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Education History

By Amanda Burnside
Brown v. Board of Education

-United States Supreme court ruled unanimously

that separate schools for white and black
students was inherently unequal.

-Schools were not allowed to remain segregated

which benefited all students by reinforcing the
importance of creating educational opportunities
for all Americans.
National Defense Education Act

-Provided funding to improve American schools and

to promote post secondary education.

-Specific provisions included scholarships and loans to

students in higher education, with loans to students
preparing to be teachers and to those who showed
promise in the curricular areas of mathematics, science,
engineering, and modern foreign languages.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act

-Ensured that federal assistance would

be sent to the poorest schools and
communities in the nation

-Federal government distributes the funds

to the states, and it is the states’
responsibility to identify the schools and
districts to receive the funds. This brought
about educational services designed
specifically to create better opportunities
for students with disadvantages, such as
those from high poverty neighborhoods.
Title IX

-No person in the United States shall, on the

basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be
denied the benefits of, or be subjected to
discrimination under any education program or
activity receiving Federal financial aid.

-Protects the rights of both males and females from

pre-k through graduate school-in sports, financial
aid, employment, counseling, and school regulation
and policies.
Lau v. Nichols
-U.S. Supreme Court rules that the failure of a
district to provide English Language instruction
to Chinese American students with limited
English proficiency is a violation of the Civil
Rights Act of 1964

-Through this case school district were

required to provide equal opportunities for all
students, including those who do not speak
English. This case did not require a specific
approach to teaching LEP students.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

-Federal law that guarantees that all children

with disabilities receive free, appropriate public

-Before this act there was no organized, equitable

way of addressing the needs of disabled students
in the public school system. As a result of this
legislation strong effort have been made to
include students with disabilities in regular
Public Law 94-142
-Guarantees a free appropriate public education to each child
with a disability. This law has had a dramatic, positive impact
on millions of children with disabilities.

-The four purposes of the law are

* Assure that all children with disabilities have available to them
a free appropriate public education which emphasizes special
education and related services designed to meet their unique
* Assure that the rights of the children with disabilities and their
parents are protected.
* Assist the states and localities to provide the education of all
children with disabilities.
* To assess and assure the effectiveness of efforts to educate all
children with disabilities.
“A Nation at Risk”: The Imperative for
Educational Reform

-A federal report that found U.S. schools were

in serious trouble and inaugurated a new wave
of school reform focused on academic basics
and higher standard for student achievement.

-Inaugurated a new period of academic rigor,

with increased attention to skills and standards
and less emphasis on progressive concerns
such as schools’ role in building social
understanding. These recommendations were
implemented (or sometimes ignored) in
different ways at the local, state, and district
Standards of Learning Assessments were

-Launched to support schools in their efforts to

improve reading skills and identify and assist
students at risk of not meeting new, more
rigorous graduation requirements.

-The Standards of Learning have provided

for increased human achievement.
No Child Left Behind Act
-Emphasized increased funding for less wealthy
school districts and higher achievement for
financially poor and minority students, along with
introducing new measures for holding schools
accountable for students’ progress.

-Set new rules for standardized testing which had

implications for how the curriculum was developed
and implemented in Elementary schools across the
country. To most it seemed like just a massifs testing
movement and has not been able to prove that these
standard-based assessments actually improve
student learning.
Looking at the history of public education in the United States it is easy to see how similar
many of them are. Both Public Law 94-142 and IDEA are geared towards students with
disabilities. It gives them rights and makes sure they are receiving appropriate and free
public education. IDEA has been revised and amended many times over the years, but the
goal of the Act has remained the same.
The development of standardized assessments in 1998 is most likely related to the 2002 No
Child Left Behind Act. That act called for increased standardized testing using the reasoning
that it is best if we know how the child is performing. This instead made teachers feel as
though they were just “teaching to the test”. When the tests were developed in 1998 it was
thought that these Standards of Learning would provide increased student achievement. This
could have possibly been the case if they were used correctly.
Many of the historic acts and laws in regards to education provide funding for under
privileged and and minority students. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the
No Child Left behind Act call for increased funding for less wealthy schools. This was
supposed to increase opportunities for the children from high poverty neighborhoods.
Overall every law or act that has been passed has turned the public school system into what
it is today. It seems like most of these historic events has had a positive impact on the school
system, such as Brown v. Board of Education and IDEA. Others such as the No Child Left
Behind Act have created disagreements within the public school system as to wether or not
it is the right direction to go in.