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3 ?

Stages in a person's education
Here are some names that are used to describe the different types of education in Britain.
nursery school
I p..-r.hool J mostly play with
I tz-s years old) I some early learning
infant school I ,r,*r, I basic reading, writing.
junior school
| 5rc-tZttll I arithmetic, art, etc.
comprehensive I i
,.h;l;;-- [secondary
I wide range of subjects
I in arts and sciences and
s';-;;; school I 0'2t1'3-16tt8)
I technical areas
I r"'rl"nH"'

;.i;;;it- -
ill'r',*;,il,. ', J
(ta+) I
in specialised
academic areas

Note: Comprehensive schools in the UK are for all abilities, but grammar schools are
by competitive entry. Public schools in the UK are very famous p"rivate schools. polytechnics
are similar to universities, but the courses tend to be more practically-oriented.
include teacher-training colleges, technical colleges and general colleges of further

4s ")

fail / do badly in an exam

Before an exam it's a good idea to revise for it.
If you skip classes/lectures, you'll probably do badly in the exam.
[informal; miss
Some schools give pupils tests every week or month to see if they are making progress.
school-leaving exams are held in May{une. In some schools, .oil.g., ,rrd ,riiu.rr]ti.r, I
instead of tests and exams there is continuous assessment, with mirks, e.g. GS%o,o, grad"r,
4, B+, for essays and projects during the term. If you pass your unive-rsity exam{ you
gradaate /'grredjuelt/ (get a degree), then you,re a gradual l,gred,juetl.

Talking about education ii


Asking somebody about their country,s education system.

What age do children start school at?
What's the school-leaving age? il
Are there evening classes for adults?
Do you have state and private universities?
Do sfudents get grants for further education? ;

Nofa A professor is a senior university academic, not an ordinary teacher. University and
college teachers are usually called lecturers or tutors

78 English Vocobulory in lJse

39.1 Make a table for the various stages and types of education in your countrv, like the table at
A opposite. How does it compare with the.UK system and with the system in other countries
represented in your class or that y.ou know o{? Is it possible to find satisfactory English
translations for all the different aspects of education in your country?

39.2 Fill the gaps in this life story of a British woman.

At 5, Nelly Dawes went straight to . .. primary ... {1) school, because there were
was ready to go on to secondary school, she passed an exam and so got into her local
grammar (3) school. Nowadays her own children don't do that exam, since
most children go to a .. comprehensive (4) school. She left school at 1.6 and, did not go
' on to ;.... higher evening classes
. (5) education, but she goes to . . ...

she wouf d
la,l,ii", *e*i, -",. .:xmii, iffi:i:xfiT] :':":n. 11-: :i ;i:1 H*!l.,r,o
teacher-training college
from the government. Her ambition is to go to a ..
.......:. (8) and become a school-teacher.

39.3 Correct the mis-collocations in these sentences.

1 I can't come out. I'm studying. I'm passing an examination tomorrow. I'm taking an examination
2 Congratulations! I hear you succeeded your examination! I hear you passed
3 You can srudy a lot of different careers at this universiry. a lot of different courses
4 I got some good notes in my continuous assessment this term. some good marks
5 She's a professor in a primary school. a teacher in
5 He gr.r. interesting 4S-minute conference on Goethe. lecture on Goethe
7 "o
She gpt a degree iqpersonnel management from a private college. private university

39.4 What questions could you ask to get these answersl

1 No, they have to finance their own studies. Do students get loans for further education?
2 There isn't much di{ference; it's just that the courses are more practical in a polytechnic
instead of being very academic. What is the difference between polytechnics and universities?
3 Vell, they learn one or fwo things, like recognising a few numbers, but most of the time
they play around. What do kids do in play-school?
4 Because I wanted to be a teacher, no other reason. Why did you go to college?
5 It's sixteen, but a lot of kids stay on until eighteen.
5 Vell, I've been up all night revising for an exam. Why are you so tired?
7 No, ours are given in grades, you know, B+, A, that sort of thing. Are your assessment's results given in marks?
8 No, I was ill. I didn't miss it deliberately. Did you skip school?
Follata-up: The education system in the USA is a bit different from in the UK. How could
you find out what the following terrns meao in the US education system?
high-school college sophomore graduate school

