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Grease Fundamentals

Cement Day

Khaled El-Sayed – Grease Business Development Manager

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Agenda

 Grease Fundamentals
 Grease Selections
 Shell Grease Naming

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WHEN ARE GREASES USED?

Generally, the first choice of lubricant would be an oil, but


greases are used when:

• The system is unable to retain oil


• It is crucial that there is an effective seal against contamination
• The parts to be lubricated are difficult to reach, or require infrequent
lubrication

The most common


applications are in
bearings and joints

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GREASE IS A LUBRICANT DESIGNED TO STAY IN PLACE

•Like an oil, a grease consists mainly of base oils and additives


The oil lubricates
The additives provide the additional, critical performance characteristics
• For a grease, it’s the “thickener” that keeps the lubricant in place

GREASE COMPONENTS OIL COMPONENTS

Base oil (75 - 85%) Base oil (85 - 95%)

Additives (5 - 10%) GREASE OILS

Thickener (10 - 15%) Additives (5 - 10%)

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GREASE ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
PROTECTION COOLING
 Greases seal out moisture & solid contaminants  Greases can’t carry away heat the way oils can
(during operation and when idle)
PERSISTENCE CONTAMINATION
 Greases adhere (less likely to “flow away” due  Greases can’t flush or carry away dirt, dust,
to things like gravity, centrifugal force). water the way oils can
 Immediate lubrication at start-up, so provide
reduced starting friction
CONVENIENCE DESIGN LIMITATIONS
 Easy to apply  Because of the poor cooling properties, greases
can’t be use in some very high speed bearings
EFFECTIVE & ECONOMICAL
 Especially in difficult to reach places or
equipment needing infrequent lubrication
CLEANLINESS
 Don’t leak or splash like oils

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THINK OF GREASE LIKE A WET SPONGE

The thickener acts like a sponge: it ...and under heavy pressure, a lot of
holds the water (in place); under light water is pushed out.
pressure, a little water is forced out...

Grease act the same way; the thickener is the sponge, holding the
lubricant in place. The pressure comes from the equipment in operation–
bearings turning, machines vibrating, metal surfaces sliding against
each other. The pressure pushes the lubricant out, enabling it to start
lubricating
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Base Oils & Thickeners
Base Oil
•Base Oils used in Greases could be mineral oil or synthetic oil
•95% of base oils used in grease is Mineral oils
•PAO is the commonly used base oil in synthetic Greases

•Thickener
•The amount and type of thickening agent used in a Grease has a significant effect
on its consistency
•Most commonly used thickeners are metallic ones, eg. Lithium, Lithium Calcium,
Lithium comples....
• Polyureas is an example organic thickeners which is needed for specific
applications.

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Grease Properties
 Property  Mainly influenced by:

 Consistency  Base oil and thickener

 Cold temperature behavior  Base oil and thickener

 Operating temperature range  Thickener

 Pump-ability  Base oil and thickener

 Corrosion protection  Additives and thickener

 Mechanical/shear stability  Thickener, production and Base oil

 Oil separation  Production, thickener and base oil

 Seal compatibility  Base Oil, thickener and additives

 Water resistance/washout  Thickener and Base Oil

 Dropping point  Thickener

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NLGI Grease Classification System
NLGI Form Worked Typical Application
class Penetration
0.1 mm, 25°C
000 fluid 445 - 475 Enclosed gears
00 semi-fluid 400 - 430 Enclosed gears
0 very soft 355 - 385 Centralised lub system low Temp
1 soft 310 - 340 Centralised lub system low Temp
2 med. soft 265 - 295 Ball / roller bearings
3 medium 220 - 250 High speed bearings

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Structure of a Grease
Under microscope, a grease reveals a network of entangled fibres trapping
oil in between. The length, shape and twisting of the fibres is determined
by the manufacturing procedure and dictates most of the grease performance

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Thickener Technology Timeline

