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Master in International Trade Business


Professor Fernando Flores Bas AA: 2019-2020

(I) 28 most important business models (*)

(*) Based on the book The business model navigator – 55 models that will revolutionise your business (Oliver Gassman, Karolin Frankerberger and Mickaela Csik

Business models
● Add – on ● Cross selling
– Competitive pricing with numerous extras driving the final – Services or products from a different industry are added to
price up. In the end, the costumer pays more than he or the offer, thus leveraging existing key skills and resources.
she initially assumed. Customers benefit from a variable Additional revenue can be generated with relatively few
offer, which they can adapt to their specific needs changes to the existing infrastructure and assets, since
more potential customer needs are met
– Ryanair
– Shell, IKEA

● Affiliation ● Crowdfunding
– Supporting others to sell products and directly benefit from – A product, project or entire start-up is financed by a crowd
transactions. Affiliates usually profit from some kind of of investors who wish to support the underlying idea,
commission or compensation. The firm is able to gain typically via the internet. If financing is achieved, the idea
access to a more diverse potential customer base without will be realised and investors receive special benefits based
additional active sales or marketing efforts on the amount of money provided by investors
– Pinterest, Instagram – Diaspora, Kickstarter

● Auction ● Crowdsourcing
– Auctioning means selling a product or service to the – The solution of a task or problem is adopted by an
highest bidder. Allows the company to sell at the highest anonymous crowd, typically via the internet. Contributors
price acceptable to the customer,. The customer has the receive a small reward or have the chance to win a prize if
opportunity to influence the price of a product their solution is chosen for production or sale
– Ebay – Threadless, Innocentive

Business models
● Customer loyalty • eCommerce
– Customers are retained by providing value beyond the – Traditional products or services are delivered through online
actual product or service itself, i.e., through incentive – channels only, thus removing costs associated with running
based programs. Customers are voluntarily bound to the a physical branch infrastructure. Customers benefit from
company, which protects future revenue higher availability and convenience, while the company can
integrate its sales and distribution with other internal
– American Airlines, Carrefour
– Amazon, Dell, Zapos

• Digitalisation • Experience selling

– Ability to turn existing products or services into digital – The value of a product or service is increased with the
variants, and thus offer advantages over tangible customer experience offered with it. Customer experience
products, e.g., easier and faster distribution. Efficiency could be adapted by attuning promotion or shop fittings
and multiplication by means of digitalisation does not – Harley Davidson, Starbucks, Swatch
reduce the perceived customer value
– Facebook, Dropbox, Netflix

• Direct selling • Flat rate

– Firm's products are not sold through intermediary – In this model, a single fixed fee for a product or service is
channels but are available directly from the manufacturer charged, regardless of actual usage or time restrictions on it
or service provider. Skips the retail margin or any
– Spotify, Netflix
additional costs associated with the intermediates.
Additionally, such close contact can improve customer
– Vorwerk, Hilty, Nestle Nespresso 4
Business models
● Fractional ownership • From push – to – pull
– Sharing of a certain asset class amongst a group of – This pattern describes the strategy of a company to
owners. Typically, the asset is capital intensive but only decentralise and thus add flexibility to the company's
required on an occasional basis processes in order to be more customer focused. To quickly
and flexibly respond to new customer needs, any part of the
– Netjets, HomeBuy
value chain can be affected
– Toyota, Zara, Dell

• Franchising • Lock – in
– The franchisor owns the brand name, products, and – Customers are locked into a vendor's world of products and
corporate identity, and these are licensed to independent services. Using another vendor is impossible without
franchisees. Revenue is generated as part of the incurring substantial switching costs, and thus protecting the
franchisees’ revenue and orders company from losing customers
– McDonald´s, Marriot, Naturhouse – Gillette, Hewlett – Packard, Nestle, Nespresso

• Freemium • Long tail

– The basic version of an offering is free in the hope of – Main bulk of revenues is generated through a 'long tail' of
eventually persuading the customers to pay for the niche products. Individually, these neither demand high
premium version. The free offering is able to attract the volumes, nor allow for a high margin. If a vast variety of
highest volume of customers possible for the company. these products are offered in sufficient amounts, the profits
The paying ‘premium customers’ generate the revenue, from resultant small sales can add up to a significant
which also cross-finances the free offering amount
– Survey Monkey, Skype, Spotify – Amazon, iTunes, eBay

Business models
● Open source • Razors and blade
– The source code of a software product is freely – The basic product is cheap or given away for free. The
accessible for anyone. this could be applied to any consumables that are needed to use or operate it, on the
technology details of any product. Others can contribute other hand, are expensive and sold at high margins.
to the product, but also use it free as a sole user. Money Usually, these products are technologically bound to each
is earned with services that are complimentary to the other to further enhance this effect
product, such as consulting and support – Gillette, Hewlett – Packard, Amazon Kindle
– Linux, Wikipedia

• Pay per use • Reverse innovation

– Actual usage of a service or product is metered. The – Simple and inexpensive products, that were developed
customer pays on the basis of what he or she effectively within and for emerging markets, are also sold in industrial
consumes countries. The term ‘reverse’ refers to the process by which
new products are typically developed in industrial countries
– Rolls – Royce, Car2Go, Hotels
and then adapted to fit emerging market needs
– Logitech, General Electric

• Peer to peer • Self – service

– This model is based on a cooperation that specialises in – A part of the value creation is transferred to the customer in
intermediating between individuals belonging to a exchange for a lower price of the service or product. This is
homogeneous group. The company offers a meeting point particularly suited for process steps that add relatively little
that connects these individuals (these could include perceived value for the customer, but incur high costs.
offering personal objects for rent, providing certain Customers benefit from efficiency and time savings, while
products or services, or the sharing of information and putting in their own effort
– IKEA, Zity, hotelF1
– Airbnb, TaskRabbit, Linkedin
Business models

● Subscription • User designed

– The customer pays a regular fee, typically on a – A customer is both the “manufacturer” and the consumer. As
monthly/annual basis, in order to gain access to a product an example, an online platform provides the customer with
or service the necessary support in order to design and merchandise
the product, e.g., product design software, manufacturing
– Netflix, Salesforce services, or an online shop to sell the product. The customer
benefits from the potential to realise entrepreneurial ideas
without having to provide the required infrastructure
– Lego, Threadless

• Supermarket • White label (own label)

– A company sells a large variety of readily available – A white label producer allows other companies to distribute
products and accessories in a store. The assortment of its goods under their brands, so that it appears as if they are
products is large, but the prices are kept low made by them. The same product or service is often sold by
multiple marketers and under different brands
– Carrefour, HomeDepot
– Auchan, Mercadona

Thank you very
much for your
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