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Homogeneous Transformation Matrices

Example: Puma 560

©2018 Max Donath


Position and Orientation of End Effector
Homogeneous Transformation
4 x 4 Matrix
Accounts for body Rotation

Translation

Columns Specify the directions of the body s coordinate axes

Translation Vector
Calculation of Position and Orientation
in World Coordinates from the Joint Angles:

For a manipulator:
Base A hand = Base T Hand Origin x Hand OriginA
Hand

For a six-jointed manipulator:


Base T BaseA 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A
Hand Origin = 1x 2x 3x 4x 5x Hand origin

Where:
N-1A
n=
Homogeneous transformation matrix which relates the
coordinate frame of link n to the coordinate frame of link n-1
X2 behind Y2Z2 plane
X3 behind Y3Z3 plane
Y4 behind X4Z4 plane
Homogeneous Transformation
-combines rotation and translation

Definition: ref H loc = homogeneous transformation matrix


which defines a location (position and
orientation) with respect to a reference frame

Sequential Transformations
Translate by x, y, z
Yaw: Rotate about Z, by (270˚ + q)
Pitch: Rotate about Y by (a + 90˚)
Roll: Rotate about Z by t

,y
World Coordinate System

Step A: Translation by x, y, z
Step B: Rotation about Z (vertical axis) by 270˚
(shift coordinate frames to align X’Y’ for q = 0º
orientation angle or yaw)
Step C: Rotation about Z (vertical axis)
by q˚
Step D: Rotation about Y (orientation vector)
by 90˚ (shift coordinate frames to align
Z”X” for α = 0º approach angle or pitch)
Step E: Rotation about Y (Orientation Vector)
by a˚ from horizontal plane to Z” for
τ = 0 tool angle or roll
Step F: Rotation about Z (approach vector)
by t˚
Calculation of homogeneous transformation matrix from
position and orientation in world coordinates
Homogeneous Transformation Matrices:
Significance of columns and rows
Linear transformation which provides the geometric
relationship between two coordinate systems:

Nx Ox Ax Px Initial coordinate
Ny Oy Ay Py system X Y Z
T=
Nz Oz Az Pz Final coordinate
system N O A
0 0 0 1

Nx - Cosine of the angle between N and X

Ny - Cosine of the angle between N and Y

Nz - Cosine of the angle between N and Z

Nx
Ny = Unit vector describing direction of N
Nz
Ox Ax
Similar definitions for O and A
y y
Oz Az
Px
P = P = Position vector relating origins of
y
coordinate systems
Pz