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Nonlinear Structural Mechanics in Association with

Limit States and Risk-based Approaches:


On-Going Research Projects

Prof. Jeom Kee Paik, Director


LRET Research Centre of Excellence
at Pusan National University
List of On-going Projects
• ALPS (Analysis of Large Plated-Structures)
• JIP - Explosion and fire engineering of FPSOs (EFEF)
• Impact pressure
• Changeable-die system
• Dropped objects
• Friction stir welding (FSW)
• Arctic engineering
• CFD simulations on gas explosion (Prof. J.C. Park)
• Risk based design of FPSO topsides against gas explosion
(Dr. Z. Czujko, Norway)
• Hybrid welding (Prof. H.S. Bang)
• Collision with iceberg (Prof. S.G. Lee)
• Hazard identification methods (Prof. S.C. Shin)
• Corrosion under dynamic flexing (Prof. R.E. Melchers, Australia)
• Nonlinear matrix equation solver (Prof. H.M. Kim)
• Strategic risk management (Prof. S.H. Choi)
Various Ocean Environmental Phenomena
• Waves – Freak waves
• Winds – Hurricane
• Impact pressure actions – slamming, slamming,
green water
• Currents
• Ultra-low temperature – LNG tanks
• Arctic environment – Low temperature
• Accidental flooding
• Dropped objects
• Collisions, grounding
• Fire, gas explosion
• Corrosion attack
Linear vs. Nonlinear Structural Mechanics
Factors of nonlinear structural mechanics:
• Geometrical factors associated with buckling, large deflection,
crushing / folding
• Material factors associated with yielding / plasticity, rupture,
brittle fracture, damage
• Fabrication related initial imperfections such as initial distortion,
residual stress, and softening
• Temperature factors such as low temperature associated with
operation in arctic area or with low temperature cargo, and high
temperature due to fire and explosion
• Dynamic factors (strain rate sensitivity, inertia effect) associated
with freak waves, impact pressure arising from sloshing, slamming or
green water, and overpressure arising from explosion, impacts from
collision and dropped objects
• Age-related deterioration such as corrosion and fatigue cracking
Nonlinear Structural Mechanics
Limit states and risk based approaches
Limit States Based Approaches
• Limit state is a condition where the structure fails to perform
its intended function designed beforehand.
• Serviceability limit states (SLS) – permanent set, stability,
station-keeping, vessel weathervaning, vessel motion
exceedance, vibration and noise, mooring line vortex
induced resonance oscillation
• Ultimate limit states (ULS) – buckling and plastic collapse
• Fatigue limit states (FLS) – fatigue cracking, fracture, crack
propagation
• Accidental limit states (ALS) – collisions, fire, gas explosion,
dropped objects

Today’s trend – fusion technology


Risk Based Approaches

Risk = Frequency × Consequence ≤ ALARP

Hazard Risk Decision making


identification (Step1) assessment (Step2) recommendations (Step5)

Risk control options


(Step3)

Cost benefit assessment


(Step4)

ALARP – As Low As Reasonably Practicable


ALPS Project (1/3)
• Aim: ULS design technology in association with MAESTRO
• Work scope: ULS analysis for stiffened panels and hull girders
• Deliverables: ALPS/ULSAP, ALPS/HULL

Tr
an
s.
flo
o r
Longitudinal edge
ALPS Project – MAESTRO Development Team (2/3)
• DRS C3 Advanced Technology Center (ATC), USA
• Code development and integration lead
• Worldwide distribution
• Worldwide technical support
• Virginia Tech, USA
• Professor Owen Hughes
• MAESTRO Intellectual Property Owner
• MAESTRO overall development strategy
• University of Zagreb, Croatia
• Professor Vedran Zanic
• Optimization methods and code development
• European Union R&D Projects
• Applications to ship design and construction projects
• Pusan National University, Korea
• Professor Jeom Kee Paik
• Ultimate and accidental limit states assessment
(ALPS project)
• Applications to ships and offshore installations
ALPS/ULSAP, ALPS/HULL, ALPS/SCOL

MAESTRO 2008
Finite Structural
Hullform Evaluation
Element
Resistance &
Powering
Models

Sub-
Sub-division
General FE
Hydrostatics
Arrangement
Analysis Solvers

Acoustics Ship
Structural
Analysis
Structure Loads ITER
A TE Optimization
Surface Models
Cost Model
Analysis

Ship
Signatures
TEMPEST
Seakeeping &
High
Hydro Loads Performance Computers

Smart Product Model Architecture


EFEF Joint Industry Project
• Aim: Explosion and Fire Engineering of FPSOs (Phases I, II, III)
• Work scope: Quantified risk assessment and management for
gas explosion and fire on FPSOs
• Deliverables: Quantitative risk based design procedure and
guidance
• Partners: Nowatec AS (Norway), ABS (USA), DSME (Korea),
HHI (Korea), HSE (UK), SHI (Korea)
Impact Pressure Project (1/3)
• Aim: Serviceability limit state design technology of stiffened
plate structures under impact pressure actions arising from
sloshing, slamming and green water
• Work scope: Development of permanent deflection design
formulations
• Deliverables: SLS design procedure and guidance against
impact pressure actions
Impact Pressure Project (2/3)

P(t)
Po I = Pe ⋅ τ = ∫ P( t )dt
Pe
Idealized

Actual

0 time
• Quasi-static domain: 3≤τ/T
τo τ
• Dynamic / impact domain: 0.3≤τ/T<3
• Impulsive domain: τ/T<0.3
Impact Pressure Project (3/3)

