f.t if ~~iJT~ II (~) The sky during the rainy season: ~cr ~t1t~'~q o~: i M~"iH~~;nf1:rq-~~ II

(l) if q(~Wf{Tqq q~t ~~Ui.. I SJTcijifl'flTCi <!iffi il'l:qTzrntfm ifT II

"

('t) ~ ~f~fu il' f;;~~_ I (,,\) ~ fcI~: ~fqfu ~ ~'6T ~f.ij I

(~) ~ 'If ~fu li£Tifr~i{ I (,,) ~~if u~ ~~lIJt ~arfq ~g I (~) I\llilf~S~ ~f"i ~ I ( \) 'lmllJt ~~ ~r crr~~ifT'a~r ri q~S~T~: I

( '10) aM"IH~ F.'!!Et{~{'tlrTaqsf: ~ ~~~: '~"T"~: I

~) QEtkiEt'li411 Uillqijlj' ~<fat~T iJCFfliftcr llTfu ll_f1:r: II

III. Conjugate ~ in the present; err~_ in the imperfect; ft(Er_ in imperative ; ~_ in the potenti.al; ~ in the present ; ~ in the imperfect; ·'",mr_ in the imperative ; ~~ in the potential.

IV. Translate the following in the Sanskrit:

(1) Three cows were eating grass near the well. (2) Do not kill those innocent people. (3) While the sun was shining, we sat and talked. (4) Those poor children are asleep and yet they sigh. (5) Why should you weep? Nobody here hates you. (6) The showers have wiped the dust away. (7) Wake up, boys. eat your food and go to the teacher's house. (8) Those who rely on the words of the wicked are like fools who sleep when the house is on fire. (9) As soon as the sound of the lute was heard, the boats began to move. (10) There is no peace for those (of those) who sleep when they should be awake. (11) How can that man abandoned by all rule (over) the country? (12) Four hundred and thirty-six enemies were seized. (13) Although the wicked may hate you, do not torment anybody. (14) The cold season has come: let us sit at home while the cold wind is blowing. (15) Those are poor who long for greater riches.

40

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

LESSON 7 IRREGULAR NOUNS IN SJ;J"l._ THIRD CONJUGATION (~)

63. ~ m. (path) strong stem: ~. ; the nom. sing. is q~: middle stem : q~-

weak stem : q,

Nom. sing. Ace. sing.

Ace. plur. Intr. sing. Instr. plur,

64. ~ n. (day) is declined like ilTiR, (see Part I. No. 102) except that the nom. sing. is at&:: and the middle stem is at&.l:L'

Nom. sin!!. Nom. dual

Nom. plur, Instr. s ing. Instr plur,

Lac. plur.

at&.:~ I

65. ~"I. m. (dog) is declined like U~Of. (see Part I, No. 102) except that the weak stem is m,- I

Nom. sing. Ace. sing. Ace. plur.

Instr. sing.

Instr. plur. Voe. sing.

66. ~"I. m. (young man) is declined like U~ except that the weak stem is ~or.- I

e,

Nom. ~in!!. Ace. sing. Ace. plur. Instr. sing. Instr. plur. Voe. sin!!.

IRREGULAR NOUNS IN ~-THIRD CONJUGATION (ilfft{) 41

67. ~_ m. (Indra) is declined like U:5fiJ_ except that the weak ste m is Iflit'!:: I

Nom sing. Acc. sing. Instr. sing. Instr. plur. Voe. sing.

'I'm I ~ I q$rr I q'i{~: I ~_

68. Compounds ending in -~_ take err in the nom. sing. only.

Their strong stem ends in -~'l; their middle stem in -~ ; their weak stem in ~ I ~ m. (Indra),

, -

N om. sing. Acc. sing. Instr. sing. Instr. plur. V oc. sing.

'mT I ~- I VIm I mfu: [ ~,

69. The third Conjugation (@~ )

(1) The verbal root is formed by reduplication.

(2) In the strong forms (see No.8) the final vowel and the short medial vowel of a root take guna.

(3) The 3rd pers. plur. pres. and imperat, parasm. drop the if of their termination: -erl6 instead of -~ ; -~ instead of -Sl~ I (4) The 3rd pers, plur. imperf, parasm. takes the termination ~_ before which a final an is dropped and final Ii, :a and '1,;, short or long take guna.

(5) The sandhi rule given in No. 36 does not apply when the final l' or :a of a polysillabic verbal base are preceded by a single consonant. e-g. : 'l~+atfu=,@ftr; mft+atf6=~; but ~+erla= "'f$qfij I

70. Rules of Reduplication

Reduplication consist in repeating before a verbal root that initial portion of it which ends with its first vowel. Reduplication is subject to special rules.

(I) An initial aspirate loses its aspiration in reduplication, e.g: ~-~-I

42

A SAN,sKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

(2) An initial guttural is changed to the corresponding palatal in reduplication. e.g, : !fi1t.-'i!f.Ii1f;-; initial ~ .. ...i.; changed to ::5L1

t3) When a root begins with a conjunct consonant, its first consonant alone appears in reduplication. e.g. : fuq':f!6f\1q'.::fq~_1

(4) But when a root begins with a sibilant followed by a hard consonant. it is the latter which appears in reduplication. c.g, : ~-g~=~. But: ~-m~ I

(5) A long vowel becomes short in reduplication. e.g. : oft-fir;ft I (6) Medial ~ becomes ~ in reduplication; medial en- and sIT become'! in reduplication.

(7) Final tl, tI; and an become at in reduplication. e.g. : it-~ I (8) ~ and ~ become ~ in reduplication. e.g. : ll-f.nll

71. ! (to sacrifice) : strong base ~~ ; weak base ~ I

This root is conjugated regularly except in the 2nd pers. sing. imperat. : ~fl-t I

PRESENT

IMPERFECT

1 2 3

~Tfir ~: ~: ~CfiI"_ ~~ ~s~ I
~fq ~: ~ ~: ~~mi_ 13f~
~{rfu ~Q: ~iijfu at~{lQ_ ~ ~: IMPERATIVE

POTENTIAL

1 2 3

~Tf.r ~CWf ~~q' ~il ~q ~~
~PtT ~Q~ ~sa ~: ~~rn+t ~lIm
~g ~saT+t ~g ~~ ~&"'Il(Ir+l ~:
. - IRREGULAR NOUNS IN ~ -THIRD CONJUGATION (~rf~) 43

72. Irregular verbs of the third Conjugation

~ (to give) and I:lT (to put) form their weak base in ~and ~"!_t Their 2nd pers. sing. imperat. parasm. are a:fi[ and ~f~ respectively.

The weak base of '=TT, i.e. ~~, does not conform to the sandhi rule given in No. 39(4). but follows the rule given in No. 39(2). In other words. before weak terminations beginning with a consonant. ~_ is changed to ~, e.g. : ~"i+ij:=~+ij:=Iffi: I

~: strong base ~~; weak base i1{it_

e

Present

1

2 3

PARASMAIPADA

ATMANEPADA

~~fir ~: ~: ~ ~~ ~~
~f« ~: ~ ~ ~it ~~
~fu ~fu .. ~a ~
~: ~ 1:lT: strong base i1{lilT; weak base ~_

Imperf.

I

2 3

61~'=TT1{ ~ 61~lf 61~f\T ~v.qf{ 61~~f&
~'=TT: a{1:"fflil 61~~ 61lilcQr: 61~'=TTqyi{ 61~~I:Cf~
~li(Jtl. c 61l:"Rlfil ~: 61lil~ ~cnil 61~ij 73. ~T (to fear) optionally changes its final t to ~ before weak terminations beginning with a consonant.

Strong base ~- ; weak base fi(~- I

Present: f~; fir~: or fi(r~cr:; ~+erra=~fu

[see No. 69(5)].

Imper(: air.M-+~=a~'fi(~.; erllr~+;;:=61~:

[see No. 69(4)].

44

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SOHOOLS

74. ~ (to depart) and ill (to measure) form their base into ~and ~-; they drop the final t before terminations beginning with a vowel.

Present Imperfect Imperative:

Potential :

ftrit, ft:m1~ ; ~, ~~, etc.

etftrf'l, 8f11I1:fttn: ; arlIsr~, SfflJl(ltn'l, etc. ~, f1r~ ; ~'t, f\llI{IQ1't, ~ I ~,tmfttn:;~, ~(\4Idl'l. ~I

75. ~ (to abandon) : strong base ~-; weak base ~-, or \jf~-, the final t or i{ being dropped before weak terminations beginning with a vowel or with ~ . The 2nd pers. sing. imperate has three optional forms : ~, ~f~, ~ I

Present : ~ftf, ~,,: or ~~:; 3rd pers. plurv: Gi1ftr I Imperfect : Sf~, ~iiI or ~; 3rd pers, pl. : ~ I Imperative: ~, 11rttm4t. or ~, ~ I

Potential :~. etc

76. f.r:st. (to cleanse) and ~ (to separate) take guna in reduplication; the radical vowel does not take guna before strong

terminations beginning with a vowel.

Present :~, ~~f\t, ~ ; ~~,,:, ~~, ~ I

Imperfect : ~~, af.t~_; ~~, ~fiRJi,~: I Imperative: ~~, ~fh,,~; ~~,~,~, Potential : iIfir~, etc.

77. Roots ending in ~ and ~ [see No. 70l8)]

1I (to carry) 1l to fill): strong base foim:..:-, "Pm:.:-

weak base ~., ~_ [ see Part 1. No. 6f(7)1

Present : ~, ~:, f.i;rftf ; fqqffr, ~:, ~ I

Imperfect : anfRl:, ~1i{, ~~:; ~, 81f1t'!.dtil' Sfflmi:, Imperative': ~, ~ ; f~, tqtRr ,

'" ''\!'l '"

Potential : ~;r_, etc.; fq~ etc,

IRREGULAR NOUNS IN eror. -THIRD CONJUGATION (~) 45

EXERCISE 7

I. Vocabulary
~('Pn:)m. S (~) to offer. ~t~fij~)
path to sacrifice to give
at&ifJ~:) n. day Ii t fqqffi) to fill ~(~~)
~('c1T) m. dog l- to put
~ (faI~Rr) to fear fiN!_t~~~)
~q;r_t~) m. ~ t~fij)
young man to wash
to abandon fiIGr (~~ ~firffi)
~_t~)m. ,
~(~Rr) to seperate
Indra ~t~~)
~(~T)m. to be ashamed
to support
Indra Iff tfirifta) IJRiiRf (ar)
qrsy(IT~ to measure of emerald
worthiness ~(~) ill fu: f. lustre
~
~: glass to depart efiNT;li{_ vicinity.
~gold mm one without contact
. ( 51eftvRrr proficiency
~: contact passion
atlilfu:R: i(~e_ (~:) n. sky
topsy-turvy I ;rit earth ~fir: f. loss, damage II. Translate the following into English: (,) <fiR: ~«e~ ~ ill full. I

~

({~T et~"tT;r.r ~~ ;rrftr srcftvy~ II

t ~) fuJT ~~rfo f.i0Ft r.ri(~'fu IfIsraT1i. I lfI$J(crr;a:i(~ \liI'~' ffif: ~ II

( ~) qaSJ; i(~: ~SI film f~g crrftl:W: I

SNl~~ iil~ 'iT ¢orcfi~ II (K.M.I., p. 92,6)

46

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR mGH SCHOOLS

(~) qf~~qy;ft~~~~ SI~~~I l~) ~ ~ m-'iji ~~fu ij ~ f.I~ffi~ (\) <l~ ~ ~~ (,,) ~ ~l ~T !lT~: I «;) m !fffiT ~ \iliiTfu m f~ I (\) ~T fun' asrt"l gourrfu am ~~ ifrr-f_ fif~ I ( '10 ) mfif q l"II04;rf",~ ffifir (<1 ~~: ~

III. Conjugate ~ in the pres. atm. ; q in the imperative; S in the a

imperfect; :t:it in the potential ; ~ in the pres. par.; 'IT (to

abandon) in the imperfect ; ~ (to depart) in the imperative ; ~T in the potential atm.

