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Team Size:-3

MODEL COLLEGE

Dombivli- East

CERTIFICATE

Rocket Launching is record work carried out

by:

1. Sujata Kutty

2. Rucha Mantri

3. Rasika Patil

Has completed the prescribed project report

satisfactorily during the academic year

2009-10

TEACHER-IN-CHARGE

(Comp.Sci)

Sr Topic name Page

no No

1 Introduction 1

.

2 Hypothesis 3

.

3 Aims and objectives 4

.

4 Basic principle 5

.

5 History 7

.

6 Description 10

.

7 Conclusion and Further work 27

.

8 Biblography 28

.

Introduction:

What is Rocket?

A rocket or rocket vehicle is a missile,

spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle which

obtains thrust by the

reaction of the rocket

to the ejection of a jet

of fast moving fluid

exhaust from a rocket

engine. Chemical

rockets create their

exhaust by the

combustion of rocket propellant.

of combustion chambers and expansion nozzles

is able to accelerate the gas to hypersonic

speed, and this exerts a large reactive thrust on

the rocket (an equal and opposite reaction in

accordance with Newton's third law).

recreational uses, date back to at least the 13th

century.

use did not occur until the 20th century, when

rocketry was the enabling technology of the

Space Age, including setting foot on the moon.

ejection seats, launch vehicles for artificial

satellites, human spaceflight and exploration of

other planets. While comparatively inefficient for

low speed use, they are very lightweight and

powerful, capable of generating large

accelerations and of attaining extremely high

speeds with reasonable efficiency.

energy in an easily-released form, and can be

very dangerous. However, careful design,

testing, construction and use minimize risks.

Hypothesis

propositions, set forth as an explanation for the

occurrence of some specified group of

phenomena, either asserted merely as a

provisional conjecture to guide investigation

(working hypothesis) or accepted as highly

probable in the light of established facts.

affected by the following:

2. Gravity

3. Drag if moving in atmosphere

the process of Rocket launching.

Objectives: The main objectives are follows

various fields including Aerodynamics.

2. To prove that maths has inevitable

importance in everyday life.

3. Maths has been one of the factors for the

positive growth in Rocket science.

Basic Principle

Sir Isaac Newton set forth the basic laws of

motion. Newton’s three laws of motion apply to

all rocket-propelled vehicles.

control, small rockets used for stage separations

or for trajectory corrections and to large rockets

of the Earth.

advanced types of rockets as well as to chemical

rockets.

follows:

(Inertia)

Every body continues in a state of uniform

motion in a straight line,

unless it is compelled to change that state by a

force imposed upon it.

Rocket Launching -6-

(Momentum)

When a force is applied to a body, the time rate

of change of momentum is proportional to, and

in the direction of, the applied

force.

(Action—Reaction)

For every action there is a reaction that is equal

in magnitude but

opposite in direction to the action.

Rocket Launching -7-

History

scientist Isaac Newton turned his knowledge in

physical motion into three scientific laws. These

scientific laws explained how and why rockets

work in outer space. These laws worked as

principles in order to design

rockets. Around 1720, Russian

and German Scientists started

working with powerful 45kg

rockets.

During the 19th – 20th century, rockets

emerged as a devastating weapon of war. British

artillery experts’ attention was caught by the

efficiency of Indian Rockets Barrages in 1792.

These experts started designing rockets for the

British military. These rockets were successful,

used by the British ships to siege ports.

However, these rockets weren’t accurate.

So British scientist, William Hale, developed

a method where the rocket would spin to control

its direction. His principle is still used today.

had explosives inside. Russian scientist,

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, proposed the idea that

rockets would be more efficient if they worked

on liquid propellants.

American scientist Robert H. Goddard was

the responsible for the first successful liquid

propelled rocket. This rocket flew shortly but

gave birth to what we call today rockets. A

German WWII war rocket called V-2 was

captured by the allies and investigated by

scientists. These scientists were amazed by its

efficiency and technology. The USSR and United

States started having rocketry programs. On

1957, Russia launched artificial satellite Sputnik I

and then launched another one with a dog in it.

were a huge influence. Soon, the United States

developed their programs to NASA and launched

rockets such as Apollo. Astronauts were now

walking on the moon.