Things move slowly in the greases world…

Thickener technology age (mineral oil based) Years since introduction

Functional soaps

Polyurea

Calcium Sulphonate Complex

Lithium complex & Lithium/Calcium

Anhydrated calcium soap

Calcium complex

Aluminum complex

Lithium soap

Clay

Sodium complex

Hydrated calcium soap

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

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TYPES OF THICKENERS- soap based

 Calcium, Sodium, Lithium Calcium

 Lithium - High dropping point


Good water resistance
High operating temp. (up to 120°C)
Very Good mechanical stability

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TYPES OF THICKENERS - complex soap based

 Lithium complex greases


Can be used over a wider temperature range than conventional lithium soap
greases (up to 150°C).
Very Good water resistance
High dropping point (260°C)
Excellent mechanical stability.
 Calcium complex greases:
Can be used up to 130°C.
Harden on storage for long periods or when exposed to high temperatures.
 Aluminium complex greases:
Excellent thermal resistance, used up to 180°C.
Excellent water resistance & mechanical properties.
Poorer anti-wear properties than other complex greases.

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TYPES OF THICKENERS - Non-soap based

 Inorganic, e.g. bentonite, hectorite (kinds of Clay) & Silica.


Less protection from corrosion
Very high operating
temperature use (up to 150°C)
Moderate lubricating characteristics
 Organic, e.g. Polyureas.
Excellent thermal stability, can be
used at temperatures over 180°C
Good oxidation resistance
Excellent lubricating characteristics
Very Good corrosion resistance
Excellent water resistance

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Operating Temperature Range
250
Dr opping point
(gr ease becomes liquid)

Danger zone (not r ecommended)


200
Recommended oper ating temp
(low point depends in par t on viscosity
of the oil used in the gr ease)
150
Temper atur e 0C

100

50

Calcium Aluminium Sodium Lithium Lithium Calcium Aluminium Polyur ea Nonsoap


soap complex complex complex gr ease

Multipur pose gr eases

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Grease Application
Temperature at the
bearing outer ring 0C
Relubricating interval
100

85

70

55

40

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GREASES PROTECT EQUIPMENT BY LUBRICATING AND
STAYING IN PLACE

To protect equipment, the grease must:


Function as a lubricant
 During temperature variations
 In the presence of water and/or other contaminants
 During shock loading (stop/start)
 Over time

Stay in place
 Adhere to the surfaces
 Maintain its consistency over time despite the operating conditions (temperature
changes, vibration, presence of water)

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Grease Selection

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Greases – Applications– Common Friction Bearing Types
Known also as Journal or Plain bearings or Bushes

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Greases – Applications – Common Anti
Friction Bearing Types
Known also as rolling element, ball, roller, tapered roller or needle roller
(Torrington)

Single Double Cylindrical Taper Needle


row ball row ball roller roller

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What types of components need grease?

Industrial On-highway Off-highway Automotive


 Bearings  Bearings  Bearings  Bearings
 Electric motors  Chassis  Gears  Universal and CV Joints
 Couplings  Wheel hubs  Slides  Other driveline
Gears components
  Fifth wheel  Linkages
Slides  Linkages
  Chains
Linkages  Hinges
  Pins
Chains  Brake and seat
  Buckets
adjusters
 Wheel hubs
Think about…  Steering gears
•General purpose greases
•High temperature greases
•Greases for specific applications

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Requirements for selecting a grease
Base Oil
(Visc.@Operating Temperature ?) Operating Temperature
(Thickener and Base Fluid ?)

Bearing Speed (rpm)


(Thickener and Base Oil ?)
Penetration
(NLGI-Grade: ?)

Corrosion Protection
(Water Resistance,
Impacting Fluid ?)