IV. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) Those dogs do not bite; do not be afraid of them (abl.), (2) The jars which we two have filled with water can be put in the house. (3) Why should I be ashamed? I have not abandoned my friends. (4) Three young men support all the people of the village. (5) For five days the priests have sacrificed goats. (6) Go and measure the tank which was dug by the twenty-five men chosen by my father. (7) One without passion fears nothing (abl.). (8) If both of you were to give fifty rupees, we could buy many books and the children could read. (9) Nobody knows how to wash these clothes which were left on the sea-shore by the rich merchants. (10) As long as (lfTCRI. •. IDem,) the king supported us, we feared nobody and everybody feared us. (11) On the path by which the wounded soldiers departed many people were crying. (12) At the sight of those afflicted people, my eyes were filled with tears. (13) Young men are attracted by the lustre of gold. (14) Everybody knows that those who are ashamed of their conduct (instr.) never attain worthiness.

IRREGULAR NOUNS MISCELLANEOUS-SEVENTH CONJUGATION (q"1Tf~) 47

LESSON 8

IRREGULAR NOUNS MISCELLANEOUS SEVENTH CONJUGATION (OOre:)

78. ~_ m. larm) is optionally declined like ~!ijOI_ from the accus. plur. onward.

Nom. sing. Nom. plur. Acc. plur. Inst. plur. Loc. sing. Loc. plur.

~: ~: ~Tq: 1{tf~: ~fq ~):q
-e
~lwr: ~1~: ~ I ~qij
--
~tUQf 79. 131~ f. (blessing) lengthens its \ in the nom. sing. and before terminations beginning with a consonant.

Nom. sing,

Nom. plur,

Insrr, sing. Instr, plur. Loc, plur.

arr~ I emftfu: I ernft:~ I

80. ~f. (sky) has.m-: in the nom. sing.; its stem remains ~ before terminations beginning with a vowel; it becomes ~

~ before terminations beginning with a consonant; its accus. sing. is

optionally ~,

Nom. sing.

Nom. plur, Acc. sing.

Instr. plur. Loc. sing.

81. q~ m, (man) strong stem: ~i{t~; middle stem: SIl; weak

~ - ,

stem: i~'

Nom. sing. Acc. sing. Acc. plur. Instr. plur, Loc, plur, Voc. sing.

48

A SANSKR.rl' MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

82. at~~ m. (ox) strong stem: ~ ... _; middle stem: at~; weak stem: ~_. The nom. and voc. sing. are respectively: ~ .... CfTitand ~_I

Nom. sing. Ace. sing. Ace. plur. Instr. plur. Loc. plur.

ar.r6~, I at,,~ 8{iI~: 1 ~~: ~~ I

83. IaN_f. (water) is declined only in the plural. It lengthens its at in the nom. and voc, and changes 't to tl. before fl:r: and ~: I enq:1 1aN:1 ~:, ~:1 at~:1 at'iT'l1 at~ arrq: I

84. The seventh Conjugation (~)

(1) Ail the verbs of the seventh conjugation end with a consonant.

(2) Before the formation of the verval base. a penultimate nasal is dropped.

(3) In the strong forms (see No.8). if is inserted between the radical vowel and the final consonant. e.g. : ~"l becomes qOT"l.1

(4) In the weak forms. "l is inserted between the radical vowel and the final consonant. e.g. : ~I:{ becomes q;t:T_1

85. ~ (to obstruct) : strong base ~OT"t; weak base ~_I

PARASMAIPADA ATMANEPADA

S. D. P. S. D. P.

Imperf. 1

~fe" ~Uf: ~: ~ ~ ~
~f~ ~~: ~ ~~ ~I:f(it ~'t~
qutf;a ~: ~~6 ~ ~ffi q;l:T~
atqOTl:T'l at~!f ~ atqf;l:T ~~ atq;'t;j"%
at~j{Q1J; at~ at~ ~: 8{~l:TTtm{ ~
at~(J" ~ atq;l:Tif. ~ a{q;1:f(ffi1l. a{q;1:lO Present

1

2 3

3

IRREGULAR NOUNS NISCELLANEOUS-8£VENTH OONJUOATlON (~~) 49

Imperat. 1

2 3

Potential

1

2

3

PARASMAtPADA

S. D. P.

ATMANEPADA

S. D. P.

~~ ~ ~ ~~
qvr"lT'f ~ ~"l
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~
~ ~ ~~ ~ ~1:11(t1'l. ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~,_ ~
~: ~ .. ~I(t'l. ~ ~: ~TttllJ. ~~
~Q.. ~~ ~: ~ ~~ ~~ 86. ntct. (to split) Pres. Parasm. 1 2 3

4

~_ (to join) Pres. lItm.

~~ ~: ~: ~ ~ ~
~ ~: ~ ~ijt ~ ~~
~~ ~: ~Rr ~ ~ ~ ~_ (to break) Imperf. par. ft-q_ (to evacuate) Imperf- atm.

1 2 3

8lMi 8{~ 81~ ........ 1t
~ ~ ~'f
8{¥Ii(ii_ 8{~: 81 ft:1iI1~ I'l. etft.~
~"_.IJ. 8I~
~_ ~ 8{~liIlal'l. 8{f{1QO
8N~T'l. ~ Wi (to grind) Imperat, par. ~ (to pound) Imperat. atm.

1 2 3

~lillfQr ~ ~ "' §'l~ §"I~I~
~
fquifi fti!'l. ~ §,RtCJ g"~I~l'l.
~
I fq~ fillT'l. ~ ~yq ~T'l. g-~T'l. 50

A SANSNRrr MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

~ (to kill) potential par. : ~~ ft~ ffl:~, etc. E~ (to eat) potential atm. : ~~ ~~ E!5fmfl, etc.

87. Irregular verb of the seventh Conjugation

<1(, (to kill) inserts ~ instead of if before strong terminations beginning with a consonant: ~f&l ct~: ct&l:; but ~fl.; QUJtTfiJ, etc.

For the treatment of final ~_ revise the sandhi rules under Nos. 40, 41 and 42.

I. Vocabulary ~: rn, arm

sn~_ f. blessing

~ (~,:) f. sky ~~(~~)ffi. man s{if~_ (s{iI~ m. ox eN l8JTq:) f. water

~ a little

~T compassion

EXERCISE 8

em (61i1~) to anoint ~~(~~) to kindle ~,(~urm~~)

to pound

f~ (fiJclfu ~)

to cut ~ tfqilf!) to grind

~_(~) to break ftrct_(~f~ f~)

to split ~(~) to protect

; ~_ (E@",cre) to eat,

m:fWa overflowing

~fw: f. wave, current to enjoy

~(~",fm~~)

~r_ l ~cti_) f. glance

u~ kingdom

to join fif ~'ii!... to appoint ~(~f:a~~)

I"' to obstruct

to leave

fcr-futi_

to distinguish

f« (~iffuI)

to injure

em~: rn, folded hands ~ orr1:"£. to fold

hands srM~dajly

~good action ~~evi1 deed lilTilfl. bath, bathing ~oil

fiI~ daily duties ~gathering

IRREGULAR NOUNS MISCELLANEOUS-SEVENTH OONJUGATION l~liflf~) 51

II. Translate into English:

l "t ) if lifer if :q U\Zll~ if ~ funfi{~~~ I

ilflf ~fu: i{if1iTP:r Sill) Cfi~~fffflUwm ~ II (K.M.II. p. 56, 16)

(~ ) idimfi{~ ~;ar~~R;: fiT ~ftlif 1iIlrl:f ~fu f~ ~)~: I ( ~) ~)S~Ti!~tI. ~ I:!flt<r1 Slfcrk-i qlfi{~ci5 if'Cif'lil: I l't) ~ij'<f~$lW: f~~~~ orfcr W1~ I l "') ~TlifCf: ~ClTi!t ~ ~ ~ ~if1 ~iOr.rt q;~ if~~S~qRr I l ~) m<JltI. 'i~ ~ a~if15jlff: I ( ,,) 8{iI~t '1T~ ~T w'1~ffir ~~"l~~'

'"

(~) mol. ~Rr ~~Ti1«Il~ fir~' (\) ~ ~ f.!~~ fqf~~a I

( 'I") ~~ ~~ ;Z&'TtciT iiRlft <ft~~~lf rous~, ( 'I 'I) tri m~ if ~~5'<iT f<fimnCf~ftil'1{ ~ ('I ~) lf~ tcf iii{ ~OlJ1f~ti ~ if <i'tsf1:r ";r1~ ~ ,

(n) The hypocrit :

aT~ ~.q' ~ lfT~ ~~I

(fffil. ~f~~ ~ lfT<i( ~ if ~ II (K.M.V., p.123, 92) IIf. Conjugate etst .... in the present ; fu~ in the imperfect atm. ; fll'!_ in the imperative; ~~ .... in the imperfect; ~ .... in the potential atm. ; ~ in the present parasm. ; ~ in the imperative.

.... ....

IV. Translate into Sanskrit:

(1) Those who injure their friends do not enjoy the happiness of life. (2) His knowledge distinguishes him from all his companions. (3) Two elephants led by the prince have crushed l ~ ) the flowers of the garden. (4) Let the rogues break the houses and obstruct the paths: their evil deeds are not forgotten by him who protects '1S. (5) Hundreds of oxen have been killed by the waters of the river. (6) Having obtained my father's blessing, I kindled the fire and folded my hands. (7) While in the sky the stars were shining (loco abs.), we felt the compassion of the Lord coming down upon us. (8) If you cut this rope, the boat will be carried away (potential) by the waves. (9) The poets praised the king thus:

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A SANSNlUT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

May you enjoy your kingdom for a hundred years: may you break the strength of your enemies; may you appoint good ministers: may you daily protect the life of your subjects and check l ~) the course of the wicked. (10) The charioteer yoked (~.J two horses to the chariot. (11) When you eat food at.a friend's house, you should not leave anything untouched. (2) The lightning split two big treesand killed five oxen,

LESSON 9

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE AGREEMENT OF THE ADJECTIVE

88. The general rules governing the use of the Accusative were given in Part 1, No. 14.

(1) The accusative case is used to denote the direct object of transitive verbs and the objective complement : ~I{ ~ ~ ~iAi_ I (2) Verbs denoting a movement govern the accusative of the place towards which the movement is directed: sm:i ~ftr I

(3) A very idiomatic use of No. (2) is the following: the accusative of an abstract noun governed by a verb meaning 'to go' : ~ d ~-He goes to fame=he becomes famous ; a{1{~ iiI~He goes to immortality=he becomes immortal.

89. Some intransitive verbs govern the accusative:

(1) The time during which an action lasts is put in the accusative.

V ~ ~_ ~~tITiP.i(lfc'l-He roamed about the forest for thre~ days. (2) The distance during which an action lasts is put in the accusatsve :

81'IiI' ~ .-The horse should run for one :tojana.