6 40
FEM (LS-DYNA3D) FEM (LS-DYNA3D)
ALPS/ULSAP ALPS/ULSAP
5
Permanent Deflection (wp/t)

Permanent Deflection (wp/t)


30
4
τ = 2.5 ms
Po/Pc = 10
3 20

2
10

1 τ = 1 ms Po/Pc = 5

0
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
0 2 4 6 8 10 Duration Time (ms)
Peak Pressure (Po/Pc)
Changeable-Die System Project (1/5)
• Aim: 3D-curved plate forming technology
• Work scope: Changeable die system
• Deliverables: Prototype machine for 3D-curved plate forming
• Partners: Kukdong Industrial Engineering (Korea), Small &
Medium Business Administration (Korea)
Changeable-Die System Project (2/5)

Line heating technology


Changeable-Die System Project (3/5)

CAD/CAE/CAM
system

Punch

Target sheet

Measurement of
Controller
formed surface

N
Tolerable?

Press Y

Stop
Changeable-Die System Project (4/5)
Displacement
of target surface
C D
Result of

Reation force at each punch


Elastic-plastic
large deflection
analysis

Loading

Unloading

O A B E

Deflection at each punch


Changeable-Die System Project (5/5)
Dropped Object Project (1/3)
• Aim: Accidental limit state design technology
• Work scope: Structural consequence of stiffened panels under
impact arising from dropped objects
• Deliverables: Experimental database and limit state design
procedure
• Partner: SHI (Korea)

Drill Collar

Plywood
Primary barrier (304SS)
Secondary barrier
PUF Panel

Inner Hull
Dropped Object Project (2/3)
869.49kN (time=0.77999s)

Force (kN)
177.03kN (time=2.18499s)
110.77kN (time=1.215s)

Time (sec)

Deflection (mm)
Average
(2.25mm) Average (4.40mm)

Max: 16.15mm (time=0.96998s)

Time (sec)
Dropped Object Project (3/3)

Plywood
Primary barrier (304SS)
Secondary barrier
PUF Panel

Inner Hull
30 mm

80 mm
B06 B04 S02
B03

S01

B02 B01 B05


60 mm

66 mm

166 mm
Friction Stir Welding Project (1/7)
• Aim: Ultimate limit state design technology of friction stir
welded aluminum structures
• Work scope: Buckling collapse testing and nonlinear FE analysis
for friction stir welded aluminum stiffened panels
• Deliverables: Experimental database and limit state design
procedure
• Partners: Ship Structure Committee (USA), ABS (USA)
Friction Stir Welding Project (2/7)

MIG welding Friction stir welding (FSW)


Friction Stir Welding Project (3/7)
Friction Stir Welding Project (4/7)

19A-MIGW 19C-FSW
Friction Stir Welding Project (5/7)

Weld line 200


Unweld (extruded) bt bt
+ Flange
bt bt bt bt bt bt



150 : Measured
+

Residual Stress (N/mm2)


: Idealized
+ : Tensile stress
Weld line
Weld line : Compressive stress
Material:
100 Plate 5083-H112
t = 6mm
Stiffener 6082-T6
σrtx=165.3 N/mm2
hw = 66.1 mm
tw = 4 mm
50 bf = 40 mm
tf = 5.7 mm
bt = 25.6 mm

0
σrcx=-34 N/mm2

-50
-100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
b (mm)
Friction Stir Welding Project (6/7)

• Loading capacity: 2000kN


• Test-bed length: 9.2m
• Test-bed breadth: 2.4m
• Frame height: 4.42m Buckling collapse testing
Friction Stir Welding Project (7/7)

Tr
160 an
s. f
A 28 ra m
es
z
140
y
Axial compressive stress (MPa)

x
56
120
B
4
100 14
28
14
6
14

80 2

60

40

20

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008

Strain

Nonlinear FEA
Arctic Project (1/3)
• Aim: Structural design technology in arctic area
• Work scope: Structural failure in low temperature
• Deliverables: Experimental database and limit state design
procedure in low temperature
Arctic Project (2/3)

Original source: The Kansai Society of Naval Architects (1983)


Arctic Project (3/3)

P Pm = Mean crushing load

Pm

Axial shortening

Effect of low temperature


Other Joint Projects
• CFD simulations on gas explosion (Prof. J.C. Park, PNU)
• Risk based design of FPSO topsides against gas explosion
(Dr. Z. Czujko, Nowatec AS, Norway)
• Hybrid welding (Prof. H.S. Bang, Chosun Univ.)
• Collision with iceberg (Prof. S.G. Lee, Korea Maritime
Univ.)
• Hazard identification methods (Prof. S.C. Shin, PNU)
• Corrosion under dynamic flexing (Prof. R.E. Melchers,
Univ. of Newcastle, Australia)
• Nonlinear matrix equation solver (Prof. H.M. Kim, PNU)
• Strategic risk management (Prof. S.H. Choi, PNU)
International Symposium

• Limit States and Risk Based Approaches


• 8-13 April 2009, Phuket, Thailand
• Organizers
※ Prof. Jeom Kee Paik (At Sea)
Director, LRET Research Centre of Excellence
at Pusan National University, Korea⎛
※ Prof. Robert E. Melchers (On Land)
Director, Centre for Infrastructure Performance
& Reliability, University of Newcastle, Australia
※ Prof. Satya N. Atluri (In the Air)
Director. Center for Aerospace Research & Education,
University of California at Irvine, USA