In the future, rockets will develop new

engines and propellants. Today some rockets

and satellites use nitrogen but in the future

they’ll be using plasma in projects as VASIMIR.

Other high speed propellants are accelerated

ions or atomic particles are being studied to be

used in the future. These rockets will be able to

reach high distances as Mars and in no time.

powered rocket model in the 1700s evolved to a

powerful ion or plasma or atomic rocket.

Rocket Launching - 10 -

Description

performance parameters that,

when taken together, describe

a rocket’s overall performance:

1) Thrust,

2) Specific Impulse, and

3) Mass Ratio.

Thrust

produces on the rocket (and on the exhaust

stream leaving the rocket, conservation of

momentum). The amount of thrust, along with

the rocket mass,

determines the acceleration.

The mission profile will determine the

required and acceptable accelerations and thus,

the required thrust. Launching from the Earth

typically requires a thrust to weight ratio of at

least 1.5 to 1.75.

Rocket Launching - 11 -

significant fraction of its own mass in propellant

each second, with the propellant leaving the

nozzle at several kilometres per second.

a rocket engine, and often the entire vehicle can

be very high, in extreme cases over 100. This

compares with other jet propulsion engines that

can exceed 5 for some of the better engines.

deliberately varied over a flight, to provide a way

to control the thrust and thus the airspeed of the

vehicle. This, for example, allows minimization of

aerodynamic losses and can limit the increase of

g-forces due to the reduction in propellant load.

where:

the effective exhaust velocity (m/s or ft/s)

Rocket Launching - 12 -

constant in a vacuum, but in practice the

effective exhaust velocity of rocket engines goes

down when operated within an atmosphere as

the atmospheric pressure goes up. In space, the

effective exhaust velocity is equal to the actual

exhaust velocity. In the atmosphere, the two

velocities are close in value.

Specific Impulse (Isp )

efficiency, and numerically is the thrust

produced divided by the weight of propellant

consumed per second (ending up with units of

seconds). So, Isp is really another measure of a

rocket’s exhaust velocity.

exhaust velocity by:

where:

g0 is the acceleration at the surface of the

Earth

Rocket Launching - 13 -

Thus, the greater the specific impulse, the

greater the net thrust and performance of the

engine. Isp is determined by measurement while

testing the engine. In practice the effective

exhaust velocities of rockets varies but can be

extremely high, ~4500 m/s, about 15 times the

sea level speed of sound in air.

Mass ratios

realize that almost all of a launch vehicle's mass

consists of propellant.] Mass ratio is, for any

'burn', the ratio between the rocket's initial mass

and the mass after.

ratio is desirable for good performance, since it

indicates that the rocket is lightweight and

hence performs better, for essentially the same

reasons that low weight is desirable in sports

cars. Rockets as a group have the highest thrust-

to-weight ratio of any type of engine; and this

helps vehicles achieve high mass ratios, which

improves the performance of flights.

Rocket Launching - 14 -

needed to be carried. This permits the carrying

of even more propellant, enormously improving

the delta-v. Alternatively, some rockets such as

for rescue scenarios or racing carry relatively

little propellant and payload and thus need only

a lightweight structure and instead achieve high

accelerations. For example, the Soyuz escape

system can produce 20g.

on many factors such as propellant type, the

design of engine the vehicle uses, structural

safety margins and construction techniques.

The highest mass ratios are generally achieved

with liquid rockets, and these types are usually

used for orbital launch vehicles, a situation

which calls for a high delta-v.

similar to water (with the notable exceptions of

liquid hydrogen and liquid methane), and these

types are able to use lightweight, low pressure

tanks and typically run high-performance turbo

pumps to force the propellant into the

combustion chamber.

Rocket Launching - 15 -

following table (some aircraft are included for

comparison purposes):

Propellant mix Vacuum Isp Effective

(seconds) exhaust

velocity (m/s)

liquid oxygen/ 455 4462

liquid hydrogen

liquid oxygen/ 358 3510

kerosene (RP-

1)

nitrogen 305 3510

tetroxide/

hydrazine

Impulse

propellant is simply:

Rocket Launching - 16 -

Sir Isaac Newton first presented his three

laws of motion in the "Principia Mathematica

Philosophiae Naturalis" in 1686. His second law

defines a force to be equal to the differential

change in momentum per unit time as described

by the calculus of mathematics, which Newton

also developed. The momentum is defined to be

the mass of an object m times its velocity v. So

the differential equation for force F is:

F = d(m * v) / dt

Rocket Launching - 17 -

launch is inclined at some angle, we resolve

the initial velocity into a vertical and

horizontal component. Unlike the ballistic

flight equations, the horizontal equation

includes the action of aerodynamic drag on

the rocket. On this page, we assume that the

horizontal force is much less than the

vertical.

