You are on page 1of 101
Acknowledgement
Acknowledgement
 Information and pictorial illustrations to create this work have been drawn from class notes, prescribed
Information and pictorial illustrations to create this
work have been drawn from class notes, prescribed text
books and various internet resources. The author
gratefully acknowledges the same. Any objections to the
use of internet resources may please be indicated to
suddurocks@yahoo.in so that the same can be removed
from the illustrations used in this file.
This presentation is created with the sole intention of
benefitting a large number of student community. This
may not be used for any commercial purpose.
Contents :
Contents :
Introduction  Health & Its Failure  Disease & Its Causes  Infectious Diseases  Multiple
Introduction
Health & Its Failure
Disease & Its Causes
Infectious Diseases
Multiple Choice Questions
Some Interesting Pictures
Introduction
Introduction
 Health is a state of being well enough to function well physically, mentally and socially.
Health is a state of being well enough to
function well physically, mentally and
socially.
Introduction  Health is a state of being well enough to function well physically, mentally and
 The health of all organisms depend on their surroundings.
The health of all organisms depend on
their surroundings.
The environment includes physical environment.
The environment includes physical
environment.
Even our physical environment is decided by our social environment.
Even our physical environment is decided
by our social environment.
• Public cleanliness is important for individual health.
• Public cleanliness is important for
individual health.
• Public cleanliness is important for individual health.
►Good economic conditions, social equality and harmony are necessary for individual health.
►Good economic conditions, social equality
and harmony are necessary for individual
health.
Health & Its Failure
Health & Its Failure
►Health is a state of being well enough to function well physically, mentally and socially.
►Health is a state of being well enough to
function well physically, mentally and
socially.
 The health of all organisms will depend on their surroundings or their environment.
The health of all organisms will depend on
their surroundings or their environment.
 The environment includes the physical environment.
The environment includes the physical
environment.
Disease means Disturbed Ease.
Disease means Disturbed Ease.

Disease means Disturbed Ease. 
 Disease in other words, literally means being uncomfortable.
 Disease in other words, literally means
being uncomfortable.
 Disease in other words, literally means being uncomfortable.
Disease & Its Causes
Disease & Its Causes
 When there is a disease, either the functioning or the appearance of one or more
When there is a disease, either the
functioning or the appearance of one or
more systems of the body will change for
worse.
 These changes give raise to symptoms and signs of disease.
 These changes give raise to symptoms
and signs of disease.
 These changes give raise to symptoms and signs of disease.
 Symptoms of diseases are the things we feel as being ‘Wrong’.
Symptoms of diseases are the things we feel as
being ‘Wrong’.
 Symptoms of diseases are the things we feel as being ‘Wrong’.
 Signs of diseases are what physicians look for on the basis of symptoms.
Signs of diseases are what physicians look for on
the basis of symptoms.
 Physicians will also get laboratory tests done to pinpoint the disease further.
Physicians will also get laboratory tests done to
pinpoint the disease further.
The manifestations of disease will be  different depending on a number of factors.
The manifestations of disease will be
different depending on a number of
factors.
The manifestations of disease will be  different depending on a number of factors.  One
 One of the most obvious factors that determine how we perceive the disease is its
One of the most obvious factors that
determine how we perceive the
disease is its duration.
 Some diseases last for only very short periods of time. These are called Acute Diseases.
Some diseases last for only very short
periods of time. These are called Acute
Diseases.
 Some diseases last for only very short periods of time. These are called Acute Diseases.
 Other ailments can last for a long time, even as much as a lifetime and
Other ailments can last for a long time,
even as much as a lifetime and are called
Chronic Diseases.
 Other ailments can last for a long time, even as much as a lifetime and
Chronic diseases have very drastic long term effects on peoples health as compared to acute diseases.
Chronic diseases have very drastic long
term effects on peoples health as
compared to acute diseases.
All diseases will have immediate causes and contributory causes.
All diseases will have immediate causes
and contributory causes.
Most diseases will have many causes, rather than one single cause.
Most diseases will have many causes,
rather than one single cause.
• It is important to keep public health and community health factors in mind when we
• It is important to keep public health and
community health factors in mind when we
think about causes of diseases.
