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CASE STUDY OF

CHILD AGE 6
Amanda Burnside
EDU 220-1003
BRIEF OVERVIEW OF 6-YEAR-OLD CHILD’S
DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPMENTAL AREAS

Physical Development Emotional Development Cognitive/Intellectual


• Very active/Fidgety • Very affectionate Development
• Frequently rests • Chatters constantly • Wants to learn to read if easy
• Good large motor skills • Very sure of himself • Intuitive/asks many questions
• Hates to lose at games • Defiant more than compliant • Will shut down if not successful

Psychosocial/Social Development Moral/Character/Philosophical


• Very social/enjoys making friends Development
• Will speak poorly of himself if in trouble • Responds best to structured situations
• Acts as though he knows everything • Expresses embarrassment if caught lying
• Responds well to praise and recognition
TYPICAL PHYSICAL BEHAVIORS

• Can dress and undress self


(University of Washington, 1993)
• May be farsighted, a common condition, causing hand and eye coordination problems
(University of Washington, 1993)
• Hates to lose at games
(Ellsworth, 1998)
• May seem “hyper” and fidgety
(Ellsworth, 1998)
• Intensity in work, play, refusals
(Ellsworth, 1998)
TYPICAL PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
LEVEL ACCORDING TO SNOWMAN
• “Energy is often released in the form of nervous habits, for example, pencil chewing,
fingernail biting, and general fidgeting”
(Snowman, J. & McCown, R. ,2015, pg.84)
• Children will tire easily so they need frequent rest periods.
• Many children may be farsighted due to the shallow shape of the eye. This makes it difficult
to focus on small print or objects.
• “Large-muscle control is still superior to fine coordination. Many children, especially boys,
have difficulty manipulating a pencil.”
(Snowman, J. & McCown, R., 2015, pg.85)
• Children have great control of their bodies so their physical activities tend to be more
extreme.
(Snowman, J. & McCown, R., 2015)
6-YEAR-OLD PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
CHARACTERISTICS (OBSERVATION)
Meets development milestones:
• I observed him as being very fidgety. When sitting to eat he would touch and play with anything that
was within his reach.
• He would quickly fall asleep in the car after school or after a long day of playing at the park. You
could see that physical activity would make him more lethargic.
• I noticed he would struggle to hold a pencil when completing worksheets at home. He would switch
it around in his hand again and again and sometimes struggle to get any grip at all.

Does not meet developmental milestones:


• I did not observe his physical activities as being very extreme. He seemed to be very cautious and not
interested in things that could possibly hurt him.
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMET
RECOMMENDATIONS
• Parents should allow for quiet relaxing activities following activities that are highly strenuous.
(Snowden, J. & McCown, R., 2015, pg.84)
• Parents should help teach children how to make good decisions. The best way is to “impart a
moral code that the child gradually internalizes.”
(Child Development Institute, 2015)
• Help children to steer away from negative self-talk by redirecting them to positive and
realistic self-talk.
(PBS, 2020)
• Parents should be providing healthy meals but should not be concerned with what the child
does not eat.
(University of Washington, 1993)
• Make sure to get an eye exam if a problem with farsightedness persists.
(University of Washington, 1993)
TYPICAL EMOTIONAL BEHAVIORS
• Concerned with pleasing adults
(University of Washington, 1993)
• Easily embarrassed
(University of Washington, 1993)
• Very extreme emotions. One minute they will love you, the next they hate you
(Ellsworth, 1998)
• Naturally competitive. They will become upset if they lose
(Ellsworth, 1998)
• Intense feelings of self-doubt
(PBS, 2020)
TYPICAL EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
ACCORDING TO SNOWMAN
• Can have difficulty adjusting to failure because they fear ridicule and criticism

• They are beginning to become aware of the feelings of others

• “Most primary grade children are eager to please the teacher”


(Snowman, J. & McCown, R., 2015, pg. 86)

• Will sometimes use their knowledge of ones feelings to bully them

(Snowman, J. & McCown, R., 2015)


6-YEAR-OLD EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR
CHARACTERISTICS (OBSERVATION)
Meets developmental milestones:
• I witnessed him wanting to do whatever the teacher told him. He would make statements
such as “well my teacher said…”
• He would get very upset while playing a game and losing, despite reassurance of a job well
done
• I observed his concern for other feeling by making sure someone who was crying was ok.
He would apologize when he knew that his actions upset someone.