Bearing Load
Bearing Size (OEM Machinery and
(Bearing Manufacturers Bearings)
recommendation) Operating Parameters
(Vibrations, Dirt, Dust, Humidity etc)
(Re-lubrication Intervals and amount)

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How do I Choose the Right Grease?
• Select Base Oil Viscosity as if only oil will be used
• Select required performance Additives (i.e. EP, moly, tackifier, etc.)
• Select best Thickener Type and Base Oil Type for the application
• Use the softest Consistency that will stay in place

Address other application requirements…

• How is grease delivered to the component?


• What product was previously used in the component?

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Shell Grease Naming

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UNIQUE SHELL GREASE BRAND NAME

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What does GADUS mean?

 Most Shell Lubricants brands that are named after sea shells.

 Recognizing that Greases are just a bit different than Oils, Shell
Lubricant’s newest brand family, bringing together all brands of grease,
is named after a fish.

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SHELL GADUS LABELS AND PAILS HELP DIFFERENTIATE

Tier 1 & 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 & 5

(Black Pail) (Yellow Pail) (Grey Pail)

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SHELL GADUS NAMING SYSTEM MAKES GREASE
SELECTION EASY

• Three things you need to know to recommend the right grease


1. Base Oil Viscosity
2. Operating temperature and other critical operating condition(s)
3. Consistency

Base Oil Viscosity 100 (light/no load application)


220 (medium)
460 (heavy duty)
Thickener Should be from the Lithium family
High Temperature - recommend Lithium
Complex/Polyurea
Wet Environment - recommend Lithium
Calcium/LiCx/Polyurea
Consistency =2

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SHELL GADUS: ITS ALL IN THE NAME

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SHELL GADUS NAMING SYSTEM MAKES GREASE
SELECTION EASY

Heavy Duty?
(most common)
Bearing Medium Duty? (460cST)
Size/Speed?
(220 cST) Light Duty?
(100 cST)
S3 V up to 150
What is critical Higher Temp?
for this S5 T Up t0 200
Temperatures?
Application?
S2
(up to 120C)

Look for the


Water?
letter A
Environmental
Conditions?
Look for the
Shock Loads?
letter D

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SHELL GADUS LABELS HAVE THE SAME INFORMATION

Grease Name:
Brand Family

Grease Name: Tier


(S1-S5: Higher is better)
Icons to help guide application

Grease Name: S2 High Performance Multipurpose Extreme


Load Grease
3 part suffix V220 2 Key Benefits. Last
•First letter is Thickener Guide * Reliable Protection * Multipurpose Application * Lithium benefit is always
followed by base oil viscosity Thickener

•Special Conditions (if any)


Avoid prolonged or repeated contact with skin. If swallowed, call a
Poison Control Centre or doctor immediately. DO NOT induce
Previous Names
vomiting. Protect the environment and dispose of
responsibly.Safety data sheet available for professional user on
Alvania EP (LF) 2
•NLGI request. (Motor Oil: Prolonged or repeated contact with all used Retinax EP 2 Previous Name(s)
engine oils may cause skin disorders)
Shell South Africa Marketing (Pty) Limited, 57 Sloane Street, The
Campus, Twickenham Building, Bryanston, 2001. Customer Care
Line 0860 467 4355

Shell required Health, Safety and


environmental information
Product Classification and
Specifications
Global Performance Profile
NLGI 2
Lithium EP grease Always includes:
220 cSt viscosity
Meets ASTM D4950-08 LB •NLGI grade
•Grease type, including Thickener
additional local legal requirements
as needed •Base oil viscosity
Add Add Add
Contents (weight) Grap Grap Grap
hics hics hics

Batch number and Net Contents : 180.Kg Converted


location of manufacturer
Batch Number : EAN/UPC
12345678G4611622APR10
Bar Code
Made In / Packed In : South Africa 5500123456

Shell Gadus is a trademark of Shell Brands International AG. Manufactured under licence of Shell Brands Filling production order number (certain
Copyright of Shell Lubricants International AG. Date 13/05/2013
markets only) 31