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE - AGREEMENT OF THE ADJECTIVE 53

(3) The following verbs govern the accusative instead of the locative:

atf1:l-m to sleep upon, to dwell. ~~~a-H~ reclines on a

stone-sla b.

ad\:T-m to occupy, to dwell. qldl041fl:lm\\lfa-He dwells in hell. e:Jflil-ar!{{_ to lie down, to dwell. ~"~--He dwells in a hut. Of~-fif-r.m_ to resort to. ~lI1mmni!~-He resorts to the

good path.

Offl:l-Cf{{'_ to reside. fqmrf~-He resides in the mountain. em-Cffi_ to dwell near to. iI~,,~qijlft:r-I dwell near the river. arr-~_ to dwell. ~f'fi(l"I'RlftI-He dwells in this town. '3Q..q{{_ to dwell. qi!tfiqElfra They dwell in the forest.

N.B. When :o-q'qij_ means 'to fast' it does not govern the accusative.

90. Double accusative

(1) Transitive verbs denoting a movement govern a double accusative. viz. the accusative of their direct object and the accusative of the place towards which the movement is directed. Such are:

~_ to draw, to pull. ~ ~ ;pjffi- He pulls the cow to the house. oft to lead, to carry. 6lftIN smi i!~-Lead the guest to the village. q~_ to carry. f(~ 'I1Q ~- The young woman carries the jar

to the well.

G to take away. ~ ~ ~-Let him take his books home. (2) Twelve transitive verbs. with their synonyms, govern a double accusative, viz. the accusative of their direct or primary object and the accusative of a secondary object which normally would be put in some other case.

54 A SANSNRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS
Primary Secondary
object object
fir to collect q;wrfir 'l~ f<fiiTful He collects fruits from the tree.
f~ to win .~ ~RR Ilt<ffu He wins one hundred from
his brother.
~_to fine ~a.r mi ~fu He fines the thief with one
hundred.
~&_to milk q~ 'If ~ft~ He milks milk from the cow.
!fit to cook ~Of. aiT~ IRfij He cooks rice into boiled rice.
SI~~ to ask q;:q-yoj ii(;1:i ~~fu He asks the path from hi'S
" '"
friend.
~ to speak .ftfa- '~ ~ He explains morality to the
~
pupils.
"~to churn ~I:lf ~ "~Tfu He churns nectar from the sea.
~'t to steal ~R UiifTrf ~ulTfu He steals a necklace from the
king.
~T:cr..to beg ~lff fqat ~:q'a- He begs pity from his father.
~"lto obstruct ~st il6RT~T~ ~rn: He confines the enemy in jail.
~
~l~toinstruct! ~" iiliTTOf. ~a He teaches duty to the people. The secondary object of the above 12 verbs will, however, be put in its normal case whenever special stress is laid on its special relation with the action. e.g.: (It is not from a goat). it is from a cow that he milks milk. ~ri'r: ~T ~ft~ 1

91. The change of voice of verbs governing a double accusative : (1) For the four verbs given under No. 90(1). the primary object becomes the subject in che passive voice. the secondary object remaining unchanged.

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE - AGREEMENT OF THE ADJECTIVE 55

(2) For the verbs given under No. 90(2), the secondary object becomes the subject in the passive voice, the primary object remaining unchanged.

Active: ~\ilt ~w::' ~ft; I Passive: ~\ilt ~ ~ I

92. The double accusative governed by the causative will be treated latter (see No. 147).

93.

Prepositions governing the accusative

Si;au between i3"~<l"a: on both sides of I

~or without ~~: on all sides

concerning aIDTa:, qR:a: around

f<rifT without ~,f.rc!m near

fl:TC6~ fie on qf~, 5(fcr towards

Si~ after, towards atf~ towards

aq near, below i3q~qft above

~

at!:TII:l:, Si~fl:l below

94. Agreement of Adjective

(1) In Part I. No. 66, the general rule of the agreement of the adjective was given as follows: The adjective. whether it be used as an epithet or as a predicate, agrees with the noun it qualifies in gender, number and case. The same rule is expressed in the following Sanskr. t verse :

fcr~£<l"~ 1l ~ fqtffcrnq'q;J 'q It I orfir ijqffij ~fit f.im~i:ffq II

(2) Wren several nouns are qualified by the same adjective.

(a) the gender of the adjective will be feminine, if all nouns are feminine.

It will be masculine if at least one of the nouns is masculine.

It will be neuter if at least one of the nouns is neuter.

(b) the number of the adjective will be dual or plural according to the total number of the nouns.

56

A SANSNRlT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

e.g. : ~;~ (fern. dual) war ijTiI5T 'if ; ~~{t (masc, dual) 0ffi 'refif: ~ (neut, dual) ~ ~~; ij'"~T: (rnasc. plur.) ~a- ~~~ ; ~TfOJ' (neut, plur.) ~~n ~t'lT ~ 'if I

(3) In many cases, the previous rule is not observed. The adjective often agrees with the closest noun, e.g., ~ 0ffi ~~ ~{: I

EXERCISE 9
I. Vocabulary
Siflil-~ (2A) to q~: pride 6llif rich
recline ~;fT milk-cow
~-m (IP) to ~q: birth, origin ~: rise, prosperity
I
occupy I ~ barren ~: m. living being
Sif~-fif-f.m~ (6A)
to resort to I \3'l~i3!.. (7 A) to use ~ subject to,
atflil-<m~ OP) to passive: to be of depending on
reside use U.sick
~-"a_ (IP) to dwell
near Si~ imperishable ~ useless
atT-<m_ (lP) to dwell ~ spotless
i:J1J-cm_ OP) to dwell, ~: judgment. f.i-~ (2P) to cry
to fast conscience ~ grain, rice
~0Jl. family at~ pure, sinless ~onewho
~fame
~ form, beauty ~~POol:' suffers acutely
marq_ bravery ~happy SiJROT immortality
~generally
a~ bright mr.ftfi:r: f. politics m;r;: sorrow
II. Translate into English:
(<t) ,(OJ ~ '-'1a ~ ~~ ~I
'" ~
JIT~ it~"4IOjI ~ ~~:" (K.M. VI, p. 66.4) THE ACCUSATIVE CASE-AGREEMENT OF THE ADJECTIVE 57

{'~) ~"$'5li1lffisfq ~ar: it;J ~ I

i1'nft~it<f1 ~ ~~~~ II (K.M. VI, p.67, 13) (~) ~ .. ~ f.lm ~~ "tiPl1

~~ ~~~ ~ II (K.M. VI, p.68, 30) ("t) fit~iIT: ijf~) m: ~~~~:ft<mT: I

~:~ ~ ~ ~ II (K.M. vr.ca 57)

(,\) ~: mrftt~ .. ~~nfq ~~: ~ ~1IJR iir.g: I ~ ~ ;ro Mm ~~~ !Of ~ ~ f.ii .rom II

(K.M. VI, p. 79. 63)

( ~) ~ wm ijtst of :q ~1:j ~fN I ( ,,) ~ qif~f~ ijif~fiJI!fi'iT ~;ft ~ o."rtu: ~~ I (,) ~ ~;mil~f~ ~~«tt ~ I t\}«~ ~ffbr U1Il~1 (, 0) i1~~~: SJ~ ~ quftIr ~fit «~.qr.ij' I (,,) atiliS~ ~~a ~~TU.I!fiI~fd I (") ~ uiiliftm ~ ~ as ~ ~arJliiflOj'( I

III. Change the voice in the following:

( ,) "lijq{~I"~-.:Qffi'( I (,) f~ ~TJlifcIJl. I ( ~) ~ ~t ~ I (v) ~ Q ~ mr.6' ~ I ('-.)~: ~1¥t1f.r ~ ~~ I

IV. Translate into Sanskrit:

(1) Pride leads men to destruction. (2) Even fame cannot rob a spotless mind of its beauty. (3) In the forest where we dwelt for two years, the trees, the creepers and the flowers were beautiful. (4) You shoud not recline on the earth in a cold night. (5) Just as a barren cow is of no use, so also a worthless son is a burden to his family. (6) Let those who suffer acutelg beg peace and happiness from God. (7) People were taught their duty by men whose conscience was spotless. (8) Let us pluck those sweet fruits from those high trees. (9) Around the fire which shone in the dark, people were sitting. (10) Without judgment man is unable to resort to good conduct. (11) When the gods were churning nectar from the ocean, Garuda begged for some nectar.

58

A SANSNRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

LESSON 10

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SUFFIXES POTENTIAL PASS. PART.

98. All Sanskrit words are supposed to be derived from the origi-

nal verbal roots. The first process of derivation operates on the verbal root itself. Its field of operation extends to all forms directly derived from the verbal roots. excepting the conjugation of finite tenses and moods. The suffixes used are called primary suffixes ( ~ ~ ).

The second process of derivation operates on words already formed by the addition of primary suffixes. The suffixes used are called secondary suffixes ( Clf.aa ~~ ).

96. In representing the various suffixes. Sanskrit grammarians

use the following device. Before or after the suffix proper. they add one or two letters which are meant to indicate the changes which the original root or word must undergo before it takes the suffix. Those extra letters are called the anubandha or indicatory sign. The anubandha may indicate some change in the accent of the word; with that we are not concerned. It may also indicate the change of some vowels to guna or vrddhi, and that is what will retain our attention. e.g.: the root '!i + the suffix atCIi=1iIiR:ii. The final vowel of the root has taken vrddhi. To indicate that before the suffix at'i the final vowel of a root takes v,?ddhi. the suffix is written UJii, the letter or... being the anubandha showing that vrddhi is ordered before the suffix atCIi.

97. Meaning of anubandha in primary suffixes

(1) General rule: Before primary suffixes. the final vowel and the short medial vowel of a root take guna.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SUFFIXES - P0TENTIAL PASS. PART. 59

(2) When the anubandha is "€. or ~ there is no guna, e.g.: ~+'iji=iicr. The suffix of the past pass. part. is a; it is preceded by the anubandha <fI_ which debars the application of the general rule.

(3) When the anubandha is ~ or or.. the final vowel and the medial short iii{ of a root take vrddhi, while a final en becomes en~, e.g. : ~+~=~; ~+1IJ"i=1ilTll<li I

(4) When the anubandha is ~1 the final =<t of a rootis changed to EILand the final ~is changed to q_, e.g. ~_+~=m<6 I

(5) When the anubandha is q_, ({_ is added to a root ending with a short vowel. e.g. : 1iI{~-~+~ =8f~ I

....

