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KAR GROUP OIL AND GAS

KHURMALLA OIL FIELD


FIELDS DEPARTMENT
Gas Ratio Analysis
Is best of the analysis in mud logging system which during
drilling time is very important for catch formation.
This analysis can help geologist that to decide which layers
have oil and gas. Also with this analysis, we can compare that
wireline jobs has been right place or not
The comparison of relative concentrations of the various
hydrocarbon
species seen in a chromatogram (C1 - C5) often has diagnostic
value in qualitatively estimating the type and quality of a
petroleum reservoir. Such a comparison has also been useful in
stratigraphic correlation, where a distinct and characteristic
hydrocarbon boundary may be recognized, even when no
lithological facies boundary is evident.
Mudlog gases are extracted at the surface
from the drilling mud.

 Chromatographic Gases are C1-C5 Alkanes which are comprised of:


 (C1) Methane
 (C2) Ethane
 (C3) Propane
 (C4) Butanes (i+n)
 (C5) Pentanes (i+n)
 Ratios of C1-C5 gases determine the source hydrocarbon type, i.e., dry gas,
condensate, light oil, residual oil, etc.
 C1-C5 ratios determine the Wetness, Balance, and Character of the extracted
gases.
Two such ratio methods used are the Rectangular Plot and the Triangular
Plot. Though originally designed for steam-still reflux mud or DST
samples, then have been adapted for gas trap readings ,When using either
plot, the following corrections must be made:

 Removal of all contamination gas readings, such as diesel, trip gas,


connection gas, recycled gas
 More than one reading must be done to have any interpretative value
Rectangular Plots

The rectangular plot uses the ratios C1/C2, C1/C3, C1/C4 and C2/C3 (or C1/C5)
and plots the results on a semi-logarithmic grid Values of
these ratios are allocated to potential productivity, where:

Productive dry gas zones will yield mainly (or only) methane.
However, abnormally high ratios may indicate gas in solution in a
water zone.
• If C1/C2 falls in the oil section, but C1/C4 is high in the
gas section, the zone may be non-productive.

• If any ratio is lower than the preceding ratio, the zone is


probably nonproductive.

• If C1/C4 is lower than C1/C3, the zone is probably water


wet.

Ratio Oil Gas Unproductive

C1/C2 2 - 10 10 - 35 < 2 and > 35

C1/C3 2 – 14 14 - 82 < 2 and >82

C1/C4 2 - 21 21 - 200 < 2 and >200

Rectangular Gas Ratio Plot


Triangular Plots
The triangular plot requires the calculation of the ratios C2, C3
and nC4 to the total of all gases detected (expressed as a percentage). Lines
representing those percentages are then drawn on a triangular grid. with
the rectangular plot, all gas percentages are taken above background.
 If the apex of the triangle is up, gas is indicated - the smaller the up apex
triangle, the more water wet the gas.
 If intersection falls within the ellipsoid, the formation is likely to be
productive. If it falls outside then the show is probably non-productive.

C2

nC4

C3
Triangular Plots
 If the apex is down, oil is indicated - the larger the down-apex
triangle, the heavier the oil.

C2

C3 nC4
Baker Hughes INTEQ Gas Ratio Method

The Baker Hughes INTEQ gas ratio method is a combination of three


ratios, which when plotted together suggests a fluid character. The ratios
are designed to be plotted on a depth log (unlike the Rectangular and
Triangular plots) and still provide interpretative results Hydrocarbon wetness,
balance, and character can be plotted onto a formation evaluation log
(such as a mudlog) thus giving information on the nature of the hydrocarbons present
in the well. A major advantage of the Wetness, Balance, and Character log is that it
is plotted against depth, and so reveals the transition from gas to oil, and from oil
to water, as the reservoir is penetrated
 Since Wetness and Balance have an inverse relationship the
traces move together, eventually crossing over, as the density
of hydrocarbons increases. Thus change of hydrocarbon type
can be evaluated by considering the numerical values of each
ratio type

 It is important to note that Wh, Bh and Ch


do not conclusively prove the reservoir potential. However
they can be used as an aid to clearer definition of potential
zones for future evaluation
1-Hydrocarbon Wetness Ratio (Wh)

Wetness (Wh) – liquid portion of C1-C5 alkanes.

When this parameter is plotted it will increase with an increase


in both gas and oil densities. Guidelines for the interpretation are:
2-Hydrocarbon Balance Ratio (Bh):

Balance (Bh) – lightest to heaviest C1-C5 alkanes.

This parameter is related to the density of the reservoir fluid, decreasing


with an increase in fluid density.

3-Hydrocarbon Character Ratio (Ch)

Character (Ch) – compares C3-C5 Alkanes (wet gas-oil phase).

This parameter is used when excessive methane is present,


which tends to retard the Wh and Bh ratios, affecting their curve
movement.
Productive Dry Gas

Increasing Hc . Density
Wet Gas

Condensate
Hi GOR

Medium Oil Gravity

Residual Oil
Thank You