►It is useful to think of the immediate causes of disease as belonging to two distinct
►It is useful to think of the immediate
causes of disease as belonging to two
distinct types.
►One group of causes is the infectious agents, mostly microbes or micro organisms.
►One group of causes is the infectious
agents, mostly microbes or micro
organisms.
 Diseases where microbes are the immediate causes are called Infectious Diseases.
Diseases where microbes are the
immediate causes are called Infectious
Diseases.
 This is because the microbes can spread in the community, and the diseases they cause
 This is because the microbes can spread
in the community, and the diseases they
cause will spread with them.
 This is because the microbes can spread in the community, and the diseases they cause
 There are also diseases that are not caused by infectious agents. Their causes vary, but
 There are also diseases that are not
caused by infectious agents. Their causes
vary, but they are not external causes like
microbes that can spread in the
community.
 There are also diseases that are not caused by infectious agents. Their causes vary, but
 High blood pressure can be caused by excessive weight and lack of exercise.
 High blood pressure can be caused by
excessive weight and lack of exercise.
 High blood pressure can be caused by excessive weight and lack of exercise.
 The ways in which the diseases spread, and the ways in which they can be
 The ways in which the diseases spread,
and the ways in which they can be treated
and prevented at the community level
would be different for different diseases.
 The ways in which the diseases spread, and the ways in which they can be
 This would depend a lot on whether the immediate causes are infectious or non infectious.
This would depend a lot on whether the
immediate causes are infectious or non
infectious.
 This would depend a lot on whether the immediate causes are infectious or non infectious.
Infectious Diseases
Infectious Diseases
 Organisms that can cause disease are found in a wide range of such categories of
Organisms that can cause disease are
found in a wide range of such categories
of classification.
Infectious Diseases  Organisms that can cause disease are found in a wide range of such
 Some of them are viruses, some are bacteria, some are fungi, some are single celled
 Some of them are viruses, some are
bacteria, some are fungi, some are single
celled animals of protozoans.
 Some of them are viruses, some are bacteria, some are fungi, some are single celled
 Some diseases are also caused by multicellular organisms, such as worms of different kinds.
 Some diseases are also caused by
multicellular organisms, such as worms of
different kinds.
 Some diseases are also caused by multicellular organisms, such as worms of different kinds.
Common examples of diseases caused by  viruses are the common cold, influenza, dengue fever and
Common examples of diseases caused by
viruses are the common cold, influenza,
dengue fever and AIDS.
►Diseases like typhoid, fever, cholera, tuberculosis and anthrax are caused by bacteria.
►Diseases like typhoid, fever, cholera,
tuberculosis and anthrax are caused by
bacteria.
►Many common skin infections are caused by different kinds of fungi.
►Many common skin infections are caused
by different kinds of fungi.
►Many common skin infections are caused by different kinds of fungi.
• Protozoan microbes cause many familiar diseases, such as malaria and kalaazar.
• Protozoan microbes cause many familiar
diseases, such as malaria and kalaazar.
Viruses, bacteria and fungi multiply very quickly, while worms multiply very slowly in comparison.
Viruses, bacteria and fungi multiply very
quickly, while worms multiply very slowly
in comparison.
Taxonomically, all bacteria are closely related to each other than to viruses and vice versa.
Taxonomically, all bacteria are closely
related to each other than to viruses and
vice versa.
 This means that many important life processes are similar in the bacteria group but or
This means that many important life
processes are similar in the bacteria group
but or not shared with the virus group.
 This means that many important life processes are similar in the bacteria group but or
 As a result, drugs that block one of these life processes in one member of
As a result, drugs that block one of these
life processes in one member of the group
is likely to be effective against many other
members of the group.
 As a result, drugs that block one of these life processes in one member of
But the same drug will not work  against a microbe belonging to a different group.
But the same drug will not work
against a microbe belonging to a
different group.
But the same drug will not work  against a microbe belonging to a different group.
 Many antibiotics work against many species of bacteria rather than simply working against one.
Many antibiotics work against many species of
bacteria rather than simply working against one.
 Many antibiotics work against many species of bacteria rather than simply working against one.
 Many microbial agents can commonly move from an affected person to someone else in a
Many microbial agents can commonly move
from an affected person to someone else in a
variety of ways.