98. The Participles. All participles are formed by primary suffixes.

The five forms of the potential passive participle are formed by five primary suffixes called the ~,~ I

(1) -O<ilI", before which a final vowel (except eU) and a short medial vowel take guna, ~-ma~=which should be heard



enq:enHOll=which should be obtained

~~ =which should be cut 11ll.~ =which should be gone to

Note the following : W-~=which should be seen i!f&...mro~ =which should be carried ~~~=which should be seized

(2) -K<lT~, before which a final vowel and a short medial vowel take guna. ~1l-~'R1'fhr=to be remembered. worth remembering re.:-~~=to be seen. worth seeing

~~~~ =to be worshipped. worthy of worship

60

A SANSNIUT MANUAL PCR HIGH SCHOOLS

(3) -OlfQ" (I) ya [t). This suffix is reserved to roots ending with'llL or with a consonant. The anubandha ur._ orders the vrddhi of a final vowel and of a penultimate 8{ : Q.. is also anubandha.

~-Cfiri =to be done q:q~-crrur=to be said f~~~~ =to be cut

qo qy~ =to be read

~~ =to be laughed at f«"'f...::~~=to be sprinkled

(4) ~ ya (t), This suffix is reserved to roots ending with a vowel, to those ending with a labial and to ~~ and ~. Before ~ a final vowel takes guna, and a final 8{T is changed to t:(.

ftir-~ =conquerable

qy-~ = drinkable

~~ =audible m~~Cflr=Possible

tu[_~=obtainable ~~~m =bearable

(5) !fll![_ (k) ya (p). This suffix is reserved to a few roots only.

The anubandha <6~ debars all guna ; the anubandha ! ordains the addition of Q.. to roots ending with a short vowel.

~-~ =to be gone to ~~ = to be praised

iURf..:~=to be taught, pupil

1l-~ =to be supported, servant !i~

=to be respected =to be done

99. The potential passive participle is used either impersonally, in the neuter singular:

IfllT q;:a~ -(it has to be gone by me)-I have to go.

or as an adjective qualifying a noun or a pronoun:

~ ~~ ~ -The king is to be praised by the ministers.

the participle lUCR, used as an adjective, either agrees with the noun it qualifies or remains in the neuter singular :

~ q~ ~ lUCRT: or ~ q~ ~f\lij ~-They can be saved by me.

'" '"

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SUFFIXES -I'OTENTIAL PASS. PART. 61

The potential passive participle conveys the meaning of

obligation, of fitness or of the future:

ijll'T ~Olfi{-I must go

~~ ~lflI..- This is worth seeing ('ilfT il:~clfil.-You will see

EXERCISE 10

I. Vocabulary
~ (~:) f. fear ~good ~<iT~ truthful
~ (lA) (SillRt) amct.evil err-!6T~~ (lPA)
to protect <fT~(<fT~) to desire
~t;a Yama, god of opponent ifR:!fiiI, play, drama
death ~;ft3 desirous
SIf8 bowing humbly to win ij~ct.once
~ perturbed, SI-~ (3PA) fu:: twice
alarmed to grant, to bestow f:lr: thrice
~~ distress if~:actor ::qg: four times
;m:: day, time ora)' actress ~: five times
lit: planet ~:deceit, ~~,~: six times
'~star, lunar hypocrisy, pride ~~t<i: seven times
mansion ~fl:~: (c€t) ~I:lT in one way
~0lfiI, group of three deceitful. proud f~T itl:lT in two ways
~f6: preceptor of mf5rlf: learned ~I:ll Sfl:ll in three
the gods brahmin ways
~greatly ~: often ~ in six ways
II. The nine planets: ~~ qw~!Ii ~I:l!ltl~ roqfij:
~: ~!liU Us: ifi~:il f(1 IItT ifer II The sun. the moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter. Venus. Saturn, Rahu and Ketu are the nine planets.

62

A SANSNRlT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

From the seven first planets the names of the days are derived: ,f1.if'm::, ~i'liJ'IH::, ;rn't'.Cffi':, ~1:l1.ifR:, roqfijiifR:; E!~:, miifR: I

III. Translate into Engish :

( ~) ~smr lf~fT.r ~Clt :qR:ffi'fl~fT.r

;IT ~TgiJ~fu ~Cll~flFlT, ~lf'riji{ I ~~ ~CllfT ~urT~~

ijT m"1cfr f1.if~~ ~ijrn:~ II (K.M. VI, p. 24,19)

(~) ~a~c~: ~ 1ir~ ~~~ ~ I

if ~ftr if f~ftr a~Tflt I:l~ \lliI': II (K.M. V, p. 120. 63)

( ~) iifRr.J_ ~f.qit. !t&:T;r_ ~f:crn.. ~T11Jr iifTif~ I

~ ~ f.JiifTiff;a ~ 1.ifT~tffilf: ~lfi{ II (K.M. V. p, 117.21)

(v) if m if ~ if moli 1.ifTkoIT ""': I

~Fmr Slfa,,~ ~~ f.f~ftt: II (K.M. V. p, 115. 1)

(,-\) SI~~ fcr~ct em ~ ifl ~ai{ I

~~. ~~ wTiti mf5rit g if f.ti~ II (~.M. V. p. 122. 82)

(~) lf~ iJij" 1.if:q: m t'llfTSl ~mr~ I (,,) f.6lf;~ ~ ~ (~)~: ~ ~tlfcn~flt~lfi{ I ( ~) fcr~ ~m: I ( ~ 0) ~<t CI'i(T'IiT~_~'Tlli{ I

IV. Give the resulting forms of the following:

'tl_ + aczr; ~ + CIClf; qr + SliI'Tlf ; fl + er-ftlf; 'i + tnm.. ; (~ + Wffl.. ;

fi;r+~; /3ffl-iJT+lfij_; ~+<flI''t; ~IHL+<flI''t1

V. Translate into Sanskrit:

(1) All the fruits should be counted. (2) Here are two poets worthy of praise. (3) Say what you have to say. (4) All those who should have come have not arrived. (5) If you want to see some-

THE INSTRUMVNTAL CASE - PRESENT PARTICIPLES 63

thing worth seeing. go and see the new play. (6) One should never be deceitful. (7) If you have to stand in a big assembly. remember that modesty is better than pride. (8) This water should not be drunk. (9) The country should never be abandoned. (10) If the voice of the speaker is to be heard. you all should sit in silence.

LESSON 11

THE INSTRUMENTAL CASE PRESENT PARTICIPLES

100. The general rules governing the use of the Instrumental were given in Part I. No. 21.

The Instrumental conveys the notion:

(1) of the agent of a passive verb: ~ ~ -It was heard by me.

(2) of the instrument: &~ijq q'l1:flQj f4lll-Throw the stone with your hand.

(3) of that which accompanies the action (with or without the preposition~): ~or ( a~ ) ifil"GTfil-I play with my friend.

(4) of cause or reason: ijqrro~ ~lJfU fqaT -Owing to this offence my father is angry.

101. The Instrumental is used also:

(1) to express the time and the space within which the action is performed: aT~~flTct~~~ wRt-Grammar is learnt within twelve years. ft;rf1:Jqf~~ft qq{(Ull~--Within the distance of three 'Yojanas I saw four towns.

64

A SANSNlUT MANUAL FOR. HIGH SCHOOLS

(2) to express the price: _ qqlft ~: sfiTviTfiI-I huy the book for five rupees.

(3) to express the manner: ~r ~~-:-Compassior.ate by nature.

(4) to express the way or the vehicle by which a motion is performed : ~;:niiur ;m: ~-By what road has he gone? eriif 5ITUt~~-He left for the palace on horseback.

(5) with adjectives denoting similarity or identity: IRf imr.-Similar to me. ~ ~:-Like a king.

(6) to express the limb of the body affected by some defect: ~ iIiTVT:-Blind of one eye.

(7) with the prepositions ~, m~J ~, ~ (all meaning 'with') and r.r-n (without).

(8) with words meaning 'possessed of', 'endowed with',

'deprived -of : 'EI<i~0i: 'EIiJ1~:-Endowed with all virtues. ~:Deprived of friends

(9) with expressions meaning 'what is the use ?', 'there is no use'. etc. such as: fl6 ~ ~ or ~ f.6 W t-What is the use of wealth ?-iIil ~ 1:1itifT~: ~-What is the use of wealth to you? '"' a~ if SPfl6liP(-I have no need of your advice.

(10) with 8ftiRl. and iQil. meaning 'enough with': ~ f~Enough with your lamentation.

102. The present participle active (parasmaipada), the present participle active (iitmanepada), and the present participle passive are formed by the addition of the primary suffixes';

~ (h at (r) and~" (~) ana (c) (see Part I, No. 83).

Present participle active parasmaipada

The termination ~ or amr of the 3rd pers, plur. of the present" : ctive is replaced by 8Rl_1

The declension of the present part in am.. has been given in Part I, No. 83.

THE INSTRUMENTAL CASE - PRESENT PARTICIPLES 65

The verbs of the 3rd conjugation and those of the 2nd conjugation which have etfa' in the 3rd pers. sir-g. (see No. 62) do not insert ~ in their strong forms and are, therefore declined like ~ (see Part I, No. 76).

The same applies optionally to verbs of the sixth conjugation.

Verbal root 3Td pers. pluTo Pres. Part.

\'iIT1l ~fu ~ li(fl«l" iiI'llIO:

~ ~ ~~m~:

~ ~fu ~ ~a" ~a:

The feminine of the present participles which do not insert if.. in their strong forms is also formed without OJ. (see Part I, No. 111). e.g.: masc, : ~; fern.: ~ I

103. Present participle active iitmanepada

(1) The verbs which have eRt in the 3rd pers. plur. present, i.e. the verbs of the 1st, 4th, 6th and 10th conjugations add 'WI' to the verbal base (see Part I, No. 83), e.g. : ~ C1S~ C1S~ I

(2) The verbs which have em in the 3rd pers, plur. present, i.e. the verbs of the 2nd, 3rd. 5th, 7th, 8th and 9th conjugations replace aRt by 61'(if, e .g. :

~"' %~ ~ ~"t ~t:Rt ~
~ ~~ ~ ail., Q;offl a;c(lif
§ ~ W<fli' It ~ sitvnor
The pers. part. of emI'_ (to sit) is amir.I
of ~ (to lie down) is ~
104. All verbs form their present participle passive In ~ [see
Part I, No. 83(2)].
5 W A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS
EXERCISE 11
I. Vocabulary
Ifl1i (IA) to oppress, ~ god of love ~~ the Narmada
to resist ~tr.the River
o;n$!f: hunter course of passion ~big
8f!I-1:'fR_ to pursue SAmPl. dawn wlJiitsilk-cotton tree
~: renunciation ~noon fir-q'~ UP) to dwell
~ one who gives ~:sun ~:~nest
up,donor 8«0: sunse t ~:bird
pftir: of a good family ~ setting iRRI_(~:) n. sky
• sinner ~f.« old w:f. rain
~ miserly '61i'R'fll'Srthe whim ~~ fitted with
~the Vedas of time fima protected from
~ conduct, custom iITIJ indeed the wind
!l~(IA) to ~thus ercr-m (lA) to stay
engage in ..... {: monkey ~~: cessation
n Translate into English:
(,) ~ fit ~ftior fit ~ ~ I ij~ fit ~or ~ ~ ~ II (K.M. VI, p .. 69, 33) ("~) if ~a.r if ~ if ~ if • I

~ ---

!l~ ~ fur ~ iIif:1I

~

(l) iOl'S: 51~ ~ ~: ~r.m~: I ~ ~ f~ij~hs~ ~ ifill*flwau II

('i) 'R ~ 1ft ~ !fif lIiUftf ~ <fTft CM wmr ~ ~ !fif ifm I ~C'f~~ ~Cf\1W~:1I

('-.) fftillijcll~Qjt .lIr<4ilf~ ~ I

1!JTOf"~fc(~liq ~TilmT ~: ~ II (~: perfect . they went)

THE INSTRUMENTAL CASE - PRESENT PARTICIPLES t7

~ q;{~ f.roR;s: ftll~~tHi:! ~ ~1iI ~ ~ ~ p.r I ~ Wi ~~ ~ ~ ~I mft ifTiId. ~~SCl'f~dT~, ftfidl!K'5lW( cpq4tlill~ ~ ~ I m ~ iiI1iRl: ~ I

~fi«rr ofI6I*loS4tISjI'd~Ul: I

~~~ ~ r.&f1rftr «t~ II

~",(ql cnorif~ I em- firqreofl~""qf\1qijT: gf@;r: qfuvits\+tl~~~ I

~ . f.d ~~ ... ~

~ dliC'?( r~Nmt": I ~\ llllrtlt~ ~~I ~~ ~~ VCf WJlgr ~'-

~6jI4iOS I f"l ~: &rmf.r I

III. Justify the instrumental case in the words underlined i-ll Exercise II.

IV. Give the nom. sing. masc. of the pres. part. active of ill, tr., m, R, 61T'L ~, ti, I(;"!_ I

Give the n0!U' sing. fem. of the pres. part. active of~, ~ .