Rocket Launching - 18 -

and drag, there is a characteristic velocity

which appears in many of the equations. The

characteristic velocity is called the terminal

velocity because it is the constant velocity

that the object sustains during the coasting

descent. Terminal velocity is noted by the

symbol Vt.

an object are equal and opposite. There is no

net force acting on the rocket and the

vertical acceleration is zero.

a=0

W=D

where a is the acceleration, W is the weight, and

D is the drag. The weight of any object is

given by the weight equation:

W=m*g

gravitational acceleration equal to 32.2

ft/sec^2 or 9.8 m/sec^2 on the surface of

the Earth. The gravitational acceleration has

different values on the Moon and on Mars.

Rocket Launching - 19 -

D = .5 * Cd * r * A * Vt^2

coefficient which characterizes the effects

of shape of the rocket, A is the cross-

sectional area of the rocket, and Vt is the

terminal velocity. The gas density has

different surface values on the Earth and on

Mars and varies with altitude. On the Moon

the gas density is zero. Combining the last

three equations, we can determine the

terminal velocity:

m * g = .5 * Cd * r * A * Vt^2

Vt = sqrt ( (2 * m * g) / (Cd * r * A) )

is traveling at an initial vertical velocity Vo.

For the stomp rocket the velocity is set by

the launch mechanism and there is no

thrust once the rocket is launched. With the

positive vertical coordinate denoted by y, the

net vertical force Fnet acting on the rocket is

given by:

Fnet = -W -D

Rocket Launching - 20 -

Because the weight of the object is a constant,

we can use the simple form of Newton's

second law to solve for the vertical

acceleration:

Fnet = m a = -W - D

m a = - (m * g) - (.5 * Cd * r * A * v^2)

a = -g - (Cd * r * A * v^2) / (2 * m)

definition of the terminal velocity to obtain:

a = -g * (1 + v^2 / Vt^2)

velocity :

dv / (1 + v^2 / Vt^2) = -g dt

Vt * tan-1(v/Vt) = -g * t

where tan-1 is the inverse tangent function, and

t is time.

Rocket Launching - 21 -

to V and the limits for time t is from 0 to t:

tan-1(V/Vt) - tan-1(Vo/Vt) = - g * t / Vt

tan-1(V/Vt) = tan-1(Vo/Vt) - g * t / Vt

the equation using the trigonometric

identity:

(g * t / Vt))

* t / Vt))

This is the equation for the velocity at any time

during the coasting ascent. At the top of the

trajectory, the velocity is zero. We can solve

the velocity equation to determine the time

when this occurs:

Rocket Launching - 22 -

ascent, we have to use another identity from

differential calculus:

dv/dt = v * dv/dy

(v /(1 + v^2 / Vt^2)) * dv = -g dy

limits of integration for velocity v is from Vo

to V and the limits for direction y is from 0 to

y:

=-g*y

Vt^2))

Rocket Launching - 23 -

messy! For a given time t, we would have to

find the local velocity V, and then plug that

value into the location equation to get the

location y. At the maximum height ymax, the

velocity is equal to zero:

Vt^2)/Vt^2)

Rocket Launching - 24 -

The forces on a rocket change dramatically

during a typical flight. This figure shows a

derivation of the change in velocity during

powered flight while accounting for the

changing mass of the rocket. During powered

flight the propellants of the propulsion

system are constantly being exhausted from

the nozzle. As a result, the weight of the

rocket is constantly changing. In this

derivation, we are going to neglect the

effects of aerodynamic lift and drag. We

can add these effects to the final answer.

