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UNIT-4

RELATED ISSUES IN PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT

MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT:

It is that function of manufacturing management that is concerned with the day –to-day problem
of keeping the physical plant in good operating condition.

SCOPE OF MAINTENANCE:

PRIMARY FUNCTION SECONDARY FUNCTION


Maintenance of existing plant & Storekeeping
equipments.
Maintenance of existing plant buildings & Plant protection
grounds
Equipment inspection Waste Disposal
Utilities generation Salvage
Alterations to existing equipments and Insurance administration
buildings

OBJECTIVES OF MAINTENACE MANAGEMENT:

1. Minimize the loss of productive time.


2. Minimize repair time and repair cost.
3. Minimize the loss due to production stoppages.
4. Efficient use of maintenance personnel and equipments.
5. To keep all productive assets in good working condition.
WASTE AND POLLUTION MANAGEMENT:

Pollution and Waste Management aims to facilitate and develop programmes, projects,
co-operative management and policy mechanisms, measures and decision-support
systems to ensure integrated pollution and waste management.

Pollution and Waste Management also aims to:

- Ensure efficient and effective provision of staff for the new structure and
development of personnel.

- Collect, analyze and disseminate relevant and current information regarding


pollution and waste management

- Promote programmes on pollution and waste management that give effect to


integrated pollution and waste management

- Promote public participation in environmental governance and decision-making


with respect to integrated pollution and waste management

- Provide efficient and effective support to all clients and ensure co-operative
governance to achieve integrated pollution and waste management
WASTE MANAGEMENT:

Is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste


materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is
generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics.
Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management
can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and
fields of expertise for each.

Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and
rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non-hazardous
residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of
local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and
industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator.

POLLUTION MANAGEMENT:

DEFINITION:

The act or process of polluting or the state of being polluted, especially the contamination
of soil, water, or the atmosphere by the discharge of harmful substances.

FEATURES:

1. An undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of the


natural environment, brought about by man's activities. It may be harmful to human or
nonhuman life.

2. Pollution may affect the soil, rivers, seas, or the atmosphere. There are two main
classes of pollutants: those that are biodegradable (e.g. sewage), i.e. can be rendered
harmless by natural processes and need therefore cause no permanent harm if adequately
dispersed or treated; and those that are non-biodegradable (e.g. heavy metals (such as
lead) in industrial effluents and DDT and other chlorinated hydrocarbons used as
pesticides), which eventually accumulate in the environment and may be concentrated in
food chains.

3. Other forms of pollution in the environment include noise (e.g. from jet aircraft, traffic,
and industrial processes) and thermal pollution (e.g. the release of excessive waste heat
into lakes or rivers causing harm to wildlife).

4. Recent pollution problems include the disposal of radioactive waste; acid rain;
photochemical smog; increasing levels of human waste; high levels of carbon dioxide and
other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (see greenhouse effect); damage to the ozone
layer by nitrogen oxides,chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and halons; and pollution of inland
waters by agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluent, causing eutrophication.

5. Attempts to contain or prevent pollution include strict regulations concerning factory


emissions, the use of smokeless fuels, the banning of certain pesticides, the increasing use
of lead-free petrol, restrictions on the use of chlorofluorocarbons, and the introduction, in
some countries, of catalytic converters to cut pollutants in car exhausts.

MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY:

The application of science, especially to industrial or commercial objectives.

The scientific method and material used to achieve a commercial or industrial objective.

Electronic or digital products and systems considered as a group: a store specializing in


office technology

Systematic knowledge and action, usually of industrial processes but applicable to any
recurrent activity. Technology is closely related to science and to engineering. Science
deals with humans' understanding of the real world about them—the inherent properties
of space, matter, energy, and their interactions. Engineering is the application of objective
knowledge to the creation of plans, designs, and means for achieving desired objectives.
Technology deals with the tools and techniques for carrying out the plans.
MATERIAL REQUIREMENT PLANNING:

Is a computer based system in which the production scheduling is exploded into the
required amounts of raw material , parts and sub assemblies, needed to produce the end
items in each time period .

OBJECTIVES:

1. To improve the customer service by meeting delivery schedules.


2. To reduce inventory cost.
3. To improve plant operating efficiencies.

OPERATION OF SYSTEMS:

INVENTORY
INVENTORY TRANSACTIONS
STATUS DATA

MRP SYSTEM
MPS FILE PLANNED
ORDER
INPUTS PROCESSING OUTPUTS
SCHEDULE

BOM FILE EXCEPTION


REPORTS
MRP SYSTEM INPUT

- Master production schedule.

- Bill of material file BOM or product structure file.

- Inventory status file.

MRP SYSTEM OUTPUT

- Inventory transaction data.


- Planned order schedule.
- Exception reports.

ISSUES IN MRP:

-Lot- sizing

- Safety stock

- Scrap allowance

-Updating

- Time fence.

-Reviewing the work


VALUE ANALYSIS

Also called value engineering . Value analysis is an important activity that typically
occurs jointly between purchasing and methods engineering . However purchasing people
have a very definite role to play in value analysis, hence the topic is included as a part of
purchasing function.

Value engineering typically follows a rather close structured pattern of analysis . A value
analysis team or committee takes a product which has been designed or produced and
attempts to define what function the product should fulfill.

The following questions are considered while examining the product:

1. What does each product contribute?

2. Can a less expensive material be use?

3.Can parts be combined?

4. Can it be designed for easier assembly?