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1. Define Irrigation?
Ans: Irrigation can be termed as the artificial process of applying water to the soil to help
in growing crops or maintaining the landscape when there is shortage of natural
water by rain.

2. What are the reasons for the need of irrigation?

Ans: The reasons for the need of irrigation are;
 For normal growth and yield of the plants and crops.
 For metabolic processes of the plant.
 Irrigation water acts as a medium for the transport of nutrients and photosynthesis
in the plant system.
 To provide insurance against short duration drought.
 For easy germination of seed from the soil.

3. Briefly state the engineering aspects to study the Irrigation Engineering? And what are the
contributions that engineers can provide in Irrigation?
Ans: The engineering aspects to study the Irrigation Engineering are;
A. Water resources and hydrology aspect
To locate various water sources and to study the hydrology of the region which
includes meteorology, precipitation, stream flow, floods, and reservoirs and flood

B. Engineering aspect
It involves the development of a source of water for irrigation and construction of
various irrigation structures.

C. Agricultural aspect
 Involves irrigation practice
 The study of agricultural characteristics of the land
 Crops and soils
D. Management aspect
It deals with successful implementation and efficient management of engineering
aspects and agricultural works

The contributions that engineers can provide in irrigation are:

 Meet with clients to discuss project objectives, budget and other requirements
 Review environmental assessments, survey reports, maps, drawings, aerial
photography and other topographical and geologic data.
 Prepare site plans, specifications, cost estimate and environmental impact
 Design efficient and cost effective irrigation systems that meet all requirement.
 Help identify and apply for funding from government programs and water districts.

4. What are the advantages of Irrigation?

Ans: Advantages of Irrigation are:
 Increase in crop production.
 Elimination of mixed cropping
 Domestic water supply.
 It improves the ground water storage as water lost due to seepage adds to groundwater
 It improves the yields of crops which mean more income for the farmer people prosperous.

5. Explain the ill-effect of irrigation with suitable examples.

Ans: Excess irrigation and unscientific use of irrigation water may give rise. For example;
I. Breeding places for mosquitoes
Due to excess application of water, and due to leakage of water, ponds and
depressions get filled up with water and create breeding places for mosquitoes.
And, if the canal is leaky, mosquitoes breed all along the canal and spread malaria
II. Water-Logging
If the water table is near the ground surface, over-irrigated may raise the water
table. This saturates the crop root-zones completely, causes efflorescence and the
whole area becomes waterlogged.
III. Damp Climate
The area which are already damp and cold, become damper and colder due to

6. What are disadvantage of ill-effects of irrigation?

Ans: Disadvantages of ill-effect of irrigation are:
 Water pollution: seepage of nitrates (when applied as fertilizer) into the ground
water –groundwater polluted-causes disease (when consumed by the people
through wells). May affect the fishing, as the tides carry the polluted water out
into the ocean.
 Colder and damper climate: causing outbreak of disease like malaria.
 Water logging: due to over irrigation-reduce crop yields.
 Complex and expensive to government: provision of cheaper water versus low
revenue returns.
7. Explain in detail the types of irrigation under following topics:
a) Surface Irrigation
Surface irrigation is the oldest and has been in use for thousands of years.
In surface (flood, or level basin) irrigation systems, water moves across the
surface of the agricultural lands, in order to wet it and infiltrate into the soil.
Surface irrigation can be subdivided into furrow, border strip or basin
irrigation. It is often called flood. Surface irrigation comes in three major
types; level basin, furrow and border strip.

b) Sub-surface Irrigation
Sub surface irrigation is as known as seepage irrigation, is a method of
irrigation where water is delivered to the plant root zone. The excess may
be collected for reuse. Sub irrigation is used in growing field crops such as
tomatoes, peepers, and sugarcane in areas with high water tables such as
Florida and in commercial green house operations.

8. Enlist seven various technique of water distribution in the farms. Explain each technique
with the help of suitable diagrams and short notes.
Ans: The various technique of water distribution in the farms are:
i. Free flooding or ordinary flooding
ii. Border flooding
iii. Check flooding
iv. Basin flooding
v. Furrow irrigation method
vi. Sprinkler irrigation method
vii. Drip irrigation method
i. Free flooding

- In this method, ditches are excavated in the field, and they may be either on the contour
or up and down slope.
- After the water leaves the ditches, no attempt is made to control the flow by means of
- Contour ditches, called laterals or subsidiary ditches are generally placed at about 20-
50 meters apart.

ii. Border flooding

- In this method, the land is divided into the number of strips, separated by low levees
called border.
- To prevent water from concentrating on either side of the border, the land should be
level perpendicular to the flow.

iii. Check flooding

- Is similar to ordinary flooding except that the water is controlled by the surrounding
the check area with low and flat levees.

iv. Basin flooding

- This method is a special type of check flooding and is adopted specially for orchard
- One or more trees are placed in the basin, and the surface is flooded as a check method.
v. Furrow irrigation method

- In flooding method above, water covers the entire surface; while in furrow irrigation
method only one fifth to one half of land surface is wetted by water.

vi. Sprinkler Irrigation method

- In this farm water application method, water is applied to the soil in the form of a spray
through a network of pipes and pumps.
- It is costly process and widely used in U.S.A.

vii. Drip irrigation method

- Also called trickle irrigation, and is meant for adoption at places where there exists
acute shortage of irrigation and other salt problem.
- In this method water is slowly and directly applied to the root zone of the plants, thereby
minimizing the losses by evaporation and percolation.