Rocket Launching - 25 -

motion, shown in blue on the figure:

d (M u) / dt = F net

velocity of the rocket, F net is the net

external force on the rocket and the symbol

d / dt denotes that this is a differential

equation in time t. The only external force

which we will consider is the thrust from the

propulsion system.

given by:

F = mdot * Veq

where mdot is the mass flow rate, and Veq is

the equivalent exit velocity of the nozzle

which is defined to be:

pressure, p0 is the free stream pressure,

and A exit is the exit area of the nozzle. Veq

is also related to the specific impulse Isp:

Rocket Launching - 26 -

Veq = Isp * g0

mass flow rate and is equal to the change in

the mass of the propellants mp on board the

rocket:

mdot = d mp / dt

Substituting the expression for the thrust into

the motion equation gives:

d (M u) / dt = V eq * d mp / dt

d (M u) = Veq d mp

M du + u dM = Veq d mp

value of u is zero:

M du = Veq d mp

Rocket Launching - 27 -

of the rocket M, the mass is composed of two

main parts, the empty mass me and the

propellant mass mp. The empty mass does not

change with time, but the mass of propellants on

board the rocket does change with time:

M(t) = me + mp (t)

the empty mass and all of the propellant at

lift off. At the end of the burn, the mass of

the rocket contains only the empty mass:

M initial = mf = me + mp

M final = me

the change in mass of the propellant, which

is negative, since propellant mass is

constantly being ejected out of the nozzle:

dM = - d mp

Rocket Launching - 28 -

If we substitute this relation into the motion

equation:

M du = - Veq dM

du = - Veq dM / M

and ln is the symbol for the natural

logarithmic function. The limits of

integration are from the initial mass of the

rocket to the final mass of the rocket.

Substituting for these values we obtain:

There are several additional forms of this

equation which we list here: Using the

definition of the propellant mass ratio MR

MR = mf / me

Rocket Launching - 29 -

can invert this equation to determine the

amount of propellant required:

equation becomes:

Rocket Launching - 30 -

Energy Efficiency

vehicle speed divided by effective exhaust speed

of flames, noise and drama, and it might seem

obvious that they are grievously inefficient.

However, while they are far from perfect, their

energy efficiency is not as bad as might be

supposed.

is often around 1/3 that of conventional

hydrocarbon fuels; the bulk of the mass is in the

form of (often relatively inexpensive) oxidizer.

Rocket Launching - 20 -

great deal of energy in the form of fuel and

oxidizer stored within the vehicle. It is of course

desirable that as much of the energy of the

propellant end up as kinetic or potential energy

of the body of the rocket as possible.

gravity drag and is used for the rocket to gain

altitude and speed. However, much of the lost

energy ends up in the exhaust.

efficiency ηc = 100%) would mean that all of the

heat energy of the combustion products is

converted into kinetic energy of the jet. This is

not possible, but the high expansion ratio

nozzles that can be used with rockets come

surprisingly close: when the nozzle expands the

gas, the gas is cooled and accelerated, and an

energy efficiency of up to 70% can be achieved.

Most of the rest is heat energy in the exhaust

that is not recovered.[93] The high efficiency is a

consequence of the fact that rocket combustion

can be performed at very high temperatures and

the gas is finally released at much lower

temperatures, and so giving good Carnot

efficiency.

story. In common with the other jet-based

engines, but particularly in rockets due to their

high and typically fixed exhaust speeds, rocket

vehicles are extremely inefficient at low speeds

irrespective of the engine efficiency. The

problem is that at low speeds, the exhaust

carries away a huge amount of kinetic energy

rearward. This phenomenon is termed propulsive

efficiency (ηp).

speed goes down, and the overall vehicle

energetic efficiency rises, reaching a peak of

around 100% of the engine efficiency when the

vehicle is travelling exactly at the same speed

that the exhaust is emitted. In this case the

exhaust would ideally stop dead in space behind

the moving vehicle, taking away zero energy,

and from conservation of energy, all the energy

would end up in the vehicle.

higher speeds as the exhaust ends up travelling

forwards- trailing behind the vehicle.

