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V

What is a Chapter? A chapter is a combination of ‫ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬with a ‫ﻣﻀﺎﺭﻉ‬


How many chapter s are there in all? There are six (6) in all.

However, there are 9 possible combinations but only 6 are valid.

Illustration:

‫ﻣﻀﺎﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬
‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬
‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬
‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬
Principles 1. The ‫ حركة‬of the ‫ ع‬in both the ‫ ماضي‬and ‫ مضارع‬should differ
because each of them expresses a different meaning, unless there is an
exception due to limited usage or under certain conditions.
2. Moving from kasrah on the ‫ ع‬of the ‫ ماضي‬to a dhummah on the
‫مضارع‬ and vice versa is heavy, hence this combination is not valid

NOTE: Since there is no difference in meaning between the ‫ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬of ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬ with its ‫ ﻣﻀﺎﺭﻉ‬, it was more
appropriate that it be given the same ‫ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬on the ‫ ع‬, hence the combo -- ‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ – ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬
Illustration:

‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ – ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ ﹶﻓ‬ means the same, expressing an inborn characteristic

‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﺴ‬
‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻳ‬ – ‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﺴ‬
 ‫ﺣ‬  handsome; good-looking; inborn characteristic and doesn’t change

Although there are 9 possible combinations, only 6 are valid: Find out

My notes in Sarf – Bintu Jose as-Salafiyyah # 8


(Illustration was taken from a sister’s site with a few alterations, may Allaah reward her with the best of reward,
ameen)

Why or why not? A Valid Chapter?


‫ﻣﻀﺎﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬

It follows the 1st Principle


Yes (chapter 1) ‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ – ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬

It follows the 1st Principle Yes (chapter 2) ‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ – ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬

Its an EXCEPTION to the 1st Principle Yes (chapter 3) ‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ – ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬
due to a condition.

It goes AGAINST the 2nd Principle No


‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ – ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬

It is an EXCEPTION to the 1st Principle Yes (chapter 4) ‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ – ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬
–due to limited usage in verbs
st
It follows the 1 Principle Yes (chapter 5) ‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ – ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬

‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ – ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬


st
Its an EXCEPTION to the 1 Principle Yes (chapter 6)
due to the similarity in meaning. Observe
that this is the only chapter formed from this
combination.
No
‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ – ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬
nd
It goes AGAINST the 2 Principle

It goes by the Principles BUT the 3rabs have


No
‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ – ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬
NOT SPOKEN of such.

After matching and


analyzing all possible ‫ﻣﻀﺎﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬
‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬
combinations based
on the 2 principles,
we’ve come up with

6 Valid ‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬


Combos ‫ﻌ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹾﻔ‬ ‫ﻌ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﹶﻓ‬
My notes in Sarf – Bintu Jose as-Salafiyyah # 8