Does not meet developmental milestones:


• I did not witness any instances of bullying. He was a very sweet and well-mannered child who really
wanted people to like him
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
RECOMMENDATIONS
• Show children your love by pointing out a job well done
(University of Washington, 1993)
• Try to help them to avoid any situation that could be embarrassing and be sure to show
compassion if they find themselves in such a situation
(University of Washington, 1993)
• Allow children to help with everyday responsibilities. It will help to give them a sense of
purpose
(Snowman, J. & McCown, R., 2015, pg. 86)
• Assist the child to accept any weakness and celebrate their strengths
(Child Development Institute, 2015)
TYPICAL COGNITIVE/INTELLECTUAL
BEHAVIORS
• Child is interested in learning to read, but only if it comes easily
(Ellsworth, 1998)
• Their process of thinking can easily shut down if they do not feel that they can succeed
(Ellsworth, 1998)
• Child may have a lisp or stutter when they speak
(University of Washington, 1993)
• “Wants all of everything and finds it difficult to make choices”
(University of Washington, 1993)
• Some learn to read and write
(University of Washington, 1993)
COGNITIVE/INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT
ACCORDING TO PIAGET & VYGOTSKY

Piaget-Preoperational Stage: Vygotsky:


• Their thinking “centers on mastery of • “Social interactions are internalized as
symbols (such as words), which permits them cognitive processes that are autonomously
to benefit much more from past experiences” invoked”
(Snowman, J. & McCown, R., 2015, pg. 41) (Snowmen, J. & McCown, R., 2015, pg. 51)
• They have “not yet mastered decentration-the • “Social interaction is the primary cause of
ability to think of more than one quality at a cognitive development”
time-and is therefore not inclined to (Snowmen, J. & McCown, R., 2015, pg. 52)
contemplate alternatives”
(Snowmen, J. & McCown, R., 2015, pg. 42)
6-YEAR-OLD COGNITIVE/INTELLECTUAL
CHARACTERISTICS (OBSERVATION)
Meets Developmental Milestones:
• The 6-year-old boy I observed would give up easily if he was not quickly able to complete
the task. Often his response to doing something would be “but it will take to long”
• When asked what he wanted to watch or eat he would have a hard time deciding because of
an abundance of choices.
• I observed him being able to write his name but would not want to complete the task if he
did not know how something was spelled. He was not very eager to sound out words.
• When excited about something he was talking about he would stumble over words and
repeat himself often trying to get his point across.
• This 6-year-old boy attended speech therapy weekly.
COGNITIVE/INTELLECTUAL
DEVELOPMENT RECOMMENDATIONS
• Don’t point out any language issues as it is more than likely temporary
(University of Washington, 1993)
• Parents can help their children figure out math problems by introducing them to the concept
of using their fingers
(PBS, 2020)
• Make-believe play is very important. It helps in the development of “language, socialization,
and creativity”
(Child Development Institute, 2015)
• Parents should not overwhelm their child with too many choices, but still allow them to
make decisions
(University of Washington, 1993)
TYPICAL PSYCHOSOCIAL/SOCIAL
BEHAVIORS
• Must win, very little group loyalty
(University of Washington, 1993)
• “Has difficulty being social”
(Ellsworth, 1998)
• Child may now see themselves as the center of the world rather than their parents
(Ellsworth, 1998)
• Has difficulty admitting guilt, not good at making friends
(Ellsworth, 1998)
• Does not want to stop activity, can make meals difficult
(University of Washington, 1993)
TYPICAL PSYCHOSOCIAL/SOCIAL
DEVELOPMENT ACCORDING TO ERIKSON
Industry Versus Inferiority:

• “Behavior is dominated by intellectual curiosity and performance”


(Snowman, J. & McCown, R., 2015, pg. 29)
• Will develop feelings of inferiority if that are unsuccessful or treated as bothersome
(Snowman, J. & McCown, R., 2015)
• Children at this stage should be “encouraged to make and do things well”
(Snowman, J. & McCown, R., 2015, pg. 29)
6-YEAR-OLD PSYCHOSOCIAL/SOCIAL
CHARACTERISTICS (OBSERVATION)
Meets Developmental Milestones:

• Playing games with him I did notice his need to win. He would even attempt to cheat if he thought no
one was paying attention.
• Mealtimes were difficult. He was easily distracted and would get up from the table multiple times.