Rocket Launching - 22-

propulsive efficiency ηp for a rocket moving at

speed u with an exhaust velocity c is:

η = ηpηc

0.7, a rocket flying at Mach 0.85 (which most

aircraft cruise at) with an exhaust velocity of

Mach 10, would have a predicted overall energy

efficiency of 5.9%, whereas a conventional,

modern, air breathing jet engine achieves closer

to 35% efficiency. Thus a rocket would need

about 6x more energy; and allowing for the ~3x

lower specific energy of rocket propellant than

conventional air fuel, roughly 18x more mass of

propellant would need to be carried for the same

journey. This is why rockets are rarely if ever

used for general aviation

Rocket Launching - 23 -

these considerations mean that rockets are

mainly useful when a very high speed is

required, such as ICBMs or orbital launch. For

example NASA's space shuttle fires its engines

for around 8.5 minutes, consuming 1,000 tonnes

of solid propellant (containing 16% aluminium)

and an additional 2,000,000 litres of liquid

propellant (106,261 kg of liquid hydrogen fuel) to

lift the 100,000 kg vehicle (including the

25,000 kg payload) to an altitude of 111 km and

an orbital velocity of 30,000 km/h.

With an energy density of 31MJ per kg for

aluminum and 143 MJ/kg for liquid hydrogen, this

means that the vehicle consumes around 5 TJ of

solid propellant and 15 TJ of hydrogen fuel. Once

in orbit at 200 km and around 7.8 km/s velocity,

the orbiter requires no further fuel. At this

altitude and velocity, the vehicle has a kinetic

energy of about 3 TJ and a potential energy of

roughly 200 GJ. Given the initial energy of 20 TJ,

the Space Shuttle is about 16% energy efficient

at launching the orbiter.

Rocket Launching - 24 -

between speed and jet exhaust speed such as

turbofans (in spite of their worse ηc) dominate for

subsonic and supersonic atmospheric use while

rockets work best at hypersonic speeds. On the

other hand rockets do also see many short-range

relatively low speed military applications where

their low-speed inefficiency is outweighed by

their extremely high thrust and hence high

accelerations.

Rocket Launching - 25 -

A map of approximate Delta-v's around the solar

system between Earth and Mars.

theoretical total change in velocity that a rocket

can achieve without any external interference

(without air drag or gravity or other forces).When

ve is constant, the delta-v that a rocket vehicle

can provide can be calculated from the

Tsiolkovsky rocket equation:

where:

propellant, in kg (or lb)

m1 is the final total mass in kg (or lb)

ve is the effective exhaust velocity in m/s or

(ft/s)

is the delta-v in m/s (or ft/s)

Rocket Launching - 26 -

When launched from the Earth practical

delta-v's for a single rockets carrying payloads

can be a few km/s. Some theoretical designs

have rockets with delta-v's over 9 km/s.

a particular manoeuvre; for example the delta-v

to launch from the surface of the Earth to Low

earth orbit is about 9.7 km/s, which leaves the

vehicle with a sideways speed of about 7.8 km/s

at an altitude of around 200 km. In this

manoeuvre about 1.9 km/s is lost in air drag,

gravity drag and gaining altitude.

Rocket Launching - 27-

proved.

Flying rockets are primarily affected by the

following:

main factor that determines the speed of the

rocket. Hence Thrust affects the flying of the

Rocket. We can say our first hypothesis has

been proved.

2. Gravity – It is a known fact that gravity plays

the major role in the launch. A rocket has to

cross the escape velocity so as to get out of

the atmosphere. Gravity attracts the rocket

and all the things coming from the space and

going in to the space from the earth towards

itself. Our second Hypothesis has been

proved.

3. Drag – Drag is used to apply force which

slows the vehicle as well as presenting

structural loads. So we can say that flying

rockets is also affected by drag. Hence our

last hypothesis has also been proved.

Rocket Launching - 28 -

Bibliography

Hinge on Nuclear Propulsion,” Aviation

• Week & Space Technology, December 2,

1991, pp. 38-44.

• Hill, Philip G., Peterson, Carl R., Mechanics

and Thermodynamics of Propulsion.

• Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, MA,

1970.

• Jane’s Spaceflight Directory, Jane’s, London,

1987.

• Space Handbook, Air University Press,

Maxwell Air Force Base, AL, January 1985.

• Sutton, George P., Rocket Propulsion

Elements, John Wiley & Sons, New York,

1986.

• Wertz, James R., and Wiley J. Larson, ed.,

Space Mission Analysis and Design, Kluwer

• Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, 1991.

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