English Vocobulory in Use 79

sffi *%i d
+t riit 43

ri#' Sf"* Education
S4" A The worcls in the box refer to t,vpes of education in Great Britain, Group them according to
i:,ilg-1i*B*a, the age at which people go through them, starting when they are little children.

school college comprehensive play-school grammar school

secondary university primary nursery sixth {orm further

2-5 years old 5-1.2/13 years old 12/13-18 years old L8+ years old
play school juniar schooL comprehensive university
grammar school college

True False
'iirri$i. : 1 In Britain, if you san 'She went to a public school', you mean nr
sA nriy2ls
yrrY school.
2 Degrees can be obtained from schools, colleges or universities. I n
3 If you are a postgraduate student, you have normally already done D n
your first degree.
4 To enter a 'grammar school' in Britain, you normally have to pass n I
an exam.
5 In Britain, A-levels are normally taken at 16 years old. n r
6 Teachers at schools and universities are called 'professors'. n T
7 In a university, a rutorial usually has fewer students than a seminar. I T
8 In Britain, 'junior school' means school for children under five. I l
B&.S Fill the gaps. The first letter is given.
iitfiF: resit
1 I faiied my exam first time round, so I'm going to r...................... it next month.
Z do
T've got to d...................... revising every evening
an exam next week, so I'll be r.^.................... till then.
3 esN: pass
Hi, did you p...................... your geography exam?
LoRNA: Yeah, I did quite rveli in fact, I got760/0.
BEN: Oh weil grades .
done! So they give you a per cent? I thought they gave g:.....................
LoRNA: }'eah, thev give 1,ou both. Mine was an'll. So how about you?
BEN: 'We11, we don't have exams, we have c......................
continuous assessment , So you iust have to
do coursework, and you get a rn...................... for each essay.
4 skip
usc: Why did you s...................... classes yesterdayi
ED: Don't tell anyone, but I was out till 3.30 the night before, so I just stayed in bed
all day.
5 did
I d...................... w.eli in my exams. I was pleased, and so were my parents.

ss".& Give a word or phrase that means the following. The first letter of each word is given.
1 school leaving a.......
The age at which children normally leave school for good. s...............-1............... age
2 Money given by the government which enables a person to study. g............. grant
3 state school
A school run and funded by the goyernment. s.........:..... s...............
4 A university teacher who is not a professor. Give two names. i".............. tutor
lecturer or t...............
5 evening c...............
Classes thar people can go to after work. e...................... classes

42 Test Your Eng/ish Vocabulory in Use (upper- intermediate)

M Trees, plants and metaPhors

Here are some metaphors based on parts sf trees and plants.
Seed(s) is often used to talk about the start of an
idea or
feeling, the seeds of success, the seeds of discoatent, the
seeds of revolution
Root{s) is used ro suggesr the origins of something. You can talk
about going back to your roots, for example, meaning going
back tJ the-piace where your family came from. You can also
talk about th* root of a prcblem or the roots of a tradition.
Putting dcwn root, *.u.s settling down and making your home
i' onJpl"c., Afrer travelling rhe world for a coupie of years,
Vhen an idea b..o*., known or accepted, it can be said to
take root.
Deeply and firmly collocate with rooted as in, for example: .,', . ,, 1
roots of an organisation or society are the ordinary people in it, not the
stem is used as a verb to signify that something originates in something

Her discontent stems from a traumatic experience she had last year'
A branch is something that glows off or branches out from a main organisation' !o
talk about branches o1 a shJp or a business branching out'into new directions.
Street branch'
We haven't a blue ,*.ur.. in yorr size, but you could try our Oxford
before it
Bud [tlower before it opens] is used in the expression "ipp.d i:n the bud [stopped
develops into somethi"sl'
niF that
He,s siowing signs of riegleaing his work - we'd befter T,h: bud.
ihr ud;.afuI A,Iaai"s ca-r, "lro *ean showing promise of furure development:
She's a budding young actress.