 Many microbial agents can commonly move from an affected person to someone else in a
 In other words, they can be ‘Communicated’ and so are also called Communicable Diseases.
In other words, they can be
‘Communicated’ and so are also called
Communicable Diseases.
 In other words, they can be ‘Communicated’ and so are also called Communicable Diseases.
 Such disease causing microbes can spread through the air.
 Such disease causing microbes can spread
through the air.
 Such disease causing microbes can spread through the air.
 Diseases can also spread through water.
Diseases can also spread through water.
 Diseases can also spread through water.
 The cholera causing microbes will enter new hosts through the water they drink and cause
The cholera causing microbes will enter
new hosts through the water they drink
and cause disease to them.
 The cholera causing microbes will enter new hosts through the water they drink and cause
 Such diseases are much more likely to spread in the absence of safe supplies of
 Such diseases are much more likely to
spread in the absence of safe supplies of
drinking water.
 Such diseases are much more likely to spread in the absence of safe supplies of
 It is inevitable that many diseases will be transmitted by animals.
 It is inevitable that many diseases will be
transmitted by animals.
 It is inevitable that many diseases will be transmitted by animals.
These animals carry infecting agents from  a sick person to another potential host.
These animals carry infecting agents from
a sick person to another potential host.
 These animals are thus the intermediaries and are called Vectors.
These animals are thus the intermediaries
and are called Vectors.
►The most common vectors we all know are Mosquitoes.
►The most common vectors we all know
are Mosquitoes.
►The most common vectors we all know are Mosquitoes.
►Mosquitoes feed on many warm blooded animals, including us.
►Mosquitoes feed on many warm blooded
animals, including us.
►In this way, they can transfer diseases from person to person.
►In this way, they can transfer diseases
from person to person.
• The body is very large while compared to the microbes. So, there are many possible
• The body is very large while compared to
the microbes. So, there are many possible
places, organs or tissues, where they
could go.
An active immune system recruits many cells to the affected tissue to kill off the disease
An active immune system recruits many
cells to the affected tissue to kill off the
disease causing microbes.
This recruitment process is called
Inflammation.
The severity of disease manifestations depend on the number of microbes in the body.
The severity of disease manifestations
depend on the number of microbes in the
body.
 If the number of microbes is very small, the disease manifestations may be minor or
If the number of microbes is very small,
the disease manifestations may be minor
or unnoticed.
 If the number of microbes is very small, the disease manifestations may be minor or
 But if the number is of the same microbe large, the disease can be sever
But if the number is of the same microbe
large, the disease can be sever enough to
be life threatening.
 The immune system is a major factor that determines the number of microbes surviving in
The immune system is a major factor that
determines the number of microbes
surviving in the body.
 The immune system is a major factor that determines the number of microbes surviving in
• There are two ways to treat an infectious disease : (i)To reduce the effects of
• There are two ways to treat an infectious
disease :
(i)To reduce the effects of the disease.
(ii)To kill the cause of the disease.
• There are two ways to treat an infectious disease : (i)To reduce the effects of
 We can provide treatment that will reduce the symptoms. The symptoms are usually because of
We can provide treatment that will reduce
the symptoms. The symptoms are usually
because of inflammation.
 We can provide treatment that will reduce the symptoms. The symptoms are usually because of
 One reason why making anti viral medicines is harder than making anti bacterial medicines is
 One reason why making anti viral
medicines is harder than making anti
bacterial medicines is that viruses have
few biochemical mechanisms of their own.
 One reason why making anti viral medicines is harder than making anti bacterial medicines is
 They enter our cells and use our machinery for their life processes.
 They enter our cells and use our
machinery for their life processes.
 They enter our cells and use our machinery for their life processes.
This means that there are relatively few  virus specific targets to aim at.
This means that there are relatively few
virus specific targets to aim at.
This means that there are relatively few  virus specific targets to aim at.
►Despite this limitation, there are now effective anti viral drugs, for example, the drugs to keep
►Despite this limitation, there are now
effective anti viral drugs, for example, the
drugs to keep HIV infection under control.
►The immune cells manage to kill off the infection long before it assumes major proportions.
►The immune cells manage to kill off the
infection long before it assumes major
proportions.