Does not meet Developmental Milestones:

• He was very social. He cared a lot about what his friends liked and tried his best to not upset anyone.
• I observed that if he did something wrong, he would feel guilty and admit what he did. He would even
apologize without being prompted.
PSYCHOSOCIAL/SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
RECOMMENDATIONS
• Parents should help their child to be a gracious loser
(University of Washington, 1993)
• Allow your child to have responsibilities. Have them help with things around the house
(Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 2019)
• Praise good behavior
(Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 2019)
• Talk about friendship with your child
(PBS, 2020)
• Make sure to be an active presence in their school
(University of Washington, 1993)
TYPICAL MORAL/CHARACTER/PHILOSOPHICAL
BEHAVIORS

• High levels of structure are what the child wants


(Ellsworth, 1998)
• Recognition works best to change a behavior
(Ellsworth, 1998)
• Will sometimes blame others for things they have done wrong
(University of Washington, 1993)
• “Engages in many power struggles”
(Ellsworth, 1998)
• Tend to start lying, will be embarrassed if they are caught
(PBS, 2020)
MORAL/CHARACTER/PHILOSOPHICAL
DEVELOPMENTS ACCORDING TO KOHLBERG
• “Understanding of moral issues is narrow, concrete, and self-centered”
(Snowman, J. & McCown, R., 2015, pg. 60)
• “As their ability to understand the world in which they live increases their judgements about what
constitutes acceptable moral behavior becomes broader, more abstract, and based on the welfare of
others”
(Snowman, J. & McCown, R., 2015, pg. 60)
Level 1-Preconventional Morality:
• Children at this level do not fully understand the rules of society
Stage 1: Punishment-obedience orientation
-People in power should be listened to, this will help the child to avoid punishment
Stage 2: Instrumental relativist orientation
-If rules are followed a benefit should be received in return

(Snowman, J. & McCown, R., 2015)


MORAL/CHARACTER/PHILOSOPHICAL
CHARACTERISTS (OBSERVATION)
Meets Developmental Milestones:

• I observed that punishment was much less likely to provide the desired outcome. He was much more
likely to listen when he knew that he was working toward a reward.
• He sometimes would turn the blame to his younger brother for something he did wrong. He would get
a guilty look on his face when he was blaming him for something he did.
• The 6-year-old behaved much better with a structured routine. I noticed much more acting out when
the routine changed.
• At times he was very defiant. He would talk back and argue that he knew better when he was told to
do something, he wasn’t interested in doing.
MORAL/CHARACTER/PHILOSOPHICAL
DEVELOPMENT RECOMMENDATIONS

• Parents should make sure their child understands that everyone makes mistake, even adults
(University of Washington, 1993)
• Make sure that the child knows they are responsible for their own behavior
(University of Washington, 1993)
• Create a structured environment. Parents should ensure that the household rules are clear
and are there to be followed
(Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 2019)
• Provide praise and encouragement
(Child Development Institute, 2015)
REFERENCECS
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Middle Childhood (6-8 years). Retrieved from https://
www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/middle.html
Child Development Institute. (2015). The Ages and Stages of Child Development. Retrieved from https://
childdevelopmentinfo.com/ages-stages/#.WR3Id_QrLrc
Ellsworth, J. (1998). Online lesson: PEPSI as a screening tool. Retrieved from http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/
~jde7/ese504/class/pepsi/PEPSIObserv/year6.html
PBS (2020) All topics for Six-Year-Olds. Retrieved from
https://www.pbs.org/parents/learn-grow/age-6
Snowman, J. & McCown, R. (2015). Psychology applied to teaching, 14th ed. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
University of Washington. (1993). Child development Guide. Six to Seven Years. Retrieved from http://
depts.washington.edu/allcwe2/fosterparents/training/cdevguid/cdg08.htm