and gardening'
Here are some metaphors based on verbs connected with plant growth
rid of]
The new boss is planning to weed out older or less experienced staff. [get
The governmeff;[ prJUrbly have to prune back-its p:oposals' tcut/-limi11 -
At la"st she is ,."pir,g'th" .".**d of all irer years of t*ay. [is getting__results from]
Th, ;oor.ralists havJdug up some interesting facts. [have discovered]
The idea was germh..iig *hiir we were oo holid"y. [was beginning
to develop]
Out-of-town shopping have been sprouting all over the country' [have been
appearing quickly in large numbersl
Oot is flaurishing. fis doing very well]
A deciduous tree sheds its leaves. [loses]
People can shed
"*ptoy".rl*aditions/worries/inhibitions/weightcan all be used
Piants fade, withe.,'rhtiu.l and wilt when they die' These verbs
uop.s of finding survivors are fadi:ng. [becoming sinailer]
mji, inttation means that our savings a1s shrivslling- lbecorning less] -
tt i* so hot in the classroom that ihe srudents were starring to wilt. [lose eaergy]
A glance/look/r***rk can wither or be withering. [make the recipient feel scorned]
She gave him a withering look.

90 EnCl,*t Yocabulary in tJse {odvcnced)


36. r Match the beginnings of the expressions with their endings.

1 nipped of the problem
2 a budding root -nipped in the bud
-a budding poet
3 grass poet -grass root
4 the root of discontent -the root of the problem
-to reap rewards
5 to reap roots -to take roots
5 to take in the bud -the seed of discontent
7 the seeds rewards

35.2 Fill the gaps in these senrences.

1 go
Alec has spent most of his life in London, but he is keen to .................. back to his
roots when he retires.
2 The business is firmlyrooted in the west of England.
"3 The idea took some time to take roor bur itt very fashionable now.
4 bud
His grandfather sowed the ................. of the business's success.
5 branches
The US bookshop chain is opening a number of ....,.............. in the UK.
5 It's about time she put
....... .... down some roots.
7 The idea for her novelstems {rom her interest in mountain climbing.
8 The St James s Drlma College tnrns out a hundred budding actors every year.

36.3 What is the link between the literal and metaphorical meanings of these words from B?
1 fade 3 flourish 5 germinate 7 prune back 9 reap
2 shrivei 4 sprout 5 weed out 8 wilt 10 wither
1,2,10,8= becoming less, losing
3,5,9,4= developing, enlarging, grouning
6,7= getting rid of, cutting out
36.4 Suggest three nouns that each of these adjectives could describe.
1 budding actor, writer, talent
2 flourishing carrer, business, family
3 withering fruits, looks, face
4 fading memory, dream, beauty
5 deeply rooted morals, s
35.5 Answer these quesdons. 1. At this point, it would be good to shed some insecurities tht keep me back from speaking in public.
2. I belive we all reaped the rewards of our work when we finished highschool.

1 What would you like to shed at this point in your life?

2 Can you think of a situation where you reaped tbe reusards of something you did?
3 What in your life is flourishing at tfre moment? 3. At the moment, are aspect that is flourishing is my career.
4 'lVhen did you last feel
that you were uibing? 4. The last time I felt I was wilting was before my last exam.

36.6 Here are some further metaphors based on plants. Answer the questions and use a

f, dictionary if necessary.
1 If you are the apple of your teacher's eye, does your teacher like or dislike you?
2 If something, for example new houses, is said to be mushrooming, what is happeningl
3 If someone lives in clover, do they live very poorly or very luxuriously?
4 'What kind of person is a couch potato?
5 I{ discussions are fruitful, what are they like?
1. The teacher likes you
2. They are appearing and developing quickly
3. They live very luxuriosesly
4. A couch potato is a lazy person
5. They are productive Eng/islr Vocabulory in Use (advanced) 9l
Environment and conservation
You probably already know a lot of words for talking about the environment, pollution,
and so on. In this unit we look at words that arc often used together (collocations). Try tc
Iearn some of these expressions and use them in your writing.
Threats and potential threats to the environment

,' Shrinking habitatsr are a threat to botb plants,:and anlmals, and endangeryd speqis2 need
legal protection if they are to survive. Meanwhile, global warming3 will produce rising sea
, levels and climatic,changes', and,carbon dioxide emissionss from the buming of fossil
I fuels6 are contributing to the gleenhouse effecfl, In,4$ition, population groq,th e{grts
; .s€v€r€:pr€sSure ons finifetesourd,:an*,tneeao.&gicdrfdaqel0, by
, uncootrolled deforestati.q4r ,Demographic,prqjectionsl2,sq.ggest,the world population will