Multiple Choice Questions
Multiple Choice Questions
• Q 1 : Which one of the following diseases is spread by microbes ? (i)High
• Q 1 : Which one of the following
diseases is spread by microbes ?
(i)High Blood Pressure
(ii)Diabetes
(iii)Sleeping Sickness
(iv)Peptic Ulcer
Answer :
Answer :
Option : (c) Sleeping Sickness.
Option :
(c) Sleeping Sickness.
• Q 2 : Antibiotics work against : (i)Bacteria (ii)Virus (iii)Elephantiasis (iv)Dengue
• Q 2 : Antibiotics work against :
(i)Bacteria
(ii)Virus
(iii)Elephantiasis
(iv)Dengue
Answer :
Answer :
Option : (a) Bacteria.
Option :
(a) Bacteria.
• Q 3 : The disease which is transmitted by sexual contact is : (i) Malaria
• Q 3 : The disease which is transmitted by
sexual contact is :
(i) Malaria
(ii)Kalaazar
(iii)Elephantasis
(iv)Syphilis
Answer :
Answer :
Option : (d) Syphilis.
Option :
(d) Syphilis.
Answer : Option : (d) Syphilis.
• Q 4 : AID is caused by : (i) A Worm (ii)Bacteria (iii)Virus (iv) Protozoan
• Q 4 : AID is caused by :
(i) A Worm
(ii)Bacteria
(iii)Virus
(iv) Protozoan
Answer :
Answer :
Option : (c) Virus.
Option :
(c) Virus.
• Q 5 : The protozoan organism that responsible for sleeping sickness is
• Q 5 : The protozoan organism that
responsible for sleeping sickness is
(i)Amoeba (ii)Entamoeba (iii)Plasmodium (iv)Trypanosoma
(i)Amoeba
(ii)Entamoeba
(iii)Plasmodium
(iv)Trypanosoma
Answer :
Answer :
Option : (d) Trypanosoma.
Option :
(d) Trypanosoma.
• Q 6 : Which of the following disease is caused by fungi ?
• Q 6 : Which of the following disease
is caused by fungi ?
(i)Skin Infection (ii)Cold & Cough (iii)Eczema (iv)Loose Motions
(i)Skin Infection
(ii)Cold & Cough
(iii)Eczema
(iv)Loose Motions
Answer :
Answer :
Option : (a) Skin Infection.
Option :
(a) Skin Infection.
• Q 7 : Which one of the following is not a viral disease ? (i)Influenza
• Q 7 : Which one of the following is
not a viral disease ?
(i)Influenza
(ii)Common Cold
(iii)Dengue Fever
(iv)Anthrax
Answer :
Answer :
Option : (d) Anthrax.
Option :
(d) Anthrax.
• Q 8 : Protozoan microbes cause : (i)Cholera (ii)Anthrax (iii)Kalaazar (iv)Elephantiasis
• Q 8 : Protozoan microbes cause :
(i)Cholera
(ii)Anthrax
(iii)Kalaazar
(iv)Elephantiasis
Answer :
Answer :
Option : (c) Kalaazar.
Option :
(c) Kalaazar.
• Q 9 : Diseases can spread by : (i)Air & Water (ii)Sexual Act (iii)Vectors (iv)All
• Q 9 : Diseases can spread by :
(i)Air & Water
(ii)Sexual Act
(iii)Vectors
(iv)All of these
Answer :
Answer :
Option : (d) All of these.
Option :
(d) All of these.
• Q 10 : Japanese encephalitis is spread by
• Q 10 : Japanese encephalitis is
spread by
(i)Contaminated Water (ii)Air (iii)Dog Bite (iv)Mosquito
(i)Contaminated Water
(ii)Air
(iii)Dog Bite
(iv)Mosquito
Answer :
Answer :
Option : (d) Mosquito.
Option :
(d) Mosquito.
Answer : Option : (d) Mosquito.
Some Interesting Pictures
Some Interesting Pictures
Some Interesting Pictures
Thank You !!!
Thank You !!!
Compiled By : Sudarshan . S . K .
Compiled By :
Sudarshan . S . K .
Mail Your Feedback And Suggestions For Improvement To : suddurocks@yahoo.in
Mail Your Feedback And Suggestions
For Improvement To :
suddurocks@yahoo.in