QI11l, "",,, ~_, ~, ~ I

Give the pres. part. passive of ~, ~ ~, ~_, ~_, 'I, ~ I

V. Translate into- Sanskrit:

(1) I saw the two girls collecting wood in the forest. (2) While the rain was falling (lac. abs.) the weary traveller sat under a big tree. (3) There is no one like him. (4) The path b:' which you came is being obstructed by the enemies. (5) Those who stay in their houses (= those staying in their houses) when their friends are in danger are to be blamed. (6) For how much did you buy these beautiful books? (7) What is the use of learning to one who follows the wrong path? (8) The house ought- to be; built within five weeks. (9) That man blind of one eye goes by the name of Devadatta (=is Devadatta QY name). (10) It is said by many that the leader has left the country with 500 soldiers (11) Due to your offence, we are all unable to go home (2) Enough with that sinping ;

68

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

LESSON 12

THE PERFECT. TENSE (~f! )

<,

105. The perfect tense expresses an action of the remote past

which was not witnessed by the speaker. That is why it is never used in the first person except when the speaker wants to express a state of mind or an action .of which he was not conscious. e.g., I spoke during my sleep.

10,6. There are two kinds of perfect:

(1) The reduplicative perfect which is common to all monosyllabic roots beginning with a consonant or with 81, etT and short ~,~, 'l!f; •

(2) The periphrastic perfect used with roots beginning with a long vowel except etT and with the roots of the 10th conjugation and other derivative roots (see No. 114.)

Exceptions: ~_ (to pity). <mI' ... (to cough), Sffir" (to sit) take the periphrastic perfect.

-a;Ot (to cover) and ~ (to go) take the reduplicative perfect.

'" ...

~" (to burn), ~ (to know), ~ (to fear), II (to support), ~

(to take away). ~ (to blush), ~ (to awake) and ({~ (to be poor) take both forms of the perfect.

107. The reduplicative perfect

The reduplicative perfect follows the rules of reduplication given under No. 70. with the following modifications:

(1) A radical st becoms 81 in reduplication, e.g. ~ I

(2) Initial 81 followed by a single consonant is reduplicated in etT e.g. : ~~ I

(3) Initial 81 followed by a conjunct consonant and initial ~ become etT~ in reduplication, e.g.: ai~ ... -8JTii~_; ~S{1'~ I

THE PERFECT TENSE .( f8e .... )

(4) Initial (and ~ reduplicate in t and 8i when the radical 'Vowel does not take gUl)a i in ~ and ~_ when the radical vowel takes gUIJ,a (see No. lOS), e.g. : ~..:t't ~; is'l,-8jlSI,, ~ .... I

108. The termj,nations

The terminations of the Ist, 2nd and 3rd pers. sing. parasm. are strong; the other terminations are weak.

P ARASMAIPADA

A.TMANEPADA

s.

D.

P.

s.

D.

P.

1 2 3

at If If (t q Il(
-
'i ~: at ij- lIN ~
- ri ~~
6{ ,,~: 0: (t
- Before tae strong terminations:

(1) A medial short vowel takes guna, e.g. : n-~~ I

(2) A medial short" and a final v~wel take vrddhi in the 3rd pers. sing.; vrddhi or gUIJ,a in the first pers. ; guna in the 2nd pers., e.g, : ~ 1st pers. : IiAiR or ~ ; 2nd pers. : 'fi-r; 3rd pers. : ~ I

109. Before terminatio~s beginning with a consonant, all tOClts insert It except ~, ~ ~ " ~J i,,~ and ~ I

• -e

Before the termination 'it2nd pers.sing, para sm.), roots ending in short "lSI except "" ~ and" do not insert it. e.g.: ~~~: Most of the roots ending with other vowels than '1& insert ~ optionally before Wil

1:1,. Special sandhi rules

(1) Before a termination beginning w.ith a vowel:

The finalltl t and '1& of the base, when preceded by a

single consonant. become ~ and ~.respectively.

e.g. : ~+~=~~; :;qi+o:=:;pfi: I

-e

70

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

When preceded by a compound consonant. they become ~lI'

"'

and eft respectively.

e.g. fu~+o:=fuf~: I ~+i;:=~: I

The final i;, a; and '!It always become i;Cf.. and ef~ respectively. e.g.: ~+i;:=m: I :q.n+i;:="'~: I

~

(2) ~ is changed to Cl~ when preceded by any vowel except

ef, err or !{ I

111. The Perfect of n (to strike) : strong base gffi'l.; weak base ~

P ARASMAIP ADA

S. D.

-----

: ; I

ATMANEPADA

P.

S.

P.

D.

W~ I W~ij' ~ gg~~ : g~fm
I -_ ----
ij~: gg~ ~~ g~:r iw~~
I
~ I~ i
~g: I ~: 1 ggF«
I The Perfetct of iT'l. (to speak) : strong base i'ifq~ ~~; weak base ~

1 2 3

i'if~i'ifm~ l'il'q~ ~ ...r.t I ~ '"'~
-- ------_ ---I---- ---
~~ ~~: i'iflff~q i i'if~T~ i'ifiT~~
~ ~~: I i'iflfa: f i'ifiT~a I ~ The Perfect of oft (to lead) : strong base ~ fiI~ ; weak base fir-ft

1 2 3

f.r-f._lf_fiI_'fT_lI'_l __ fif_~_Cf_ i filRIf fif;._ .. lt_1 filf;~ ; f.r~{ I f.:I~ ~f<rq fq.:~: ;- fif;;-- firfr<rq I f.Rl~ : fiff;<r.i\'

firifTlf -~-ij:-I- fiI~: fiR I fiF<rTa- : r.; frl!'~ I

1 -

THE PERFECT TENSE ( ft;5~)

71

The Perfect of ii (to do) : strong base: ~ 'ifCfiR_; weak base ~ I

1 2 3

~ !~~

,

----- ~ -- ---- -- -~-- -~ ----

'iil'iiq 'iil'iIi(q I ~~

, e-,

- - --- -- -- ~------------- ----

:q:fi ~~ :qfiR

112. Roots ending in 3fT take an in the 1st and 3rd pers. sing. parasm, They drop their err before other terminations and optionally in the 2nd pers. sing. parasm. The same rule applies to roots ending in '17;. ~ and eiT .

I:lT (to put) : strong base ~1:lT weak base ~Ii!.

it (to sing) : strong base \J(qf weak base ~_

PARASMAIPADA

ATMANEPADA

1 2 3

I~~J -- -- - ----
~I:l' ~M ~ I iiffmr!___ i iif~
i
~l:lTtJ ~fcN ~~: ~I:l iiffuq I l'il"fTit Ql'flf'c~
I~- ~.-- -
~ ~g: ~: I1I'iT Ql'fflt The root ~, however. is treated as [: ~f<I ~scrg: ~~: I

113. Roots which have a medial at preceded and followed by a

single consonant, and which keep their initial consonant unchanged in reduplication drop the reduplication. and change the at to l1; before weak terminations. This change occurs also in the 2nd pers. sing. parasm, when ~ is inserted before tJ .

72

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

qq_ (to fall) : strong base qqq_ qqHI. weak base 1ffl..

P ARASMAIP ADA

~ (to obtain) : weak base ~ll

_ _

ATWANEPADA

1 2 3

qqa qqm qfaC{ qImr ~ ~f~ I ~fmI~
I
--- I
qqcq qfa~ qa~: qa ~fll~ ~~rit I ~~~~
qqm Iq~: qg;: ~ ~llRt I ~~ N.B. The root ~, although beginning with an aspirate, is conjugated like q<r_, e.g. : 3rd pers. : ilm~ ~\!Ig: ~\lI:. The same applies to ~ (QQT~, a~g;:, aq:), srq_ laSJrq, ~qg;:, :5}s:) and 8lq-U"l. (81q~U\:l, STtR:\:lg:,

etti{~:) .

114. The roots crt (to speak). ~ (to speak). C{tt (to sow). Cffi_ (to dwe 11) and q~_ (to carry) reduplicate in ~. Before weak terminations. the radical C{ is also changed to ~. which. together with the ~ of the reduplication. contracts into e;.

Strong base

Weak base 3rd pers, sing. 3rd pers. dual 3rd pers, plur.

C{~ \ ~~ ~'RI'_ Oi"<r_ I ~qr:q I e;:qg;: I a;~:
I I I
~ I ~ ~~ 8i~ I ~2fT~ I ~g;: i3i~:
I
i ~
C{f{_ ~c('t ii!2fT!{ i3i't I ~Tq i i3i'tg;: i3iS:
i I I
c(~_ ii!~ ii!Cfm_ I i3i"t_ I ~iffit i3iqg;: i3i!j:
j- - ~-- ------- I ~;-t
"f&_ ii!i!i'ij_ ~2fT~_ I e;~_ i ii!c(T& ~: 115. The roots lI'~ (to sacrifice) reduplicates in~. Before weak terminations. the radical lI' is also changed to ~, which. together with the ~ of the reduplication, contracts into~. Thus:

THE PERFECT TENSE ( ft£ .... )

73

~or ~~ijf tf~q' t~
{~~q t~: ~ijf )
~Tijf ti!lg: t~: 116. The Roots OZI'!_ (to pierce), ~, (to sleep), and ~ ... (to seize)

reduplicate as follows : r.rc;~~, ijS«t[_, ~. Before weak terminations, the radical ~,q' and ~ are changed to ~, \; and ~ respectively. The change of ~ to ~, of Sf to \; and of ~ to ~ is called Sam prasaral}a.

Strong base Weak base 3rd pers. sing. 3rd pers, dual 3rd pers. plur.

~ firc>q-,,! f.lc;~'!_ f.lf.fl:l I ferc;mq f.,frfl:lg: I frffct~:
.... I
ij"G1R.... ~ifitt ~tt I ~q I ~fj,qg: ~~:
.... !
~ .... ijfRT& .... 1 I I I --
"' ~~- Gml& ~lI:g: ~~&:
I 117. The roots ~ (to be born), @;r,. (to dig). mt. (to go), 'ii~L (to eat) and ~ (to kill) drop their medial et before weak terminations. The & of ~ is changed to 'ii.

~strong base ~ ijfiTTij_ ~ weak base "ff~_

weak base "ffnJ.

PARASMAIPADA

ATMANEPADA

1 2 3

I1fiTil ijflfTlJ Illffmcr IllfftijlJ Ilf~ Illff~~ I 6(f~
11iml~: I~-~-- --~
ijfqfi:rq ~~ I..... "f;PI l...,iiI ~
1:iftTTII' I ~ill'g: 11fi~: I ~~ I ~Rt Ilff~ 118. The roots f.q (to collect), ~ (to conquer) and ~ (to impel) change their radical consonant to a guttural.