." gro* before it begins to stabilise. One olthe worii,cases*iitrios'3is that there will be no
tropical forests left by the year 2050. Our only hope is that pristine environmentsla such as
Aniarctica can be protected from development and damage.
- *.--F-,'Y:.+-#.,ff-*\e.#ry
I places where animals live and breed which are decreasing in size
'3 typ.r of animals/plants which are in danger o{ no longer existing
steady rise in average world temperatures
a changes in the weather/climate
s carbon dioxide gas from factories, cars, etc.
6 coal, oil, etc.
7 warming of the Earth's surface caused by pollution
I formal: puts pressure on
e limited resources
r0 balance of natural relationships in the environment
II destruction/clearing of forests
r2 forecasts about the population
I3 the lvorst possibilities for the future
Ia perfectly clear/untouched/unspoilt areas

Responses to environmental issues and Problems

Look at these newspaper headlines and note the useful phrases.
-- _c
* reputatron tor posttlve support ot people w always ma
the environment depressing or pessimistic forecasts for the
2wi:5.-i:-a:r.r.,;.re s.:a!tl?ra:ir*-sltt qy:F$ff ' -.-' *+-r=*'#5
* development of industry, etc. which does *carrying out conservation one bit at a
not threaten the environment or social and time, with no overali plan
economic stabiliry

94 Eng/ish Vocabulory in Use (odvanced)


38.1 Make these sentences formal by using words and phrases from A opposite instead of the
underlined words. Make any other necessary changes to produce a correct sentence.
All the carbon dioxide emissions put out 1 All that carbon-what's-it-called gas put out b), cars and factories is a major problem.
an endangered species
2 These flowers here are a type there's not many left of, so it's illegal to pick them.
shrinking habitats a
J A lot of wild animals have to survive in smaller and smaller areas rvhere they can 1ive.
pristine enviroment
4 Most of Patagonia is a completely spotiess area that's never been touched.
finite resources
5 We have to look after the things we use on this planet because they u,on't last
If deforestation
6 If the curting down of trees continues, there rvill be no forest ieft ten years from norv.
fossil fuels
7 Burning coal and oil and stutf like that causes a lot of pollution.
The sea will get higher if global wearming
8 continues.
exerts severe pressure on
9 Increasing population puts really big pressure on econornic resources.
The ecological balance 10 The wa), things all balance one another in nature is very delicate.

8.2 Complete the following table, using a dictionary if necessarl,. Do not fill the shaded boxes.

f, naun verb adjeaive adverb

climate climatic
demography demographic demographically

projection project projected

sustainer sustain sustainable sustainingly

38.3 Correct the mistakes in this paragraph.

?*fut 4 Uoo* and 3low^ an al".tys sgry i1-,af \^te, ara, hoadinj fu, u,tiroarv,ulal
Prophets of.
The worst case scenario is of a world,
the greenhouse effect and traffic gridlock
a{x{rc{a, and thal unless ".ra &pt o palE of al*ainablo, &'tdopr ul wa will cause
improve their green credentials

inprablu dar gc, la llro, planal. Tho, ,tws{ glu.a, *a.aog is of a ".todd t}^oked
ao4op*lo{wa, +te,
Snb*atso, affi* and trulSc a,idrii,-- n&xA of *r{"al is r)aimotr is
orymlo^d, br* polthUarts a.o lnf.rer,aA
5 suA ,loias and aru al".tgs tgirtj lo imprua *hizir
y pr?o"flals in *fu
U* ,f *ololats.

38.4 An American newspaper recently published

these statistics. Read them and answer the fwo Pl*rtB
questions below.
1 There is one word in the picture for a rype
of animal not mentioned on the opposite
page. What does this new word mean? Use
a dictionary if necessary. amphibeans C

2 Vhich phrase in this unit means the same ^i

as threatened species? endangered secies ,\4
Ud i)

lo get'morervocabulary connected wjth environment and conservation issues visit the websites of
maior conservation organisations such as theWorldWildlife Fund (WWF) at
or Friends of the Earth at

EnglishVocobulory in Use (advanced) 95