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# Tarea 2.

## Mecanismos de transferencia de calor y balance macroscópico de energía

1. Urethane (k = 0.026 W/m·K) is used to insulate the sidewall and the top and bottom of a
cylindrical hot water tank. The insulation is 40 mm thick and is sandwiched between sheet
metal of thin-wall construction. The height and inside diameter of the tank are 2 m and 0.80 m,
respectively, and the tank is in ambient air for which T = 10°C and h = 10 W/m2·K. If the hot
water maintains the inner surface at 55°C and energy costs amount to \$0.15/kWh, what is the
daily cost to maintain the water in storage?

2. Consider that the water inside the tank is being stirred, assuming the same conditions from
Problem 1, estimate the time required for the water to cool down 10°C.

3. A slurry is being heated by pumping it through a well-stirred heating tank. The inlet
temperature of the slurry is Ti and the temperature of the outer surface of the steam coil is Ts.
Use the following symbols:

## V = volume of the slurry in the tank

ρ, Cp = density and heat capacity of the slurry
w = mass rate of flow of slurry through the tank
U = overall heat transfer coefficient of heating coil
A = total heat transfer area of the coil
Assume that the stirring is sufficiently thorough that the fluid temperature in the tank is uniform
and the same as the outlet fluid temperature
a) By means of an energy balance, show that the slurry temperature T(t) is described by the
differential equation (variable t is the time since the start of the heating)

dT  UA 
Ts  T    w 
  V T  Ti 
dt  C pV 
  

wt T  T
 
V Ti  T

Where

T 
UA wC T  T
p s i

UA wC   1
p

## What is the physical significance of , , and T?

c) Solve the dimensionless equation obtained in (b) for the initial condition that T = Ti at t = 0.
d) Check the solution to see that the differential equation and initial condition are satisfied.
How does the system behave at large time? Is this limiting behavior in agreement with your
intuition?
e) How is the temperature at infinite time affected by the flow rate? Is this reasonable?
4. An uninsulated steam pipe passes through a room in which the air and walls are at 25 °C. The
outside diameter of the pipe is 70 mm, and its surface temperature and emissivity are 200 °C and
0.8, respectively. If the coefficient associated with free convection heat transfer from the surface to
the air is 15 W/m2∙K, what is the rate of heat loss from the surface per unit length of pipe?

5. Humans are able to control their heat production rate and heat loss rate to maintain a nearly
constant core temperature of Tc = 37 °C under a wide range of environmental conditions. This
process is called thermoregulation. From the perspective of calculating heat transfer between a
human body and its surroundings, we focus on a layer of skin and fat, with its outer surface exposed
to the environment and its inner surface at a temperature slightly less than the core temperature, Ti =
35 °C. Consider a person with a skin/fat layer of thickness L = 3 mm and effective thermal
conductivity k = 0.3 W/m∙K. The person has a surface area A = 1.8 m2 and is dressed in a bathing
suit. The emissivity of the skin is ε = 0.95.
a) When the person is in still air at T∞ = 297 K, what is the skin surface temperature and rate of heat
loss to the environment? Convection heat transfer to the air is characterized by a free convection
coefficient of h = 2 W/m2∙K.
b) When the person is in water at T∞ = 297 K, what is the skin surface temperature and heat loss
rate? Heat transfer to the water is characterized by a convection coefficient of h = 200 W/m2∙K.

6. Air at 40 °C flows over a long, 25-mm-diameter cylinder with an embedded electrical heater.
In a series of tests, measurements were made of the power per unit length, P´, required to
maintain the cylinder surface temperature at 300 °C for different free stream velocities V of the
air. The results are as follows:

## Air velocity, V (m/s) 1 2 4 8 12

Power, P´ (W/m) 450 658 983 1507 1963

a) Determine the convection coefficient for each velocity, and display your results graphically.
b) Assuming the dependence of the convection coefficient on the velocity to be of the form h =
CVn, determine the parameters C and n from the results of part (a).

## 7. An instrumentation package has a spherical outer surface of diameter D = 100 mm and

emissivity ε = 0.25. The package is placed in a large space simulation chamber whose walls are
maintained at 77 K. If operation of the electronic components is restricted to the temperature
range 40 ≤ T ≤ 85 C, what is the range of acceptable power dissipation for the package?
Display your results graphically, showing also the effect of variations in the emissivity by
considering values of 0.20 and 0.30.

8. Liquid oxygen, which has a boiling point of 90 K and a latent heat of vaporization of 214
kJ/kg, is stored in a spherical container whose outer surface is of 500-mm diameter and at a
temperature of -10 °C. The container is housed in a laboratory whose air and walls are at 25°C.
(a) If the surface emissivity is 0.20 and the heat transfer coefficient associated with free
convection at the outer surface of the container is 10 W/m2∙K, what is the rate, in kg/s, at which
oxygen vapor must be vented from the system?
(b) Moisture in the ambient air will result in frost formation on the container, causing the
surface emissivity to increase. Assuming the surface temperature and convection coefficient to
remain at -10 °C and 10 W/m2∙K, respectively, compute the oxygen evaporation rate (kg/s) as a
function of surface emissivity over the range 0.2 ≤ ε ≤ 0.94.

9. A freezer compartment is covered with a 2-mm-thick layer of frost at the time it malfunctions.
If the compartment is in ambient air at 20 °C and a coefficient of h = 2 W/m2∙K characterizes
heat transfer by natural convection from the exposed surface of the layer, estimate the time
required to completely melt the frost. The frost may be assumed to have a mass density of 700
kg/m3 and a latent heat of fusion of 334 kJ/kg.