74

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

Strong stem Weak stem 3rd pers. sing. 3rd pers. dual 3rd pers. plur,

f:q~ ~~ I Mifi m.ll ~~: I ~:
I
I--- --.--- i-----
fiillr fiiln I fiiltTr fijjlfTll ~: I ~:
I
- - --_._--
fW.t fiilit i ~fq i ~ ~: ~: 119. The root "+l takes the irregular base iit'i\ and keeps its long a; throughout.

s.

D.

P.

1 iit4i<f

1------------------

2 iit~fcI~ iit4i~ if~~: if~"

1------1----- ----

3 iit"+l'f iit"+l'fg;: ! if~:

120. The root 6{~_ (to say) has not all the forms of the perfect.

The first person is completely lacking and so is the second person plural.

121. The root fCf~ (t 0 know) forms a perfect without reduplication, which has present meaning.

1 2 3

~~ I fern: ~
~ -1- fcI~
I~~:
- -- ; f<1~g:
~~ fq~: THE PERFECT TENSE { ft;5~)

8111-~"1T {~"1T)

(3P) to search, to e{tI'-m\_ (1 A) to abuse

inquire

e{tI'-@l_ (SP) to offend

away. to discard

e{tI'-~ (lP A) to i e{flf-"1T (3PA) to

revile. to deny (A) I shut. to cover

e{q'-~~ (~) (IA)

e{1f-'l (SPA) to open. to expect. to wait

to disclose for. to require

SG-~,\ (~f{> (6P) I eri1t~ UP) to

to seek. to look for 'e{q'-~~ (2P) to offend. to conjure

destroy e{fu-~ (9PA)

I to recognize

e{1f-fE (lP) to take e{fll-"1T (3PA) to

away l say. to name

I. Vocabulary

em-m' (IP A) to perform

8G i( {~) (2P) to

follow. to accompany

atf;qQ followed. endowed

e{q'-ifii{. UP) to flee e{tI'-1tIT (9A) to deny. to disown

~ wealth

CJlIiR: word beginning with the letter <t

~: blacksmith ~bellows

75

EXERCISE 12

e{q'-~ (6P) to pre- e{tI'1 (2A) to

tend. to feign hide. to deny

e{tI'-sr£-'l (e{'ff~) (SP) e{tI'..;ft (lP) to remove

to open

e{q'-S«[ t em~) (4P.A) to throw

f«til' deprived of &1~ instability

m~q,_importance. &1~ lack of faith

respect ~: association ~)USlll. day and night

~CIT failure. uselessness

~ worship

II. Translate into English:

{'lJ ~ ~ C(ffi m ~~ '<II ~: ~~ ;n:: ~ iffil!(q,_ II

.76

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

(~) ~ \:1~f.i~ k-rtrifl4lfrtt lJTf;a :q I ~ wTi{<IiT~~~<f ~~fq if iift'lfo II

( ~) ~i3f ~~ijlr ~ m§ijiITmJl!. I

:'fifj ~lU~ ~~ f.r{lJIIfol~~ II ( "4) ei~lJT ~T tI,.i3fT ~ ~~tft $ffilI.1 ~~ PciEqj(Jktf lfTfu ~q ~'ClJonf('1 II

(,-\) 8l1:"ftlJl~3 S~!.J moT Cfil{ iTfclT llI~infil;nlJ I (~) GI;l:lq~~sf(fo a itfil~ I ( \5) 0lJT1:l: qf~1JIl W N_<IT it llI~iI I ( ~) ~fiI'IiT ilf[or. ~T'l f:qf~: f~;g ~ij

¢

if ~:'fi: I (,) ~ElJ;al UIlIT ~~~t ilTf~~ I ( '1 0) ~~ (l~ ~ fij;4~: ~

( '1 '1 \ !:ITi{ 'l;;{;Fo~'<ItqTU ilU 8l~lf~a''lT ~ftr ~~ i;I;~: I (n):zro ~ llI~g~o~ ilflit llIillg: I

III. Conjugate in the perfect 8lq-ifi~. eifcr-\:1T, a{f\:1-~, SG-gT and SG~. IV. Translate into Sanskrit, using the perfect wherever possible:

(1) The enemies fled. (2) The two rogues removed all the jewels. (3) It is said that the tiger destroyed many cows and goats. (4) I have heard that you two looked for me for a long time and could not find me. (5) After the child had been killed by falling into the well. the village-chief covered the well. (6) The two sons of the merchant discarded all the wealth which they had received from their father and departed to the forest. (7) On all sides of the palace soldiers stood during the night in order to protect the young prince. (8) Although many have reviled those who do good (~-!i) to the poor. we should not desist from protecting the disinherited. (9) As soon as the servant opened the door. ail the courtiers entered the assembly hall. (10) See how the lack of faith hils led them to destruction. (11) Many years ago a son was born to the king. (12) Formerly there was a big lake where the swanssported among the lotuses.

THE PERIPHRASTIC PERFECT - PERFECT PARTICIPLES 71

LESSON 13

THE PERIPHRASTIC PERFECT PERFECT PARTICIPLES

122. The periphrastic perfect (see No. 106)

To form the periphrastic perfect. a verbal noun in the accusative is derived from the verbal base by the addition ~~ To that verbal noun the reduplicative perfect of ~, <t or aRi_ IS added. In classical Sanskrit the perfect of am_ is used much more frequently than that of ~ or <t.

Before the addition of sm:t. a final vowel and a short medial vowel take guna, except the short ~ of f~.

q1J[ verbal noun : ;YUJ~ hI verbal noun: hnJ{

1 2 3

~« I ;yUJ~rr.nf~!f , ;yUJ~+rTfErij, ~~!€fsii ' ~~!€fiiCI~ I ~~!€fiiij~
i '
iT~+rTmq I aIU'4I+1I~~: l.iTUJm+rT« t~T!€f1fo I ~~T!€f~Ti) : ~~!€f~3
iTUJllT+rT« I iTUJllmTErg: I iTUJ~+rTg: ~~l!€fifi I ~~~T~ i ~~T!€ff~
I 123. When the roots m, ~, ~ and S are conjugated in the periphrastic perfect. they are reduplicated as in the 3rd

conjugation (see No. 67) before the addition of emt. Thus:

~ ~ filit+anJ{ f"~ f.JlFITiiTEr I

ft ~ ~~ +anJ{ .J{ ~tor<tCf I

~ ~ film:_ + am{ filllUJ{ f.R:r{t!€f~~ I

S ~ :g{r+~ ~ ~CfT"rn I

124. The Perfect Passive is identical with the perfect atmanepada ..

Thus : ~ he killed ~ he was killed

<6~ he said ifi'lll11lW it was said

78

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

125. Perfect participles

(1) The perfect participle passive is formed by the primary suffix 'Qi (k) tao The anubandha Cfi~ debars guna. The formation of the perfect passive participle has been explained in part I. No. 84.

(2) There are two different formations of the perfect participle active: the first with the primary suffix 'qiOfg (k) tavat (u) (see Part I. No. 85) ; the second with the primary suffixes CfCf~ (k) vas (u) and i6Til"!. (k) ana (c). ~ is used for roots conjugated in the parasmaipada, 'tTil~ for those conjugated in the atmanepada.

(3) The perfect participle active parasmaipada (~)

The strong and middle stems are formed by adding m_ and "Ri. to the weak base of the perfect; if the weak base is monosyllabic. ~ is inserted. The weak stem is formed by taking the 3rd pers. plur. and changing the visarga to ~_.

Root Weak perf. Strong Middle . 3rd pers. Weak

base stem stem plur. stem

ii ~ =wrt~ ~ =i(iIi: I ~-
-e
;ft fir.ft" fil;ftqf~_ fiI~ ~: I ~;~_
I
~ \iI~ \ilftq<OO'_ \ilnl1Cffl_ ~: I ~_
a~Cft~_ a~~ I
M ~_ I I a~: I ~\
6"l:. I ~ 6f.:rm_ ~fi!Cffi" a~: ~~-
: (4) The perfect participle active atmanepada ( ~) is formed by adding erri( to the weak base. exactly as the termination emt of the 3rd pers. dual is added. e.g, : \iI"l:. ~ ~ I

For the declension of the perfect participles formed w'ith the suffixes ~iIg and ~, see Part I. Nos. 85 & 100.

For the formation of the feminine. see Part I. Nos. 111 (1) and 112.

The perfect part. pass. t'Qi) and the perfect participle atmanepada ('IiT~) are declined like nouns in at-err-8t1l1

THE PERIPHRASTIC PERFECT - PERFECT PARTICIPLES 79

EXERCISE 13
I. Vocabulary
atftI~_ (IP) to vio- ~-ti (SPA) 8G-ij~ (4A) to
late. to neglect to imitate awake. to be aware
atfu-~cr.. (IP) ~-~ UA) to take of
to survive pity. to sympa- et~-'Iit (4A) to agree.
8lfui (IP) thize with (+acc.) to sanction
to overcome ~-'11l. (IP) to follow
etfu-'ft:q_ (7PA) 8l~-+rT (2P" 3A)
to surpass 8G-JI{__(9P) to favour. to infer, to guess
etfu-'Fl. (1 A ) to oblige
8G~_ (IP) to heat. at~-~_ (7 A) to exa-
to exceed mine. to order
etN-!i (SPA) to to annoy
authorize. to referto at~·~(lt (4A) to repent SG-~~ (7P A) to obs-
arr1:l-'11l. (l P) truer, to obey.
8G-~ (1P) to echo to entreat
to acquire (+ acc.)
8lfl:r-~ (lP) 8G-~n~_ (2P) to rule.
to ascend ~-oft (IP) to request to teach ~'Twife ~: m.f.} birth\lFilkolq_ day

;gq-~ (lP) to offer ~~f.t-tbenefactor

t ••

~!iI: JOY

«~ opened.

expanded

Wi. but

srfu~q_ on each foot atQ'6Tftil evil-doer

~q_ thread

'iTiJ left; ~~ right c61g~iJ.. curiosity ~:f.perch ~C{i{, goodness

II. Translate into English:

('I) ~ISI ~: e~: eT"1fc1' ~ cit ~: I ettICfilftq ~: eT1:l: e ~eN: e~~~ II

~ '" -!> .l;

t ';I_) ~m iiOO ~~'R: ~"1fWnrT i1Rfu~' ~ ~~4~ti'i\il~1( I ij~T~

q~ ~T ~ ~~1II~ iI~~g: i em'i(~ el~ij~ ~ I If{

80

A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

fi6fiJrn S(faq~ ~it<ii ij~ ~lffl ~fu I ~qlfi: s(~-~i6~ Wdl fl:t fd I 9{q ~T qriJ~ ~ ~'S11lFfm I an~~:sr ~ ~<iT mNgiJAA~· IITaR"fu I aa~ ~fi;ll1Jq'W: ~ ~ olfTii!~ I ~~ :q~'-W snaTsfut ~~ ~~iJftr , ~q <6t~fI~ fcrft:iJffi sr 'HI'E~-~f~ ~ ~ ~q~e~ij ~ en ~AA I ~ iiI~ - ~ ~, ani df& rn~~~: ~fllfa I

III. Exercises on the formation of participles.

(1) Form the present part. act. parasm. (~) of the following verbs:

81ft:r-q; aITcr-ii; 6G-IlT ; ~-~_I

(2) Form the present part. act. atm. (m;f~) of the following verbs:

atfu-ft.:t; a"~~; 6G-~; 81ij~\l1

(3) Form the ores, part. pass. of the following verbs: . 6G-~_; atfl;r-ii; 81fl:t-iPl_; ~-m I

(4) Form the past part. pass. (~) of the following verbs: ~q-~; 6G-IIT ; 81ft:r-~"l; 6G-9"1.'

(5) Form the past part. act. in 'qicm..of the following verbs: atij-;ft ; atij-l),,!; 6G-i[ii_; 6G-'1ll, I

(6) Form the perfect part. in ~ of the following verbs: ~_; atf\1-iPl_; ~-~ ; atf·;fr I

(7) Form the perfect part. atm. ('fiTiI".l) of the following verbs: ~; ""l; ~; Ii'

IV. Change the voice in the following:

(~) ~ ~fl:tiio: ~ (~) ~~o: I (~) ~ ~~

{'t) e{~~: ~: ~: I (1.0,) ~~f;qffi ~~ I

V. Conjugate the following verbs in the periphrastic perfect:

Cfi~; ~; ~"l; ~_; ~rrc'll

THE DATIVE CASE - PRIMARY SUFFIXES (cont.)

81

LESSON 14

THE DATIVE CASE-PRIMARY SUFFIXES (conr.)

126. The general rules governing the use of the Dative were given in Part I, No. 22,

The Dative case denotes:

(1) the indirect object of verbs meaning

to give : ~:?.m ~ ~fl-Gi ve money to the poor.

to tell, to announce: f~ ~OiJlIi~-He related the incident to his father.

to promise: fersrrq lff SR~'1jllift~: - Y au promised a cow to the brahmin.

to send : U~ <tei')' ~:-A messenger was sent to the king. to owe: ft:rsrr;r [~~ \:m:~f~ -I owe two books to my friend.

(2) the purpose of the action: ~~T q.j 'T~:- You should go to the forest for flowers.

(3) the person or thing in whose advantage the action is done :~!fr ~ ~f~Tftr-He gathers money for his sons.

127. The dative is used also: (1) with verbs meaning

to please: Q;aril" if n~-This does not please me (l do not like this) (see Part I, No. 44).

to desire. to long for: ~ if ~~llT1lr-I do not long for fame. to be angry, to be jealous. to envy. to do harm : ~1~ if 'Ii..!t:- You should not be angry with your friend. \;(fiI~ (~m-He is jealous of the rich man. ~fVJ;rs~fu-Hc envies the virtuous man. if!~.~ ~fCI-He does harm to the boys.

6

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A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

N.B. ~'t, ~and ~preceded by a preposition govern the accusative.

to be fit for, to conduce to: l1rcRI~lq ~ -Piety conduces to knowledge. The verbs ~ and iiIffi_ can be used in that sense : ij~ ¥fcffu f~:-Modesty leads to happiness.

(2) with words of salutation like i(ij':, ~rrm{, ~fur, '~.JI..I

(3) with adjectives meaning able', with the indeclinable ~ in the sense of 'equal to, a match for', and with the verb Sl-~ 'to be a match for'. rn ~~ ;fR::-The hero is able (to cope with) the enemy. !ilT~ m«rrms~ = Gopala is a match for his brother. ~~ r,t: Sl¥fcfftr-Hari is a match for (is able to cope with) the demons.

128. Primary suffixes (cont.)

(1) The indeclinable past participle is formed with the primary suffixes Cfro (k) tva and ~_ (1) ya (p) (see part I, No. 115).

(2) Another form of the indeclinable past participle is formed with the primary suffix ur~_ (n) am (ul). The anubandha ur_ ordains vrddhi a final vowel and penultimate ar.

e.g.: ~-m+61fl=~; p..:-m~; ~~-~~ The verb ~~ has the irregular form ~ I

(3) Use of the indeclinable past participle in ur~ I

It conveys the idea of a past action repeated several times and is then used as follows: OO( ~~ cfi~1:"j ms{t~ =Having remembered again and again the death of the heroes, he broke into tears.

It is also used at the end of compounds, sometimes in an active. sometimes in a passive meaning, e.g. : ~~'CiRf ClJi'Im<l«T"(. =He exterminated his enemies (=He destroyed his enemies having killed them to the root). Cf~!Ut ~crT-She was taken captive=She was seized (having been taken captive).

THE DATIVE CASE - PRIMARY SUFFIXES (cont.)

83

129. The infinitive of purpose is formed with the suffix ~ tum (un) (see Part I. No. 122).

130. Feminine abstract nouns are formed by the primary suffix ~ (k) ti (n).

The verbal root undergoes' the same changes as in the past pass. part (see Part I. No. 84), e.g.: ~-ma (hearing); ~-~

~ !)

(memory) ; ~:~ (enjoyment) ; mt-mr.:a (fatigue) ; 'Il\-rrfa (move-

ment) ; ~-~fu (position) ; ~:~f.;: (intelligence).

Those feminine nouns are declined like "fa (see Part I, No. 50).

131. Primary suffixes forming agent-nouns.

(1) 1IJ'iIi (n) aka. The anubandha II!.. ordains vrddhi of a final consonant and of a penultimate at, and the addition of ~ after roots ending in err, tt, l( and at), e g. : ;ft-CfT~ lleader) ; wm.::omr<Ii ldestroyer); 5"f~ (liberator) ; ~-~ (donor) ; If<f_ (1JT'iAi) cook.

(2) ti'- t! (c). e.g. : ;ft-~; mtttrq ; ~-~ ; "ll_~<r; I Many verbs insert ~ before the suffix Q;<t~ (see No. 134). For the declension of these nouns (see Part I. No. 52).

(3) atUT .... a (I). The anubandha II!.. ordains vrddhi of a final vowel and of a penultimate at, and the addition of ~ after roots ending with an, tt, l( and aft, e.g.: !iRfifii'tfu{~+!i)=~~ (potter); ~ q~fu (g~+~)=tI';g<rrll (weaver); ~ \:'Rfu (<6UT+~)=~ (helmsman); cnf{ Cf&ta ( qlR:+Cf&. )=crrft~ (cloud).

These nouns are masculine.

(4) ~fiJ (n ) in (i), The anu bandha II!.. ordains vrddhi of a final vowel and of a penultimate a{, and the addition l{_after roots ending with err, tt, l( and aft, e.g. : "~-iI'f;?A,.; smI'.:WITRR,; 61qu"t~. Like

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A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

8iUl._. (see above). fUrfir can be used with verbal roots preceded by a no .. n; it then conveys the idea of habit or repetition. e.g.: 'lid ~ (ma+~I~t )=lfhtm~; ~ ~fu (~+f{' )=~~; mvrTOl. wfu (SIlVr+~)=~~Ol.; 'fill &~fu t'l~+~)=".rmftOl.I

For the declension of these nouns and adjectives. see Part I.

No. 92.

For the formation of the feminine. see Part I. No. 111 (4). (5) BR .... a (c) forms agent-nouns

with fl preceded by a direct object. e.g. : nif ~fu {urr+~) ==;,Urr&(; ~:~ ~rn (~:~ + ~)=~:~ I

with 6lt._.preceJed by a direct object. e.g. : fil~~fu (~+ ~J=~I

with m preceded by a locative. e.g, f ~ ~a- t~+~) =~ ; ~ ira- (~fir+~)=lIf~ I

with a few orh=r roots: q:q-tR (cook); :qv.-:;;m (moving)' ~~f (snake) ; ~..:-a:ii( (god) ; :q~-:q~ (s;y).

EXERCISE 14
I. Vocabulary
SI-~ (SP) to send I It_ (4P) to 'ffiJ: fall. ruin Wii(QJ: salt
fif-w;F_! 6P)to send bear malice ~food
~ (~fu) ~lRf'l. welcome ~ffi modesty
mill: donkey
to envy ~: hatred ~face qfui'l"l: co n-
tQj- (lP) to be"
" sftfu: f. love
jealous ~:law tentment THE DATIVE CASE - PRIMARY SUFFIXES (cont.) 8S

Sffu·R._ (4P) to assail'j Sffu-~ (lP) to over-

to plot against come

( -i-acc.) Slf~~ (4A) to desire. to allow Slflr~(7A) to apply oneself. to

rejoice. to congratulate. to welcome accuse

atfll4t UP) to lead ~_~ (IPA) to

towards. to act. I _ curse

to represent atfu-fu~J SI~.J

atflr-sr-~ l8fhrit) (2P) (6P A) to appoint.

etf'l7-at{ ( ~_)

(lOA) to request

Slf~-Sle_( ~~O

(4P A) to practise. to repeat

at~~ to envy <+acc.)

~Illl. (lP) to visit atfl1~-t (~) (2P)

to approach. to accept

atf~ if~ (IP) to

to intend. to aim at

to crown

II. Translate into English:

(,) ~: ifi~ if ~llj" siTfu: ~ if ll.O~ I

~q.: ~ if mTlJ iI~ ~ iAiKfT II (K.M. VI. p. 69.32)

(~) aw.r tTTSt ~ m ~ ~ ~ ~I

"1iiur it<i ~ Gft~ 'if if u~ ~ film 'if II

(~) lj": qOO~ ~ em,,~ ~ I ('I) sn~ ~urTll" 'laTOl. ~ ~ I (~) ~ gijfil t~~ lliilll"ftll (,) lI"~ tci ~oi ~ sn~~ fit (1.fll"Tf~~CPt 1 (,,)~: ~TlI" if ~~ I (~)~". q(lflilldlO{. ~ ~~ ;ztnll" Slf~TlI" (see No. 118) I (\) lj": ~sr~sfq if ~'Rr lI") Wot~sflr ijqffa ~ ~i!;:r .. ~: sr~RI ~ ~1fClT"l. ~TRf wftt" I

III. Derive the following:

(1) et~+~; ~+~; ~+~; ~+fCfd;r.1

(2) ~+ vrifi ; ~+urifi; ftr:q_+urifi; ~+urifi ; ;t+urifi ; ~,+urifi I (3) atf~+fl_; Illl.+qit; i!<l+R; ~+Q"ll

(4) Form nouns with the suffix atur_ out of the following: ~ ifiUftt" ; ~ 'CRffl ; d;sJ 1.flI"RI I

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A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

(5) OO+fbrfif; ~",+fbrfii ; ~e~_+fUtfif I

(6) Form nouns with suffix er<l'_ out of the following: mot &~fu ; 'l.~fu ; ~t ~ I

lv. Translate into Sanskrit:

(1) Hail to thee, poet! Thou hast composed a poem which pleases all of us. (2) The sage cursed (perfect) the girl because her conduct did not please him. (3) All that you do and say is for your ruin. (4) The king was crowned for the welfare of the people. (5) People generally hate those who plot against them. (6) You are accused of having reviled your benefactors: relate to us all that happened.

LESSON 15 THE FUTUR'E TENSE

132. There are two forms of the future in Sanskrit:

(1) The periphrastic future {~J which expresses remote future events.

(2) The simple future {~_) which expresses any future event, whether immediate or remote.

, ~');. With regard to both futures, verbal roots are divided into three classes :

(1) The ij'ff roots {«+~~) i.e. the roots which insert a short ~ before the terminations.

(2) The stf~roots {er.J.+~;?:J, i.e, the roots which do not insert F short~.

(3) The ~_ro6ts {i:IT+~_), i.e. the roots which insert a short ~ optionally.

THE FUTURE TENSE

87

134. The rules presiding over the division of verbal roots into ~G , atfOfG_ and ~t roots are complicated. They may be stated ~s follows:

(1) First general rule: All the roots of the tenth conjugation and of the derivative conjugations (see No. 144), all the roots ending with consonants, and all the roots ending with long 'lit and long i3i insert ~ before the terminations of the periphrastic future.

Exceptions: The following roots do not insert ~ among the roots ending in Eli. -~

among the roots ending in "<l - !f<t ~FL ft"<l CR_ fq~ fR_ among the roots ending in i! -SF-~

among the roots ending in ~ -«l'~ fiI~ ~ m1~ ~~ m:3!._ ~GL ~_ ~~{~ ~~~e;3[W ~

amon-g'"'the r~ot~ ending in~~-~~~~ ~ ~ ~ f~ ~, ~~~~f~

among the roots ending in "! -~1:! ~liJ ~"l iifO'1:!'}l1:! U~ ~~ Glf~ ~~ ~1\:l fij\:l

- ....

among the roots ending in "l. -WI. ~

among the roots ending in 't -anq:f~'1'1Jf't (!"{ ~l[. ~ ft?q__ ~~ ON_ ~_

e;q_ ~_

among the roots ending in +r -~ ffil.: {+f._ among the roots ending in ij"_ -tTij"_ iff{ ~ij"_ {Ii

among r're roots ending in ~L -~~ ~~L f~ {~. ~~t ft~ ~L ~ ~~~-

among the roots ending in 't -iiI! gq_f(CfI!_ ~'t f[tt fqq_ ~ll ~'i fcill_

~fi ~'if~'t

among the roots ending in tl -~ q~

among the roots ending in ~_ ~_ ~ ... ~i[_ if~_ ~_ ft?~_ q~_

(2) Second general rule: All the roots of the first nine conjugations ending in vowels except long "1\ and long i3i do not insert ~ before the terminations of the future.

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A SANSKRIT MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

Exceptions: The following roots insert -~f~i;T (the final err being dropped), f:;r, f~, it, ~ ~, ~, ~, ~~, ~, P;~, ijj~, ~~, <A I

(2) Third general rule: The following roots optionally insert ~ before the terminations of the future: {I:'!_ 5ir_ ~~ ~ if~L ~ ~~_ 'liCI.. ~ I

135. The periphrastic future ( i3~ )

(1) A verbal noun formed with the suffix ~~[see No. 131 (2)] in the nom. masc, sing. is prefixed to the present tense of the auxiliary 8I{{_ in the 1st and 2nd persons. I n the 3rd person, the verbal noun is not followed by the auxiliary and takes the forms of the nom. sing., dual and plur. masc. : -(IT; -ella; em:: I

(2) The final vowel and the short medial vowel of the verbal roots take guna, The verbs of the tenth conjugation keep the base of the present tense (see Part I, No. 32).

(3) Examples of periphrastic future:

1 2 3

~r..ffi~ ~f.iQR<i: I~f~: ~nreT~ ~flfQRq~ ~~~
~-~~- --_---
~fqmm ~~: ~fqQT~ ~ij' ~ftrnT6Tf:t ~tiT'<~
_------- _- ------- ---~-
~f.rnT ~f.JffiU miffil'{: ~~ffi ~~QR' ~flrQR: 135. The simple future ( ~~~)

(1) All roots ending in short ~ insert ~ before the terminations. mt. inserts ~ before the terminations of the simple future parasm,

~ inserts ~ both in the parasm. and the atmanepacla.

THE FUTURE TENSE

89

(2) Terminations of the simple future

PARASMAIPADA

ATMANEPADA

1 2 3

~ ! ~lJTCf: I ~ ~lIT"~ i ~,,~
: WI{:
---
~ I ';1I~: ~~ ~ij- ~~ I ~I:~
--- --- 1m --- -
~ I ~o: ~fi:a .;~a i~a Before those terminations. the final vowel and the short .medial vowel of a root take guna, The roots of the tenth conjugation keep the base which they assume in the present tense.

iTV! in the simple future

~in the simple future

1 2 3

~Tfl{ I qvrflJe~n<i: i qvr~,,: ~li ! w~,,~ ~q~
----- I -
'f1JJ~ 1TVf~~: flUlf4elJ't w~ij' ! wt{li~ w~~
-- ----- flUJPI~~1 I --- - ---
qvrf4tllf6 fIUIflJelJO: ~ j~ ! ~ 137. Irregularities of the future

(1) q,_ inserts long t before the terminations of the future: .;~ful

(2) Roots ending in long ~ insert short ~ or long ~ optionally,

e.g, : 0 -ofun' or ~m j afu;lrfu or ~~fu I ~

(3) The future of <i&, is .i'reT, ~ I (4) The future of ~ is smt, ~fu I

"

(5) Iif~r_ changes its final U_ to <1.10 the simple future : ~ I

(6) Roots with a medial short ~ either gunate it or replace it by '( ; rn and ~ al ways replace IJI¥; by { , thus:

....._ _..... ~

~ifir or ~fu ~fu or ~~fo

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EXERCISE 15

I. Vocabulary
6ngl3'_ ( eng: ) n. age. ii"fi dumb. silent .
I 61Cf!;JTifl{. attention.
life ii~~ root. base care
~~: question 61<r;fi earth
m[fffili: astrologer a{CiiliT~r: opportunity e:r<rlj'Cf: limb
lIP-lq_ substance. e:r<r'6T~ ~'+t to ge t an ~ free. certain
money opportunity e:rf,,~a continuous
1!j:f: tree e:r'i~Ta pure. bright e:rferofq_ continually
a{Ci-~ l6P) to bestow e:rCl-~"!. (7PA) to ob- e:rT-~ (IP) to sip.
e:r<r-rrOJ.. (lOP) struct, to confine to rinse the
to despise (+2 acc.) mouth
e:r<r-rrJ& ..... (lA) to dive e:rq~ (lA) to hang en-~ (9P) to as-
into. to be absorb- certain
ed in down. to lean on 9{l-"JIT (IP) to in-
e:rcr.Jf~~ (9PA) to let e:rT-ii't (lP)to attract. flare, to sound
loose to bend (a bow)
e:r!i-m (3A) to apply en-m (lP) to hand
oneself. to be e:rT-~_ to interrupt. down. to repeat,
attentive to refer to learn II. Translate into English:

('l) 61T~:~i\' ~'T~m!f'~ 'l1~ci: I

~ "'& iI;:zr;:a ~GT: ~f..a eli 3if: I (K.M.V. p. 117. 16)

(~) lj'~ iteR ~lj'q G~~~ Ci5;~qT iIiI ~<~ rrf+J12Jq I (~) ~T fiT 5fTt~lfftr ~:r f~T CIT ~lqr.ffi ~q_ I ( ¥) l3'~~fq qft~~ if (;;j ~Huf ~~lJfu I ('".) ~I{Fl. lj'~ ~~ itT<rmE~ ~~ ilmfimi tftGflftl[q I (~) ~;;n[cft <flU ~ur~~ rrcqT !;J~\I'IiPi~fa I (\lI) ~~~<t. %"mR~~fqilimf ~i{T ilf~lff.:d I ( G ) lj'~T ~fi{~1im<if~llTf~~a ~ ~1{<f~1:C(

THE FUTURE TENSE

91

iftr ~ I ( , ) ~ft:l::>~ SI~cf \:lit~ ~R')~fu ~TGrT I ( 9 0) 'If jfOfTol Of 'fi~~~!Jfu I ( 9 9) (CI{~ ~i§ aqf~ if f'fif~ ~'lnCf: I ( 9 ~) SliI~ cn~ iI~if 1:fi~f.r qfu1ilJRI I

III. Conjugate in the periphrastic future : ~ qOf. and ~ I Conjugate in the simple future : ~~I \:TI, ~_and ~'l~L I

IV. Translate into Sanskrit:

(1) Those who lean on a shaking tree will not stand for a long time. (2) Why do you remain silent? People will despise you if you do not (=will not) ask any question. (3) You will bathe, rinse your mouth and dive into the pure water. (4) Those who interrupt the teacher continually will get no chance to learn (=for learning). (5) Many things will attract you in the new country where you intend to go. (6) Apply yourselves, boys. Attention is the cause (the root) of knowledge. (7) If you want to be free, do not obstruct the path of others. (8) The earth will shine in the light of the sun. (9) When I (shall) see your father, I shall tell him how you despised my advice. (10) The two girls whose songs we have heard wi11leave this city tomorrow. (11) Plenty of work is left to be done: shall we go without doing it? (12) No wise man will ever think that he knows everything. (13) They will fight and die but their country will be free. (14) Fools alone think that they will never fall into adversity. (15) What will you eat? There is not much but all there is is yours.

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LESSON 16

FUTURE TENSE (cont.)-CONDITIONAL ( ~~_) BENEDICTIVE ( amiTWf~ )

138. The future passive is identical with the future atmanepada.

Thus : ~fa=he will conquer; ~=he will be conquered. Roots ending with a vowel and the roots ~1 ~_and rn. have an optional from in the future passive. The final vowel takes vrddhi, a final 8iT is changed to 8fFr and ~, !II[ and rn are changed to ~1 !UI[_ and ~ .... respecti;ely. ~ is the~ inserted and the atmanepada terminations are added. Thus:

Roots

Periphrastic future passive

Simple future passive

Normal form Optional form I Normal form Optional form
------ -----~
~ ~ m~ ~ mf~
-"
01'1 ~1~ Oi1f~a~ ~ ~
~"l. ~1~ ~f.Ja~ i1fil~ qtf.,rif
!I& .... ~ffl~ mfi{ffl~ Ait~ !U~
rn_ ~ ~ffl~ ~ ~f~ 139. The future participles (~~, ~+rTq)

The parasm, and atm. participles of the simple future are formed in the same way as the present participles of the 6th conjugation.

The termination ~Rf of the 3rd pers. plur. parasm. is replaced by ~!JQ.I

The termination ~!f;:ij of the 3rd pers, plur. atm. is replaced by ~lf(q I

FUTURE TENSE (cont.)-CONDmONAL (~~) BENEDICTIVE (emftr~~) 93

~ ~~lJf;a ~~, ~ ~T<r; ~f~ ~Tf4f.lJ+IIUr
~ ~~f;o m~; m~~ ~TUT; m~;~ m~~nUT
'" ~filf.lJ'f~ ~lJ([_; ~fiJt~F~ I{filf.lJ'~TUT ; ~filtlJ;ij ~lTfil~~TUT
I{<I.
q([_ q~f;a qfu6lf([_ ; q~;~ qfu~lJi{TUT
ii{1{ .... ~f;a ~; ~ ~~TUT The declension of the future participle parasm., is the same as that of the verbs of the 6th conjugation, i.e. they optionally keep the "l. in their strong forms.

Mase. : ~lJil. or ~~([_ ~m or ~~cft ~: or ~~lJo: I

Neut. : ~~lffl. ~ or ~~ ~ I

The feminine is either ~~ or ~E~'T I

The future participle is often used in the sense of 'about to' or 'going to' e.g. : iT~lJil. about to go ; ~TfiIf.lJ'ifTUlT qj<'1JT the girl about to be killed.

140. The Conditional ( ~ )

The Conditional is used to express a condition which is not or has not been realized.

It must be used in both the conditional and the main clauses.

Terminations

The Conditional is formed from the simple future exactly as the imperfect is formed from the present of the first conjuganon : the augment e{ is prefixed to the verb and the terminations are as follows:

PARASMAIPADA

ATMANEPADA

1 2 3

~q_ ~lJTCl \~~~-- ~ \ ~"f&: ~~f&
~: ~lfoq_ i~ ~1MT: ~~Tq_ ~<Cfq_
~([_ I ~~C'lTq_ I ~"!. I ~ r- ~T~I ~lJ;O--
I